Introduction     3
Constitution USA 3
Nation Grows. Washington Through Jackson. Jefferson     5
Presidents of the United States   7
  Thomas Jefferson     8
    Jefferson's Reason 8
    The American Creed" and Mankind's Spiritual History      9
  Jacksonian Democracy 11
  Jonh F. Kennedy      12
Presidents at a Glance 18
Excerpts from Inaugural Addresses of American Presidents     22
The literature   24


    The US is a federal Union of  50  states  each  of  them  has  its  own
government. The seat of the  central  (federal)  government  is  Washington,
    The population of the USA is about 250  million  people;  most  of  the
population lives in towns and cities.
    The United States is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces
copper, oil, iron ore and coal.  It's  a  highly  developed  industrial  and
agricultural country. There are many big cities in  the  USA,  such  as  New
York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others.  The  national  capital
is Washington, D.C. Its population is about 3.4 million.  It  was  built  in
the late eighteenth century as the centre of government. It was named  after
George Washington, the first president of USA and general of war.
    The USA are the fourth largest country  in  the  World  (after  Russia,
Canada, and China). It occupies the  southern  part  of  North  America  and
stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It  also  includes  Alaska
in the North and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the  country
is about nine and half million square kilometers. The USA borders on  Canada
in the North and on Mexico in the South. It  also  has  a  sea  border  with
    The USA is a presidential republic. The legislative branch  of  the  US
Government, or the Congress, represents  all  of  the  American  states.  It
consists of two parts: the House of Representatives  and  the  Senate.  Each
state has two senators, who are elected every 6 years. A senator must be  at
least 30 years old, a citizen of the US for 9 years and live the  state  she
or he will represent. A representative must be at  least  25  years  old,  a
citizen for 7 years and live in the state.
    USA - the very first state accepted the constitution. It is one of  the
first countries which have  established  democracy  by  the  basic  form  of
board. In this report we shall tell about the reasons of occurrence  of  the
constitution and about its influence on  development  of  the  state  on  an
example of president's institute.

                              Constitution USA

    With independence came many problems. The U. S.  were  joined  together
under one government by the Articles of Confederation. The  articles  listed
the powers of the central government and the powers  of  the  states.  There
was a national Congress made up of  representatives  from  each  state.  But
Congress had almost no power at all. The 13 states acted  like  13  separate
little nations. There were many times when states would not  cooperate  with
the central government. They were too busy quarrelling with each other.  The
U. S. was in danger of falling.
   In May 1787 a meeting began in Philadelphia to  change  the  Articles  of
Confederation. Representatives from all the states except Rhode Island  were
present. It was soon decided that whole new constitution had to be  written.
A constitution is set of laws by which a country is governed.
   This meeting became known as the  Constitutional  Convention.  Washington
was chosen president of the  convention.  A  81-year-old  Benjamin  Franklin
took part in its work. A new  group  of  first-rate  leaders  were  at  this
meeting. Among these leaders were  James Madison and Gouverneur Morris.  The
people  who  attended  the  convention  did  their  work  very   well.   The
Constitution has lasted to the present.
   What kind of government would be the best for the USA?
   The delegates all agreed that the new government should continue to be  a
republic. This means that the people would elect representatives  to  manage
their country.
   The delegates knew that they wanted  a  federal  government.  In  such  a
government  the  power  is  divided  between  the  national  and  the  state
governments. The national government would collect taxes and  borrow  money.
It would control trade  with  foreign  countries  and  between  states.  The
national government would print or coin money. It alone could  declare  war.
All other powers were left to the states. Matters within a  state  would  be
settled by that state.
   The members of the Constitutional Convention  wanted  a  government  that
would protect the people's rights, not take them away. So they  divided  the
government's power into three parts, or branches. This is called  separation
of powers.
   The legislative branch was the Congress. Its major job was to make  laws.
The executive branch was the President and his helpers. It was their job  to
carry out the laws the Congress passed. The judicial branch was the  courts.
They had to decide the meaning of the laws.
   Each branch had some power over the other two. No  one  branch  would  be
allowed more power than the others.
   A big debate at the convention was over the matter of who  would  control
Congress. Large states wanted  representatives  to  Congress  based  on  the
number of people in the state. Small states wanted an equal  vote  with  the
larger states. This  problem  was  solved  by  giving  Congress  two  parts.
Regardless of size each state would send two representatives to the  Senate,
one part of Congress. States with more people would send more  delegates  to
the House of Representatives, the other part of Congress.  In  order  for  a
law to be passed, it had to go through both parts of Congress.
   The new Constitution included a way to make changes,  called  amendments.
If things didn't work out, or if the USA grew   changes,  the  Constitution
could be amended without being entirely changed. This was to  prove  helpful
very soon.
   Nine state governments had to approve the Constitution be fore  it  could
become the law of the  land.  Many  states  refused  to  do  so  unless  the
Constitution  listed  people's  rights  as  well  as  the  rights   of   the
government. They argued that important freedoms must be written  down.  Once
the states were promised that this  would  happen,  the  Constitution  would
become law.
   James Madison saw to it that these freedoms were  written  down.  Madison
had been very active at the Constitutional Convention. After the  Convention
he worked hard to explain the Constitution  to  the  people.  Once  the  new
government was started,  Madison  wrote  many  amendments  that  would  make
rights like freedom the press, speech and worship part of the  Constitution.
Ten of  these  amendments  were  passed  by  the  states.  These  first  ten
amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

