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Организационные формы предпринимательской деятельности


                   Organizing forms of business activity.

      Presently in our country exist and are developped three main types  of
business companies: individual  holdings  (enterprises,  based  on  personal
property of owner), partnership and corporations. For  instance,  in  United
Staffs in 1982 s from 16 million companies suppressing majority  were  shown
by individual possessions  and  their  average  profits  formed  only  42400
dollars,  partnership  was  in  4  times  above,  but  cost  sold  by  goods
corporations and services at the average exceeded 2 million dollars.

                    Individual holdings and partnership.

      Expect, I has decided to open a shop on the assembly and  selling  the
computers. I will come to lease a premises under the  shop,  buy  completing
to was than fill regiments, and, possible hire anyone,  who  stood  for  the
pay-desk, while I on occupations. I shall completely order  a  remainder  of
profit after my business it is expenses payment.
      - An Individual possession - an enterprise, basing in property of  one
person, having full right on tinned as a  result  economic  activity  profit
and completely responsible for any losses, which tolerates an enterprise.
      Possible, my shop will turn out to be unprofitable, either as  a  many
enterprise, basing in individual property. In this case I will come  to  pay
for losses from the own pocket. Then  I  shall  have  to  declare  itself  a
bankrupt and allow to separate  the whole my cash assets  and  miscellaneous
personal property between that, who I must money.
      But individual holdings not always come to nothing.  Most  often  they
ensure heavy existance to its owners,  who  work  many  watch,  quite  often
earning  herewith  less  one,gets  an  average  salary.  But  under  a  hour
individual holdings ensure wholly decent profits to its owners.
      If my shop on selling the computers  prospers,  possible,  I  want  to
enlarge. For this me,  probably,  I  will  come  to  scramble  over  in  the
premises little  more,  create  a  greater  spare  of  goods,  intended  for
selling, possible,  buy  a  lorry  for  the  deivery  of  goods,  hire  more
employees,  gain  furniture  for  the  office.  I  will  be  necessary  free
financial capital to pay for all new equipment and  spares.  Where  to  take
this facility on? If personally beside me money not  sufficiently,  probably
I will try to get  necessary  financial  facilities  beside  the  friend  or
relative, which in this case will become a partner or companion.
      -  Partnership  (full  company)  -  an  enterprise,  basing  in  joint
ownership two or more persons, having its  share  in  the  profit.  Each  Of
owners, or partners, carries joint  responsibility  for  all  losses,  which
tolerates an enterprise.
      Sometimes, deal leads only one of the partners, but other  only  gives
money; sometimes both or all  owners  are  active  enterprise  participants.
Exists several very large partnership with hundreds of  companions,  amongst
legal and accounting companies in particular.
       However  form  of  partnership  has  two  essential  defects.  First,
partnership (either as individual holdings) are enterprises  with  unlimited
responsiblity. This means that if enterprise bears a loss, each of  partners
personally responsible for all  debts  regardless  of  that,  was  shown  it
really active deal participant. For instance, if one  of  two  partners  has
gone bankrupt, other has responsibility for all debts  of  company.  Partner
on the business puts on the card all its  own  property,  rather  then  only
property of company (for this reason company, which need for the  confidence
of their own clients, such, as  legal  and  accounting  offices,  often  are
partnership).
      The Second essential defect of  this  organizing  form  is  bounce  of
partner's agreements. If is taken a new  partner  or  one  of  the  existing
partners dies or wants to come out of deal,  must  be  invited  lawyers  for
sheduling a new partner's agreement. This негибкость creates  inconveniences
in the process of attraction of financial capital  required  for  enterprise
activity and financings of its growing. Some  enterprises,  such,  as  legal
companies, requiring little equipment and not needing  for  greater  volumes
of goods on regiments for selling, can form necessary funds to  the  account
of condition of individual owner or partners, possible,  by  means  of  bank
loans or other persons. But than more enterprise  and  than  more  equipment
and spares he is required for the operation, that harder becomes  to  ensure
a necessary financing specified above by ways.  To  Mashroom  an  enterprise
also must be able to form the greater amounts of financing on more  or  less
regular base. This uncomfortably do by constant attraction of new partners.

