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Gymnasium ¹2



                   The roots of some Tolkien’s characters.
                Tolkien’s view on some events from the Bible
                            and archaic history.



                                                          Name: Yanov Andrey
                                                     Teacher: Mordasova L.M.



                                Voronezh 2004
                                  CONTENTS
I. Introduction 3

II. Body
      1. J.R.R.Tolkien: A biographical sketch
           a) Tolkien’s birth 4

           b) Tolkien’s childhood in South Africa 4

           c) Tolkien's childhood in England 4

           d) Tolkien's childhood fears 4

           e) Tolkien's education at home 5

           f) Tolkien's childhood books 5

           g) Tolkien in elementary school 6

           h) Tolkien learns some philology 6

           i) Tolkien's mother dies 6

           j) Tolkien in high school 7

           k) Tolkien in Oxford 7

           l) Tolkien after World War II 9

           m) Tolkien now 10


      2. The roots of some Tolkien characters 11

      3. Tolkiens view on some events from
      The Bible and archaic history     15


III. Conclusion 19

IV. List of used literature 20

V. Appendix 21



                                Introduction

      I have many hobbies and one of them is reading. I like to read.  Books
liberalize us, and it  is  just  very  interesting.  My  favorite  kinds  of
literature are fantasy, science fiction, myths  and  historical  books.  But
when I saw the film “The Lord Of The Rings” for the first time, I  liked  it
very much. I realized that there was something unusual in it that  attracted
me. One day someone told me, that this film  is  a  screen  version  of  the
book, written by Tolkien. Then I decided to read the book. And when  I  read
its last page, I realized, that the world, that was described there is  very
close to me. That is how my keening of Tolkien’s works  started.  I’ve  read
the whole “The Lord Of The Rings”, “The Silmarillion”, “The Hobbit Or  There
And Back Again”, some  Tolkien’s  poems,  such  as  “Namarie”  (which  means
“farewell” in the “Quenya Lambe” (The Elvish Language)), “Oh,  queen  beyond
the western sees…” and other works. Besides  I’ve  read  “The  Biography  Of
J.R.R.Tolkien”, written by H. Carpenter and  many works of different  famous
critics devoted to Tolkien. While reading such literature, I understand  and
realize very interesting ideas of Tolkien, his philosophy, and  it  is  very
interesting to know, what things influenced the creation of  his  characters
and his own world that he developed in “The Silmarillion”. And  in  my  work
I’m trying to show you just some of those things.
                    J.R.R.Tolkien: A biographical sketch

Tolkien's birth
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born to Mabel Suffield and Arthur  Tolkien  in
South Africa on January 3, 1892.
On February 17,1894, Mabel  gave  birth  to  Hilary  Arthur  Reuel  Tolkien,
J.R.R's only brother.
When Ronald (J.R.R)'s health worsened in  1895,  the  Tolkiens  (except  for
Arthur, who had to stay in order to wrap up business) left to Southampton.
On February 15, 1896, Arthur Tolkien, in South Africa, died due to a  severe
hemorrhage.

Tolkien's childhood in South Africa
". . . many months later, when Ronald was beginning to walk, he stumbled  on
a tarantula. It bit him, and he ran in terror across the  garden  until  the
nurse snatched him up and sucked out the poison . . . Nevertheless,  in  his
stories he writes more than once of monstrous spiders with  venomous  bites"
(Carpenter 14)
"During the first year of the boy's life Arthur Tolkien made a  small  grove
of cypresses, firs and cedars. Perhaps this had something  to  do  with  the
deep love of trees that wood that would develop in Ronald" (Carpenter 14)

Tolkien's childhood in England
Since his father (the sole source of money) was dead, J.R.R. and his  family
went to live with the Suffields (his maternal grandparents).
In the summer of 1896, the Tolkiens moved out of Birmingham  to  the  hamlet
of Sarehole (located in the English countryside).

Tolkien's childhood fears
"An old farmer who once chased Ronald for picking mushrooms  was  given  the
nickname 'The Black Ogre' by the boys . . . they began to pick up  something
of the local vocabulary, adopting  dialect  words  into  their  own  speech:
'chawl' for a cheek of pork, 'miskin' for dustbin, 'pickelet'  for  crumpet,
and 'gamgee' for cotton wool. (Carpenter 21)

Tolkien's education at home
"Mabel soon began to educate her sons, and they could  have  had  no  better
teacher - nor she an apter pupil than Ronald, who could read by the time  he
was four and had soon learnt to write proficiently." (Carpenter 21).
". . . his favorite lessons were those that concerned  languages.  Early  in
his Sarehole days, his mother introduced him to the rudiments of Latin,  and
this delighted him. He was just as interested in the sounds of the words  as
their meanings, and she began to realize that he had a special aptitude  for
language. (Carpenter 22).
"His mother taught him a great deal of botany, and he responded to this  and
soon became very knowledgeable. But again he  was  more  interested  in  the
shape and  feel  of  a  plant  than  in  its  botanical  details.  This  was
especially true of trees. And though he liked drawing trees  he  liked  most
of all to be with trees. He would climb them, lean against them,  even  talk
to them." (Carpenter 22)