             Nation Grows. Washington Through Jackson. Jefferson

   April 30,  1789  was  Inauguration  Day  for  the  young  nation's  first
President. An  inauguration  is  the  ceremony  that  puts  someone  office.
Washington did not want to be President. He wanted to live at his  beautiful
home Mount Vernon. But he put his love for his  country  ahead  of  his  own
wishes. Washington traveled from Mount Vernon to New  York  City.  New  York
City was the nation's first capital. Washington took the oath of  office  on
the Bible. He promised to do his  best  to  keep,  protect  and  defend  the
Constitution.  The  Constitution  listed  the  powers  and  duties  of   the
   The new government  was  started  with  a  Constitution,  a  Congress,  a
President and little else. Both Washington and the Congress  knew  that  the
new government would have to show its strength very quickly.
   The job of President was too big for one person  alone.  Congress  formed
three departments to help Washington. These  departments  went  to  work  on
three of the biggest problems facing the new nation.
   The State Department would work on relations with other nations. The  War
Department would build a national navy  and  army.  It  is  now  called  the
Department of Defense. The Treasury Department  would  handle  the  nation's
money problems.
   Washington chose able leaders for each of these departments. Each  leader
would be called a secretary. Thomas Jefferson  became  secretary  of  state;
Henry Knox, secretary of war and Alexander Hamilton secretary of treasury.
   Each of these men advised the President. Final decisions were made by the
President, however.
   The group of advisors became known  as  the  Cabinet.  Future  Presidents
would all have a Cabinet.
   The Constitution called for a third branch  of  government  -  a  Supreme
Court. All questions about  the  Constitution  and  federal  laws  would  be
settled by this court. Washington appointed John Jay as head of the  Supreme
Court. He was called the Chief Justice.
   In 1791 Congress passed a tax law in order to raise  money  for  the  new
government. Some people thought they  would  rather  fight  than  pay  these
taxes. Washington formed an army to stop them. He showed  future  Presidents
how to be a strong leader.
   The nation also grew and expanded while Washington was President. The new
states - Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee - entered the Union.
      Washington could have been President for life. But he didn't feel this
was right. He had devoted most of his life to helping his country.  Now,  he
was 65 years  old  and  had  served  two  terms,  or  four-year  periods  as
President. With the exception of Franklin  Roosevelt,  every  President  has
followed Washington's two-term tradition. In  1797  Washington  retired.  He
went back to the life he loved at Mount Vernon.
      did not enjoy it for long time. On December 12, 1799 he  was  caught
in a snowstorm while riding around his farm and became sick. Two days  later
he died. The second president be-came John Adams. He was a true  patriot  as
well as a brave and stubborn man. Near the end of Adam's term as  President,
the government moved  from  Philadelphia  to  Washington,  D.  C.  The  most
important of Adam's deeds was that he took responsibility of the peace  with
France in 1800.
   The third president  of  the  USA  was  a  very  remarkable  man,  Thomas
Jefferson. He was a man of many talents: He  was  a  lawyer.  He  wrote  the
Declaration of Independence. He was the representative of the United  States
at the court of the king of France A person who does this kind  of  work  is
called a diplomat. He  was  the  first  secretary  of  state,  second  vice-
president and third President of the USA. While he was  President  the  size
of the country doubled.
   He came from Virginia. He served that state as governor and  Congressman.
As an architect he drew the plans for many  building  in  Virginia.  At  the
same time he was also a fine  violinist  and  composer.  He  studied  Native
American languages. He knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew. He could  speak  French
and Italian.
   His work as  scientist  and  inventor  shouldn't  be  forgotten.  He  did
practical things such as improving farming methods by in venting a new  type
of plow. He experimented with different seeds. He worked much in education.
   Jefferson's  greatest  accomplishment  as  President  was  the  Louisiana
Purchase. At this time Louisiana included just above all the land  from  the
Mississippi River to the  Rocky  Mountains.  The  Mississippi  River  was  a
highway for those Americans who lived west  of  the  Appalachian  Mountains.
They took their goods downriver to the port of New Orleans. New Orleans  was
not part of the U. S. It belonged to France which had received the city  and
the rest of what is called the Louisiana Territory from Spain in 1800.
   Americans living in the West were afraid that France would not allow them
to use the port of New Orleans for trade. This was because  Napoleon  wanted
to start another French empire in America. The Americans were to try to  buy
New Orleans from the French for ten million dollars.
   Haiti was a French colony in the Caribbean Sea. Napoleon needed a  strong
naval base in Haiti if he wanted a French empire in America.  But  a  former
slave Toussaint L'Ouverture led the people of Haiti in successful fight  for
freedom at this time. With out Haiti, Louisiana lost some of its appeal  for
Napoleon. It also looked as though  France  would  soon  be  fighting  Great
Britain. If so, France would be unable to  defend  Louisiana.  The  soldiers
would be needed in Europe. Napoleon decided to  sell  the  entire  Louisiana
territory to the USA. It was bought for 15 million dollars. By this act  the
USA doubled its size.
   Jefferson wanted to know more about Louisiana.  He  wished  to  find  out
about the Native Americans, the animals, the minerals, the climate  and  the
type of land. To make such an exploration Jefferson chose Merewether  Lewis,
his personal secretary, and William dark, Lewis's close  friend.  They  were
to try to find a route all the way to the Pacific Ocean. They built  a  fort
and spent the winter on the shores  of  the  Pacific.  In  the  spring  they
started the trip home, finally reaching St Louis in  September  1806.  Their
diary was a document of great importance. Jefferson  received  an  excellent
report of their journey. He learned a great deal about the geography of  the
new territory. He learned about the animals, trees  and  plants  there.  The
work of Lewis and dark gave the USA a claim to the Oregon Country.  In  1846
this area became part of the USA.

                       Presidents of the United States

   Who can be President? Any natural-born citizen of the United  States  who
is over the age of thirty-five and  has  lived  in  the  United  States  for
fourteen years or more.
   What does a President do? The President is the  chief  executive  of  the
United States. According to the Constitution, he "shall take care  that  the
laws be faithfully executed." From time to time, he informs Congress in  his
State of the Union message what has been done and what needs to be done.
   Although he cannot force Congress to act, he can suggest  a  program  for
them to consider. And as leader of his political party,  he  can  often  see
that program is carried out, when his party has a majority of seats. He  can
also prevent Congress from acting by using the presidential veto.
   The President plays the chief part in shaping foreign  policy.  With  the
Senate's  approval,  he  makes  treaties  with  other  nations  and  appoint
ambassadors. But he can also make executive agreements  with  other  nations
without approval of the Senate.
   He nominates Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices, and many other high
officials. These nominations must be approved by the Senate However, he  can
fill thousands of other important posts under his own power.
   The President is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces  and  commissions
officers in all branches of the service.
   How is the President elected? The voters of each state choose a number of
electors equal to the number of senators and representatives  they  have  in
Congress. The electoral college, made up of the  electors  from  every  vote
for the candidate supported by the voters of  their  state  When  there  are
more than two presidential  candidates  and  none  gets  a  clear  majority,
Congress selects the President from the three candidates  who  received  the
most votes.
   How long is the President in office? The President is elected to  a  term
of four years. Since Article XXII of the Constitution became  effective,  in
1951, no President may be elected to more than two terms
   When does the President take office? The new President  takes  office  at
noon of January 20 of the year following his election, on taking  this  oath
of office: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will  faithfully  execute
the office of president of the United States, and will, to the  best  of  my
ability, preserve, protect,  and  defend  the  Constitution  of  the  United

Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson's Reason

   Jefferson's words are written and spoken in the USA many times  everyday;
most often as  if  the  words,  phrases  and  ideas,  by  themselves  alone,
constituted some sort of complete statements,  some  sort  of  ultimate  and
final truths about man, world and society.  This  is  a  deep,  though  very
popular mistake; one this piece shall try somewhat  to  amend.  The  phrases
and ideas are admittedly grand, noble and inspiring;  most  Americans  -  at
least those native born - do not read these words without  emotion  (due  of
course to intellectual and emotional culture and  education).  They  are  an
essential part of what it is to be an "American". Even persons  in  the  USA
who  may  only  be  educated  in  the  most  meager  way  (and   there   are
unfortunately tens of millions in the USA  who  are  labeled  "functionally-
illiterate"), often still can at  least  repeat  portions  of  these  famous
words quoted above. (This author has observed  some  of  the  very  poorest,
least educated, most socially- and economically -  disadvantaged  people  in
America- whose  daily  lives  are  surrounded  by  chronic  poverty;  drugs,
uncontrolled crime and random violence; joblessness; hopelessness;
   broken families, etc. - repeat  small  parts  of  Jefferson's  words,  in
trying to explain their lives. Jefferson could never have pictured this.)
   Jefferson had been raised as a child in the moderate  beliefs,  doctrines
and services of the Anglican Church; it had its original  lineage  from  the
Roman Catholic  Church,  and  generally  in  America  became  the  Episcopal
Church.  It  was  the  established  church  of  the  Virginia  colony  where
Jefferson lived. (Later Jefferson would be  influential  in  disestablishing
this church. In other words, he was raised as a boy in  the  traditions  and
beliefs of the Christian cosmos with its ancient elements.  But  this  would
soon be profoundly  challenged.  When  he,  beginning  at  the  age  of  16,
attended the College of William and Mary, he began a rapid  transition  from
a mild, uncritical world of theological beliefs the Anglican Church  is  not
one of emotional fervor in religion) into the modem critical  ideas  of  the
so-called Enlightenment, into the  "Age  of  Reason".  And  in  fact  it  is
necessary to understand not only  what  Jefferson  believed  when  he  wrote
Declaration of Independence at the age of 33, but what he did  not  believe,
in order to clearly recognize the meaning of the "American Creed".
   From his personal notebooks - where he wrote ideas  which  were  of  real
importance to him (they also constitute one of the few  sources  of  insight
we have as to the young Jefferson's mind) - we are able to see into his  new
ideas of the world. Jefferson, while  young,  was  deeply  affected  by  his
educational experiences at the College of William  and  Mary,  both  by  his
personal contacts (for example, he came to dine and converse regularly  with
the Governor of Virginia, whose father had worked for Sir Isaac Newton),  as
well as by his readings. While only one of the seven faculty members at  the
College was not an Anglican clergyman: Dr. William  Small  of  Scotland;  it
was he who the young Jefferson was most  influenced  by.  Of  him  Jefferson
later wrote that he was "a man profound in most of the  useful  branches  of
science...from his conversations I got my first views of  the  expansion  of
science and of the system of things in which we  are  placed."  (This  is  a
clear,  if  later-written,  indication  of  Jefferson's  transition  from  a
theological-religious to a natural scientific world-view.)
   We know from his notebooks that be was deeply impacted  by  the  writings
concerning religious and philosophical themes and  history  of  Lord  Boling
broke  (1678-1751),  whose  works  are  a   rather   tedious,   rationalist,
empiricist critique of all of the religious and philosophical  systems  then
known of in the world. Jefferson seems, from his note-taking, to  have  read
all of the several volumes at this early period  as  a  student.  (Jefferson
would eventually come to assemble one of the greatest personal libraries  of
his time in America; it became the core of the current Library of  Congress,
for, after the British burnt the first  one  in  1814,  Jefferson  sold  his
personal library of about 6,500 books to the  US  Congress  to  rebuild  its
library. Even  with  this  comparatively  small  reading  in  Boling  broke,
Jefferson received a broader and  more  solid  intellectual  education  than
today most Americans do after many years of schooling.)
   If Jefferson lived uncritically in  the  Christian  cosmos  as  a  child,
Boling broke's critical works (and not only this author) would  have  deeply
affected the Jefferson's young understanding - and this effect in his  ideas
and philosophy lasted for the rest of his life. So that when we look to  see
what Jefferson did mean of man and cosmos when  he  wrote  the  words  still
famous around the world today, we find that he did not hold a  religious  or
spiritual view of man and cosmos, as had the early settlers (and still  many
of Jefferson's contemporaries) of the "age of faith"  in  American  history.
Indeed, Jefferson had rejected most of their ideas  and  beliefs,  believing
rather in a material, physical, natural scientific view of  man  and  world.
(He held a Deist view of God, as  the  original  creator,  who  had  ordered
nature and life through the "laws of nature",  but  otherwise  was  detached
from earthly life. And in general  he  tended  to  reduce  all  religion  to
morality.) Closer to Darwin in spirit and time (of whose later  writings  he
could know nothing of course), Jefferson would later  symptomatically  place
busts of Bacon, Locke and Newton in his self- designed home of Monticello  -
which is now become a place of American pilgrimage. This  is  an  indication
of his lifelong  adherence  -  beginning  as  a  student  -  to  a  natural-
scientific view of man and world.  Jefferson  rejected  most  religions  and
metaphysical philosophies and their ideas as myths. (He especially  disliked
for example Plato, St. Paul, Athanasius and  Calvin.)  Sometimes  he  viewed
them as the deliberate fabrications of priests and kings to  manipulate  and
control their people. Jefferson thought  that  man's  "reason"  should  rule

The American Creed" and Mankind's Spiritual History

   Jefferson's  words  came  to  be  repeated  on  e.  g.  "Fourth  of  July
Celebrations" throughout America over the years and came to  be  a  sort  of
creedal statement as to what it means to be "American" - as we saw  also  in
the President's address in November of 1995 But in fact very  few  Americans
are clear about either the original context  or  meaning  of  the  "American
Creed" - the "cosmos" of these words - or of Jeffersons rejection  of  most
of the spiritual beliefs which many  of  these  Americans  personally  hold,
commonly blended  together  with  Jefferson's  contrasting,  antithetically-
conceived grand expressions! In other words, these ideas  from  1776,  still
alive today, are in fact only truly to be understood  within  a  scientific-
natural view of man, nature, society. God and world. And  this  is  so  even
though the religious,  spiritual  and  philosophical  beliefs  of  the  vast
majority of the US people - who often use them  in  close  association  with
Jefferson's phrases, when they explain and understand  America  and  life  -
were in fact rejected by Jefferson before (and after)  he  wrote  them.  His
human and social ideals were conceived within a natural cosmos of man;  they
are ideals of man in this world. He had  rejected  a  spiritual  cosmos  and
anthropology to man.
   Jefferson would, symptomatically, at the end of his great  life  (devoted
largely  to  serving  America)  attempt  (unsuccessfully)  to  exclude   the
teaching of religion from the University of Virginia which  he  had  brought
into being. Contrariwise, most Americans - in  their  (generally)  extremely
limited knowledge of even their own nation's  history-place  together  views
which Jefferson himself considered to  be  fundamentally  antithetical.  The
beliefs of a greater spiritual cosmos, e.g. Dante's world's, the  spiritual-
metaphysical beliefs of man and world, cannot  properly  be  fit  inside  of
Jefferson's  world  and  his   ideals   -   at   least   not   realistically
intellectually. The cosmos of the "American Creed" has its own  reality  and
dignity - but it is not such that all of  the  ideas  which  Americans  have
come  to  place  inside  of  its  famous  phrases,   can,   truthfully   and
unproblematically, be placed.
   In my view - and no one who reads this great man's  biography  can  doubt
his devotion and service to America, Jefferson  was  true  to  the  history,
reality and life of mankind in his time. One of his biographers  called  him
"one of the most devoted disciples of the Age  of  Reason".  (Nostalgia  and
longing for the "age of faith" - like the time before the "Fall  of  Man"  -
is understandable; but the "age of reason" was, if not an  inevitability  or
necessity of history, still nevertheless a new more  realistic  relationship
of man to nature. So that no mere  easy  return  to  the  past  is  true  or
realistic.) He was a realistic man of science; he could not  and  would  not
rest in the "age of faith". And, as was characteristic  of  this  and  later
time, once the Bible and religion were subjected to  the  "age  of  reason",
the beliefs of the "age  of  faith"  could  never  be  immediately  accepted
unquestioned again.
   While he was close to Darwin in his scientific attitude,  he  would  have
deeply lamented Darwin's eventual rejection both of a  creator  God  (chance
and natural selection rather than divine  design)  and  the  view  of  man's
reason and conscience as special "gifts" (Jefferson) of God to man.
   In fact, Darwin and Jefferson (as well as many of their contemporaries of
course), were offended  by  many  of  the  same  "unbelievable"  aspects  of
Christianity and in relationship to Jefferson's phrases as well!
   Here is an aspect - perhaps even more fundamental and definitive in  some
ways than the problem of the popular and noble "American  Dream"  -  of  how
Americans are unaware and unconscious of the lineage of their own  spiritual
and intellectual origin and history. Very, very  few  even  college-graduate
Americans could even begin to give a serious account  of  the  relation-ship
between their own personal spiritual beliefs, the cosmos of their  "American
Creed" and the intellectual and spiritual history  of  mankind  (e.g.  Indo-
European sources, Dionysus the  Areopagite's  cosmography,  Dante's  Comedy,
even Newton, Laplace, et al). They are simply unaware and uninformed of  how
America's  "ideas"  acutally  stand  inside  of  not  only   European,   but
Occidental and world  intellectual  and  spiritual  history.  Indeed,  I  am
certain that even the current President  of  the  USA  himself-  himself  an
active Christian Southern Baptist believer -  would  find  it  difficult  to
give such an account of the relationship of his Baptist  religious  beliefs,
to the natural ideas of man and cosmos in the "American Creed" which he  had
cited in his November 1995 speech,  in  which  he  defined  America  to  the
world. But American ideals - the  cosmos  of  the  American  Creed-do  stand
within the entire spiritual and intellectual history of  Mankind  -  however
little this may be clearly conceived and worried by Americans themselves.
   The cosmos of the "American Creed" is a natural, not a spiritual one. The
failure to recognize and understand this clearly cannot be of spiritual  and
intellectual hope, health and help to Mankind. If America  is  now  in  many
ways leading the world, it should,  presumably,  know  and  understand  more
deeply and clearly what America and her ideals are actually about.

