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География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)

Geography of Northern Ireland.

        Northern Ireland is at its nearest point only 21km (13  miles)  from
Scotland. It has 488-km (303-mile) border in the south  and  vest  with  the
Irish  Republic.  At  its  centre  lies   Lough   Neagh,  Britain’s  largest
freshwater lake (381sq km, 147sq miles). Many of the principal towns lie  in
valleys leading from  the  lough,  including  the  capital,  Belfast,  which
stands at the mouth  of  the  river  Lagan.  The  Mourne  Mountains,  rising
sharply  in  the  south-east,  include  Slieve  Donard,  Northern  Ireland’s
highest peak (852 m, 2,796 ft).

Environment of Scotland.

       Scotland’s countryside contains rich variety of wildlife,  with  some
species not found  elsewhere  in  Britain.  There  are  71  national  nature
reserves and over 1,300 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Four  regional
parks and 40 national scenic areas have been  designated,  covering  13  per
cent of the land surface. Four of the 11 forest parks in Great  Britain  are
in Scotland, and a fifth spans the border between Scotland and England.

Environment of  Whales

         There are extensive areas of picturesque hill,  lake  and  mountain
country, and the countryside supports a  variety  of  plants  and  wildlife.
There are three  National  Parks  (Snowdonia,  the  Brecon  Becons  and  the
Pembrokeshire Coast), five Areas  of  Outstanding  Natural  Beauty  and  two
national trails as well as 31 country parks and large stretches of  heritage
coast. There are about 50 National Nature Reserves and  over  800  Sites  of
Special  Scientific Interest. Nearly  all  of  the  rivers  and  canals  are
classified as having water of  good  or  fair  quality,  and  a  significant
improvement has been achieved in the quality of bathing waters.

Geographical Position of Great Britain.

         The United Kingdom is situated on the British  Isles.  The  British
Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and  a  great
number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 sq. km.
         The British Isles are separated from the European continent by  the
North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast  of  Great  Britain  is
washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
         Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island  of  Ireland.  It
borders on the Irish Republic in the south.  The  island  of  Great  Britain
consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part  of  the
island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula  in  the  west)  and  Scotland  (the
northern part of the island).
         There are no high mountains in Great  Britain.  In  the  north  the
Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England almost along its  middle,  the
Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales  and  the  Highlands  of
Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben  Nevis,  the  tallest
peak of the Highlands, is only 1,343 m high.
There is very little country except in the region known as East Anglia.
         Most of the rivers flow into the  North  Sea.  The  Thames  is  the
deepest and the longest of the British rivers, it is over 300 km long.  Some
of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of  the  Thames,
Mersey, Tyne , Clyde and Bristol Avon.
         Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources,  it  has  some
deposits of coal, and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and  gas  that  were
discovered in the North  Sea.  The  warm  currents  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean
influence the climate of Great Britain.
       Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles,  which  lie  off
the north-west coast of mainland Europe.  Its  weather  is  changeable,  but
there are few extremes of temperature. Britain is major  world  producer  of
oil, natural gas  and coal.  Since  1980  it  has  been  self-sufficient  in
energy in net terms.
        Woodland covers nearly 2-4 hectares in Britain: about  13  per  cent
of Scotland, 12 per cent of Wales, 73 per cent of England, and 52  per  cent
of Northern Ireland. British woodlands meet 12 per  cent  of  the  country’s
consumption of wood and wood products.
       Over  three-quarters  of  Britain’s  varied  landscape  is  used  for

Environmental Protection.

        Responsibility for pollution control rests with  local  and  central
government. Integrated pollution control restricts emissions  to  air,  land
and water from the most harmful processes. Recycling  of  waste  will  be  a
duty of local government.
The National Rivers Authority protects inland waters in England  and  Wales.
In Scotland the river purification authorities  are  responsible  for  water
pollution control.
Total emissions of smoke in the air have fallen by over 85  per  cent  since
1960. Sulphur dioxide emissions have fallen  by  about  40  per  cent  since
1970. Britain has adopted a phased  programme  of   reductions   in  sulphur
dioxide emissions form existing large combustion plants  of  up  to  60  per
cent by 2003. It has also agreed to reduce nitrogen oxide  emissions  by  up
to 30 per cent by 1998. Over 95 per  cent  of  petrol  stations  in  Britain
stock  unleaded  petrol.  Strict  controls  have  reduced  carbon  monoxide,
hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.
The Government is  committed  to  the  elimination  of  chlorofluorocarbons,
which damage the  ozone  layer.  They  also  contribute  to  the  greenhouse
effect, which leads to global warming and rise in sea levels.
          Britain stresses the need for  improvement  in  understanding  the
science of climate change.
           There  are  nearly   500,000  protected  buildings,   and   7,000
conservation areas of architectural or historical interest, in Britain.  The
Government supports the work of  the  voluntary  sector  in  preserving  the
national heritage. Green belts are where land should be left open  and  free
from urban  sprawl.  The  Government  attaches  great  importance  to  their
protection. National parks cover 9 per  cent  of  the  total  land  area  of
England and Wales. Some 38 areas of outstanding  natural  beauty  have  been
designed  - 13 per cent of the same land area. Three regional parks  and  40
national scenic areas cover 13 per  cent  of  Scotland.  Care  is  taken  to
control development on parts of the coastline.

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