GREAT BRITAIN

      The United Kingdom of  Great  Britain  and  Nothern  Ireland  occupies
territory of the British Isles which  are  situated  to  the  north-west  of
Europe. They consist  of  two  main  islands:  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.
England is in the south of the island of Great Britain, Scotland is  in  the
north and Wales is in the west. Northen Ireland is  situated  in  the  noth-
eastern part of Ireland. Its  western  coast  is  washed  by  the  Atlantic
ocean. In the east the island of Great Britain is washed by the  North  Sea.
The Irish Sea, the North Channel  and  the  St.  Georges  Channel  separate
Ireland from Great Britain. Great Britain is separated from  France  by  the
English Channel, which is 32 km wide in its  narrowest  part.  In  everyday
speech Great Britain is used to mean the UK.
      The climat of Britain is usually  described  as  cool,  temperate  and
humid. As the weather changes with a wind, and Britain is visited  by  winds
from different parts of  the  world,  the  most  characteristic  feature  of
Britains weather is its variability. Summers are not hot and  winters  are
not cold in Britain. The snow never lies for long on the ground. As  a  rule
there is no ice on the waters of rivers and lakes. So we may  say  that  the
British climat has 3 main features: it is mild, humid  and  changeble.  That
means that its never too hot or too warm.
      English is the official,  but  not  the  only  language  used  in  the
      Britain has been many centuries in the  making.  The  Romans  conqered
most part of Britain, but were unable to  subdue  the  fiercely  independent
tribes in the West and in the North. Further  waves  of  invaders  followed:
Angels, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All  these  contributed  to  the
mixture we call English. For many centuries this country  was  known  simply
as England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial  wars.
England, once the work shop of the  world,  was  the  first  to  become  a
highly industrial country.
      There are no big rivers in Great Britain. The biggest are  Severn  and
Thames. There are a lot of mountain in  Great  Britain,  but  they  are  nit
high. The highest mountain - Ben Nevis - is in Scotland. The  flora  of  the
British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the  north-
west of Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resourses but  there
were suffice for the Industrial Revolution to start.
      London is the capital of the UK. It was founded  by  the  Romans.  The
population of London is over 8 million people.
      The largest cities of Great Britain besides  London  are:  Birmingham,
Glasgo, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield,  Bristol,  Leeds,  Edinburgh.  The
most  important  seaports  are:  London,  Liverpool,  Belfast,  Glasgow  and


      The word science comes from the latin word scientia,  which  means
knowledge. Scientists make observations and collect facts  in  field  they
work in. Then they arrange facts ordelly and try to express  the  connaction
between the facts and try to work out theories. Then they have to prove  the
facts  or  theory  correct  and  make  sufficient  and  sound  evidence.  So
sientific knowledge is always growing and improving.
      Science has great influence on our life.  It  provides  with  base  of
modern technology, materials, sources of power and  so  on.  Modern  science
and technology have changed our life in  many  different  ways.  During  the
present century our life changed greatly. Thanks to radio and television  we
can do a great number of jobs; it was radio and TV that made it possible  to
photograph the dark side of the moon and to talk with  the  first  cosmonaut
while he was orbiting the Earth. On  of  the  wonders  og  our  age  is  the
electronic brain, or giant calculating mashine, which can to  some  extent
duplicste human sences. The desk computer is expected to  function  as  your
personal librarian,  to  carry  out  simple  optimization  computations,  to
control your budget or  diet,  play  several  hundred  games,  etc.  further
development of the computer is bellieved to lead to  a  situation  in  which
most of the knowledge accepted by mankind will be stored  in  the  computers
and made accessible to anyone with the home computers. It  is  natural  that
the advent of minicomputers with extensive memories and  possibilities  will
lead to a new higher level in information culture. Among  other  things,  we
shall be able to organise educational process in the countrys colleges  and
universities and also in the system of school  education  on  a  new  basic.
Knowledge is the most valuable wealth, and minicomputers  will  help  us  to
make it accessible  for  everyone.  Agrycultiral  sientists  develop  better
varietives of plants. The development of antibiotics  and  other  drugs  has
helped to control many diseases. Studies in anatomy and physiology have  let
to amazing surgical operations and the inventions  of  lifesaving  mashines,
that can do the work of such organs as  heart,  lungs  and  so  on.  Nuclear
fission when  a  tremendous  amount  if  energy  is  setting  free  is  very
important discovery.
       Science  improved  the  living  standarts,  communications,  promoted
contact between people  and  government,  knowledge  and  culture,  made  it
possible to discover and develop new sources of energy, made it possible  to
prolong mans life.
      But science also has some disadvantages.  It  produces  mass  culture:
painting,  music,  literature.  Some  scientific  inventions  increase   the
ecological problems, provide with new  diseases  like  AIDS,  increased  the
danger of violent death.
      The greatest scientists were very persistent and were  sure  in  their
success. Even without any serious  education  they  made  great  inventions.
Even during times of  disappointing  experiments  and  unacknowledgement  by
other scientists, they didnt give up and  went  on  working  out  theories.
Also they were always  ready to begin everything from  the  very  beginning.
They worked a lot, and this work wasnt for money.
      The aim, the main object of the greatest scientists of all  times  was
always to find out the trith and no personal prejudices can be  allowed.  So
the science grows and prospers and is the engine of progress.

      The problem  of  learning  languages  very  important  today.  Foreign
languages are socially demanded especially at  the  present  time  when  the
progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge  and
has contributed to an  overflow  of  information.  The  total  knowledge  of
mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages  are  needed
as the main and the most efficient means  of  information  exchange  of  the
people of our planet.
      Today English is the language of the world. Over  300  million  people
speak it as mother tongue. The native speakers  of  English  live  in  Great
Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New  Zealand.   English
is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic,  Canada,  the  South
African Republic. As the second language it is used in  the  former  British
and  US colonies.
      It is not only the national or the official language  of  some  thirty
states which represents  different  cultures,  but  it  is  also  the  major
international  language  for  communication  in  such  areas   as   science,
technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the  official
languages  of  the  United  Nations   Organisation   and   other   political
organisations. It is the language of literature,  education,  modern  music,
international tourism.
      Russia is integrating into the world  community  and  the  problem  of
learning English for the  purpose  of  communication  is  especially  urgent
      So far there is no universal or ideal method  of  learning  languages.
Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to  study  grammar  or  to
learn new words. But it is well known that reading books  in  the  original,
listening to BBC news and English  speaking  singers,  visiting  an  English
speaking country, communicating with the English speaking people  will  help
a lot.
       When learning a foreign language you learn the  culture  and  history
of the native speakers.