Образование в англоязычных странах
The are 44 universities (not counting the Open university*) in Britain.
Although the Government is responsible for providing about 80 per cent of
universities’ income it does not control their or teaching nor does it
have direct dealing with the universities. The grants are distributed by
the University Grants Committee, a body appointed by the Secretary of
State for Education and Science.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries and the Scottish Universities of St. Andrews,
Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh from the fifteenth and sixteen centuries.
All the other universities were founded in the nineteenth or twentieth
There are five other institutions where the work is of university standard:
the University of Manchester Institute of Science and technology; the two
postgraduate business schools which are supported jointly by industry and
the Government - the Manchester Business School and the London Graduate
School of Business Studies, associated with the London School of Economics
and the Imperial College of Science and Technology; Cranfield Institute of
Technology for mainly postgraduate work in aeronautics and other subjects;
and Royal College of Art.
Studies and degrees
Courses in arts and science are offered by most universities. Imperial
College, London, the University of Manchester Institute of Science and
Technology and some of the newer universities concentrate on technology
although they also offer a number of courses in social studies, modern
languages and other non-technological subjects. About 45 per cent of full-
time university students in Grate Britain are talking arts or social
studies courses and 41 per cent science and technology: about 10 per are
studying medicine, dentistry and health, and the remainder agriculture,
forestry, veterinary science, architecture and town and country planning.
University degree courses generally extend over three or four years, though
in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science five or six years are
required. The first degree of Bachelor(Master in the arts faculties of the
older Scottish universities) is awarded on the completion of such a
course, depending on satisfactory examination results. Further study or
research is required at the modern universities for the degree of Master
and by all universities for that of Doctor. Actual degree titles vary
according to the practice of each university. A uniform standard of degree
throughout the country is ensured by having external examiners on all
examining boards. In the last decades there has been a tendency for degree
courses to become more broadly based in subject matter, particularly in the
University teaching combines lectures, practical classes (in scientific
subjects) and small group teaching in either seminars or tutorials.
Most member of the academic staff devote time to research and at all
universities there are postgraduate students engaged in research.
Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are
admitted on equal terms with men but at Cambridge their numbers may be
limited by ordinance. The general proportion of men to women students is
about three to one; at Oxford it is over four to one, and at Cambridge
seven to one. Over a third of all full-time university students in Britain
are living in college and halls of residence, slightly under a half are in
lodgings, and the remainder live at home.
Despite recent expansion programmes, applications for places at
universities for arts studies still exceed the number available.
Prospective candidates for nearly all the universities apply for places
through the Universities Central Council on Admissions. The only student
who apply directly are applicants to the Open University and British
candidates who apply only for the university of Glasgow, Aberdeen and
In 1971-72 there were about 234,000 full-time university students in Grate
Britain including 43,000 postgraduates. In 1970-71 there were some 22,822
part-time students. Some 30,000 home and overseas candidates were also
registered in 1972 for London University’s external first degree
In 1970-71 there were about 23,000 full-time university teachers in Great
Britain; about 10 per cent of them were professors. The ratio of staff to
students was about one to eight.
In England, Wales and Scotland most adequately qualified British students
can obtain awards from public funds in order to attend full-time at a
university, college of major further education establishment. In England
and Wales local education authorities provide awards. In Scotland
students’ allowances for advanced courses are granted by the Scottish
Education Department. The amount of these awards depends upon the income
of the student and his parents. Grants for postgraduate study are offered
annually by the Department of Education and Science, the Research Councils
and the Scottish Education Department. In Northern Ireland university and
postgraduate award and teacher training scholarships by the Ministry of
Education, the conditions of award being the same as those for Great