Tolkien's childhood books
"He was amused by Alice in Wonderland, though  he  had  no  desire  to  have
adventures like Alice. He did not enjoy Treasure Island, nor the stories  of
Hans Anderson, nor The Pied Piper. But  he  liked  Red  Indian  stories  and
longed to shoot with a bow and arrow.  He  was  even  more  pleased  by  the
'Curdie' books of George Macdonald, which  were  set  in  a  remote  kingdom
where misshapen and malevolent goblins lurked  beneath  the  mountains.  The
Arthurian legends also excited him. But most of all he found delight in  the
Fairy Books of Andrew Lang, especially the Red Fairy Book, for  tucked  away
in its closing pages was the best story he had ever read. This was the  tale
of Sigurd who slew the dragon Fafnir: a strange and  powerful  tale  set  in
the nameless North." (Carpenter 22)

Tolkien's first experience with grammer
"'I desired dragons with a profound desire,', he said long afterwards.  .  .
. When he was about seven he began to compose his own story about a  dragon.
'I remember nothing about it except a philological fact,' he  recalled.  'My
mother said nothing about the dragon, but pointed out  that  one  could  not
say 'a green great dragon', but  had  to  say  'a  great  green  dragon'.  I
wondered why, and still do. The  fact  that  I  remember  this  is  possibly
significant, as I do not think I ever tried to write a story again for  many
years, and was taken up with language.'" (Carpenter 24)

Tolkien in elementary school
In September of 1900, J.R.R. Tolkien entered into King Edward's School.
In  order  to  prevent  Ronald  from  walking  several  miles  between   the
countryside  home  and  school,  the  Tolkiens  moved   from   Sarehole   to
Birmingham.
Due to school conflicts, Ronald Tolkien was transferred  to  King  Phillip's
Academy for a short period.

Tolkien learns some philology
". . . he especially remembered 'the bitter disappointment and disgust  from
schooldays with the shabby use made in Shakespeare of the coming  of  'Great
Birnam Wood to high Dunisiane hill'; 'I longed to devise a setting by  which
the trees might really march to war" (Carpenter 28)
"By inclination, his form-master Brewerton was a medievalist . . . if a  boy
employed the term 'manure' Brewerton would roar out: 'Manure? Call it  muck!
Say it three times! Muck, muck muck!'. He encouraged his  students  to  read
Chaucer, and he recited the Canterbury Tales to them in the original  Middle
English. To Ronald Tolkien's ears, this was a revelation, and he  determined
to learn more about the history of the language." (Carpenter 28)

Tolkien's mother dies
"The New Year [1904] did not begin well. Ronald and Hilary were confined  to
bed with measles  followed  by  whooping-cough,  and  in  Hilary's  case  by
pneumonia. The addition strain of nursing them proved  too  much  for  their
mother, and as she feard it proved 'impossible to go on'. By April 1904  she
was in hospital, and her condition was diagnosed  as  diabetes."  (Carpenter
29)
"At the beginning of November 1904, she sank into a diabetic coma,  and  six
days later, on November 14, she died." (Carpenter 30)
". . . Perhaps his mother's death also had a cementing effect on  his  study
of languages. It was she, after all, who had been his first teacher and  who
had encouraged him to take an interest in words. Now that she  was  gone  he
would pursue that path relentlessly. And certainly the loss  of  his  mother
had a profound effect on his personality. It made him into a pessimist  .  .
. Nothing was safe. Nothing would last. No battle would be  won  for  ever."
(Carpenter 31)
Related to philosophy of THE LORD OF THE RINGS: Middle-Earth is never,  ever
free from evil. The Simillirion states that Middle-Earth  is  destroyed  and
all live in Valinor (quasi Middle-Earth) after the  death  of  Morgroth  (by
Turin, son of Thor).
Tolkien lives with his mother's aunt-in-law (in urban Edgbaston) along  with
his brother Hillary.
"His feelings towards the rural landscape, already sharp  from  the  earlier
severance that had taken him from Sarehole, now become  emotionally  charged
with personal bereavement. This love for the memory of  the  countryside  of
his youth was later to become a central part of  his  writing,  and  it  was
intimately bound up with his love for the memory of his mother."  (Carpenter
32-3)



Tolkien in high school
"Headmaster Gilson also encouraged his pupils to make a  detailed  study  of
classical  linguistics.  This  was  entirely  in  keeping   with   Tolkien's
inclinations;  and,  partly  as  a  result  in  the  general  principles  of
language" (Carpenter 34)
"It was one thing to know Latin, Greek, French, and German; it  was  another
to understand why they were what they were. Tolkien had started to look  for
the bones, the elements that were common to  them  all:  he  had  begun,  in
fact, to study philology, the science of words." (Carpenter 34)
Tolkien studies all languages (Studies Chaucer, Beowulf, Old Norse,  Gothic)