                                Corporations.

      If my  enterprise  on  the  assembly  and  selling  the  computers  is
increased and prospects of growing look favourable,, considering  defect  of
the form of partnership, I, probably, will go on the incorporiration  of  my
enterprise, will organizine a corporation.
      - A Corporation - an organization, concerning with on legal  bases  by
certain types of activity, such as usage of railways or issue of  newspaper.
The Owners to corporations have responsibility only for their own  embedding
in the  given  corporation,  even  though  their  for  covering  the  losses
insufficiently, which it tolerates.
      Corporation unlike the individual holdings or  partnership  has  legal
existance different from existance  of  people,  which  are  the  owners  to
corporations at any concrete moment of the time. Thereby,  corporation  does
not stop its existance, when one of its owners, named  by  the  shareholder,
or shareholder, dies or when appear new owners.
      Property to corporations is divided between its shareholders.  Initial
shareholders are one,makes a contribution in the  manner  of  the  money  or
other resources (such, as a free work or idea of  product  itself,  produced
by the company) at a moment of making  a  corporation.  As  an  indemnifying
their own expenseses they get rights on the participation in profits of  the
companies.  This  is  realized  by  means  of  slips  of  paper,  named   by
certificates share, installing nature of profit for  their  owners,  on  the
reception which they have a right  (share  can  be  common  and  privileged,
difference between which is concluded in the payment fixed, in the event  of
privileged, and хаотичного, in  the  event  of  common,  dividend).  Holders
share, or  shareholders,  each  corporations  (that  is  to  say  owners  of
certificates share) elect a board of directors, which have charge of  hiring
the high administrations to corporations and realizes  a  checking  for  its
work.
      On the measure of growing  a  company  can  cash  to  the  account  of
increasing an issue of share certificates and their sale.  In  exchange  for
right  a  holdings  a  corporation  gets  necessary  her  facility  for  the
operation and growing. In turn shareholders can, as  a  rule,  resell  their
own share for cash money  any,  who  can  their  buy.  Thereby,  present-day
owners to corporations not without  fall  are  one,has  gained  share  first
issue. More probably that  present-day  owners  gained  its  capital  beside
preceding owners through  the  go-between  (broker)  on  the  stock  market.
Restrictions exist In some small companies on the right  of  owner  to  sell
share to disturb outsiders to gain a checking on the company  (if  group  of
shareholders own a most share corporations, speak that this group  checks  a
corporation). But outsiders can gain a checking on large  companies  without
such restrictions by buying their share.
      Profit to corporations can be discharged shareholders  in  the  manner
of dividends or can stay in the company in the  manner  of  нераспределенных
profits (stayed profit).
      - Dividends present itself more  or  less  regular  (usually  quarter)
payments, directed by the corporation to its shareholders. Stayed  profit  -
part of  the  profit,  which  company  does  not  pay  its  shareholders  as
dividends. These profits stay at the disposal of company.
      Payments of dividends present itself direct profits on  embedding  the
shareholders. Corporations not obliged to pay  dividends,  but  majority  of
corporations their pays.  Large  companies,  as  a  rule,  are  tortured  to
support a firm flow of payments of dividends to its owners. Rate  of  paying
dividends, either as a rate of return company and procentage rate  of  share
price, greatly changes from the company to the company.
      Part of the profit, staying at the disposal of company in  the  manner
of  нераспределенной  profit,  is  usually  used  for   the   financing   of
investments  and,  thereby,  enlarges  a  cost  share  company.  Eventually,
нераспределенная profit ensures shareholders  a  return  in  the  manner  of
profits on the increase of capital.


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