Jacksonian Democracy

   Andrew Jackson became the U. S. President in 1828. For weeks thousands of
people had been coming  to  Washington,  D.  C.  to  see  his  inauguration.
Jackson was the hero of common people. He  was  truly  a  President  of  the
   Jackson was a fighter.  He  took  part  in  the  Revolutionary  War.  His
soldiers called him "Old Hickory" because  hickory  wood  was  the  toughest
thing they knew. When he had moved to Tennessee he served its  people  as  a
lawyer, judge, Congressman and senator. But he won his greatest  fame  as  a
soldier. Because of his activities in Florida, the U. S. was  able  to  take
control of that area from Spain.
   Jackson believed in people who loved him.  He  felt  that  common  people
could run the government.  This  idea  has  come  to  be  called  Jacksonian
democracy. These people elected him as their President. He gave  them  their
first chance to really have a part in government.
   Not everyone benefited while Jackson  was  President-  Women,  black  and
Native Americans were not able to take part  in  gov_ernment.  In  fact,  in
some cases, the government worked against them.
   The Cherokee nation serves as an example of what happened to many  Native
American tribes and people in Jackson's times. The  Cherokees  had  a  great
deal of land in Georgia and Alabama. They were farmers. They had  roads  and
lived in houses. They had a written language and a weekly  newspaper.  Their
government was democratic. But white settlers wanted their land.
   The land was promised to the Cherokee  nation  by  treaty.  Missionaries,
Congressman Henry Clay, and the Supreme Court all said  that  the  Cherokees
had rights to their claims. Even so, the Cherokees  were  thrown  off  their
land. They were told to go to Oklahoma. With soldiers  watching  them,  they
had little choice but to obey.
   This journey lasted several months.  Disease,  hunger  and  cold  brought
death to many. Over 4,000 Cherokees Were buried along  the  Trial  of  Tears
which stretched from Georgia to Oklahoma.
   Jackson said that their removal was necessary. Without it, he  said,  the
Cherokees all would have been killed by  white  settlers  looking  for  more
land. Jackson did agreat deal to make people feel a part of government.  But
he was not ready to give equality to Native Americans. A slave  holder,  all
his life Jackson did not believe in equality for blacks either.
   Yet in Jackson's time, some people were starting to oppose slavery. These
people were called abolitionists.