"He continued his  search  for  the  'bones'  behind  all  these  languages,
rummaging in the  school  library  and  exploring  the  remoter  shelves  of
Cornish's bookshop down the road. Eventually he  began  to  find  -  and  to
scrape enough money to buy - German books on philology  that  were  'dry-as-
dust' but which could provide the answers to his questions. Philology:  'the
love of words'. For that  was  what  motivated  him.  It  was  not  an  arid
interest in the scientific principles of language; it was a  deep  love  for
the look and sound of words, springing from the days  when  his  mother  had
given him his first Latin lessons . . . And as a  result  of  this  love  of
words, he had started to  invent  his  own  words"  (Carpenter  35)  Tolkien
begins to (at age 14) to create  his  own  languages,  namely  'Nevbosh',  a
language filled with Gothic and Norse words.
1908 - Tolkien falls in love with Edith Bratt
1911 - Tolkien starts the Tea Club and goes to Switzerland

Tolkien in Oxford
In 1911 Tolkien entered Exeter College of Oxford. There he  started  writing
(poem 'Wood-sunshine'), modeled after several different authors.
"In 'Wood-sunshine' there is a distinct resemblance to  an  episode  in  the
first part of Thompson's 'Sister Songs' where the poet sees first  a  single
elf and then a swarm of woodland sprites in the glade; when he  moves,  they
vanish . . ." (Carpenter 48)
"Being taught by Joe Wright, Tolkien  managed  to  find  books  of  medieval
Welsh, and he began to read the language that had fascinated  him  since  he
saw a few words of it on coal-trucks. He was  not  disappointed;  indeed  he
was confirmed in all his expectations  of  beauty.  Beauty:  that  was  what
pleased him  in  Welsh;  the  appearance  and  sound  of  the  words  almost
irrespective of their meaning. He once said: 'Most English-speaking  people,
for instance, will admit that cellar  door  is  'beautiful',  especially  if
disassociated from its sense (and its spelling). More  beautiful  than,  say
sky, and far more beautiful than beautiful'." (Carpenter 56-7)
Tolkien starts advanced languages (new): "He abandoned neo-Gothic and  began
to create a private language that was heavily influenced  by  Finnish.  This
was the language that would eventually emerge in his stories as 'Quenya'  or
High-elven. That would not happen for many years;  yet  already  a  seed  of
what was to come was germinating in his mind" (Carpenter 59)
1913 - Tolkien graduates from three-year program  with  second-class  honors
and proceeds to study philology in graduate school.
At the same period Tolkien reads Cynewulf - "'I felt a curious  thrill,'  he
wrote long afterwards, 'as if something had  stirred  in  me,  half  wakened
from sleep. There was  something  very  remote  and  strange  and  beautiful
behind those words, if I could  grasp  it,  far  beyond  ancient  English'."
(Carpenter 64) Tolkien reads the Völuspa  -  "The  most  remarkable  of  all
Germanic-mythological  poems,  it  dates  from  the  very   end   of   Norse
heathendom, when Christianity was taking the place of the old gods;  yet  it
imparts a sense of living myth,  a  feeling  of  awe  and  mystery,  in  its
representation of a pagan cosmos. It had  a  profound  appeal  to  Tolkien's
imagination" (Carpenter 65) Tolkien sees  Edith  again  (he  was  previously
banned to see him by Father Francis, his guardian)
Tolkien reads Morris (NOTE: Mirkwood is the name of the great  Necromancer's
forest in The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings trilogy) "Written  partly  in
prose and partly in verse, [Morris's book] centers on  a  House  or  family-
tribe that dwells by a great  river  in  a  clearing  of  the  forest  named
Mirkwood, a name taken from ancient  Germanic  geography  and  legend.  Many
elements in the story seem to have impressed Tolkien. It's style  is  highly
idiosyncratic, heavily laden with archaisms  and  poetic  inversions  in  an
attempt to recreate the aura of ancient legend. Clearly Tolkien took not  of
this, and it would seem that  he  also  appreciated  another  facet  of  the
writing: Morris' aptitude, despite the vagueness of time and place in  which
the story is set, for describing with great precision  the  details  of  his
imagined landscape. Tolkien himself was to follow Morris' example  in  later
year." [Carpenter 70]
In the same year Tolkien visits Cornwall [NOTE: This  is  the  location  for
the Sea in The Hobbit and LOTR] " 'Nothing I could say . . . could  describe
it to you. The sun beats down on you and a huge Atlantic swell  smashes  and
spouts over the snags and reefs. The sea has  carved  weird  wind-holes  and
spouts into the cliffs which blow with trumpety noises or spout foam like  a
whale, and everywhere you see black and red  rock  and  white  foam  against
violet and transparent seagreen.'." [Carpenter 70]
Tolkien begins to create works with Quentya (language  of  the  high-elves):
"He had been working for some time at the language that  was  influenced  by
Finish, and by 1915 he had developed it to a degree of some  complexity.  He
felt that it was 'a  mad  hobby',  and  he  scarcely  expected  to  find  an
audience for it. But he sometimes wrote poems n it, and the more  he  worked
at it the more he felt that it needed a 'history' to support  it.  In  other
words, you cannot have a language without a race of people to speak  it.  He
was perfecting the language; now he had to  decide  to  whom  it  belonged."
[Carpenter 75]
Tolkien creates Valinor [Land of the Gods in  the  Silmarillion]  "This,  he
decided, was the language by the fairies or elves whom Earendel  saw  during
his strange voyage. He began work on a 'Lay of Earendel' that described  the
mariner's journeying across the world before his ship  became  a  star.  The
Lay was to be divided into several poems,  and  the  first  of  these,  'The
shores of Faery', tells of the mysterious land of Valinor, where  Two  Trees
grow, one bearing golden  sun-apples  and  the  other  silver  moon-apples."
[Carpenter 76]
1916 - Tolkien marries Edith, continues  war,  and  gets  to  know  soldiers
[Tolkien is an officer]. All of Tolkien's friends die [except C.S. Lewis]

