Иностранные языки

Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведений



                                    Plan.



Introduction.
             P.3

Chapter I
Dialectics     of     national     coloring     in     the      translation.
P.5

Chapter II
Coloring           and            erasure            of            coloring.
 P.13

Chapter III
Analogisms                         and                         anachronisms.
P.22

Conclusion.
             P.24

Bibliography.
             P.26

Appendix.
              P.28



                                INTRODUCTION.



Translation is a mean of interlingual communication.  The  translator  makes
possible an exchange of information between users of different languages  by
producing  in  the  target  language  a  text   which   has   an   identical
communicative value with the source text. This  target  text  is  not  fully
identical with the source text as to its form  originality  content  due  to
the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences  between  the
source language and target text.

National coloring of the work is one of examples of these  differences.  Now
it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many  years  the  USSR’s
confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact  with  many
foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number  of  foreign  books  but
most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we  had
not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries.  the  same
case was in the foreign countries when they could not get  all  the  variety
of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The  result
of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works  and  they
had little information about national coloring of Russia. And now then  USSR
does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can  perform
its own literature and hence national coloring.

The author of this course paper considers that  every  literature  work  has
its own national coloring. Every work is written in the  conditions  of  the
country where the author lives. Therefore the  country  with  its  language,
mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere  and  many  other
factors influence on the work and it acquires the national coloring  of  the
country even if the author does not think  of  creating  of  any  work  that
would be nationally colored.

The author of this course  paper  considers  the  preservation  of  national
coloring to be one of the most  difficult  tasks  for  translator.  National
coloring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation  is  proud
of its  history;  traditions  and  it  would  consider  an  offence  if  the
translator does not manage to convey the national coloring or if he  conveys
it wrong. That is why the translator must  be  very  attentive  and  careful
with any kind of literary work.



                       Dialectics of national coloring

                             in the translation.

   Any literary work appears on  the  national  ground,  reflects  national
   problems, features and at the same  time  the  problems  common  to  all
   mankind. Passing from one nation  to  another  literature  enriches  and
   extends the notion of peoples about each other.

   It is one of the most difficult cases to convey national coloring. Owing
   to the translation very important literary works were able to appear  in
   many other countries and became  available  for  people  speaking  other
   languages. The translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.

   National coloring must be reflected adequately in the translation.

   Dialectics of national coloring reveals itself specifically in different
   fields of spiritual culture of people  and  thus  in  various  types  of
   translation.

   In the scientific and technique literature  the  national  psychological
   categories are less expressed. The  contents  of  such  translations  is
   valuable for all nations in spite of their national specific.

   Thus, for  example,  concerning  natural  sciences  Darwin's  theory  or
   classic physics of Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have the
   same meaning for all the countries and nations. The  original  texts  of
   natural-scientific works and their translations do not differ much  from
   this point of view.

   Here there is another case in the field of social-political  literature.
   It is closely connected with the ideological society of the country with
   its history and its historical specifics and it can never  be  separated
   from country peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events
   of its time and it is changed by the factors  that  reflect  the  notion
   development. National peculiarities, problems and interests put  impress
   both on the contents and style of any author. In general the translation
   of  social-political  literature  is  more   similar   with   scientific
   literature.

   Comparing the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others we  shall  see
   the specific of author's  personality and country specific.

   The national beginning  of one  or  another  country  reflected  in  its
   literature culture and in written culture that is especially interesting
   for  us  from  the  translation  point  of  view  is  the  aggregate  of
   characteristic peculiarities and features that  are  specific  for  this
   nation and the constant historical development of this nation.

   It also has common to all  mankind,  international  character  to  which
   historical  conditions  give  its  own  national  coloring,  its   self-
   expression. That is why we speak about national specific character  that
   was formed in the  certain  historical,  social,  geographic  and  other
   conditions of this country. This specific character has enough  concrete
   expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen  in
   one or another nation form. There is national originality  reflected  in
   the literature and other fields of social science and it  has  the  more
   significance  the  more  it  is  rich   in   content,   progressiveness,
   brightness: other nations  are  enriched  meeting  with  it  discovering
   something new, interesting,  useful  and  important  for  them  in  this
   specific character.

   The difficulties while  translating  are  connected  most  of  all  with
   conveyance of national character    of one or another work: the brighter
   it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic  situations
   the more difficult  for  the  translator  to  find  adequate  functional
   figurative means.

