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Образование в англоязычных странах


                            University education
The are 44 universities (not counting  the  Open  university*)  in  Britain.
Although the  Government is responsible for  providing about 80 per cent  of
universities’ income it does not control  their  or  teaching  nor  does  it
have direct dealing with the universities. The grants   are  distributed  by
the University Grants Committee,  a  body  appointed  by  the  Secretary  of
State for Education and Science.
The  Universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge  date  from  the  twelfth  and
thirteenth  centuries  and  the  Scottish  Universities  of   St.   Andrews,
Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh  from the fifteenth and  sixteen  centuries.
All the other universities were  founded  in  the  nineteenth  or  twentieth
centuries.
There are five other institutions where the work is of university  standard:
the University of Manchester Institute of Science and  technology;  the  two
postgraduate business schools which are supported jointly  by  industry  and
the Government  - the  Manchester Business School and  the  London  Graduate
School of Business Studies, associated with the London School  of  Economics
and the Imperial College of  Science and Technology; Cranfield Institute  of
 Technology for mainly postgraduate work in aeronautics and other  subjects;
and Royal College of Art.

                             Studies and degrees

Courses in arts and science are offered  by most universities. Imperial
College, London, the University of Manchester Institute of Science and
Technology and some of the newer universities concentrate on technology
although they also offer a number of courses in social studies, modern
languages and other non-technological subjects. About 45 per cent of full-
time university students in Grate Britain are talking arts or social
studies courses and 41 per cent science and technology: about 10 per are
studying medicine, dentistry and health, and the remainder agriculture,
forestry, veterinary science, architecture and town and country planning.
University degree courses generally extend over three or four years, though
in medicine, dentistry and veterinary  science five or six years are
required. The first degree of Bachelor(Master  in the arts faculties of the
older Scottish universities) is  awarded on the  completion of such a
course, depending on satisfactory examination results. Further study or
research is required at the modern universities for the degree  of Master
and by all universities for that of Doctor. Actual degree titles vary
according to the practice of each university. A uniform standard of degree
throughout the country is ensured by having external examiners on all
examining boards. In the last decades there has been a tendency for degree
courses to become more broadly based in subject matter, particularly in the
new universities.
University teaching combines lectures, practical classes (in scientific
subjects) and small group teaching in either seminars or tutorials.
Most member of the academic staff devote time to research and at all
universities there are postgraduate students engaged in research.

                                  Students

Admission  to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are
admitted on equal terms with men but at Cambridge their numbers may be
limited by ordinance. The general proportion of men to women students is
about three to one; at Oxford it is over four to one, and at Cambridge
seven to one. Over a third of  all full-time university students in Britain
are living in college and halls of residence, slightly under a half  are in
lodgings, and the remainder live at home.
Despite recent expansion programmes, applications for places at
universities for arts studies still exceed the number available.
Prospective candidates for nearly all the universities apply for places
through the Universities Central Council on  Admissions. The only student
who apply directly are applicants to the Open University and British
candidates who apply only for  the university of Glasgow, Aberdeen and
Strathclyde.
In 1971-72 there were about 234,000 full-time university students in Grate
Britain including 43,000 postgraduates. In 1970-71 there were some 22,822
part-time students. Some 30,000 home and overseas candidates were also
registered in 1972 for London University’s external first degree
examinations.

                                    Staff

In 1970-71 there were about 23,000 full-time university teachers in Great
Britain; about 10 per cent of them were professors. The ratio of staff to
students was about one to eight.

                                   Awards

In England, Wales and Scotland most adequately qualified British students
can obtain awards from public funds in order to attend full-time at a
university, college of major further education establishment.  In England
and Wales local education authorities provide awards. In Scotland
students’ allowances for advanced courses are granted by the Scottish
Education Department. The amount of these  awards depends upon the income
of the student and his parents. Grants for postgraduate study are offered
annually by the Department of  Education and Science, the Research Councils
and the Scottish Education Department. In Northern Ireland university and
postgraduate award and teacher training scholarships by the Ministry of
Education, the conditions of award being the same as those for Great
Britain




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