Tolkien after World War II
Continuing the last wishes of the T.B.C.S (the society he had  founded  with
his friends at St. Edwards), Tolkien decides to create a whole society.
[Founding precepts of the LOTR] " 'I [Tolkien] had a mind to make a body  of
more or less connected legend, ranging from the large and cosmogonic to  the
level of romantic fairy-story - the larger founded on the lesser in  contact
with the earth, the lesser drawing  splendor  from  the  vast  backcloths  -
which I could dedicate simply: to England; to my country. It  could  possess
the tone and quality that I desired, somewhat cool and  clear,  be  redolent
of our 'air' (the clime and soil of the North West, meaning Britain and  the
hither parts of Europe; not Italy or the Aegean, still less the East),  and,
while possessing (if I could achieve it) the fair elusive beauty  that  some
call Celtic (though it is rarely found in genuine  ancient  Celtic  things),
it should be 'high', purged of the gross, and fit for the  more  adult  mind
of a land long steeped in poetry, I would draw some of the  great  tales  in
fullness, and leave many only  placed  in  the  scheme,  and  sketched.  The
cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope  for  other
minds and  hands,  wielding  paint  and  music  and  drama"  [Carpenter  90]
[Researching,  not  inventing]  "When  he  wrote  The  Silmarillion  Tolkien
believed that in one sense he was writing the  truth.  He  did  not  suppose
that precisely  such  peoples  as  he  described,  'elves',  'dwarves',  and
malevolent 'orcs',  had  walked  the  earth  and  done  the  deeds  that  he
recorded. But he did feel, or hope, that his stories were in some  sense  an
embodiment of a profound truth . . . Tolkien  believed  that  he  was  doing
more than inventing a story. He wrote of the tales that make  up  the  book:
'They arose in my mind as 'given' things, and as they came,  separately,  so
too the links grew . . . yet always I had the sense of  recording  what  was
already 'there', somewhere: not of 'inventing'." [Carpenter 91-2]
Influences from language: "As to the names of persons  and  places  in  'The
Fall of Gondolin' and the other  stories  in  The  Silmarillion,  they  were
constructed from Tolkien's invented languages. Since the existence of  these
languages was a raison d'être for the whole mythology, it is not  surprising
that he devoted a good deal of attention to the business of making up  names
from them"
Tolkien creates Sindarin, precursor to Quentya
[Development of 'what is real?'] "As the years went  by  he  came  more  and
more to regard his own invented languages and stories  as  'real'  languages
and historical chronicles that needed to  be  elucidated.  In  other  words,
when in this mood he did  not  say  of  an  apparent  contradiction  in  the
narrative or an unsatisfactory name: 'This is not as I  wish  it  to  be;  I
must change it.' Instead he would approach the problem  with  the  attitude:
'What does this mean? I must find about." [Carpenter 94]
On the 16 of November 1917 Tolkien gets a son and writes story of Luthien  &
Beren
1918 - Tolkien gets job in the OED (Oxford English Dictionary)
1920 - Tolkien gets a professorship at Leeds University
In October of 1920 Tolkien gets second son.
Tolkien  writes  poems:  "Another,  'The  Dragon's  Visits',  describes  the
ravages of  a  dragon  who  arrives  at  Bimble  Bay  and  encounters  'Miss
Biggins'. A third, 'Glip', tells of  a  strange  slimy  creature  who  lives
beneath the floor of a cave and has pale luminous eyes"  [Carpenter  106]  :
Dragon ~ Smaug, Miss Biggins ~ Bilbo Baggins, Glip ~ Gollum
1924 - Tolkien gets a third son Christopher.
1925 - Tolkien becomes a professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford
1929 - Tolkien gets a daughter