   It will be enough to recollect  the  difficulties  that  the  translator
   faced with translating wonderful works of  outstanding  American  writer
   John Steinbeck. Steinbeck is not only a deeply national, original writer
   but also a modern writer. His creative work could  appear  only  in  our
   days. Many translators mark out originality of  his  feature  world  and
   that is why the originality of his language and style and  the  specific
   usage of popular speech and dialectisms. For example: It’s the grapes! –
   Вот это жизнь! Got to blow town.  –  Mне  пора  сматываться  из  города.
   Steinbeck often uses parallel literary words and its  dialect  synonyms.
   For example: dish also translated into Russian as красотка, деваха, jazz
   is translated as болтовня, брехня, болтология.Therefore, the  translator
   must determine national peculiarities of the contents and the form (that
   is language peculiarities, melodies, rhyme and  so  on)  and  substitute
   national figurative means (realias, poetic images) for others  that  are
   equivalents to the firsts in their national determination to convey  its
   national contents. The task of the translator is to find  and  rail  the
   essence  of  national  peculiarities  and  specific  character.  Correct
   conveying  of  these  nationality  elements  opens  the  way  to  reveal
   internationality in the work. The popular  speech,  dialectisms,  social
   coloring, realias in Steinbeck’s works do not only total the  basing  of
   his original stylistics but also express certain over-text or behind-the-
   text peculiarities of his work, modern feelings  system,  the  exclusive
   rich fantasy, deep  thoughts,  piercing  visible  and  spiritual  words,
   plastic gift and ability of transformation. All of these are united into
   complete combination of original artistic picture of life together  with
   unique intellectual foreshortening of views on it.  For  example:  Don’t
   you have a silly bone in your body? -  Неужели у вас нет ни капли юмора?


    Therefore it is not possible to create only conveying  realias,  social
   coloring and so on to display of national character  while  translating.
   It can be got only if the translator is able to create  the  combination
   of varied forms of national character in the creative work of one author
   or another in his works. National coloring is not  an  appendix  in  the
   work but it is one of its main parts that total the work structure.

   Originality and specific character do not show that the work  cannot  be
   translated but they show  the  creative  character  of  the  translation
   process. World literature knows many examples when  translators  managed
   to convey all the originality of works  and  these  translations  became
   masterpieces as their originals. Originality, national coloring  of  the
   work is not lost in the succeed translations and that is one of the main
   principals of creative  translation  activity.  National  coloring  like
   everything  in  the  world  is  in  the  constant  movement.  Here   the
   translation ‘s role is enriched with one positive moment. His task is to
   carry this constantly changing stability to readers of other nations. It
   is interesting that for some works this  process  lasts  more  than  ten
   years till the form is adopted and reconstructed.

   Reconstruction of  national  coloring  in  the  translation  very  often
   depends on the prevailing methods used in different literary schools.

   The volume of the translation is not underlining of  national  specifics
   of origin text but it is the creation of its truly wholeness, finding of
   adequate concrete form that is to help to show the unity of national and
   common to all mankind coloring in the origin.

   Translator must convey adequately the national character connected  with
   the real representation of life. It  means  that  he  must  know  social
   conditions and nation development whose  literature  he  translates,  he
   must know and understand  the  specific  spiritual  way  of  life,  find
   explanations of problems caused with peculiarities of  this  nation  and
   originality of his development. For example, the figure  of  Marullo  in
   John Steinbeck’s novel The winter of  our  discontent  is  a  collective
   figure of one of the representatives of Italian emigrant in America  who
   became rich in the period of 20-s years. Such figures were in many other
   works of that period and like them Marullo is the bearer of  common  for
   native Americans problems but at Steinbeck’s work  this  figure  differs
   with his national and artistic originality, caused by  peculiarities  of
   American emigrants development at that period.

   What does every translator imply and what kind of tasks are in front  of
   him? Why  does  he  begin  to  translate  works  from  another  national
   literature?

   At first he must  know  and  understand  the  individuality,  unique  of
   figures. Every artistic figure is unique according  to  its  nature  and
   irrespective of its national origin.

   Secondly he must know and understand the essence of figures and ideas of
   works of social class.

   Thirdly he must take into account the national originality reflected  in
   the work: its plot, form, images, style, language etc.

   Fourthly he must reveal international  coloring  of  the  work  that  is
   significant for different countries, states and nations elements.

   Fifthly he must reveal elements common to all  mankind  irrespective  of
   their belonging to any country, epoch, and nation.

   National and international, folk and common to  all  mankind  activities
   are tightly  connected  with  each  other  and  perform  the  complicate
   dialectic unity.

   Translation is not only outward form of these mutual  relations;  it  is
   also dialectic unity of the national and international coloring  of  its
   essence.

   The  point  of  the  translation  is  a  bridge  between  national   and
   international coloring. That is why its main function is the turning  of
   spiritual values of one nation  into  the  property  of  other  nations;
   translation  is  transmission  assisting  to  mutual   penetration   and
   influence of national cultures. In our days we can be witnesses  of  the
   powerful  aspiration  to  mutual  knowing,  intellectual  and  spiritual
   communication. Every nation culture goes  out  the  limits  of  its  own
   country. Its relations with cultures of  other  nations  development  on
   multilateral basis, they become more and more all  embracing,  acquiring
   bigger significance.

   It is easy to note that  major  part  of  themes  and  problems  in  the
   different national literature coincide. But treatment  to  these  themes
   and solutions of these problems are various and original in the works of
   different cultures. For example the theme of Motherland in  three  poems
   of A. Block, R. Burns and I. R. Beher.

