Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведений
Dialectics of national coloring in the translation.
Coloring and erasure of coloring.
Analogisms and anachronisms.
Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes
possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by
producing in the target language a text which has an identical
communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully
identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to
the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the
source language and target text.
National coloring of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now
it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many years the USSR’s
confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact with many
foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign books but
most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we had
not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. the same
case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety
of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result
of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works and they
had little information about national coloring of Russia. And now then USSR
does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform
its own literature and hence national coloring.
The author of this course paper considers that every literature work has
its own national coloring. Every work is written in the conditions of the
country where the author lives. Therefore the country with its language,
mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere and many other
factors influence on the work and it acquires the national coloring of the
country even if the author does not think of creating of any work that
would be nationally colored.
The author of this course paper considers the preservation of national
coloring to be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. National
coloring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation is proud
of its history; traditions and it would consider an offence if the
translator does not manage to convey the national coloring or if he conveys
it wrong. That is why the translator must be very attentive and careful
with any kind of literary work.
Dialectics of national coloring
in the translation.
Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national
problems, features and at the same time the problems common to all
mankind. Passing from one nation to another literature enriches and
extends the notion of peoples about each other.
It is one of the most difficult cases to convey national coloring. Owing
to the translation very important literary works were able to appear in
many other countries and became available for people speaking other
languages. The translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.
National coloring must be reflected adequately in the translation.
Dialectics of national coloring reveals itself specifically in different
fields of spiritual culture of people and thus in various types of
In the scientific and technique literature the national psychological
categories are less expressed. The contents of such translations is
valuable for all nations in spite of their national specific.
Thus, for example, concerning natural sciences Darwin's theory or
classic physics of Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have the
same meaning for all the countries and nations. The original texts of
natural-scientific works and their translations do not differ much from
this point of view.
Here there is another case in the field of social-political literature.
It is closely connected with the ideological society of the country with
its history and its historical specifics and it can never be separated
from country peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events
of its time and it is changed by the factors that reflect the notion
development. National peculiarities, problems and interests put impress
both on the contents and style of any author. In general the translation
of social-political literature is more similar with scientific
Comparing the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others we shall see
the specific of author's personality and country specific.
The national beginning of one or another country reflected in its
literature culture and in written culture that is especially interesting
for us from the translation point of view is the aggregate of
characteristic peculiarities and features that are specific for this
nation and the constant historical development of this nation.
It also has common to all mankind, international character to which
historical conditions give its own national coloring, its self-
expression. That is why we speak about national specific character that
was formed in the certain historical, social, geographic and other
conditions of this country. This specific character has enough concrete
expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen in
one or another nation form. There is national originality reflected in
the literature and other fields of social science and it has the more
significance the more it is rich in content, progressiveness,
brightness: other nations are enriched meeting with it discovering
something new, interesting, useful and important for them in this
The difficulties while translating are connected most of all with
conveyance of national character of one or another work: the brighter
it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic situations
the more difficult for the translator to find adequate functional
It will be enough to recollect the difficulties that the translator
faced with translating wonderful works of outstanding American writer
John Steinbeck. Steinbeck is not only a deeply national, original writer
but also a modern writer. His creative work could appear only in our
days. Many translators mark out originality of his feature world and
that is why the originality of his language and style and the specific
usage of popular speech and dialectisms. For example: It’s the grapes! –
Вот это жизнь! Got to blow town. – Mне пора сматываться из города.
Steinbeck often uses parallel literary words and its dialect synonyms.
For example: dish also translated into Russian as красотка, деваха, jazz
is translated as болтовня, брехня, болтология.Therefore, the translator
must determine national peculiarities of the contents and the form (that
is language peculiarities, melodies, rhyme and so on) and substitute
national figurative means (realias, poetic images) for others that are
equivalents to the firsts in their national determination to convey its
national contents. The task of the translator is to find and rail the
essence of national peculiarities and specific character. Correct
conveying of these nationality elements opens the way to reveal
internationality in the work. The popular speech, dialectisms, social
coloring, realias in Steinbeck’s works do not only total the basing of
his original stylistics but also express certain over-text or behind-the-
text peculiarities of his work, modern feelings system, the exclusive
rich fantasy, deep thoughts, piercing visible and spiritual words,
plastic gift and ability of transformation. All of these are united into
complete combination of original artistic picture of life together with
unique intellectual foreshortening of views on it. For example: Don’t
you have a silly bone in your body? - Неужели у вас нет ни капли юмора?
