Иностранные языки

Pulizer Prize

                  Министерство образования и науки Украины
                    Таврический национальный университет
                            Им. В.И. Вернадского
                       Факультет иностранной филологии
                        Кафедра английской филологии

Гура Егор Николаевич

Реферат на тему: «The Pulitzer Prize»

Дисциплина «Лингвострановедение»
Специальность 7.030502
«английский и немецкий языки и литература»
курс 4, группа 42

                              Симферополь 2001

History of the prizes

Joseph Pulitzer
The Administration of the Pulitzer Prizes
The list of used resources

                            HISTORY OF THE PRIZES

In the latter years of the 19th century, Joseph Pulitzer stood  out  as  the
very  embodiment  of  American  journalism.   Hungarian-born,   an   intense
indomitable figure, Pulitzer was the most skillful of newspaper  publishers,
a passionate crusader against  dishonest  government,  a  fierce,  hawk-like
competitor who did not shrink from sensationalism in circulation  struggles,
and a visionary who richly endowed his profession. His innovative  New  York
World and St. Louis Post-Dispatch reshaped  newspaper  journalism.  Pulitzer
was the first to call for the training  of  journalists  at  the  university
level in a school of journalism. And certainly,  the  lasting  influence  of
the Pulitzer Prizes on journalism, literature, music, and  drama  is  to  be
attributed to his visionary acumen. In writing his  1904  will,  which  made
provision for the establishment of the Pulitzer Prizes as  an  incentive  to
excellence, Pulitzer specified solely four awards  in  journalism,  four  in
letters and drama, one for education, and four  traveling  scholarships.  In
letters, prizes were to go to an American novel, an original  American  play
performed in New York, a book on  the  history  of  the  United  States,  an
American biography, and a history of  public  service  by  the  press.  But,
sensitive to the dynamic progression of his society Pulitzer made  provision
for broad changes in the  system  of  awards.  He  established  an  overseer
advisory board and willed it "power in  its  discretion  to  suspend  or  to
change any subject or  subjects,  substituting,  however,  others  in  their
places, if in the  judgment  of  the  board  such  suspension,  changes,  or
substitutions shall be conducive to the public good  or  rendered  advisable
by public necessities, or by reason of change of time."  He  also  empowered
the board to withhold any award where entries fell below  its  standards  of
excellence. The assignment of power to the board  was  such  that  it  could
also  overrule  the  recommendations  for  awards   made   by   the   juries
subsequently set up in each of the categories. Since the  inception  of  the
prizes in 1917, the board, later  renamed  the  Pulitzer  Prize  Board,  has
increased the number of awards to  21  and  introduced  poetry,  music,  and
photography as subjects, while adhering to the spirit of the founder's  will
and its intent.

The board typically exercised  its  broad  discretion  in  1997,  the  150th
anniversary of Pulitzer's birth, in two  fundamental  respects.  It  took  a
significant step in recognition of the  growing  importance  of  work  being
done  by  newspapers  in  online  journalism.  Beginning   with   the   1999
competition, the board sanctioned the submission  by  newspapers  of  online
presentations as  supplements  to  print  exhibits  in  the  Public  Service
category.  The  board  left  open  the  distinct  possibility   of   further
inclusions in the Pulitzer process of online journalism  as  the  electronic
medium developed. The other major change was in music, a category  that  was
added to the Plan of Award for prizes in 1943. The prize always had gone  to
composers of classical music. The definition and entry requirements  of  the
music category  beginning  with  the  1998  competition  were  broadened  to
attract a wider range of American music.  In  an  indication  of  the  trend
toward bringing mainstream music into the Pulitzer process, the  1997  prize
went to Wynton Marsalis's "Blood on  the  Fields,"  which  has  strong  jazz
elements, the first such award. In music, the board also took tacit note  of
the criticism leveled at its predecessors for failure to  cite  two  of  the
country's foremost jazz composers. It bestowed a  Special  Award  on  George
Gershwin marking the 1998 centennial  celebration  of  his  birth  and  Duke
Ellington on his 1999 centennial year.