   Common to all mankind theme of Motherland these three poets  express  in
   different  ways:  their  lyrical  characters  express   their   feelings
   differently  and  have  different  notions  of  Motherland.   Ideal   of
   Motherland in these poets' minds was formed in the different nations and
   spiritual  environment.  Originality  of  their  attitude  and  artistic
   representation, originality  of  expressive  means  are  the  result  of
   environment and other factors.

   For Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is  the  most  desirable
   dream, hope that it will be the place of his  last  rest.  In  his  poem
   Russia embodies its beautiful nature; for  Robert  Burns  Motherland  is
   associated with the figure of  the mother's sadness missing her sons who
   fight for the freedom and will never come back; in Beher's  poem  we  do
   not hear cry but anger and  appeal  to  revenge  for  the  outraged  and
   ashamed Motherland. Grief, ache, anger and love are lyrical moods common
   to  these three poets.

   But for this specific feature in the expression of common to all  people
   feeling of love to Motherland these  poems  would  lose  their  concrete
   character.

   International  character  in  spiritual  literature   does   not   exist
   abstractly; in every national culture it acquires concrete forms. It  is
   this dialect that  must  become  ruling  principle  in  the  translating
   activity. The translator must convey truly both components on this unity
   keeping in his mind the frequent absence of  confines  between  national
   and international coloring because they interlace with each other.

   The translator only conventionally finds and marks out national, social,
   individual, international, common to all mankind coloring.
   They cannot be separated in any artistic work. Their separating leads to
   the art destroying. if the translator does not  manage  to  convey  this
   floating it means that he has not able to create high-quality  authentic
   translation.



                      Coloring and erasure of coloring.

      The notion of coloring appeared in the literary criticism  terminology
   and meant a special quality of literary work, speech  characteristic  of
   personage, a special emotional or linguistic look of  separate  literary
   work or an writer’s works, that is all peculiarities and  originalities.
   Coloring of a word shows its belonging to  a  certain  people,  country,
   concrete historical epoch.

   National (local) and historical coloring of realia is  a  new  additional
   meaning to its main  signification.  A.S.  Pushkin  uses  realias  евнух,
   гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет  in  Bahchisaray’s  fountain;  their  specific
   coloring  gives  an  oriental  coloring  to  the   poem.   According   to
   dictionaries щербет is an oriental fruit soft drink and it  differs  from
   lemonade by its regional belonging and it is considered  as  a  coloring.
   This neutral word turns into realia owing to relation with  this  region.
   But if an inhabitant of this region who works in the West faces with this
   word it gives him an  association  connected  with  his  motherland,  his
   recollections and feelings.

   It makes us consider coloring a part of connotative meaning of a realia.

  It is appropriate to compare realias – words with specific  national  and
  historical coloring – connotative lexis – with  words  deprived  of  such
  coloring. We may use two words – bird cherry  and  rook.  They  are  only
  details of nature: bird cherry is a tree that grows in Northern  America,
  Europe and Asia; and rook is specie of birds  from  crown  family.  These
  words are not realias because of their wide-spreadness and they  are  not
  connected with people or country.  However  associations  connected  with
  bird cherry (the height of spring) and rook (expectation of spring)  make
  a heart of Russian man quicken.  He  connects  their  connotatively  with
  realia not turning them into realia.

  Another example touches up some difficulties translating of the title  of
  famous Russian film Летят журавли into the French  language:  the  French
  word grue also means silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.
  So they had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.

  In these examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have  full
  and significant equivalents.

  “Inconvenient” word is often substituted for  its  functional  analogies.
  Foe example, bird cherry can be substituted for early  blooming  tree  or
  bush – for England it can be substituted for plum or cherry-tree or  even
  for lilac; instead of rook they can use any  convenient  bird.  The  main
  idea is to evoke a reader of translated text the same  associations  that
  has a reader of origin text.

  The transmission of  connotative  word  by  means  of  devices  that  are
  characteristic feature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an
  undesirable results: a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.


  Classifying the realia we noted that realias were allocated according  to
  their place or/and time. It is often happens that realia that  means  the
  same  or  close  material  notions  can  be  from  different  places  and
  historical rubric: that is, they differ  from  each  other  according  to
  connotative meaning, coloring. For example, supreme organ is called  seim
  in Poland, Supreme Court in Russia, cortes in Spain and Portugal,  Public
  Meeting in Bulgaria, bundestag in Germany, rikstaf in Swiss, storting  in
  Norway, folketing in Denmark, knesset in Israel.  All  these  words  mean
  Parliament and they  do  not  differ  much  from  each  other  but  their
  traditional names represent characteristic national realia. Each of  them
  has its own features that belong only  to  it.  However,  but  for  these
  distinctions,  national  and  historical   coloring   would   not   allow
  substitution for another word in  translation.  Such  substitution  would
  destroy all coloring, to be more exact; it would lead to anachronisms and
  analogisms that can destroy the harmony, so called truth of life.