Therefore it is not possible to create only conveying realias, social
coloring and so on to display of national character while translating.
It can be got only if the translator is able to create the combination
of varied forms of national character in the creative work of one author
or another in his works. National coloring is not an appendix in the
work but it is one of its main parts that total the work structure.
Originality and specific character do not show that the work cannot be
translated but they show the creative character of the translation
process. World literature knows many examples when translators managed
to convey all the originality of works and these translations became
masterpieces as their originals. Originality, national coloring of the
work is not lost in the succeed translations and that is one of the main
principals of creative translation activity. National coloring like
everything in the world is in the constant movement. Here the
translation ‘s role is enriched with one positive moment. His task is to
carry this constantly changing stability to readers of other nations. It
is interesting that for some works this process lasts more than ten
years till the form is adopted and reconstructed.
Reconstruction of national coloring in the translation very often
depends on the prevailing methods used in different literary schools.
The volume of the translation is not underlining of national specifics
of origin text but it is the creation of its truly wholeness, finding of
adequate concrete form that is to help to show the unity of national and
common to all mankind coloring in the origin.
Translator must convey adequately the national character connected with
the real representation of life. It means that he must know social
conditions and nation development whose literature he translates, he
must know and understand the specific spiritual way of life, find
explanations of problems caused with peculiarities of this nation and
originality of his development. For example, the figure of Marullo in
John Steinbeck’s novel The winter of our discontent is a collective
figure of one of the representatives of Italian emigrant in America who
became rich in the period of 20-s years. Such figures were in many other
works of that period and like them Marullo is the bearer of common for
native Americans problems but at Steinbeck’s work this figure differs
with his national and artistic originality, caused by peculiarities of
American emigrants development at that period.
What does every translator imply and what kind of tasks are in front of
him? Why does he begin to translate works from another national
At first he must know and understand the individuality, unique of
figures. Every artistic figure is unique according to its nature and
irrespective of its national origin.
Secondly he must know and understand the essence of figures and ideas of
works of social class.
Thirdly he must take into account the national originality reflected in
the work: its plot, form, images, style, language etc.
Fourthly he must reveal international coloring of the work that is
significant for different countries, states and nations elements.
Fifthly he must reveal elements common to all mankind irrespective of
their belonging to any country, epoch, and nation.
National and international, folk and common to all mankind activities
are tightly connected with each other and perform the complicate
Translation is not only outward form of these mutual relations; it is
also dialectic unity of the national and international coloring of its
The point of the translation is a bridge between national and
international coloring. That is why its main function is the turning of
spiritual values of one nation into the property of other nations;
translation is transmission assisting to mutual penetration and
influence of national cultures. In our days we can be witnesses of the
powerful aspiration to mutual knowing, intellectual and spiritual
communication. Every nation culture goes out the limits of its own
country. Its relations with cultures of other nations development on
multilateral basis, they become more and more all embracing, acquiring
It is easy to note that major part of themes and problems in the
different national literature coincide. But treatment to these themes
and solutions of these problems are various and original in the works of
different cultures. For example the theme of Motherland in three poems
of A. Block, R. Burns and I. R. Beher.
Common to all mankind theme of Motherland these three poets express in
different ways: their lyrical characters express their feelings
differently and have different notions of Motherland. Ideal of
Motherland in these poets' minds was formed in the different nations and
spiritual environment. Originality of their attitude and artistic
representation, originality of expressive means are the result of
environment and other factors.
For Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is the most desirable
dream, hope that it will be the place of his last rest. In his poem
Russia embodies its beautiful nature; for Robert Burns Motherland is
associated with the figure of the mother's sadness missing her sons who
fight for the freedom and will never come back; in Beher's poem we do
not hear cry but anger and appeal to revenge for the outraged and
ashamed Motherland. Grief, ache, anger and love are lyrical moods common
to these three poets.
But for this specific feature in the expression of common to all people
feeling of love to Motherland these poems would lose their concrete
International character in spiritual literature does not exist
abstractly; in every national culture it acquires concrete forms. It is
this dialect that must become ruling principle in the translating
activity. The translator must convey truly both components on this unity
keeping in his mind the frequent absence of confines between national
and international coloring because they interlace with each other.
The translator only conventionally finds and marks out national, social,
individual, international, common to all mankind coloring.
They cannot be separated in any artistic work. Their separating leads to
the art destroying. if the translator does not manage to convey this
floating it means that he has not able to create high-quality authentic
Coloring and erasure of coloring.
The notion of coloring appeared in the literary criticism terminology
and meant a special quality of literary work, speech characteristic of
personage, a special emotional or linguistic look of separate literary
work or an writer’s works, that is all peculiarities and originalities.
Coloring of a word shows its belonging to a certain people, country,
concrete historical epoch.
National (local) and historical coloring of realia is a new additional
meaning to its main signification. A.S. Pushkin uses realias евнух,
гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет in Bahchisaray’s fountain; their specific
coloring gives an oriental coloring to the poem. According to
dictionaries щербет is an oriental fruit soft drink and it differs from
lemonade by its regional belonging and it is considered as a coloring.
This neutral word turns into realia owing to relation with this region.
But if an inhabitant of this region who works in the West faces with this
word it gives him an association connected with his motherland, his
recollections and feelings.
It makes us consider coloring a part of connotative meaning of a realia.
It is appropriate to compare realias – words with specific national and
historical coloring – connotative lexis – with words deprived of such
coloring. We may use two words – bird cherry and rook. They are only
details of nature: bird cherry is a tree that grows in Northern America,
Europe and Asia; and rook is specie of birds from crown family. These
words are not realias because of their wide-spreadness and they are not
connected with people or country. However associations connected with
bird cherry (the height of spring) and rook (expectation of spring) make
a heart of Russian man quicken. He connects their connotatively with
realia not turning them into realia.
Another example touches up some difficulties translating of the title of
famous Russian film Летят журавли into the French language: the French
word grue also means silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.
So they had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.
In these examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have full
and significant equivalents.
“Inconvenient” word is often substituted for its functional analogies.
Foe example, bird cherry can be substituted for early blooming tree or
bush – for England it can be substituted for plum or cherry-tree or even
for lilac; instead of rook they can use any convenient bird. The main
idea is to evoke a reader of translated text the same associations that
has a reader of origin text.
The transmission of connotative word by means of devices that are
characteristic feature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an
undesirable results: a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.
Classifying the realia we noted that realias were allocated according to
their place or/and time. It is often happens that realia that means the
same or close material notions can be from different places and
historical rubric: that is, they differ from each other according to
connotative meaning, coloring. For example, supreme organ is called seim
in Poland, Supreme Court in Russia, cortes in Spain and Portugal, Public
Meeting in Bulgaria, bundestag in Germany, rikstaf in Swiss, storting in
Norway, folketing in Denmark, knesset in Israel. All these words mean
Parliament and they do not differ much from each other but their
traditional names represent characteristic national realia. Each of them
has its own features that belong only to it. However, but for these
distinctions, national and historical coloring would not allow
substitution for another word in translation. Such substitution would
destroy all coloring, to be more exact; it would lead to anachronisms and
analogisms that can destroy the harmony, so called truth of life.
It is clearly seen when such close in meaning word like хайдутин and
клефт are compared. Both of them mean peasant-partisans who fought
against Turkish ruling; both of them mainly attacked local Turkish
feudalists and representatives of Turkish Administration, and also their
landowners who called them “thieves” or “bandits”; both of them acted in
the same historical epoch (the time of Osman Dominion on the Balkans).