Tolkien now
 [Tolkien's Workplace] "The shelves are crammed with dictionaries, works  on
etymology  and  philology,  and  editions  of  texts  in   many   languages,
predominant among which are Old and Middle English and Old Norse; but  there
is also a section devoted to translations of The  Lord  of  the  Rings  into
Polish, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Japanese; and the map  of  his  invented
'Middle-Earth' is pinned to the window - ledge."  (Carpenter  4)  [Tolkien's
view of The Lord of the Rings] "He explains it all in great detail,  talking
about his book not as a work  of  fiction  but  as  a  chronicle  of  actual
events; he seems to see himself not as an  author  who  has  made  a  slight
error that must now be corrected or explained away, but as a  historian  who
must cast light on an  obscurity  in  an  historical  document."  [Tolkien's
Voice] "He has  a  strange  voice,  deep  but  without  resonance,  entirely
English but with some quality in it I cannot define, as if he had come  from
another age or civilization" (Carpenter 5)



                    The roots of some Tolkien characters

      Gandalf
      While reading “The Hobbit” and “The Lord Of The Rings” you  will  meat
such character as  Gandalf.  He  is  a  magician  (or  Istary  in  the  “The
Silmarillion”). And like all magicians he wears  a  long,  thick,  grey  (or
white) beard, a big cone-shaped  hat  with  wide  fields  and  a  wide  grey
raincoat. This character owes  with  his  existence  to  Tolkien’s  trip  to
Switzerland, where in the shop among the mountans he bought a  postcard.  It
was a reproduction of a picture of a german  painter  Madlenner,  which  was
called “Der Berggeist” (it  could  be  translated  as  “The  spirit  of  the
mountans”). There was an old man with white long beard and  cone-shaped  hat
with wide fields, who was seating under the tree. Many years  later  Tolkien
wrote on the other side of this postcard the following:  “The  prototype  of
Gandalf”…

      Sam Gamgee
      Sam Gamgee is a hobbit (It tells us  many  things).  He  is  the  best
friend of Frodo and besides that, he is Frodo’s gardener. He is very  brave,
bonhomous, kind, but careless and light-hearted, and,  as  all  hobbits,  he
likes to eat very much. It is very interesting, that the word  “gamgee”  can
be translated from one of the English dialects as cotton  wool  and  besides
that, it was a surname of a doctor,  who  had  invented  'gamgee-tissue',  a
surgical dressing made from cotton wool. But the real character of  Sam  was
copied from the character of  the mere english soldier of the war  of  1914.
You already now from the biographical sketch that Tolkien took part in  that
war. He  battled on the front line in France. And he  knows,  what  the  war
is. Later in one of his letters  he  wrote:  “My  Sam  Gamgee  is  indeed  a
reflection of the English soldier, of the privates and batmen I knew in  the
1914 war, and recognized as so far superior to myself”.

      Hobbits
Hobbits is a people of Halflings. They live in holes. They are  very  short,
practical, strait-laced and they like tasty food most of all things  in  the
world.  These creatures were created by J.R.R.Tolkien.  He  was  the  first,
who used them in his books. There are two versions about the origin  of  the
word “hobbit”. V.A. Muravjov keeps one of them. He wrote in his entrance  to
“The Lord Of The Rings”, that the world “hobbit” is a mixture of latin  word
“homo”,  which  means  “human”  and  english  word  “rabbit”.  But  Humphrey
Carpenter explained the origin of this word in a different way. In his  “The
biography of J.R.R.Tolkien” he wrote, that in his  youth  Tolkien  read  the
book “Babbit” by Sincler Luis and it influensed  him  very  much.  Carpenter
shows us the resemblance of the personality of  Babbit  and  Bilbo  Baggins,
the main character of Tolkien’s book “The hobbit or there and  back  again”.
Tolkien himself told in one of his interview, that his hobbits have no  even
a hint on rabbits. That is why I can say, that the second version about  the
origin of the word “hobbit” is more correct.

      The Shire
      The Shire is a country of hobbits. But it also has its roots. From the
biographical sketch we know, that four best years of his  childhood  Tolkien
spent in the village of Sarehole. And wile reading Tolkien’s description  of
the Shire I realized, that it is very close to the  Carpenter’s  description
of Sarehole. The same water-mill, the same  pretty  flower-beds,  the  roads
paved with stones of different colors. We can see the  festive  tree,  which
was decorated by hobbits every holiday. And we know, that in Sarehole  there
was a tree, that Tolkien remembered all his life. The first his  wise  tree.
In hobbits-halflings we can see the same efficient, plain and stiff  english
peasants so much loved by Tolkien.