  It is clearly seen when such close in  meaning  word  like  хайдутин  and
  клефт are compared.  Both  of  them  mean  peasant-partisans  who  fought
  against Turkish ruling;  both  of  them  mainly  attacked  local  Turkish
  feudalists and representatives of Turkish Administration, and also  their
  landowners who called them “thieves” or “bandits”; both of them acted  in
  the same historical epoch (the time of Osman Dominion  on  the  Balkans).
  These dates about клефт are related with хайдутин; the only difference is
  that хайдутин is Bulgarian and клефт is Greek. But it  is  enough  to  be
  impossible to translate хайдутин as клефт.

  Connotations and coloring are part of meaning  that  means  they  can  be
  translated equal with semantic content of a word. If a translator managed
  to convey only a semantic lexical  unit  the  translated  text  lost  its
  coloring for the reader.

  But there are cases when connotation of a  realia  dies  down,  erasures.
  Such erasure logically leads  to  the  turning  of  realia  into  common,
  uncolored word.

  To distinguish this phenomenon from loss of coloring in a translation  we
  use a term “erasure” of coloring or connotation (erased reality).

  Some exotic words can be  adopted  by  language  and  lose  their  exotic
  character.

  To lose its status realia must lose quality that differs it from a common
  word, that is loss of coloring. Here are some examples.

  1. It will take much time to turn proper realia such as  Russian  пирожок
  into national  uncolored,  neutral  word  entered  in  the  kitchens  and
  languages of many countries and to make people forget its strange origin.

  Related to a strange realia it will also take much time to adopt it  into
  a language. It can turn into usual borrowing in the result  of  intensive
  usage of this object in private life depriving it both original  national
  coloring and a kind of alliance.

  It seems that international and regional realias are to lose their status
  of realia at first owing to  their  wide-spreadness.  Many  international
  realias go around the world without losing  their  national  originality.
  For example, the names of money. There  is  another  case  with  regional
  realias. Their national coloring is almost equal to national  but  it  is
  limited by its regional belonging. For example, “the eastern coloring” is
  close to Syrian, Turkish and Egyptian etc. All above-mentioned  regarding
  to proper realias is equal for national and regional realias.

  2. These are the general considerations about coloring erasure  or  color
  keeping that depends on peoples and countries. But  there  are  positions
  where color erasure depends on proper realia and its function in speech.

  Often the realias can have an extended meaning in the context.


  3. Sometimes a realia can be used in a text not in the direct but in  the
  figurative meaning.  For example щербет can be used in Bulgarian language
  as an adjective in the meaning of something oversweet and  it  is  almost
  similar with Russian сироп.

  In general we may say about realia using in the figurative meaning in all
  cases of their usage as tropes, metaphor and comparison. When  an  author
  says about mushroom’s cap “about two kopecks size” he  does  not  mean  a
  kopeck as a kind of money but only its two signs: its size and its  round
  form, so the kopeck here has only word cover.

  For example, when an author describes land that is flat like  a  pan-cake
  he takes only one characteristics of a pan-cake: its flatness  and  plane
  and Russian reader even does not think about pan-cake as a food but it is
  only an image that author promoted with the help of trope.

  The same with “stone jungles” and “cowboys of cold war” etc.

  Some  adjectives  derived  from  mentioned  realias   can   be   literary
  comparisons and metaphors. Using such words as  богатырский,  стопудовый,
  аршинный, саженный at first we look at their figurative meaning,  certain
  signs but not on their sign as a realia: for example, пудовый means  very
  heavy, грошовый means very unimportant, cheap.

  4.  Among  these  examples  there  were  phraseological  units  and   set
  expressions as well, where realias lose their status more often  than  in
  the mentioned cases.

  In these four cases realias are to lose their coloring that is the status
  of ralia is to turn into common language unit. However, if we  look  more
  attentively we shall see that a total erasure  is  not  possible.  If  it
  happens it will be an exception.

  For example, macaroni (international  realia)  and  tyubeteyka  (regional
  realia). Macaroni, also spaghetti entered in  the  languages  by  way  of
  transcription. These words appeared in  the  languages  having  kept  the
  meaning of national Italian dish. The best example  is  Italian  scornful
  nickname baked  macaroni  pudding.  Tyubeteyka  also  did  not  lose  its
  oriental coloring in spite of its wide-spreadness in the USSR and even on
  Gorky’s and Kuprin’s heads reminds East.

  One should take into account all above-mentioned choosing  a  translation
  style in these cases.

  The transcription is usual way  of  translation  of  such  words.  Ruble,
  macaroni, tyubeteyka keep their form after translation.

  Another case when  realia  is  wrong  used  or  when  it  is  a  part  of
  phraseologism. Right translation is  stipulated  with  finding  the  most
  concordant and equivalent words that is usually deprived of  coloring  in
  the  translation  as  a  usual  lexical  unit.  For  example,  вершок  in
  Goncharov’s story is translated into the English language as a  miserable
  part. Дюйм translated from English inch is a realia but it also may  have
  an extended meaning.