These dates about клефт are related with хайдутин; the only difference is
that хайдутин is Bulgarian and клефт is Greek. But it is enough to be
impossible to translate хайдутин as клефт.
Connotations and coloring are part of meaning that means they can be
translated equal with semantic content of a word. If a translator managed
to convey only a semantic lexical unit the translated text lost its
coloring for the reader.
But there are cases when connotation of a realia dies down, erasures.
Such erasure logically leads to the turning of realia into common,
To distinguish this phenomenon from loss of coloring in a translation we
use a term “erasure” of coloring or connotation (erased reality).
Some exotic words can be adopted by language and lose their exotic
To lose its status realia must lose quality that differs it from a common
word, that is loss of coloring. Here are some examples.
1. It will take much time to turn proper realia such as Russian пирожок
into national uncolored, neutral word entered in the kitchens and
languages of many countries and to make people forget its strange origin.
Related to a strange realia it will also take much time to adopt it into
a language. It can turn into usual borrowing in the result of intensive
usage of this object in private life depriving it both original national
coloring and a kind of alliance.
It seems that international and regional realias are to lose their status
of realia at first owing to their wide-spreadness. Many international
realias go around the world without losing their national originality.
For example, the names of money. There is another case with regional
realias. Their national coloring is almost equal to national but it is
limited by its regional belonging. For example, “the eastern coloring” is
close to Syrian, Turkish and Egyptian etc. All above-mentioned regarding
to proper realias is equal for national and regional realias.
2. These are the general considerations about coloring erasure or color
keeping that depends on peoples and countries. But there are positions
where color erasure depends on proper realia and its function in speech.
Often the realias can have an extended meaning in the context.
3. Sometimes a realia can be used in a text not in the direct but in the
figurative meaning. For example щербет can be used in Bulgarian language
as an adjective in the meaning of something oversweet and it is almost
similar with Russian сироп.
In general we may say about realia using in the figurative meaning in all
cases of their usage as tropes, metaphor and comparison. When an author
says about mushroom’s cap “about two kopecks size” he does not mean a
kopeck as a kind of money but only its two signs: its size and its round
form, so the kopeck here has only word cover.
For example, when an author describes land that is flat like a pan-cake
he takes only one characteristics of a pan-cake: its flatness and plane
and Russian reader even does not think about pan-cake as a food but it is
only an image that author promoted with the help of trope.
The same with “stone jungles” and “cowboys of cold war” etc.
Some adjectives derived from mentioned realias can be literary
comparisons and metaphors. Using such words as богатырский, стопудовый,
аршинный, саженный at first we look at their figurative meaning, certain
signs but not on their sign as a realia: for example, пудовый means very
heavy, грошовый means very unimportant, cheap.
4. Among these examples there were phraseological units and set
expressions as well, where realias lose their status more often than in
the mentioned cases.
In these four cases realias are to lose their coloring that is the status
of ralia is to turn into common language unit. However, if we look more
attentively we shall see that a total erasure is not possible. If it
happens it will be an exception.
For example, macaroni (international realia) and tyubeteyka (regional
realia). Macaroni, also spaghetti entered in the languages by way of
transcription. These words appeared in the languages having kept the
meaning of national Italian dish. The best example is Italian scornful
nickname baked macaroni pudding. Tyubeteyka also did not lose its
oriental coloring in spite of its wide-spreadness in the USSR and even on
Gorky’s and Kuprin’s heads reminds East.
One should take into account all above-mentioned choosing a translation
style in these cases.
The transcription is usual way of translation of such words. Ruble,
macaroni, tyubeteyka keep their form after translation.
Another case when realia is wrong used or when it is a part of
phraseologism. Right translation is stipulated with finding the most
concordant and equivalent words that is usually deprived of coloring in
the translation as a usual lexical unit. For example, вершок in
Goncharov’s story is translated into the English language as a miserable
part. Дюйм translated from English inch is a realia but it also may have
an extended meaning.