      Trees and ents
      All his life Tolkien loved trees. In his childhood  he  dreamed,  they
could have  mind, speak to each other and even  move.  And  his  dream  came
true as we can see it in his works (mostly in “The  Silmarillion”  and  “The
Lord Of The Rings”). When professor created reasonable trees, he desided  to
creat someone, who will look after them. That is  how  ents  appeared.  Ents
look like trees, but they more reasonable, more movable and of  course  they
are immortal. They are not fidgety, but very  wise.  Their  speech  is  very
slow and calm. Its manner (“Hrum, Hoom”) was copied with the  deep  bass  of
Luis, the best friend of J.R.R.Tolkien.

      The elves
      The elves in their appearance, whom we can see in the books of Tolkien
were also mostly created by him. The roots  of  these  characters  are  very
ramified. Professor read a lot of information about all kinds of  elves  and
finding something general tried to create  something  new.  Finally  he  got
immortal creatures, who can be killed only with a sword  or  they  can  pine
away to death. They are tall, have perfect eyesight, bright hair  and  brave
harts. They are wise, because of the memory  they  keep  in  their  immortal
mind.  But  elves  themselves  estimate  their  immortality  as   end-around
infinity of analogical events, which exhaust  and  oppress  them.  But  they
have a dream to return to Valinor, country, where their immortality wont  be
so hard and difficult.

      Lutien
      Lutien  Tinuviel  (“Tinuviel”  could  be  translated  from  Quenya  as
“nightingale”) is the most beautiful elven virgo  in  the  whole  Arda  (The
Earth). One day she was singing the hymn to Varda in the forest:

      Ir Ithil ammen Eruchin               (When the Moon is for us, the
children of Eru,
      Menel-vir sila diriel                     Like sky precious stone
shines and saves,
      Si loth a galadh lasto din!           Let the flower and the tree
listen in silence!
      A hir Annun gilthoniel                 Oh, queen of the West, which
light the stars,
      Le linnon im Tinuviel!                  I sing to you, it’s me,
Tinuviel.)

       Beren, the bravest warrior herd this sounds and  loved  Lutirn  in  a
moment. But he was mortal and she was an elf. That is why they could not  be
together. But their love was so strong,  that  Lutien  managed  to  ask  the
goddess Varda to help them. And Varda helped them, so Lutien  became  mortal
and shared the destiny of her sweetheart.
      Lutien is a copy of Edith Bratt, the  wife  of  Tolkien.  Like  Lutien
Edith had hair of the color of raven’s wing, satin skin, shining  eyes.  She
danced and sang very well. And like the elven virgo, she danced for  him  in
the forest. And there is a inscription on  her  tomb:  “Edith  Mary  Tolkien
(Lutien)”



      Shelob
      Shelob is a brainchild of Ungoliant,  a  jumbo  spider  with  a  beak,
pincers and bottomless stomach.  Ungoliant  is  the  evil  and  concentrated
darkness. She terminated the Two Great  Trees  Telperion  and  Laurelin  and
deprived the world frome the light that give life.
      Shelob is smaller then her mother, but she  is  even  more  cruel  and
always hungry. This creature lives in a lair on the border  of  Mordor  (the
Dark Land). She has a poison in her  stinger,  using  which  she  kills  and
devours her victims.
      In his early childhood, being in South Africa, Tolkien stumbled  on  a
tarantula. It bit him, and he ran in terror  across  the  garden  until  the
nurse snatched him up and sucked out the poison. Since that  time  he  began
to afraid spiders. Maybe this made him to create such a creature.
      “She”+”lob” is a quite wide-spread model of forming words, like female
animals. For example “she-goat” or “she-wolf”. In this case words should  be
written with hyphen. Tolkien took hyphen away and used the received word  as
the name of his creature. It looks rather horribly, isn’t it?



                      Tolkiens view on some events from
                        The Bible and archaic history

      The crash of the Lamps
    In the beginning of ages in “The spring of  Arda”  (“Arda”  means  “The
Earth”) there was no light at all. The Earth was bare: no trees, no  plants,
no animals. The Valar saw, that there was a need  of  the  light.  And  then
“Aule at the prayer of Yavanna wrought two mighty lamps for the lighting  of
the Middle-earth which he had built amid the  encircling  seas.  Then  Varda
filled the lamps and Manwe hallowed them, and the Valar set them  upon  high
pillars, more lofty far than are any mountains of the later days.  One  lamp
they raised near to the north of Middle-earth, and it was named Illuin;  and
the other was raised in the south, and it was named Ormal; and the light  of
the Lamps of the Valar flowed out over the Earth, so that all was lit as  it
were in a changeless day.” And then plants and  trees  began  to  grow.  And
Arda filled with different animals and  creatures.  But  when  Morgoth  (the
lord of darkness and evil) saw  the  fragrance  of  Arda  in  his  anger  he
decided to destroy this all. He built an unshakable citadel  in  Utumno  and
concentrated all his dark forces there. His power grew and  he  started  the
war. He made his stroke when the Valar where not prepared. “He assailed  the
lights of Illuin and Ormal, and cast down  their  pillars  and  broke  their
lamps. In the overthrow of the mighty pillars lands  were  broken  and  seas
arose in tumult; and when  the  lamps  were  spilled  destroying  flame  was
poured out over the Earth. And the shape of Arda and  the  symmetry  of  its
waters and its lands was marred in that time, so that the first  designs  of
the Valar were never after restored.”
    See, how gracefully professor Tolkien handled the legend of the ruin of
dinosaurs and the fall of a giant asteroid  which  destroyed  everything  on
earth! Isn’t he a genius?