  Realia  preservation  in  trope  function   (comparison,   juxtaposition,
  metaphor etc.) could mean the volume definition of one thing  unknown  by
  author. If, for example, an English faces with two kopecks coin with  the
  help of that we define a size of mushroom cap in Russian  translation  he
  would never know the mushroom size. Here a realia almost totally lost its
  natural coloring: in one language a reader almost does not understand its
  meaning, seeing  only  the  given  quality  indicator.  Transcription  is
  possible  in  two  languages  only  as   an   exception,   for   example,
  international realia that indicator is known in both languages. But it is
  easier to translate a realia as a neutral function equivalent because  in
  the original text realia is used without connotative meaning.

   But even in the third and fourth positions realia is kept. For  example,
  translating comparison we usually substitute a strange realia  for  ours:
  it is not always convenient to use such phrases as как блин. The same  is
  with a realia that forms phraseologism.

  In conclusion one should notice that  translating  a  realia  in  one  or
  another means it is wanted to lose a trope and accordingly phraseologism.
  Trope should be transferred by tropes,  phraseologism  by  phraseologism;
  only “fulling” will differ from origin one.

  5. There are many cases of realia translation in the comparison when  the
  realia  not  only  loses  its  coloring  but  also   receives   excessive
  connotation and they are wide-spread. An author compares the contents  of
  strange realia with his own realia. And in a translation  one  notion  is
  happened to be denoted with the two realias: internal and external.  What
  should a translator do to convey the content of realia  without  coloring
  losing?

  There are some theoretical variants.

  At first  a  translator  should  transcribe  each  separate  realia.  For
  example, we can face with such translation from the Czech  language:  “In
  the evening a young teacher couple … invited us for barbecue. It reminded
  us our evening by the camp fire where we did not do  shpekachkis.”  These
  two words: barbecue and shpekachkis are explanations of one unknown  word
  by another.

  At second place a translator can substitute an internal  realia  for  his
  proper realia. For example, he should  substitute  shpekachkis  -  for  a
  regional realia – Caucasus shashlik. As a result a reader would  be  able
  to get more clear notion about Australian dish  (barbecue  is  a  Haitian
  word that was taken by  the English language from Spanish  and  then  was
  borrowed by Australian). But a reader would be  astonished  hearing  from
  Czech about “evenings with shashlik”. Theoretically this variant is  more
  vicious because it leads to mixture of different realias that  belong  to
  different nations.

  The third possibility is to refuse transcription of both realias  and  to
  convey their contents with  the  help  of  descriptive  translation  that
  approximately can sound so: “… in the  evening  we  were  invited  for  a
  picnic that reminded us our evenings by a  camp  fire  and  we  ate  meat
  grilled on a spit.” But this translation deprives the text of  Australian
  coloring.

  And, at last, the fourth variant consists in  transcription  of  external
  realia and conveying internal realia with its functional equivalent.  And
  we shall have the next sentence: “In the evening … a young  teacher  pair
  invited us for barbecue. It reminded us our evenings by camp fire when we
  ate meat grilled on a spit.”

  The last  variant  is  considered  to  be  more  successful  because  the
  translation is true and the translator managed to  keep  coloring  having
  transcribed main realia.

  In Margaret Aliger’s notes “Chilean summer” we face with  more  difficult
  case: “… it is possible to eat here, one woman bakes  pies  –  empanados.
  Empanados is something similar with chebureks, they are very  hot,  tasty
  and big.” Here we have  three  realias:  the  main  external  Spanish   -
  empanados that is explained as Russian national  pies  and  one  regional
  Caucasus – chebureks. In the translation one should keep the main  realia
  because it stands in the center  of  the  author’s  attention  and  other
  realias should be substituted for neutral.



                        Analogisms and anachronisms.

  Let’s suggest that a translator working at  a  novel  about  Indian  life
  decides to use only means of his own language, without admitting  strange
  realias and he substitutes pagoda for temple, sari for dress or  national
  suit, akhoby he substitutes for man-launder, etc. As  a  result  of  such
  national coloring extermination specific Indian  features  of  the  novel
  will vanish: it will be possible to consider any place as a place of  act
  or this place is neutral, uncolored, nameless country. This method  leads
  to coloring losing that spoils very much any  translation.  The  mark  of
  this translation is bad.

  But it is worse when a translator substitutes origin realias for  realias
  from his own language. Doing it  he  also  substitutes  coloring  of  the
  translated work for a strange coloring. If we wear a Kazak  in  Bulgarian
  aba or anteria, tsarvulis, iamurluk, if we make him  drink  a  wine  from
  buklista and to eat banitsa, a reader will recognize a Sofian  shope  but
  not a Kazak.