Realia preservation in trope function (comparison, juxtaposition,
metaphor etc.) could mean the volume definition of one thing unknown by
author. If, for example, an English faces with two kopecks coin with the
help of that we define a size of mushroom cap in Russian translation he
would never know the mushroom size. Here a realia almost totally lost its
natural coloring: in one language a reader almost does not understand its
meaning, seeing only the given quality indicator. Transcription is
possible in two languages only as an exception, for example,
international realia that indicator is known in both languages. But it is
easier to translate a realia as a neutral function equivalent because in
the original text realia is used without connotative meaning.
But even in the third and fourth positions realia is kept. For example,
translating comparison we usually substitute a strange realia for ours:
it is not always convenient to use such phrases as как блин. The same is
with a realia that forms phraseologism.
In conclusion one should notice that translating a realia in one or
another means it is wanted to lose a trope and accordingly phraseologism.
Trope should be transferred by tropes, phraseologism by phraseologism;
only “fulling” will differ from origin one.
5. There are many cases of realia translation in the comparison when the
realia not only loses its coloring but also receives excessive
connotation and they are wide-spread. An author compares the contents of
strange realia with his own realia. And in a translation one notion is
happened to be denoted with the two realias: internal and external. What
should a translator do to convey the content of realia without coloring
There are some theoretical variants.
At first a translator should transcribe each separate realia. For
example, we can face with such translation from the Czech language: “In
the evening a young teacher couple … invited us for barbecue. It reminded
us our evening by the camp fire where we did not do shpekachkis.” These
two words: barbecue and shpekachkis are explanations of one unknown word
At second place a translator can substitute an internal realia for his
proper realia. For example, he should substitute shpekachkis - for a
regional realia – Caucasus shashlik. As a result a reader would be able
to get more clear notion about Australian dish (barbecue is a Haitian
word that was taken by the English language from Spanish and then was
borrowed by Australian). But a reader would be astonished hearing from
Czech about “evenings with shashlik”. Theoretically this variant is more
vicious because it leads to mixture of different realias that belong to
The third possibility is to refuse transcription of both realias and to
convey their contents with the help of descriptive translation that
approximately can sound so: “… in the evening we were invited for a
picnic that reminded us our evenings by a camp fire and we ate meat
grilled on a spit.” But this translation deprives the text of Australian
And, at last, the fourth variant consists in transcription of external
realia and conveying internal realia with its functional equivalent. And
we shall have the next sentence: “In the evening … a young teacher pair
invited us for barbecue. It reminded us our evenings by camp fire when we
ate meat grilled on a spit.”
The last variant is considered to be more successful because the
translation is true and the translator managed to keep coloring having
transcribed main realia.
In Margaret Aliger’s notes “Chilean summer” we face with more difficult
case: “… it is possible to eat here, one woman bakes pies – empanados.
Empanados is something similar with chebureks, they are very hot, tasty
and big.” Here we have three realias: the main external Spanish -
empanados that is explained as Russian national pies and one regional
Caucasus – chebureks. In the translation one should keep the main realia
because it stands in the center of the author’s attention and other
realias should be substituted for neutral.
Analogisms and anachronisms.
Let’s suggest that a translator working at a novel about Indian life
decides to use only means of his own language, without admitting strange
realias and he substitutes pagoda for temple, sari for dress or national
suit, akhoby he substitutes for man-launder, etc. As a result of such
national coloring extermination specific Indian features of the novel
will vanish: it will be possible to consider any place as a place of act
or this place is neutral, uncolored, nameless country. This method leads
to coloring losing that spoils very much any translation. The mark of
this translation is bad.
But it is worse when a translator substitutes origin realias for realias
from his own language. Doing it he also substitutes coloring of the
translated work for a strange coloring. If we wear a Kazak in Bulgarian
aba or anteria, tsarvulis, iamurluk, if we make him drink a wine from
buklista and to eat banitsa, a reader will recognize a Sofian shope but
not a Kazak.
And it will be the worst translation when a translator conveys original
means of motley words of different coloring and when a mixture of realias
takes place. For example, translated into Russia novel For Freedom by St.