      The fall of Beleriand
      It was the end of the first age of Arda. The forth battle of Beleriand
against Morgoth  and Sauron (the “right arm” of  Morgoth)  finished  with  a
defeat of the forces of the light, the armies of  men,  elves  and  dwarves.
And the only hope of the light was Earendel, the man, who dared  to  try  to
find Valinor and ask the Valar for help (men never were in Valinor and  they
where forbidden to go there). He sailed so long, and he was so  tired,  that
he thought to turn back. But suddenly he saw a big white bird like  a  white
cloud under the see. There was a shining silmarill on her  bosom.  The  bird
flew on Earendels ship and he saw, that it was his  wife,  Elwing.  Together
they continued their sail and the silmarill lighted their  way  to  Valinor.
When the Valar saw the bravery of this man and his wife  (by  the  way,  she
was an elf), the understood, there is something in Middle-Earth,  they  must
save. That is how the fifth and the final battle for Beleriand started.
      This battle was named The War of Wrath. The Valar, with the  power  of
their fire of anger  terminated  Angband  (the  citadel  of  Morgoth),  they
knocked Morgoth down and numbed him with the chain of Angoinor.  Sauron  was
forgiven and turned into light, he became Majar  again,  as  he  was  before
Morgoth tempted him.
      But in their destructive anger, the Valar didn’t  even  noticed,  that
they had destroyed the Beleriand. Many of Elves where save  and  settled  in
Imladrise, Lothlorien and Mirkwood. But Beleriand was swallowed by  the  See
and no one could ever see its beauty: “Thus an end was made of the power  of
Angband in the North, and' the evil realm was brought to naught; and out  of
the deep prisons a multitude of slaves came forth beyond all hope  into  the
light of day, and they looked upon a world that was changed.  For  so  great
was the fury of those adversaries that the northern regions of  the  western
world were rent asunder, and the sea roared  in  through  many  chasms,  and
there was confusion and great  noise;  and  rivers  perished  or  found  new
paths, and the valleys were upheaved and the hills trod down…”
      Critics say, that this story is the Tolkiens view on the legend  about
Atlantis. Who knows, maybe it was really so…



      The fall of Numenor
      In the end of the second age of Arda after the War of  Wrath  and  the
fall of Beleriand the Valar opened a new land for elected  genders  of  men.
It was an island. And it  didn’t  belong  neither  to  Middle-Earth  nor  to
Valinor (the country of the Valar). The Valar  decorated  it  with  gardens,
fountains and flowers from Valinor. And this land  was  named  Numenor  (The
Western Land).
      The life of the inhabitants of Numenor was very long – near 300 years.
But they still stayed  mortal  men.  Hundreds  of  years  passed  and  their
discontent about their mortality grew. They began to murmur  on  the  Valar:
“Why didn’t they give us eternity, if they love us so much?  They  told  us,
they could not. Maybe, they just  don’t  want  to?”  But  the  Valar  really
couldn’t deprive men from death, the Eru’s gift (Eru – the one,  who  create
the Valar and Arda,  elves  and  men  and  everything),  just  because  they
couldn’t understand it.
      And exactly in this moment, when the faith of men  staggered,  Sauron,
who betrayed the Valar and turned in the Darkness again,  made  his  stroke.
He tempted men and directed them against the Valar. Finally the king of  men
concentrated all his forces and threw his giant army against the Valar.  Eru
saw this and made abyss to swallow this army and the  isle  of  Numenor  and
men and Sauron: “But Iluvatar (the other  name  of  Eru)  showed  forth  his
power, and he changed the fashion of the world; and a great chasm opened  in
the sea between Numenor and the Deathless Lands, and the waters flowed  down
into it, and the noise and smoke of the cataracts went  up  to  heaven,  and
the world was shaken. And all the fleets of the Numenoreans were drawn  down
into the abyss, and they were drowned and swallowed up for ever.”
      “There came a mighty wind and a tumult  of  the  earth,  and  the  sky
reeled, and the hills slid, and Numenor went down into  the  sea,  with  all
its children and its wives and its maidens and its  ladies  proud;  and  all
its gardens and its balls and its towers, its tombs and its riches, and  its
jewels and its webs and its things painted and carven, and  its  lore:  they
vanished for ever. And last of all the mounting wave,  green  and  cold  and
plumed with foam, climbing over the land…” And the world has changed.
      Only those who  stayed  faithful  to  the  Valar  was  reminded  about
forthcoming cataclysm. They sailed to  Middle-earth  on  ships  and  founded
several kingdoms their: Gondor, Arnor and Eriador…
      This legend intertwines with the Bible Great Flood. As in the Bible we
can see the sin of men and retribution for it. As in the Bible water
swallowed the sinners. And as in the bible there are some people, who
stayed faithful and who was saved and prized for their faith.