  And it will be the worst translation when a translator  conveys  original
  means of motley words of different coloring and when a mixture of realias
  takes place. For example, translated into Russia novel For Freedom by St.
  Dichev. A  redactor  substitutes  Bulgarian,  Turkish,  Greek  and  other
  realias for regional and national realias  of  Soviet  Union.  Historical
  realias he substitutes for modern words. Therefore Bulgarian gadulka  was
  turned into Ukraine bandura, gamurluk was  turned  into  Caucasus  burka,
  pastarma was described as dried meat and Bulgarian banitsa  was  conveyed
  as Russian pie. Several historical notions closely tied up with Bulgarian
  culture have totally lost their national content. As  a  result  of  such
  vicious attitude to  the  realias  translation  a  reader  gets  unclear,
  contradictory notions  about  described  reality;  the  novel  loses  its
  cognitive meaning and bright national coloring and considerable  part  of
  its literary merits. Here we speak about distortion of original images in
  the result of substitution of national and  historical  realias  for  not
  characteristic to it realias, in other words, about leading to analogisms
  and anachronisms in a text. Analogisms and anachronisms are realias  that
  do not correspond to local and time surrounding of origin text.

  For  example,  we  face  with  the  word  guillotine  in  the   Bulgarian
  translation of Sheakspear’s work: “Essex slowly mounted the  guillotine.”
  The mistake is not very grave from temporal point of view. There  already
  existed the machine for execution in XVI – XVII centuries  in  Italy  and
  Scotland and also in France where Duke de Monmorancy  was  beheaded  with
  the help of such machine. The mistake is that famous doctor  Josef  Ignak
  Giyoten invented his machine that got his name only 200 years later. Here
  we see the translator’s history unknowing. Of course, the  word  scaffold
  should be used there. We can  see  it  from  the  context:  “  He  slowly
  mounted…” One can never mount the guillotine but only scaffold.

  The reason of such mistakes regarding national and historical coloring is
  connected with author’s or translator’s  personality,  his  unknowing  of
  real facts and historical situation and sometimes their unknowing of some
  principal positions of theory translation, for example, about bad results
  of strange realia substitution for  a  realia  from  translator’s  native
  language.


                                 CONCLUSION.

   In 1827 Goethe wrote that translating labor was and remains one  of  the
   most  important  and  worthy  matters  connecting  the  entire  universe
   together. These words characterize translator  as  creative  person  who
   carries works beyond the limits of one national culture and  who  serves
   to people giving these fruits of this culture, created in  new  language
   form or vice versa, including  achievements  of  other  nations  in  his
   national science and culture. It is one of the  evidences  of  the  huge
   human role of translation in the history of human civilization.

   Every national culture solving its problems carries its contribution  in
   treasuring house of literature creating something that belongs  only  to
   it, has significance for all nations and proves that there are not small
   or big nations or inferior languages.

   Extending of national culture confines with the help of translation  has
   a great positive and enriching influence on the  language.  It  is  true
   that together with the translation many new ideas, discoveries,  notions
   and so on penetrate in the language and it leads to  the  appearance  of
   new language  elements  and  figurative  meanings.  This  fact  is  very
   important while translating from literary language  that  is  not  fully
   developed.  Therefore  the   literary   language   enriches   figurative
   possibilities, national  culture,  and  spiritual  development  of  this
   nation.  Creative  beginning  of  translation  is  premise  of  creative
   attitude to native language, its source of faith  in  its  possibilities
   and beauty. Concerning this point the translator also has  another  task
   to defend his native speech from borrowings-parasites that clog and make
   it ugly, from strange forms that artificially could crowd  out  its  own
   national coloring.

   The task and mission of the  translator  especially  the  translator  of
   feature literature is defense of the riches and  beauty  of  the  native
   language, its unlimited abilities to convey all  that  is  kept  in  the
   greatest masterpieces of world literature.

   Translated literature can also be the indicator of condition, degree  of
   development of national language. Poetical translation of  Shakespeare’s
   works by Boris Pasternak that are very rich, refined and  expressive  in
   language might not appear if Russian language of his  time  remained  on
   the same level of development. In this case concrete  condition  of  our
   national language at the times of B. Pasternak can be put  as  condition
   and factor of development of poetical and translating  talent  and  vice
   versa Pasternak's works are great contribution  in  the  development  of
   Russian language.

   The level of translated literature,  the  quality  of  translation  also
   assists to the development of national beginning in  the  literature  of
   nation.

   "National beginning of literature,  - I. R. Beher wrote,  -  is  defined
   with the fact of preservation, proceeding and  creative  development  of
   other literatures. The choice of elements that adopt it from  literature
   of other nations shows its own character and is  judged  if  its  indeed
   national originality no."



                                Bibliography.