Dichev. A redactor substitutes Bulgarian, Turkish, Greek and other
realias for regional and national realias of Soviet Union. Historical
realias he substitutes for modern words. Therefore Bulgarian gadulka was
turned into Ukraine bandura, gamurluk was turned into Caucasus burka,
pastarma was described as dried meat and Bulgarian banitsa was conveyed
as Russian pie. Several historical notions closely tied up with Bulgarian
culture have totally lost their national content. As a result of such
vicious attitude to the realias translation a reader gets unclear,
contradictory notions about described reality; the novel loses its
cognitive meaning and bright national coloring and considerable part of
its literary merits. Here we speak about distortion of original images in
the result of substitution of national and historical realias for not
characteristic to it realias, in other words, about leading to analogisms
and anachronisms in a text. Analogisms and anachronisms are realias that
do not correspond to local and time surrounding of origin text.
For example, we face with the word guillotine in the Bulgarian
translation of Sheakspear’s work: “Essex slowly mounted the guillotine.”
The mistake is not very grave from temporal point of view. There already
existed the machine for execution in XVI – XVII centuries in Italy and
Scotland and also in France where Duke de Monmorancy was beheaded with
the help of such machine. The mistake is that famous doctor Josef Ignak
Giyoten invented his machine that got his name only 200 years later. Here
we see the translator’s history unknowing. Of course, the word scaffold
should be used there. We can see it from the context: “ He slowly
mounted…” One can never mount the guillotine but only scaffold.
The reason of such mistakes regarding national and historical coloring is
connected with author’s or translator’s personality, his unknowing of
real facts and historical situation and sometimes their unknowing of some
principal positions of theory translation, for example, about bad results
of strange realia substitution for a realia from translator’s native
In 1827 Goethe wrote that translating labor was and remains one of the
most important and worthy matters connecting the entire universe
together. These words characterize translator as creative person who
carries works beyond the limits of one national culture and who serves
to people giving these fruits of this culture, created in new language
form or vice versa, including achievements of other nations in his
national science and culture. It is one of the evidences of the huge
human role of translation in the history of human civilization.
Every national culture solving its problems carries its contribution in
treasuring house of literature creating something that belongs only to
it, has significance for all nations and proves that there are not small
or big nations or inferior languages.
Extending of national culture confines with the help of translation has
a great positive and enriching influence on the language. It is true
that together with the translation many new ideas, discoveries, notions
and so on penetrate in the language and it leads to the appearance of
new language elements and figurative meanings. This fact is very
important while translating from literary language that is not fully
developed. Therefore the literary language enriches figurative
possibilities, national culture, and spiritual development of this
nation. Creative beginning of translation is premise of creative
attitude to native language, its source of faith in its possibilities
and beauty. Concerning this point the translator also has another task
to defend his native speech from borrowings-parasites that clog and make
it ugly, from strange forms that artificially could crowd out its own
The task and mission of the translator especially the translator of
feature literature is defense of the riches and beauty of the native
language, its unlimited abilities to convey all that is kept in the
greatest masterpieces of world literature.
Translated literature can also be the indicator of condition, degree of
development of national language. Poetical translation of Shakespeare’s
works by Boris Pasternak that are very rich, refined and expressive in
language might not appear if Russian language of his time remained on
the same level of development. In this case concrete condition of our
national language at the times of B. Pasternak can be put as condition
and factor of development of poetical and translating talent and vice
versa Pasternak's works are great contribution in the development of
The level of translated literature, the quality of translation also
assists to the development of national beginning in the literature of
"National beginning of literature, - I. R. Beher wrote, - is defined
with the fact of preservation, proceeding and creative development of
other literatures. The choice of elements that adopt it from literature
of other nations shows its own character and is judged if its indeed
national originality no."
1. Влахов С., Флорин С. Непереводимое в переводе. Реалии.
"Министерство Перевода". Сборник статей. 1969. М., "Советский писатель",
2. Лилова А. Введение в общую теорию перевода. "Высшая школа" М., 1985.
3. Бархударов Я. С., Рецкер Я. И. Курс лекций по теории перевода. М., Изд-
во I МГПИПЯ, 1968.