Over the years the Pulitzer board has at times been targeted by critics  for
awards made or not made. Controversies also have arisen over decisions  made
by the board counter to the advice of juries. Given  the  subjective  nature
of the award process, this was inevitable. The board has  not  been  captive
to popular inclinations. Many, if not most, of the honored  books  have  not
been on bestseller lists, and many of the winning  plays  have  been  staged
off-Broadway or in regional theaters. In journalism  the  major  newspapers,
such as The New York Times, The Wall  Street  Journal,  and  The  Washington
Post, have harvested many of the  awards,  but  the  board  also  has  often
reached out to work done by small, little-known papers. The  Public  Service
award in 1995 went to The Virgin Islands Daily News,  St.  Thomas,  for  its
disclosure of  the  links  between  the  region's  rampant  crime  rate  and
corruption in the local criminal justice system. In letters, the  board  has
grown less conservative over the years in matters  of  taste.  In  1963  the
drama jury nominated Edward Albee's Who's Afraid  of  Virginia  Woolf?,  but
the board found the script  insufficiently  "uplifting,"  a  complaint  that
related to arguments over sexual permissiveness and rough dialogue. In  1993
the  prize  went  to  Tony  Kushner's   "Angels   in   America:   Millennium
Approaches," a play that dealt with problems of homosexuality and  AIDS  and
whose script was replete with obscenities. On  the  same  debated  issue  of
taste, the board in 1941 denied the fiction prize to Ernest Hemingway's  For
Whom the Bell Tolls, but gave him the award in 1953 for The Old Man and  the
Sea, a lesser work. Notwithstanding these  contretemps,  from  its  earliest
days, the board has in general stood firmly by a policy of  secrecy  in  its
deliberations and refusal to publicly debate or defend  its  decisions.  The
challenges have not lessened the reputation of the Pulitzer  Prizes  as  the
country's most prestigious awards and as the most sought-after accolades  in
journalism, letters,  and  music.  The  Prizes  are  perceived  as  a  major
incentive for high-quality journalism and have focused  worldwide  attention
on American achievements in letters and music.

The formal announcement of the prizes, made  each  April,  states  that  the
awards  are  made  by  the  president  of   Columbia   University   on   the
recommendation of the Pulitzer Prize  board.  This  formulation  is  derived
from the Pulitzer will, which  established  Columbia  as  the  seat  of  the
administration of the prizes. Today, in fact, the  independent  board  makes
all the decisions relative to the prizes. In his will Pulitzer  bestowed  an
endowment on Columbia of $2,000,000 for the establishment  of  a  School  of
Journalism,  one-fourth  of  which  was  to  be  "applied   to   prizes   or
scholarships for  the  encouragement  of  public,  service,  public  morals,
American literature, and the advancement of  education."  In  doing  so,  he
stated:  "I  am  deeply  interested  in  the  progress  and   elevation   of
journalism, having spent my life in  that  profession,  regarding  it  as  a
noble profession and one of unequaled importance for its influence upon  the
minds and morals of the people. I desire to assist  in  attracting  to  this
profession young men of character and ability, also to  help  those  already
engaged in the profession to acquire  the  highest  moral  and  intellectual
training." In his ascent to the  summit  of  American  journalism,  Pulitzer
himself received little or no assistance. He prided himself on being a self-
made man, but it may have been his struggles  as  a  young  journalist  that
imbued him with the desire to foster professional training.

                         JOSEPH PULITZER (1847–1911)