1.  Влахов   С.,   Флорин   С.    Непереводимое   в   переводе.      Реалии.
  "Министерство Перевода". Сборник статей. 1969. М., "Советский  писатель",
  1970.
2. Лилова А.  Введение в общую теорию перевода. "Высшая школа" М., 1985.
3. Бархударов Я. С., Рецкер Я. И.  Курс лекций по теории перевода. М.,  Изд-
  во I МГПИПЯ, 1968.
4. Комиссаров В. Н. Слово о переводе. М., "Международные отношнния". 1973.
5. Комиссаров В., Рецкер Я.,  Тархов В. Пособие по  переводу  с  английского
  языка на русский. Часть I М., Изд-во литературы  на  иностранных  языках,
  1960; Часть II М., "Высшая школа", 1965.
6. Левицкая Т.Р., Фитермян А. М. Пособие по переводу с английского языка  на
  русский. М., "Высшая школа", 1973.
7. Толстой С.С, Основы перевода английского языка на русский, М., 2957.
8. Фёдоров А.В. Русские писатели и проблемы перевода. Л., 1960.
9. Левик В. "Мастерство перевода", М., 1959.
10. Гачечиладзе Т.  Художественный перевод и литературные  взаимосвязи.  М.,
  "Советский писатель", 1972.
11. Бархударов Л. С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975.
12. Комиссаров В. Н.  Теория перевода. М., "Высшая школа", 1990.
13. Фёдоров А. В. Основы общей теории перевода. – М., 1983.
14. Швейцер А.Д.  Теория перевода.  – М., 1988.
15. Латышев Л.К.  Курс  перевода  (эквивалентность  перевода  и  способы  её
  достижения). – М., 1981.



                                  APPENDIX.

In the appendix the author of this course paper  analyses  the  preservation
of national coloring in the English novel written by Jane Austen  Price  and
Prejudice translated into Russian and stories Chameleon and  Yonich  written
by Anton Chekhov translaten into English. These both books are not the  best
example swhere the national colorin gexists. But it  is  possible  to  judge
about the preservation of national coloring even basing on these books.

The preservation of English national coloring will be given at first.

   1. ‘He came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was
      so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr  Morris  immediately;
      that he is to take possession  before  Michaelmas,  and  some  of  his
      servants are to be in the house by the end of next week.’

      В  понедельник  он  приезжал  туда  в  карете,  запряжённой  четвёркой
      лошадей, осмотрел поместье и  пришёл  в  такой  восторг,  что  тут  же
      условился обо всём с мистером Моррисом. Он приезжает к михайлову  дню,
      и уже в конце будущей недели туда приедет кое-кто из его прислуги.

      Here the English word Michaelmas means 29 September the feast  of  St.
      Michael and corresponds to “михайлов день” in Russian  with  only  one
      difference that “михайлов день” is celebrated later in Russia  because
      of difference in the calendars.   It  is  possible  to  say  that  the
      national coloring is preserved because in  English  and  Russian  text
      there was not said the date but the name of the feast.

   2.  The  ladies  were  somewhat  more  fortunate,  for   they   had   the


                        advantage of ascertaining from an upper window, that
      he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse.

       Дамы были несколько удачливей его: им         посчастливилось увидеть
      из верхнего окна, что на нём был синий сюртук  и  что  он  приехал  на
      вороной лошади.

      Here the English word coat means outer garment with sleeves,  buttoned
      in the front and corresponds to the Russian word сюртук that  is  also
      outer garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front and  in  Russian  it
      has long laps. It is possible for the Russian reader to  imagine  what
      kind of garment Mr. Bingley wore.

   3.  Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had
      made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of  knighthood  by  an
      address to the King , during his mayoralty.

          Сэр  Уильям  Лукас  ранее  занимался  торговлей  в  Меритоне,  где
      приобрёл  некоторое  состояние,  а  также  титул  баронета,  благодаря
      специальному обращению к королю, когда он был мэром там.

          Here the English word mayoralty preserved  its  meaning  and  even
      form in the Russian translation. In the Russian language the word  мэр
      does not exist that is why the translator  used  this  word.  But  the
      author of this course paper considers that the Russian word мэр should
      be explained in Russian translation because only a few people of 19-th
      century could know the exact meaning of the word мэр.


4.    I flatter myself that my   present overtures of good will are
highly
      Commendable, and  that  the  circumstance  of  my  being  next in the
      entail of Longborn estate, will be kindly overlooked on your side, and
         not lead you to reject the offered olive branch.

      По  этой  причине  я  льщу  себя  надеждой,  что  вы   благожелательно
      отнесётесь к моему настоящему изъявлению доброй воли и  не  отвергнете
      протянутую мной оливковую ветвь.

      Here the phrase olive branch in English corresponds to Russian  phrase
      оливковая ветвь because in both languages this phrase means the symbol
      of peace.


5.      ‘Pray,  my  dear  aunt,  what  is  the  difference  in   matrimonial

      affairs, between the mercenary and the prudent motive?’

    - Но, тётя, разве можно в матримониальных делах найти точную грань между
      расчётливостью и благоразумием?

       Here the English phrase matrimonial affairs fully correspond  to  the
      Russian phrase матримониальные дела because the word  matrimonial  has
      Latin origin. Therefore it is possible to say  about  preservation  of
      coloring in spite of its Latin origin.