      How the world changed
    When Eru punished men in Numenor and destroyed the island,  he  changed
the whole world as well: “But the land of Aman and Eressëa (the  islands  of
Valinor) of the Eldar were taken away and removed beyond the  reach  of  Men
for ever. And Andor, the Land of Gift, Numenor of the Kings, Elenna  of  the
Star of Eärendil, was utterly destroyed. For it was nigh to the east of  the
great rift, and its foundations were overturned, and it fell and  went  down
into darkness, and is no more. And there is not now  upon  Earth  any  place
abiding where the memory of a time without evil is preserved.  For  Iluvatar
cast back the Great Seas west of Middle-earth, and the Empty Lands  east  of
it, and new lands and new seas were made; and the world was diminished,  for
Valinor and Eressëa were taken from it into the realm of hidden things.”
    Before the fall of Numenor the Earth was flat, but Eru changed her:
    “Thus in after days, what by the voyages of ships,  what  by  lore  and
star-craft, the kings of Men knew that the world was indeed made round”
    By this episode Tolkien managed to conciliate two archaic theories
about the form of our planet. He intended that at first the Earth was flat
and then changed its form. Of course it is just a myth, but who knows,
maybe it was really so…


      About wars
      In “The Silmarillion”, in “The Lord Of The Rings”  and  even  in  “The
Hobbit” we can see wars. In his works Tolkien shows us  real  war  with  its
blood, pain and cruelty. Why does he pay  so  much  attention  to  War?  The
answer is simple. In 1916 he was in army and took part in the battle of  the
Somme (France). Many of his friends fell in this battle. There  Tolkien  saw
all sides of the war. This period of his life  influenced  on  his  creative
work very much. That is why we can see so many wars  in  the  books  of  the
professor.
                                 Conclusion

      Well, I think, that now, when I have studied many reasons and roots of
different characters of “The Silmarillion”, “The Hobbit” and “The Lord Of
The Rings”, I understood Tolkiens philosophy and his views on things a
little bit deeper. But the views of the Professor on such events, as I have
mentioned in my work, can’t be named allegory, because Tolkien himself
always declined the presence of any kind of allegory in his books. But the
method of his viewing can be called “myth-poetical method”. In his “The
Silmarillion” and “The Lord Of The Rings” we can see all sings of myth-
poetical space, which makes the book fantastic, historical, mythable,
poetical and very informative. Besides, “The Lord Of The Rings” is very
real and vital. And there is no such question for me, on which I couldn’t
find an answer in it.
      Well, to my mind, my own experience in the sphere of literature,
tolkienism and just life experience is enough to advise you to read this
book. I think, after such reading, you wouldn’t forget it!
List of used literature

     1. J.R.R.Tolkien “The Silmarillion”
     2. J.R.R.Tolkien “The Lord Of The Rings”
     3. J.R.R.Tolkien “The Hobbit or There And Back Again”
     4. J.R.R.Tolkien  “The appendix to “The Lord Of The Rings”
     5. V. Muraviov   an introductory article to “The Hobbit”
     6. H. Carpenter  “The biography of J.R.R. Tolkien”
     7. Pictures by J.R.R.Tolkien, Karen Wynn Fonstad, Patrick Wynne and
        frames from the film “The Lord Of The Rings” by Peter Jackson.


                                  Appendix



-----------------------
                             The map of Numenor

                            The map of Beleriand

                              Beren and Lutien

                          The elven virgo Galadriel

                                Ent Treebeard

                                  The Shire

                             Hobbits hole inside

                              Gandalf the Grey

                   Ronald with his family in South Africa

                              Ronald and Hilary

                                 Edith Bratt

                           Ronald in student years

                               Ronald in army

                           Prosessor J.R.R.Tolkien

                             The spring of Arda

                           The Change of the world

                               The Monogram of
                                J.R.R.Tolkien

               Elvish and runic scripts made by J.R.R.Tolkien

                             “The door of Moria”
                              by J.R.R.Tolkien

                              Professor Tolkien

                              Ronald and Edith
                                   Tolkien

                              The last photo of
                                J.R.R.Tolkien

    The tomb of Edith Mary Tolkien (Lutien)  and John Ronald Ruel Tolkien
                                   (Beren)





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