Joseph Pulitzer was born in Mako, Hungary on April 10, 1847, the  son  of  a
wealthy grain merchant of Magyar-Jewish origin and a German mother  who  was
a devout Roman Catholic. His younger brother, Albert, was  trained  for  the
priesthood but never attained it. The elder  Pulitzer  retired  in  Budapest
and Joseph grew up and was educated there in private schools and by  tutors.
Restive at the age of seventeen, the gangling 6'2" youth decided  to  become
a soldier and tried in turn to  enlist  in  the  Austrian  Army,  Napoleon's
Foreign Legion for duty in Mexico, and  the  British  Army  for  service  in
India. He was rebuffed because of weak  eyesight  and  frail  health,  which
were to plague him for the rest of his life. However, in  Hamburg,  Germany,
he encountered a bounty recruiter for the U.S. Union Army and contracted  to
enlist as a substitute for a draftee, a procedure permitted under the  Civil
War draft system. At Boston he jumped ship and, as the legend goes, swam  to
shore, determined to keep the enlistment  bounty  for  himself  rather  than
leave it to the agent. Pulitzer collected the  bounty  by  enlisting  for  a
year in the Lincoln   Cavalry,  which  suited  him  since  there  were  many
Germans in the unit. He was fluent in  German  and  French  but  spoke  very
little English. Later, he worked his way to St. Louis. While doing odd  jobs
there, such as muleteer, baggage handler, and waiter,  he  immersed  himself
in the city's Mercantile Library, studying English and the  law.  His  great
career opportunity came in a unique manner  in  the  library's  chess  room.
Observing the game of two habitues, he astutely critiqued  a  move  and  the
players, impressed, engaged  Pulitzer  in  conversation.  The  players  were
editors of the leading German language daily,  Westliche  Post,  and  a  job
offer followed. Four years later, in  1872,  the  young  Pulitzer,  who  had
built a reputation as a tireless  enterprising  journalist,  was  offered  a
controlling interest in the paper by the nearly bankrupt owners. At age  25,
Pulitzer became a publisher and there followed a series of  shrewd  business
deals from which he emerged in 1878 as the owner  of  the  St.  Louis  Post-
Dispatch, and a rising figure on the journalistic scene.

Earlier  in  the  same  year,  he  and  Kate  Davis,  a  socially  prominent
Washingtonian woman, were married in the Protestant  Episcopal  Church.  The
Hungarian immigrant youth - once a vagrant on the slum streets of St.  Louis
and taunted as "Joey the Jew" - had been transformed. Now he was a  American
citizen  and  as  speaker,  writer,  and   editor   had   mastered   English
extraordinarily well. Elegantly dressed, wearing a  handsome,  reddish-brown
beard and pince-nez glasses, he mixed easily with the social  elite  of  St.
Louis, enjoying dancing at fancy parties and horseback riding in  the  park.
This lifestyle was abandoned abruptly when he came  into  the  ownership  of
the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. James Wyman Barrett, the last  city  editor  of
The New York World, records in his biography Joseph Pulitzer and  His  World
how Pulitzer, in taking hold of the Post-Dispatch, "worked at his desk  from
early morning until midnight or later, interesting himself in  every  detail
of the paper." Appealing to the public to accept that his  paper  was  their
champion, Pulitzer splashed investigative articles and editorials  assailing
government corruption, wealthy  tax-dodgers,  and  gamblers.  This  populist
appeal  was  effective,  circulation  mounted,  and  the  paper   prospered.
Pulitzer would have been  pleased  to  know  that  in  the  conduct  of  the
Pulitzer Prize system which he later established, more awards in  journalism
would go to exposure of corruption than to any other subject.

Pulitzer paid a price for his unsparingly rigorous work  at  his  newspaper.
His health was undermined and, with his eyes failing, Pulitzer and his  wife
set out in 1883 for New York to board a ship on  a  doctor-ordered  European
vacation. Stubbornly, instead of boarding the steamer in New  York,  he  met
with Jay Gould, the financier, and negotiated the purchase of The  New  York
World, which was in financial straits.  Putting  aside  his  serious  health
concerns, Pulitzer immersed himself in its direction,  bringing  about  what
Barrett describes  as  a  "one-man  revolution"  in  the  editorial  policy,
content, and format of The World. He employed some of  the  same  techniques
that had built up the circulation of the Post-Dispatch. He crusaded  against
public and private corruption, filled the  news  columns  with  a  spate  of
sensationalized features, made the first  extensive  use  of  illustrations,
and staged news stunts. In one of the most successful promotions, The  World
raised public subscriptions for the building of a pedestal at  the  entrance
to the New York harbor so that the Statue of Liberty, which was stranded  in
France awaiting shipment, could be emplaced.