   6.   It  was  two  ladies  stopping  in  a  low  phaeton  at  the  garden
                gate.

     Они увидели двух дам, сидевших в низеньком фаэтоне,            который
    остановился у садовой калитки.

    Here the English word phaeton corresponds to the Russian word фаэтон in
    the meaning and form as well. In English and Russian  phaeton  means  a
    vessel for noble people.



Now the author  of  this  course  paper  would  like  to  analyze  the  non-
preservation of national coloring.


   1.       Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in  Meryton,  where
      he had made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor  of  knighthood
      by an address to the King , during his mayoralty.

          Сэр  Уильям  Лукас  ранее  занимался  торговлей  в  Меритоне,  где
      приобрёл  некоторое  состояние,  а  также  титул  баронета,  благодаря
      специальному обращению к королю.

         Here the honor of knighthood was translated into Russian  as  титул
      баронета. The translator managed to reveal for Russian reader what the
      honor of knighthood meant but the national coloring of the phrase  was
      erasured.

   2.    ‘Yes; these four evenings  have  enabled  them  to  ascertain  that
      they both like Ving-un better than Commerce.

      -Да, эти четыре вечера позволили им установить, что  оба  они  игру  в
      «двадцать одно» предпочитают игре в покер.


 3.   Then, turning to Mr Bennet, he offered himself as  his  antagonist  at
      backgammon.

        И, повернувшись к мистеру Беннету, он предложил ему сыграть партию в
      триктрак.

         Here the national coloring of English games does not
         preserved because in the Russian translation  they are only
         substituted for their Russian equivalents.

4.    About a month ago I received this letter.

         Около месяца назад  я получил вот эту эпистолу.

         Here the English word letter has not national coloring but in
         the Russian translation it has historical  coloring  that  is  used

          to convey the formality of this  letter.


Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze  the  preservation
of national coloring of  Russian  book  by  Anton  Chechov  translated  into
English. Here two of his stories Chameleon and Yonich are analyzed.
The author of this course paper took  some  examples  to  show    where  the
national coloring is preserved and where it is not preserved. At  first  you
will see the examples where the national coloring is preserved.

   1. Очумелов пересёк базарную площадь.

         Ochumelov crossed the market-place.

   2. В этом человеке он узнал Хрюкина.

          He recognized in this individual Khryukin.

       Here the Russian surnames  Ochumelov  and  Khryukin  preserved  their
      national coloring owing to footnotes in the English translation.


   3. Доктор Старцев был назначен земским врачом.

         Doctor Startsev was appointed Zemstvo medical officer.

       Here the Russian word земский врач preserved  its  national  coloring
      but the author of this course paper thinks that the translator  should
      add a footnote with the explanation of this word.

   4. Зато он охотно играл в винт.

      But he played vint.

      Here the national Russian game preserved its national coloring in  the
      translation.


Now the author  of  this  course  paper  analyses  the  non-preservation  of
national coloring.

   1. За ним шагает городовой с решетом.

      After him constable carried a sieve.

      Here the Russian  rank  городовой  does  not  preserve  its  national
      coloring in the English translation because городовой  is lower  rank
      in the city police in tsarist Russia and English constable is only  a
      policemen.

   2. Я ему покажу Кузькину мать!

      I’ll show him what’s what!

      Here the non-preservation of Russian coloring is  clearly  seen.  The
      phrase показать Кузькину мать is  very  often  used  in  the  Russian
      language even now.

   3. Сердиться, шельма…

      The little rascal’s angry.

      Here the Russian word шельма is translated as little  rascal.  Шельма
      in Russian means rascal but in English even  using  word  little  the
      coloring is not completely conveyed because here  Chekhov  uses  this
      word to show Ochumelov’s tenderness towards this dog and he does  not
      offence it.

   4. Он цигаркой ей в харю…

      He burned the end of his nose with lifted cigarette.

      Here the Russian word цигарка is translated into  English  as  lifted
      cigarette. Yes, цигарка  is  lifted  cigarette  but  in  the  English
      translation the Russian historical and national coloring of this word
      is lost because now, for example, the word цигарка is  not  used  any
      more but it is quite understandable for Russoan reader.

   5. Цуцик этакий!

      What a pup!

      Pup in English is only a  small  little  dog  but  in  Russian  цуцик
      besides these meaning also has a meaning of a person who  feels  cold
      and is affreid. So it is clearly seen that the national coloring  was
      not preserved.

   6. В губернском городе.

      In a town.

      Here is clearly seen the  absence  of  the  word  губернский  so  the
      national coloring is not preserved and  the  author  of  this  course
      paper thinks that the translator should explain the  meaning  of  the
      word.

   7. С полверсты он прошёл пешком.

      The last part he went on foot.

       Here the Russian   measure of length верста  is  not  translated  at
      all. The author of this  course  paper  thinks  that  the  translator
      should use this word in the English translation and give its  meaning
      in the footnote.



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