Jonh F. Kennedy

    For many Americans the election of John Fitzgerald Kennedy as the  35th
President of the United States in 1960 marked the beginning of a new era  in
this country's political history. Kennedy was the first Roman  Catholic  and
the youngest man ever chosen Chief Executive. He was also the  first  person
bom in the 20th century to hold the nation's highest office.
    Born  in  Brookline,  Massachusetts,  on  May  29.  1917,  Kennedy  was
descended from two politically conscious, Irish-American families  that  had
emigrated from Ireland to Boston shortly after potato  blight  and  economic
upheavals had struck their homeland in the  1840s.  Kennedy's  grandfathers,
Patrick J. Kennedy and John F. ("Honey  Fitz")  Fitzgerald,  became  closely
associated  with  the  local  Democratic  Party;  Kennedy  served   in   the
Massachusetts legislature, and Fitzgerald won election as mayor  of  Boston.
In 1914 the marriage of Joseph P. Kennedy and  Rose  Fitzgerald  united  the
two families. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the second eldest  of  Joseph  and
Rose Kennedy's four sons and five daughters.
    Joseph  P.  Kennedy  was  an  extraordinarily  successful  businessman.
Despite the relatively modest means of his family, Kennedy attended  Harvard
College, and upon graduation in 1912 began a career in banking.  During  the
1920s he amassed a  substantial  fortune  from  his  investments  in  motion
pictures, real estate, and other enterprises, and unlike  many  magnates  of
his era he escaped unscathed from the stock market  crash  of  1929.  Joseph
Kennedy himself was never a  candidate  for  elective  office,  but  he  was
deeply interested in the Democratic Party. He made  large  contributions  to
the presidential campaign of Franklin  D.  Roosevelt  in  1932;  in  return,
Roosevelt appointed him chairman of the recently established Securities  and
Exchange Commission, where his business expertise proved especially  helpful
in drafting legislation designed to  regulate  the  stock  market.  In  1937
Roosevelt named Kennedy US ambassador to Great Britain.
    Despite his wealth  and  political  influence,  the  Democratic  Irish-
Catholic Joseph Kennedy never won  the  acceptance  of  Boston's  Protestant
elite. He deeply resented this, and determined that his  sons'  achievements
would equal, if not excel, those  of  their  Brahmin  counter-parts.  Toward
this end he modeled their lives and education after  those  enjoyed  by  the
Yankee upper class.
    John Kennedy, like his brothers and sisters,  grew  up  in  comfortable
homes and  attended  some  of  the  nation's  most  prestigious  preparatory
schools and colleges. He was enrolled at the age  of  13  at  Canterbury,  a
Catholic preparatory school staffed by laymen, but transferred after a  year
to  the  nonsectarian  Choate  School,  where  he  completed  his  secondary
education before entering Princeton University. Illness forced him to  leave
the college before the end of Ins freshman year. but the following'.  autumn
he resumed his studies, at Hanard.
    Kennedy's college years coincided with a  time  of  world  crisis  'The
future President had unusual opportunities to combine know ledge  gained  in
the classroom with his own firsthand observations. As a government major  at
Harvard he benefited from  the  teachings  of  some  of  the  nation's  most
prominent political scientists and historians. men who  in  the  late  1930s
were acutely aware of the  growing  menace  of  Nazism.  Moreover,  in  1938
Kennedy spent six months in  London  assisting  his  father.  who  was  then
serving as US ambassador. "This slay in England gave the  young  student  an
excellent opportunity to witness for himself the  British  response  to  the
Nazi aggression of the 1930s, and  he  used  the  insight  gained  from  the
experience in writing his senior  thesis.  This  thesis,  in  which  Kennedy
attempted to explain England's hesitant reaction to German  rearmament,  was
extremely perceptive. and in 1940 it was published in expanded form  in  the
United States and 6reat Britain under the title Why England Slept.
    After receiving his B.S. degree cum laude from Harvard in 1940, Kennedy
briefly attended ihe Stanford University Graduate School  ot  Business,  and
then spent several months traveling through South  America.  Late  in  1941,
when the United States' entry into World War  II  seemed  imminent.  Kennedy
joined the US Navy. As an officer he served in the  South  Pacific  Theater,
where he commanded one of the small PT or torpedo boats that  patrolled  off
the Solomon Islands.
    On April 25. 1943, Kennedy assumed command of P 1 -109, the  vessel  on
which, only a little more than four months later, his courage  and  strength
were put to their first serious test. On the night of August  2,  1943,  the
Japanese destroyer Amagiri rammed PT-109. The force of the destroyer  sliced
the American craft in half and plunged its 11 -man crew into the  waters  of
Ferguson Passage. Burning gasoline spewed forth  from  the  wrecked  torpedo
boat, setting the waters of  the  passage  aflame:  but  Lieutenant  Kennedy
retained his composure, directed the rescue  of  his  crew,  and  personally
saved the lives of three of the men. Kennedy and the other  survivors  found
refuge on a small unoccupied island, and during the days  that  followed  he
swam long distances to obtain food and aid for  his  men.  Finally,  on  the
sixth day of the ordeal the crew was rescued.
    Kennedy's bravery did not go unnoticed. For his deeds in August 1943 he
subsequently received the Purple Heart and the Navy and Marine Corps  Medal.
Injuries sustained during his courageous exploits and an attack  of  malaria
ended Kennedy's active military service, however. Later in 1943 he  returned
to the United States, and in 1945  he  was  honorably  discharged  from  the
    After leaving the navy, Kennedy, like many  other  young  men  who  had
served their country during World War II. had to make a decision  about  his
literature career. At Harvard  he  had  become  increasingly  interested  in
government. but he did hot originally plan to seek  public  office.  Members
of the Kennedy family had expected that the eldest son.  navy  pilot  Joseph
P. Kennedy Jr., would enter politics - a hope cut short when he  was  killed
in a plane crash during the war  Deeply  affected  by  his  older  brother's
death. Jonh Kennedy in 1945 compiled a memorial volume. As We Remember  Joe.
which was privately printed. Shortly afterwards he determined to pursue  the
career that had been the choice of his late brother
    Appropriately. Kennedy sought his first elective office in Easl Boston,
the low-income area with a large immigrant  population that several  decades
before had been the scene of both  his  grandfathers  political  activities.
Announcing his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for the US  House  of
Representatives in the 11th Congressional District early in  1946,  Kennedy,
with the assistance of his family and  friends,  campaigned  hard  and  long
against several of the party's veterans  and  won  the  primary.  Since  the
district was overwhelmingly Democratic, Kennedy's  victory  in  the  primary
virtually guaranteed his election in the November contest. As  expected,  on
November 5, 1946, he easily defeated his Republican rival and at the age  of
29 began his political career as a member of the House of Representatives.
    East Boston voters returned Kennedy to Congress in 1948 and  1950,  and
for the six years he represented the 11th District  he  continuously  worked
to expand federal programs, such as public  housing,  social  security,  and
minimum wage laws. that benefited his constituents.  However,  in  1952  the
young politician decided against running for  another  term  In  the  House.
Instead he sought the Senate seat held by the Republican Henry Cabot Lodge.
    The  incumbent  Lodge   was   well   known   and   popular   throughout
Massachusetts; in contrast, Kennedy  had  almost  no  following  outside  of
Boston. But from the moment he  announced  his  candidacy  for  the  Senate,
Kennedy, assisted by his  family,  friends,  and  thousands  of  volunteers,
conducted a massive and intense grassroots campaign. This hard work  brought
results: on November 4, 1952, when the  landslide  presidential  victory  of
Dwight D. Eisenhower carried hundreds of other  Republican  candidates  into
local, state, and federal offices  throughout  the  nation,  the  Democratic
Kennedy defeated Lodge by a narrow margin to become the junior senator  from
    On September  12,1953,  Kennedy  married  the  beautiful  and  socially
prominent Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, who  was  12  years  his  junior.  Shortly
after their marriage, Kennedy became increasingly disabled by an old  spinal
injury, and in October 1954 and again in February 1955 he underwent  serious
surgery. A product of the months of  convalescence  that  followed  was  his
Profiles in Courage, a study of American  statesmen  who  had  risked  their
political careers for what they believed to be the needs  of  their  nation.
Published in 1956, Profiles in Courage immediately became a bestseller,  and
in May 1957 it won for its author the Pulitzer Prize for biography.
    During his years in the House and for the  first  half  of  his  Senate
term, Kennedy concerned himself primarily with the issues that  particularly
interested or affected his  Massachusetts  constituents.  However,  when  he
resumed  his  congressional  duties  alter  Ins   prolonged   convalescence,
national  rather  than  local  or  state  affairs  primarily  attracted  his
    His determination to run  for  higher  office  became  evident  at  the
Democratic  National  Convention  in  1956.  Adam  Stevenson,  the   party's
presidential nominee, declined to name a running male. and instead left  the
choice of a vice presidential candidate to a vote of the delegates.  Seizing
this opportunity. Kennedy mounted a strong, if last-minute, campaign  lorshe
nomination   in which he was narrowly defeated by Senator Lstes Kefauver  of
Tennessee Kennedy's efforts were no entirely unrewarded however.  He  proved
himself to be a formidable contender and. perhaps more important,  lie  came
to the attention of the millions of television  viewers  across  the  nation
who watched; the eonvention proceeding. He was redeemed to the US Senate  in
    Shortly  after  defeat  of  Stevenson  in  1956.  Kennedy  launched   a
nationwide campaign to gain the  1960  Democratic  presidential  nomination.
During the tour intervening years, ihe Massachusetts senator  developed  the
organisation that  would  help  him  win  his  goal.  Through  his  personal
appearances, ami writings, he also made himself known to the voters  ol  the
United Stales. Kennedy's tactics  were  successful  He  won  all  the  state
primaries he  entered  in  1960    including  a  critical  contest  in  West
Virginia,  where  an  overwhelmingly  Protestant  electorate  dispelled  the
notion that a Catholic candidate could not  be  victorious  -  and  he  also
earned the endorsement of a number of state party conventions.
    The Democratic National Convention of  1960  selected  Kennedy  as  its
presidential candidate on the first ballot. Then, to the surprise  of  many,
Kennedy asked Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, who  had  himself  aspired
to the first place on the ticket, to be his running  mate.  Johnson  agreed,
and the Demoeralic slate  was  complete.  For  its  ticket,  the  Republican