The formula worked so well that in the next decade the  circulation  of  The
World in all its editions climbed to more than 600,000, and  it  reigned  as
the largest circulating newspaper in the country. But unexpectedly  Pulitzer
himself became a victim of the battle for circulation when Charles  Anderson
Dana, publisher of The Sun, frustrated by the success of The World  launched
vicious personal attacks on him as "the Jew who  had  denied  his  race  and
religion." The unrelenting campaign was  designed  to  alienate  New  York's
Jewish community from The World. Pulitzer's  health  was  fractured  further
during this ordeal and in 1890, at the age  of  43,  he  withdrew  from  the
editorship of The World  and  never  returned  to  its  newsroom.  Virtually
blind, having in his severe depression succumbed also  to  an  illness  that
made  him  excruciatingly  sensitive  to   noise,   Pulitzer   went   abroad
frantically seeking cures. He failed to find them, and the next two  decades
of his life he spent largely in soundproofed "vaults,"  as  he  referred  to
them, aboard his yacht, Liberty, in the "Tower of Silence" at  his  vacation
retreat in Bar Harbor Maine, and at  his  New  York  mansion.  During  those
years,   although   he   traveled   very   frequently,   Pulitzer   managed,
nevertheless, to maintain the closest editorial and  business  direction  of
his newspapers. To ensure secrecy in his communications he relied on a  code
that filled a book containing some 20,000 names and terms. During the  years
1896 to 1898 Pulitzer was  drawn  into  a  bitter  circulation  battle  with
William  Randolph  Hearst's  Journal  in  which  there  were   no   apparent
restraints on  sensationalism  or  fabrication  of  news.  When  the  Cubans
rebelled against Spanish rule, Pulitzer and  Hearst  sought  to  outdo  each
other in whipping up outrage  against  the  Spanish.  Both  called  for  war
against Spain after the U.S. battleship Maine mysteriously blew up and  sank
in Havana harbor on February 16, 1898. Congress reacted to the  outcry  with
a war resolution. After the four-month war, Pulitzer withdrew from what  had
become known as "yellow journalism." The World became  more  restrained  and
served as the influential editorial voice on many issues of  the  Democratic
Party. In the view of historians, Pulitzer's lapse into "yellow  journalism"
was outweighed by his public service achievements. He waged  courageous  and
often successful  crusades  against  corrupt  practices  in  government  and
business. He was responsible to a large  extent  for  passage  of  antitrust
legislation and regulation of the insurance industry.  In  1909,  The  World
exposed a fraudulent payment of $40 million by  the  United  States  to  the
French Panama Canal Company. The  federal  government  lashed  back  at  The
World by indicting  Pulitzer  for  criminally  libeling  President  Theodore
Roosevelt and the banker J.P. Morgan,  among  others.  Pulitzer  refused  to
retreat, and The World persisted  in  its  investigation.  When  the  courts
dismissed the indictments, Pulitzer was applauded for a crucial  victory  on
behalf of freedom of the press. In May 1904, writing in The  North  American
Review in  support  of  his  proposal  for  the  founding  of  a  school  of
journalism, Pulitzer summarized his credo: "Our Republic and its press  will
rise or fall together. An able, disinterested, public-spirited  press,  with
trained intelligence to know the right and courage to do  it,  can  preserve
that public virtue  without  which  popular  government  is  a  sham  and  a
mockery. A cynical, mercenary,  demagogic  press  will  produce  in  time  a
people as base as itself. The power to mould  the  future  of  the  Republic
will be in the hands of the journalists of future generations."

In 1912, one year after Pulitzer's death  aboard  his  yacht,  the  Columbia
School of Journalism  was  founded,  and  the  first  Pulitzer  Prizes  were
awarded in 1917 under the supervision of the advisory board to which he  had
entrusted his  mandate.  Pulitzer  envisioned  an  advisory  board  composed
principally of newspaper publishers. Others would include the  president  of
Columbia University and scholars, and "persons of distinction  who  are  not
journalists or editors."  In  2000  the  board  was  composed  of  two  news
executives,  eight  editors,  five  academics  including  the  president  of
Columbia University  and  the  dean  of  the  Columbia  Graduate  School  of
Journalism, one columnist, and the administrator of  the  prizes.  The  dean
and the administrator are nonvoting members. The chair rotates  annually  to
the most senior member. The board is self-perpetuating in  the  election  of
members. Voting members may  serve  three  terms  of  three  years.  In  the
selection of the members of the board and of the juries, close attention  is
given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well  as  diversity  in
terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution,  and  in  the
choice of journalists and size of newspaper.