4. Комиссаров В. Н. Слово о переводе. М., "Международные отношнния". 1973.
5. Комиссаров В., Рецкер Я., Тархов В. Пособие по переводу с английского
языка на русский. Часть I М., Изд-во литературы на иностранных языках,
1960; Часть II М., "Высшая школа", 1965.
6. Левицкая Т.Р., Фитермян А. М. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на
русский. М., "Высшая школа", 1973.
7. Толстой С.С, Основы перевода английского языка на русский, М., 2957.
8. Фёдоров А.В. Русские писатели и проблемы перевода. Л., 1960.
9. Левик В. "Мастерство перевода", М., 1959.
10. Гачечиладзе Т. Художественный перевод и литературные взаимосвязи. М.,
"Советский писатель", 1972.
11. Бархударов Л. С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975.
12. Комиссаров В. Н. Теория перевода. М., "Высшая школа", 1990.
13. Фёдоров А. В. Основы общей теории перевода. – М., 1983.
14. Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода. – М., 1988.
15. Латышев Л.К. Курс перевода (эквивалентность перевода и способы её
достижения). – М., 1981.
In the appendix the author of this course paper analyses the preservation
of national coloring in the English novel written by Jane Austen Price and
Prejudice translated into Russian and stories Chameleon and Yonich written
by Anton Chekhov translaten into English. These both books are not the best
example swhere the national colorin gexists. But it is possible to judge
about the preservation of national coloring even basing on these books.
The preservation of English national coloring will be given at first.
1. ‘He came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was
so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr Morris immediately;
that he is to take possession before Michaelmas, and some of his
servants are to be in the house by the end of next week.’
В понедельник он приезжал туда в карете, запряжённой четвёркой
лошадей, осмотрел поместье и пришёл в такой восторг, что тут же
условился обо всём с мистером Моррисом. Он приезжает к михайлову дню,
и уже в конце будущей недели туда приедет кое-кто из его прислуги.
Here the English word Michaelmas means 29 September the feast of St.
Michael and corresponds to “михайлов день” in Russian with only one
difference that “михайлов день” is celebrated later in Russia because
of difference in the calendars. It is possible to say that the
national coloring is preserved because in English and Russian text
there was not said the date but the name of the feast.
2. The ladies were somewhat more fortunate, for they had the
advantage of ascertaining from an upper window, that
he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse.
Дамы были несколько удачливей его: им посчастливилось увидеть
из верхнего окна, что на нём был синий сюртук и что он приехал на
Here the English word coat means outer garment with sleeves, buttoned
in the front and corresponds to the Russian word сюртук that is also
outer garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front and in Russian it
has long laps. It is possible for the Russian reader to imagine what
kind of garment Mr. Bingley wore.
3. Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had
made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood by an
address to the King , during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался торговлей в Меритоне, где
приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета, благодаря
специальному обращению к королю, когда он был мэром там.
Here the English word mayoralty preserved its meaning and even
form in the Russian translation. In the Russian language the word мэр
does not exist that is why the translator used this word. But the
author of this course paper considers that the Russian word мэр should
be explained in Russian translation because only a few people of 19-th
century could know the exact meaning of the word мэр.
4. I flatter myself that my present overtures of good will are
Commendable, and that the circumstance of my being next in the
entail of Longborn estate, will be kindly overlooked on your side, and
not lead you to reject the offered olive branch.
По этой причине я льщу себя надеждой, что вы благожелательно
отнесётесь к моему настоящему изъявлению доброй воли и не отвергнете
протянутую мной оливковую ветвь.
Here the phrase olive branch in English corresponds to Russian phrase
оливковая ветвь because in both languages this phrase means the symbol
5. ‘Pray, my dear aunt, what is the difference in matrimonial
affairs, between the mercenary and the prudent motive?’
- Но, тётя, разве можно в матримониальных делах найти точную грань между
расчётливостью и благоразумием?
Here the English phrase matrimonial affairs fully correspond to the
Russian phrase матримониальные дела because the word matrimonial has
Latin origin. Therefore it is possible to say about preservation of
coloring in spite of its Latin origin.