National Convention in I960 chose Vice President Richard Millions Nixon  and
Kennedy's earlier political rival. Henry Cabot Lodge.
    Throughout the fall of 1960, Kennedy and Nixon waged tireless campaigns
to win popular support. Kennedy drew strength from the organization  he  had
put  together  and  from  the  fact  that   registered   Democratic   voters
outnumbered their Republican counterparts.  Nixon's  strength  stemmed  from
his close association with the popular President  Eisenhower  and  from  his
own experience as Vice President, which suggested an  ability  to  hold  his
own with. representatives of  the  Soviet  Union  in  foreign  affairs.  The
turning point of the 1960 presidential race,  however,  may  have  been  the
series of four televised debates between the candidates, which  gave  voters
an  opportunity  to  assess  their  positions  on  important   issues,   and
unintentionally  also  tested  each  man's  television  "presence."  Kennedy
excelled in the latter area and political experts have  since  claimed  that
his ability to exploit the mass media may have been a significant factor  in
the outcome of the election.
    On November 8, I960, the voters of the United States cast a record 68.8
million ballots, and selected Kcnnedy over Nixon by  the  narrow  margin  of
fewer than 120,000 votes  in  the  closest  popular  vote  in  the  nation's
history. In the Electoral College  the  tally  was  303  votes  to  21  John
Fitzgerald Kennedy took the oath of office as  the  35th  President  of  the
United  States  on  January  20,  1961.  A  number  of   notable   Americans
participated in the ceremonies:  Richard Cardinal Gushing of Boston  offered
the invocation, Marian Anderson sang the national anthem, and  Robert  Frost
read one of his poems. Kennedy's  inaugural  address,  urging  Americans  to
"ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you  can  do  for  your
country," was memorable. The new Chief Executive  also  asserted,  "Now  the
trumpet summons us  again  ...  to  bear  the  burden  of  a  long  twilight
struggle... against the common enemies of  man:  tyranny,  poverty,  disease
and war itself."
    Both challenges were in keeping with what observers would later mark as
Kennedy's greatest contribution: a  quality  of  leadership  that  extracted
from others their best efforts toward specific goals. Many  felt  themselves
influenced by his later reminder to a group of  young  people  visiting  the
White House - that "the Greeks defined happiness as the  full  use  of  your
powers along the lines of excellence."
    Whether because of his-leadership, the climate of  the  times,  or  the
conjunction of the two, Kennedy's term as President coincided with a  marked
transformation in the mood of the nation. Before that, complacent  in  their
peace-time prosperity,  most  Americans  were  preoccupied  with  individual
concerns.  Now  came  a  widespread  awareness  of  needs   not   previously
recognized.  No  longer  could  Americans  ignore  pressing  problems   that
confronted them both at home and abroad, and  increasingly,  they  showed  a
willingness to try to effect meaningful changes. The new  mood  was  one  of
challenge, but also one of hope.
    As he had promised  in  his  inaugural  address,  Kennedy  successfully
sought the enactment of programs designed to assist the "people in the  huts
and villages of half the world."  The  Alliance  for  Progress,  a  program-
ambitious but ultimately less than successful - for the economic growth  and
social improvement of Latin America, was  launched  in  August  1961  at  an
Inter American Conference at Punta del Este, Uruguay. The Peace Corps,
    which offered Americans a unique opportunity to spend approximately two
years living and working with peoples in  underdeveloped  countries,  was  a
more successful attempt to aid emerging nations throughout the world.
    In the realm of foreign affairs, Kennedy's  record  was  a  mixture  of
notable  triumphs  and  dangerous   setbacks.   He   allowed   the   Central
Intelligence Agency to carry out plans laid before  his  administration  for
an invasion of Cuba by anti-Communist refugees  from  that  island.  Between
1,400 and 1,500 exiles landed on April 17, 1961, at the  Bay  of  Pigs,  but
suffered defeat when an anticipated mass insurrection by  the  Cuban  people
failed   to   materialize.   Severely   embarrassed,   the    administration
nevertheless successfully encouraged the creation of  a  private  committee,
which ransomed 1,178 invasion prisoners for $62 million.
    Cuban Premier Fidel Castro, after repelling the Bay of  Pigs  invasion,
turned to the Soviet Union for military support and allowed the Russians  to
install secret missile sites in Cuba. From these locations,  90  miles  from
US soil, the USSR could launch missiles capable of striking  deep  into  the
American heartland. Reconnaissance by US observation  planes  uncovered  the
Soviet activities. Taking a decisive stand  President  Kennedy,  on  October
22, 1962, announced that the United States would  prevent  the  delivery  of
offensive weapons to Cuba. Kennedy demanded that the USSR abandon the  bases
and threatened that the United States  would  "regard  any  nuclear  missile
launched from Cuba against any  nation  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  as  an
attack  by  the  Soviet  Union  on  the  United  States,  requiring  a  full
retaliatory response upon  the  Soviet  Union."  After  a  week  of  intense
negotiations. Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev agreed  to  dismantle  all
the installations in return for a US pledge not to invade Cuba.
    President Kennedy gave wholehearted  support  to  American  efforts  in
space exploration.  During  his  administration  the  nation  increased  its
expenditures in that area fivefold,  and  the  President  promised  that  an
American would land on the moon before  the  end  of  the  1960s.  (On  July
20,1969,  two  American  astronauts  fulfilled  the  President's  pledge  by
becoming the first human beings to set foot on the lunar surface.)
    During his presidential campaign, Kennedy had stressed the necessity of
improving the American economy, which was then suffering from  a  recession.
His aim was to follow a fiscally moderate course, and the achievement  of  a
bal_anced budget was one of his major goals.  As  President  he  managed  to
stimulate the  sluggish  economy  by  accelerating  federal  purchasing  and
construction programs, by the early release of more  than  $  1  billion  in
state highway funds, and by putting $ 1 billion  in  credit  into  the  home
construction industry.
    During his  administration,  however,  increasing  hostility  developed
between the White House and  the  business  community.  Anxious  to  prevent
inflation, the President gave  special  attention  to  the  steel  industry,
whose price-wage structure affected so many other aspects  of  the  economy.
After steel manufacturers insisted on raising their prices  in  April  1962,
Kennedy, by applying strong  economic  pressure,  forced  the  producers  to
return to the earlier lower price levels. His victory earned him the  enmity
of many business people, however.
    Kennedy sympathized with the aspirations of  black  Americans,  but  he
included no comprehensive civil  rights  legislation  in  his  New  Frontier
program, fearing that the introduction into a conservative Congress of  such
measures would imperil  all  his  other  proposals.  The  President  relied,
instead, on his executive powers and on the enforcement of  existing  voting
rights laws. He forbade  discrimination  in  new  federally  aided  housing,
appointed a large number of blacks to high offices,  and  supported  Justice
Department efforts to  secure  voting  rights  and  to  end  segregation  in
interstate commerce. In 1962 he used regular  army  troops  and  federalized
National Guard units to force the admission of a black, James  Meredith,  to
the University  of  Mississippi,  and  in  1963  he  used  federal  National
Guardsmen to watch over the integration of the University of Alabama.
    Despite his broad visions  of  the  American  future,  Kennedy  enjoyed
limited success  in  translating  his  ideas  into  legislative  reality.  A
coalition of Republicans and conservative southern  Democrats  in  the  87th
Congress stopped many of his plans for the introduction of social  measures.
And even after the Demo_ratic Party increased its majority on  Capitol  Hill
in the 1962 elections. Congress was slow to cooperate, although it  probably
was ready to do so just before his presidency came to an end.
    John F. Kennedy presided over  the  execlusive  branch  of  the  United
States government for only a little more than 1,000 days. During  that  time
American involvement in Vietnam and other areas of Southeast Asia  increased
moderately, but the  beginnings  of  a  thaw  in  the  cold  war  were  also
noticeable, and in 1963 the. Soviet Union and the United States  signed  the
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Kennedy's  years  in  the  White  House  were  also
marked by increased social consciousness by  the  US  government.  With  the
Great Society program of his  successor,  Lyndon  Baines  Johnson,  Congress
eventually enacted a number of Kennedy's proposals, including  medical  care
for the elderly and greater opportunities for black Americans.
    In addition to his various governmental programs, Kennedy's  presidency
was also no_table for a new, vital style. John and  Jacqueline  Kennedy  and
their two children, Caroline and John Jr., quickly captured the  imagination
of the nation, and their activities  were  widely  reported  by  the  media.
Cer_tainly the Kennedys exuded a youthful  vi-brance,  and  their  interests
seemed unending. Jacqueline Kennedy was  responsible  for  redecorating  the
public rooms  of  the  White  House  and  inviting  a  glittering  array  of
cul_tural and intellectual leaders to the executive mansion.
    An assassin's bullet abruptly ended the life of John Fitzgerald Kennedy
on Novem_ber 22,1963, as he rode in  a  motorcade  through  the  streets  of
Dallas, Texas. The entire nation mourned  the  tragic  death  of  the  Chief
Executive. Many millions watched on television as  the  35th  President  was
buried at Arlington National Cemetery on November 25, 1963.
    Every state of the United States and almost every nation in  the  world
has erected memorials to Kennedy. One  of  the  monu_ments  dearest  to  his
family is the house at 83 Seals Street in  Brookline,  Massachusetts,  where
the late President's parents lived from 1914 until 1921 and  where  four  of
their chil_dren - including John - were bom. The house  was  repurchased  by
the Kennedys in  1966  and  was  designated  a  National  Historic  Site  by
Congress in 1967.  On  May  29,  1969,  the  52nd  anniversary  of  John  F.
Kennedy's birth, the family turned  over  the  deed  of  the  house  to  the
National Park Service.
   Both of President Kennedy's younger brothers, Robert  F.  and  Edward  M.
Kennedy, served in the Senate. Many of the  former  President's  compatriots
hoped to see his goals and promise carried forward when Robert Kennedy,  who
had served as his at_torney general and closest  adviser,  an_nounced  early
in 1968 that he would seek  the  Democratic  nomination  for  President.  In
another tragedy that shook the nation to its roots, Robert Kennedy was  shot
down  by  an  assassin  just  after  claiming  victory  in  the   California
presidential primary. He died in Los Angeles just over 25  hours  later,  on
June 6,1968.