More than 2,000 entries are  submitted  each  year  in  the  Pulitzer  Prize
competitions, and only 21 awards are  normally  made.  The  awards  are  the
culmination of a yearlong process that begins early in  the  year  with  the
appointment of 102 distinguished judges who serve on 20 separate juries  and
are asked to make three  nominations  in  each  of  the  21  categories.  By
February 1, the Administrator's office in the Columbia School of  Journalism
has received the journalism entries -in 2000, typically 1,516.  Entries  for
journalism  awards  may  be  submitted  by  any  individual  from   material
appearing in a United States newspaper published daily, Sunday, or at  least
once  a  week  during  the  calendar  year.  In  early  March,  77  editors,
publishers, writers, and educators gather in the  School  of  Journalism  to
judge the entries in the  14  journalism  categories.  From  1964-1999  each
journalism jury consisted of five members. Due  to  the  growing  number  of
entries in the public  service,  investigative  reporting,  beat  reporting,
feature writing and commentary categories, these  juries  were  enlarged  to
seven members beginning in 1999. The jury members, working  intensively  for
three days, examine every entry before making  their  nominations.  Exhibits
in the public service, cartoon, and photography categories  are  limited  to
20 articles, cartoons, or pictures, and in the remaining categories,  to  10
articles or editorials - except for feature writing, which has a maximum  of
five articles. In photography, a single jury judges both the  Breaking  News
category and the Feature category. Since the inception  of  the  prizes  the
journalism categories have been expanded and  repeatedly  redefined  by  the
board to keep abreast of the evolution of American journalism. The  cartoons
prize was created in 1922. The prize  for  photography  was  established  in
1942, and in 1968 the category was divided into spot or  breaking  news  and
feature.  With  the  development  of  computer-altered  photos,  the   board
stipulated in 1995 that "no entry whose content is manipulated  or  altered,
apart  from  standard  newspaper  cropping  and  editing,  will  be   deemed

These are the Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2001 competition:

1. For a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a  newspaper
through the use of its journalistic resources which may include  editorials,
cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting.

2. For a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.

3. For a distinguished example of investigative reporting by  an  individual
or team, presented as a single article or series.

4. For a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that  illuminates  a
significant and complex  subject,  demonstrating  mastery  of  the  subject,
lucid writing and clear presentation.

5. For a distinguished example of beat reporting characterized by  sustained
and knowledgeable coverage of a particular subject or activity.

6. For a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs.

7. For a  distinguished  example  of  reporting  on  international  affairs,
including United Nations correspondence.

8.  For  a  distinguished  example   of   feature   writing   giving   prime
consideration to high literary quality and originality.

9. For distinguished commentary.

10. For distinguished criticism.

11. For distinguished  editorial  writing,  the  test  of  excellence  being
clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power  to  influence
public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction.

12. For a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of  cartoons  published  during
the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality  of
drawing, and pictorial effect.

13. For a distinguished example of breaking news photography  in  black  and
white or color,  which  may  consist  of  a  photograph  or  photographs,  a
sequence or an album.

14. For a distinguished example of feature photography in  black  and  white
or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs,  a  sequence  or
an album.

While the journalism process goes forward, shipments of books totaling  some
800 titles are being sent to five letters juries for their judging in  these

1.  For distinguished fiction by  an  American  author,  preferably  dealing
with American life.

2.  For a distinguished book upon the history of the United States.

3.  For a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.

4.  For a distinguished volume of original verse by an American author.

5. For a distinguished book of non-fiction by an  American  author  that  is
not eligible for consideration in any other category.

The award in poetry was established in 1922  and  that  for  non-fiction  in
1962. Unlike the other awards which are  made  for  works  in  the  calendar
year, eligibility in drama and music extends from March 2 to  March  1.  The
drama jury of four critics and one academic attend plays both  in  New  York
and the regional theaters. The award in  drama  goes  to  a  playwright  but
production of the play as well as script are taken into account.