6. It was two ladies stopping in a low phaeton at the garden
Они увидели двух дам, сидевших в низеньком фаэтоне, который
остановился у садовой калитки.
Here the English word phaeton corresponds to the Russian word фаэтон in
the meaning and form as well. In English and Russian phaeton means a
vessel for noble people.
Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze the non-
preservation of national coloring.
1. Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where
he had made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood
by an address to the King , during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался торговлей в Меритоне, где
приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета, благодаря
специальному обращению к королю.
Here the honor of knighthood was translated into Russian as титул
баронета. The translator managed to reveal for Russian reader what the
honor of knighthood meant but the national coloring of the phrase was
2. ‘Yes; these four evenings have enabled them to ascertain that
they both like Ving-un better than Commerce.
-Да, эти четыре вечера позволили им установить, что оба они игру в
«двадцать одно» предпочитают игре в покер.
3. Then, turning to Mr Bennet, he offered himself as his antagonist at
И, повернувшись к мистеру Беннету, он предложил ему сыграть партию в
Here the national coloring of English games does not
preserved because in the Russian translation they are only
substituted for their Russian equivalents.
4. About a month ago I received this letter.
Около месяца назад я получил вот эту эпистолу.
Here the English word letter has not national coloring but in
the Russian translation it has historical coloring that is used
to convey the formality of this letter.
Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze the preservation
of national coloring of Russian book by Anton Chechov translated into
English. Here two of his stories Chameleon and Yonich are analyzed.
The author of this course paper took some examples to show where the
national coloring is preserved and where it is not preserved. At first you
will see the examples where the national coloring is preserved.
1. Очумелов пересёк базарную площадь.
Ochumelov crossed the market-place.
2. В этом человеке он узнал Хрюкина.
He recognized in this individual Khryukin.
Here the Russian surnames Ochumelov and Khryukin preserved their
national coloring owing to footnotes in the English translation.
3. Доктор Старцев был назначен земским врачом.
Doctor Startsev was appointed Zemstvo medical officer.
Here the Russian word земский врач preserved its national coloring
but the author of this course paper thinks that the translator should
add a footnote with the explanation of this word.
4. Зато он охотно играл в винт.
But he played vint.
Here the national Russian game preserved its national coloring in the
Now the author of this course paper analyses the non-preservation of
1. За ним шагает городовой с решетом.
After him constable carried a sieve.
Here the Russian rank городовой does not preserve its national
coloring in the English translation because городовой is lower rank
in the city police in tsarist Russia and English constable is only a
2. Я ему покажу Кузькину мать!
I’ll show him what’s what!
Here the non-preservation of Russian coloring is clearly seen. The
phrase показать Кузькину мать is very often used in the Russian
language even now.
3. Сердиться, шельма…
The little rascal’s angry.
Here the Russian word шельма is translated as little rascal. Шельма
in Russian means rascal but in English even using word little the
coloring is not completely conveyed because here Chekhov uses this
word to show Ochumelov’s tenderness towards this dog and he does not
4. Он цигаркой ей в харю…
He burned the end of his nose with lifted cigarette.
Here the Russian word цигарка is translated into English as lifted
cigarette. Yes, цигарка is lifted cigarette but in the English
translation the Russian historical and national coloring of this word
is lost because now, for example, the word цигарка is not used any
more but it is quite understandable for Russoan reader.
5. Цуцик этакий!
What a pup!
Pup in English is only a small little dog but in Russian цуцик
besides these meaning also has a meaning of a person who feels cold
and is affreid. So it is clearly seen that the national coloring was
6. В губернском городе.
In a town.
Here is clearly seen the absence of the word губернский so the
national coloring is not preserved and the author of this course
paper thinks that the translator should explain the meaning of the
7. С полверсты он прошёл пешком.
The last part he went on foot.
Here the Russian measure of length верста is not translated at
all. The author of this course paper thinks that the translator
should use this word in the English translation and give its meaning
in the footnote.