                           Presidents at a Glance

|NAME           |SERVED     |ACHIEVEMENTS                                |
|1. George      |1789-1797  |The first President, he determined in large |
|Washington     |           |measure what the job of President should be.|
|               |           |Held the country together during its early  |
|               |           |days and gave it a chance to grow. Ranked by|
|               |           |historians as a "great" President.          |
|2. John Adams  |1797-1801  |Saved his country from an unnecessary war.  |
|               |           |Ranked by historians as a "near great"      |
|               |           |President.                                  |
|3. Thomas      |1801-1809  |Bought the Louisiana Territory and doubled  |
|Jefferson      |           |the size of the country. Made sure the      |
|               |           |government stayed in the hands of the       |
|               |           |people. Ranked by historians as a "great" or|
|               |           |"near great" President.                     |
|4. James       |1809-1817  |Allowed the country to get into unnecessary |
|Madison        |           |war, but made peace as quickly as possible. |
|               |           |Ranked by historians as an "average"        |
|               |           |President.                                  |
|5. James Monroe|1817-1825  |Took Florida from Spain. Created the Monroe |
|               |           |Doctrine. Signed the Missouri Compromise.   |
|               |           |Ranked as one of the best of the "average"  |
|               |           |President.                                  |
|6. John Quincy |18251829  |Rated by some historians as a failure       |
|Adams          |           |because little was done during his term.    |
|               |           |Some historians rank him as "average".      |
|7. Andrew      |1829-1837  |Did more to show how great the powers of the|
|Jackson        |           |office were than any President after        |
|               |           |Washington. Used these powers to help make  |
|               |           |laws. Ranked by historians as a "great" or  |
|               |           |"near great" President.                     |
|8.   Martin Van|1837-1841  |Was caught in one of the nation's worst     |
|Buren          |           |financial depressions. This was unfairly    |
|               |           |blamed on him. Ranked by historians as an   |
|               |           |"average" President.                        |
|9. William     |1841       |Was President for only one month.           |
|Henry Harrison |           |                                            |
|10. John Tyler |1841-1845  |Made clear that on the death a President the|
|               |           |Vice President became President with all the|
|               |           |powers of the office. Served as a President |
|               |           |without a party. Ranked by most historians  |
|               |           |as "below average".                         |
|11 .James Knox |1845-1849  |Bullied a small, weak nation (Mexico) into  |
|Polk           |           |fighting a war it did not want, but added   |
|               |           |California and much of the South-west to the|
|               |           |United States. Settled the Canadian border  |
|               |           |without war. Ranked by historians as a "near|
|               |           |great" President.                           |
|12. Zachary    |1849-1850  |Knew little about the duties of a President |
|Taylor         |           |but faced his problems honestly though with |
|               |           |little political talent. Served only two    |
|               |           |years. Ranked by many historians as "below  |
|               |           |average."                                   |
|13. Millard    |1850-1853  |Sent the U. S. fleet to open trade with     |
|Fillmore       |           |Japan. Helped pass the Great Compromise of  |
|               |           |1850. Ranked by historians as "below        |
|               |           |average."                                   |
|14. Franklin   |1853-1857  |Put through the Gadsden Purchase acquiring  |
|Pierce         |           |what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico.|
|               |           |Favored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which      |
|               |           |opened the door to the Civil War. Ranked by |
|               |           |historians as "below average."              |
|15. James      |1857-1861  |Faced the final breakup of the nation over  |
|Buchanan       |           |slavery. Tried hard to prevent war but made |
|               |           |matters worse instead of better. Ranked by  |
|               |           |historians as "below average."              |
|16. Abraham    |1861-1865  |Held the nation together in its most        |
|Lincoln        |           |difficult time. In a speech at the          |
|               |           |Gettysburg battlefield he said it was the   |
|               |           |people's duty to make sure "that this       |
|               |           |nation, under God, shall have a new birth of|
|               |           |freedom, and that government of the people, |
|               |           |by the people, for the people, shall not    |
|               |           |perish from the earth." More than any other |
|               |           |one man, he helped make these words come    |
|               |           |true. Ranked by historians as a truly       |
|               |           |"great" President.                          |
|17. Andrew     |1865-1869  |Took office in a. time of great trouble.    |
|Johnson        |           |Fought for what he believed was right, but  |
|               |           |did not have the power to persuade and lead |
|               |           |men. Was impeached by Congress and came     |
|               |           |within one vote of being removed from       |
|               |           |office. Ranked by historians from "near     |
|               |           |great" to "below average."                  |
|18. Ulysses    |1869-1877  |Was personally honest, but many of the men  |
|Simpson Grant  |           |around him were crooks. His administration  |
|               |           |was one of the most dishonest in American   |
|               |           |history. One of the three Presidents rated  |
|               |           |as a "failure".                             |
|19. Ruthertord |1877-1881  |Ended the period of Reconstruction. Tried to|
|Birchard Hayes |           |reform the federal government after the     |
|               |           |Grant administration. Tried to improve the  |
|               |           |civil service system, but met with little   |
|               |           |success. Ranked by historians as "average." |
|20. James Abram|1881       |Was killed only a few months after taking   |
|Garfield       |           |office. Yet his death may have done more to |
|               |           |improve honesty in government than he could |
|               |           |have done had he lived.                     |
|21. Chester    |1881-1885  |Helped pass the first effective civil       |
|Alan Arthur    |           |service laws and administered them honestly.|
|               |           |Helped develop a modern navy. Ranked by     |
|               |           |historians as "average."                    |
|22 and 24.     |1885-1889  |Made needed reforms in the federal          |
|Grover         |and        |government. Helped restore the confidence of|
|Cleveland      |1893-1897  |the people in their government. His         |
|               |           |intentions were always good, but his methods|
|               |           |sometimes failed. Ranked by historians as a |
|               |           |"near great" President.                     |
|23. Benjamin   |1889-1893  |Favored a strong foreign policy. Enlarged   |
|Harrison       |           |the navy. Wanted a better civil service, but|
|               |           |Congress continually opposed him. Ranked by |
|               |           |historians as "average."                    |
|25. William    |1897-1901  |Allowed the United States to be pushed into |
|McKinley       |           |war with Spain, but made the United States a|
|               |           |world power. Acquired the Philippines,      |
|               |           |Hawaii, Guam, and Puerto Rico as United     |
|               |           |States possessions. Ranked by historians as |
|               |           |"average."                                  |
|26. Theodore   |1901-1909  |Brought tremendous energy and vitality to   |
|Roosevelt      |           |the office of President. Used the powers of |
|               |           |his office to control the power of huge     |
|               |           |business concerns. Worked to establish      |
|               |           |national parks and forests and the Panama   |
|               |           |Canal. Ranked by historians as one of the   |
|               |           |"near great" President.                     |
|27. William    |1909-1913  |Worked hard for conservation of natural     |
|Howard Taft    |           |resources. Helped improve the Post Office   |
|               |           |system. Fought to break the power of the    |
|               |           |trusts. Ranked by historians as "average."  |
|28. Woodrow    |1913-1921  |Reformed the banking laws. Worked to improve|
|Wilson         |           |the antitrust laws, to help the American    |
|               |           |worker, and to lower the tariff. Tried to   |
|               |           |stay out of World War I, then tried hard to |
|               |           |make it a "war to end all wars." Worked for |
|               |           |a League of Nations to keep the world at    |
|               |           |peace. Failed, but left an ideal of which   |
|               |           |people still dream. Ranked by historians as |
|               |           |a "great" President.                        |
|29. Warren     |1921-1923  |In large measure let Congress and his       |
|Gamaliel       |           |Cabinet run the nation. Was more loyal to   |
|Harding        |           |his friends than to his country. His was    |
|               |           |probably the most dishonest administration  |
|               |           |in United States history. Ranked by         |
|               |           |historians as a "failure."                  |
|30. Calvin     |1923-1929  |Believed the powers of the President should |
|Coolidge       |           |be very limited and that government should  |
|               |           |leave business alone. Took very little      |
|               |           |action but restored honesty and dignity to  |
|               |           |the presidency. Ranked by historians as     |
|               |           |"below average."                            |
|31. Herbert    |1929-1933  |Saw the country plunged into its worst      |
|Hoover         |           |financial depression and was unfairly blamed|
|               |           |for it. Tried to improve business, but his  |
|               |           |efforts were not enough. Ranked by          |
|               |           |historians as "average."                    |
|32. Franklin   |1933-1945  |Saw the United States through two grave     |
|Delano         |           |crises: the Great Depression of the 1930s   |
|Roosevelt      |           |and World War II. Promoted laws that changed|
|               |           |the course of American government. Ranked by|
|               |           |historians as a "great" President.          |
|33. Harry S.   |1945-1953  |Was faced by important decisions and made   |
|Truman         |           |most of them correctly. Established the     |
|               |           |Truman Doctrine by which the United States  |
|               |           |would help other nati-ons trying to stay    |
|               |           |free of Communist control. Worked for social|
|               |           |welfare and civil rights laws. Ranked by    |
|               |           |most historians as a "near great" President.|
|34. Dwight     |1953-1961  |Ended the war in Korea. Tried to lessen     |
|David          |           |troubles with the Soviet Union. Sent troops |
|Eisenhower     |           |to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce school |
|               |           |integration. Ranked by most historians as   |
|               |           |"average."                                  |
|35. John       |1961-1963  |Worked for equal rights for all citizens.   |
|Fitzgerald     |           |Established the Peace Corps. Forced the     |
|Kennedy        |           |Soviet Union to withdraw its missiles from  |
|               |           |Cuba                                        |
|36. Lyndon     |1961-1969  |Pushed more important laws through Congress |
|Baines Johnson |           |than any President since Franklin Roosevelt,|
|               |           |including civil rights and antipoverty      |
|               |           |measures. Tried unsuccessfully to make peace|
|               |           |in Vietnam                                  |
|37. Richard    |1969-1974  |Ended U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. |
|Milhous Nixon  |           |Opened relations with Communist China. His  |
|               |           |administration was caught in one of the     |
|               |           |worst political scandals in American        |
|               |           |history.                                    |
|38. Gerald     |1974-1977  |His fair and open administration helped to  |
|Rudolph Ford   |           |heal the wounds of Watergate. Improved      |
|               |           |relations with China. Was the first person  |
|               |           |to occupy the White House without having    |
|               |           |been elected either President or Vice       |
|               |           |President.                                  |
|39. Jimmy      |19771981  |Helped bring about a peace treaty between   |
|(James Earl)   |           |Israel and Egypt. Improved relations with   |
|Carter         |           |Latin America by giving control of the      |
|               |           |Panama Canal to Panama. Worked to improve   |
|               |           |human rights throughout the world.          |
|40. Ronald     |1981-1989  |Built up U. S. military power Worked to     |
|Wilson Reagan  |           |reduce inflation and led the fight to reduce|
|               |           |taxes. The national debt increased massively|
|               |           |during his administration. In his second    |
|               |           |term, he began arms-limitation talks with   |
|               |           |Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.            |
|41. George     |1989-1993  |His election marked the 200th anniversary of|
|Herbert Walker |           |the U. S. presidency. Presided during the   |
|Bush           |           |breakup of the Soviet Union and the fall of |
|               |           |Communist rule in Eastern Europe. In the    |
|               |           |Persian Gulf war, led a coalition of nations|
|               |           |in driving the Iraqi army out of Kuwait.    |
|42. Bill       |1993      |Won back many of the Democratic and         |
|(William       |           |independent voter" who supported Reagan     |
|Jefferson      |           |during the previous decade. The first       |
|Biythe) Clinton|           |President born after World War II, he took  |
|               |           |office in a time of transition. The Cold War|
|               |           |was over, and Americans were beginning to   |
|               |           |focus on problems at home, including the    |
|               |           |national debt and a sluggish economy.       |