The music jury, usually made up of four composers and one newspaper  critic,
meet in New York to listen to recordings and study  the  scores  of  pieces,
which in 2000 numbered 100. The category definition states:

For  distinguished  musical  composition  of  significant  dimension  by  an
American that has had its first performance in the United States during  the

The final act of the annual competition is enacted in early April  when  the
board assembles in the  Pulitzer  World  Room  of  the  Columbia  School  of
Journalism. In prior weeks, the board had read the texts of  the  journalism
entries and the 15 nominated books, listened to music  cassettes,  read  the
scripts of the nominated  plays,  and  attended  the  performances  or  seen
videos where possible. By custom, it is incumbent on board  members  not  to
vote on any award under consideration in drama or letters if they  have  not
seen the play or read the book. There  are  subcommittees  for  letters  and
music whose members usually give  a  lead  to  discussions.  Beginning  with
letters and music, the board, in turn, reviews the nominations of each  jury
for two days. Each jury is required to offer three  nominations  but  in  no
order of preference, although the jury chair in a  letter  accompanying  the
submission can broadly reflect the views of the members.  Board  discussions
are animated and often hotly debated. Work done by individuals tends  to  be
favored. In journalism, if more than  three  individuals  are  cited  in  an
entry, any prize goes to the newspaper. Awards are usually made by  majority
vote, but the board is also empowered to  vote  'no  award,'  or  by  three-
fourths vote to select an entry that has not been  nominated  or  to  switch
nominations among the categories. If the  board  is  dissatisfied  with  the
nominations of any jury, it can ask the Administrator to  consult  with  the
chair  by  telephone  to  ascertain  if  there  are  other  worthy  entries.
Meanwhile, the deliberations continue.

Both the jury nominations and the awards voted by  the  board  are  held  in
strict confidence until the announcement of the prizes,  which  takes  place
about a week after the meeting in the  World  Room.  Towards  three  o'clock
p.m. (Eastern  Time)  of  the  day  of  the  announcement,  in  hundreds  of
newsrooms across the United States, journalists  gather  about  news  agency
tickers to  wait  for  the  bulletins  that  bring  explosions  of  joy  and
celebrations to some and disappointment to others. The announcement is  made
precisely  at  three  o'clock  after  a  news   conference   held   by   the
administrator in the World Room. Apart from accounts carried prominently  by
newspapers, television, and radio, the details appear on  the  Pulitzer  Web
site. The announcement includes the name of the winner in each  category  as
well as the names of the other two finalists. The three  finalists  in  each
category are the only entries in the competition that are recognized by  the
Pulitzer office as nominees. The announcement also lists the  board  members
and the names of the jurors (which have previously  been  kept  confidential
to avoid lobbying).

A gold medal is awarded to the winner in  Public  Service.  Along  with  the
certificates in the other categories,  there  are  cash  awards  of  $7,500,
raised in 2001 from $5,000. Four Pulitzer fellowships  of  $5,000  each  are
also awarded annually on the recommendation of the faculty of the School  of
Journalism. They enable  three  of  its  outstanding  graduates  to  travel,
report, and study abroad and one fellowship is awarded  to  a  graduate  who
wishes  to  specialize  in  drama,  music,  literary,  film,  or  television
criticism. For most recipients of the Pulitzer prizes,  the  cash  award  is
only incidental to the prestige accruing to them and their works. There  are
numerous competitions that bestow far larger cash awards, yet which  do  not
rank in public perception on  a  level  with  the  Pulitzers.  The  Pulitzer
accolade on the cover of a book or on the  marquee  of  a  theater  where  a
prize-winning play is being staged usually does  translate  into  commercial

The Pulitzer process initially was funded  by  investment  income  from  the
original endowment. But by the 1970s the program was suffering a  loss  each
year. In 1978 the advisory board established a foundation for  the  creation
of a supplementary endowment, and  fund  raising  on  its  behalf  continued
through the 1980s. The program is now  comfortably  funded  with  investment
income from the two endowments and the $50 fee charged for each  entry  into
the competitions. The investment portfolios  are  administered  by  Columbia
University. Members of  the  Pulitzer  Prize  Board  and  journalism  jurors
receive no compensation.  The  jurors  in  letters,  music,  and  drama,  in
appreciation of their year-long work, receive honoraria, raised  to  $2,000,
effective in 1999.

Unlike the elaborate  ceremonies  and  royal  banquets  attendant  upon  the
presentation of the Nobel Prizes in Stockholm  and  Oslo,  Pulitzer  winners
receive their prizes from the president of Columbia University at  a  modest
luncheon in May in the rotunda of the Low Library in the presence of  family
members, professional associates, board members,  and  the  faculty  of  the
School of Journalism.  The  board  has  declined  offers  to  transform  the
occasion into a television extravaganza.

The Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners is more  than  simply  a  roster  of
names and biographical data. It is a list of people in journalism,  letters,
and music whose accomplishments enable researchers to trace  the  historical
evolution of  their  respective  fields  and  the  development  of  American
society. We are indebted to Joseph Pulitzer for this and an array  of  other
contributions to the quality of our lives.

Seymour Topping was appointed  Administrator  of  The  Pulitzer  Prizes  and
Professor of International Journalism at the Graduate School  of  Journalism
of Columbia University in 1993. After serving in  World  War  II,  Professor
Topping worked for 10 years for The Associated Press as a  correspondent  in
China, Indochina, London, and Berlin. He left The Associated Press  in  1959
to join The New York Times, where he remained for 34  years,  serving  as  a
foreign  correspondent,  foreign  editor,  managing  editor,  and  editorial
director of the company's 32 regional newspapers. In 1992-1993 he served  as
president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. He is a graduate  of
the School of Journalism at the University of Missouri.


PUBLIC SERVICE                          Washington Post
Notably for the work of Katherine Boo that disclosed wretched neglect and
abuse in the city’s group homes for the mentally retarded, which forced
officials to acknowledge the
conditions and begin reforms.

BREAKING NEWS REPORTING            Staff of Denver Post
For its clear and balanced coverage of the student massacre at Columbine
High School.

 Sang-Hun Choe, Charles J. Hanley and Martha Mendoza of Associated Press

 Eric Newhouse of Great Falls (Mont.) Tribune
For his vivid examination of alcohol abuse and the problems it creates in
the community.

BEAT REPORTING          George Dohrman of St. Paul Pioneer Press
For his determined reporting, despite negative reader reaction, that
revealed academic fraud in the men’s basketball program at the University
of Minnesota.

NATIONAL REPORTING                         Staff of Wall Street Journal
For its revealing stories that question U.S. defense spending and military
deployment in the post-Cold War era and offer alternatives for the future.

INTERNATIONAL REPORTING              Mark Schoofs of Village Voice
For his provocative and enlightening series on the AIDS crisis in Africa.

FEATURE WRITING                    J.R. Moehringer of Los Angeles Times
For his portrait of Gee’s Bend, an isolated river community in Alabama
where many descendants of slaves live, and how a proposed ferry to the
mainland might change it.

COMMENTARY                             Paul A. Gigot of Wall Street
For his informative and insightful columns on politics and government.

CRITICISM                                   Henry Allen of Washington Post
For his fresh and authoritative writing on photography.

EDITORIAL WRITING               John C. Bersia of Orlando Sentinel
For his passionate editorial campaign attacking predatory lending practices
in the state, which prompted changes in local lending regulations.

 Joel Pett of Lexington (Ky.) Herald-Leader

Photo Staff of Denver Rocky Mountain News
For its powerful collection of emotional images taken after the student
shootings at Columbine High School
Carol Guzy, Michael Williamson and Lucian Perkins of Washington Post
For their intimate and poignant images depicting the plight of the Kosovo

Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri (Mariner Books/Houghton Mifflin)

Dinner With Friends by Donald Margulies

 Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 by
David M. Kennedy (Oxford University Press

Vera (Mrs. Vladimir Nabokov) by Stacy Schiff (Random House)

Repair by C.K. Williams (Farrar, Straus and Giroux)

Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II by John W. Dower (W.W.
Norton & Company/The New Press)

Life is a Dream, Opera in Three Acts: Act II, Concert Version by Lewis
Premiered on January 28, 2000 by Dinosaur Annex in Amherst, Mass. Libretto
by James Maraniss.

                        The List of used resources :

   1. Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners by Elizabeth A. Brennan;
   2. Joseph Pulitzer by Elizabeth C. Clarage; copyright 1999  by  The  Oryx
      Press. Used with permission from The Oryx Press, 4041 N. Central Ave.,
      Suite 700 Phoenix, AZ 85012, 800 279-6799.
   3. www.oryxpress.com.
   4. www.pulitzer.org/Archive/archive.html


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