          Excerpts from Inaugural Addresses of American Presidents

   Every four  years  when  the  new  President  of  the  United  States  is
introduced into his office, i. e. inaugurated, he takes the oath  of  office
and delivers a speech on the steps of the Capitol.

   The American Dream

   Let us, then, with courage and confidence  pursue  our  own  Federal  and
Republican  principles,  our  attachment   to   union   and   representative
government.  Kindly  separated  by  nature  and  a  wide  ocean   from   the
exterminating havoc of  one  quarter  of  the  globe;  possessing  a  chosen
country, with  room  enough  for  our  descendants  to  the  thousandth  and
thousandth generation; enlightened by a benign religion,  professed  indeed,
and practiced in various forms, yet all of them inculcating honesty,  truth,
temperance, gratitude and the love of  man;  acknowledging  and  adoring  an
overruling Providence,  which  by  all  its  dispensations  proves  that  it
delights in the happiness of man here and his greater happiness hereafter  -
with all these blessings, what more is necessary to  make  us  a  happy  and
prosperous people?
                                                      Thomas Jefferson, 1801

        The Unity of the Nation

   One section of our country believes slavery is  right  and  ought  to  be
extended, while the  other  believes  it  is  wrong  and  ought  not  to  be
extended. This is the only substantial dispute.
   My countrymen, one and  all,  think  calmly  and  well  upon  this  whole
subject. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time. Such  of  you  as  are
now dissatisfied still have the old Constitution  unimpaired,  and,  on  the
sensitive point, the laws of your  own  framing  under  it;  while  the  new
administration will have no immediate power, if it would, to change  either.
If it were admitted that you who are dissatisfied hold  the  right  side  in
the dispute, there still is no single good reason for precipitate action.
   In your hands, my dissatisfied country-fellowmen, and not in mine, is the
momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail  you.  You  can
have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while  I  shall
have the most solemn one "to preserve, protect, and defend it."
                                                       Abraham Lincoln, 1861

        Good Will and World Politics

  Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill,  that  we  shall
pay any price, bear any burden,  meet  any  hardship,  support  any  friend,
oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty.
  This much we pledge - and more.
  To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual  origins  we  share,  we
pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is  little  we  cannot
do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can  do  -
for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
  To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free,  we  pledge
our word that one form of  colonial  control  shall  not  have  passed  away
merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not
always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope  to
find them supporting their own freedom  and to remember that, in the  past,
those who foolishly sought power by riding on the back of  the  tiger  ended
up inside.
   To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling  to
break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our  best  efforts  to  help  them
help  themselves,  for  whatever  period  is  required  -  not  because  the
Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because  it
is right. If a free society cannot help the many who  are  poor,  it  cannot
save the few who are rich.
   Finally, to those nations who would make  themselves  our  adversary,  we
offer not a pledge, but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest  for
peace, before the dark powers of destruction  unleashed  by  science  engulf
all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.
                                                       John F. Kennedy. 1961

                               The literature

   1. English 17 1998  page 12
   2. English  48, page 1
   3. English 16 1996  page 2-3
   4. English 19 2000  page 14-15
   5.  . .   
   6.    , -, 1995
   7. SpeakOut 2000 6, page 2-3, 4-5

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