Career in hotel industry
Ìèíèñòåðñòâî îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè
Þæíûé èíñòèòóò ìåíåäæìåíòà
Êàôåäðà èíîñòðàííûõ ÿçûêîâ
Íà òåìó: How to make career in hotel industry.
Âûïîëíèëà ñòóäåíòêà, 2 êóðñ
Ðóêîâîäèòåëü: Õîõëîâà Ëàðèñà
I. The hotel complex as an object of the management
1. The main services of the hotel.
2. Classification of the hotels.
3. The peculiarites of the hotel service.
II. The structure of the management in the lodging industry.
III. The main methods of the management of the hospitality business.
IV. The manager’s role in the lodging industry. Manager’s functions and
V. Decision-making – key of manager career.
VI. The role of the communication in the manager’s career.
VII. The management of time.
VIII. Where one can begin the manager’s career.
I. Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as
companies, government, departments, unions, hospitals, schools and the
like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard
of living and our quality of life. In all these organizations, there are
people carrying out the work of a manager. The role of the manager is
particularly significant in such social sphere as the lodging industry.
The lodging industry is the most important element of the social
sphere. It plays the leading part in the increase of the public production
and accordingly in the uplifting of living standards.
II. One can designate the hotel as an enterprise rendering service to
the people, which are out of doors. The service of the placing and the
nourishment is the leading one at the hotel.
1) The hotel apartments are the basic element of the placing service.
They are intended for the rest, sleeping and work of the guests. In
additional the placing service includes the service, which is done by the
personal of the hotel. These are reception and official registration of the
guests, cleaning the rooms and others.
The nourishment consists of different processes:
. process of production (preparation of dishes),
. trade process (sale of the food products),
. service process (service of the guests by the waiters at the
restaurant, in the rooms).
The additional service includes swimming-pools, conference halls, hair-
dresser’s, massage-room and many other things. The hotel is distinguished
by the additional service among other hotels.
Therefore this service is very important by the forming of the
attractiveness of the hotel.
Among the main services of the hotel one can also distinguish the
reserving the place, the facilities, the receiving and the service of the
exploitation of the apartment fund.
2) The service of the nourishment, the placing service and the
additional service are formed different at the hotels. And so one can
designate several types of the hotels.
The first class hotels are usually situated in the center of the
city. The skilled staff ensures the high level of the service. The clients
of this kind of the hotel are businessmen, participants of the conferences
and other rich men.
The health-resort hotel is situated in the health-resort country. It
includes the medical service and the dietary nourishment.
The motel is located near the motor roads and in the suburbs. The
clients of the motel are tourists, particularly motor tourers.
The middle class hotels render the broad service. The prizes depend on
the situation of the hotel. The leading types of the hotels are the
business and health-resort ones, because 50% of the journeys are made with
business purpose, and holiday are treatment purpose determines 40% of the
The hotels are classified by the level of the comfort, the capacity
of the hotel, the purpose of the hotel, the situation of the hotel, the
duration of the work, the providing with the nourishment, the duration of
the stay at the hotel, the level of the prices.
3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:
1) The processes of the production and the consumption are not
synchronous. This means that several kinds of service do not connect
with the presence of the client (cleaning the rooms).
2) Limited possibility of the keeping.
3) Urgency of the service. The problem concerning the service must be
solved very quickly. The urgency and the situation of the hotel are
the most important factors by the choice of the hotel.
4) The broad participation of the staff in the production process.
Personal service cannot be mechanized or automated. Some technologies
are being instituted to speed up routine tasks, but the human element
is the determining one of the hospitality business. Therefore the
problem of the standardization is significant in the lodging industry.
The standards of the service are worked out at many hotels. They are
the rules of the service, which guarantee the level of quality of all
operations. These are the time of the official registration, the
knowledge of foreign languages and the out-word appearance of the
personal. The work at the hotel brings the employee into contact with
people from all walks of life. Guests will include the wealthy and the
poor, engaging and obnoxious. Each guest offers the employee an
opportunity learns more about human nature. Employees not only have
direct responsibility for guest service, the also have the benefit of
witnessing the guest’s satisfaction. The managers generally need more
hands-on experience before assuming managerial positions. The skills
of understanding, motivation and directing people can best be
developed through experience.
5) Seasonal demand for the hotel service. It has an influence on the
loading of the hotel.
6) Interdependency between the hotel service and the purpose of the
III. The structure of the management in the lodging industry
consists of administrative secnating.
In the lodging industry there are three types of the structure:
1) Lineal structure. Every section has the manager who is
responcible for the activities of this section. This manager submits to
the higher manager. The advantages of this structure are the clear
responsibility, the simplicity of the management. But the manager must be
very skilled to manage all processes. Besides that there are too many
contacts with the subordinamper the work of the manager.
2) The functional structure. The main idea is that the specialists
perform the separate functions and they are united in departments. The
advantages of the functional structure are the high competence of the
specialists, standardization and the programming of the processes. The
main problem of this structure is the excessive centralization.
3) Lineal-functional. It includes the special sections by the
lineal managers. Among the advantages one can account the co-operation of
the experts and the better preparation of the decisions and plans. The
defects of this structure are the unclear responsibility and the absence
of the connections between departments.
In addition to the usual management positions, multi-unit
companies may have area, district, and regional and/or corporate-level
management. There may be several separate departments operating at a
hotel, requiring frequent communication among staff members to co-
ordinate their activities.
The administrative structure of the hotel depends on its purpose,
capacity and the specific character of the guests.
IV. Among the main methods of the management in the lodging
industry we can number economic, administrative and social psychological
The leading idea of the economic method is to make such kind of the
conditions to the staff, in which it can take into account at most the
consequences of its administrative and production activities.
The administrative method is based on the directive instructions.
The main purpose of the social-psychological method is the forming of the
positive climate in the collective. The success of the activities of the
manager depends in the main on his ability to work with people and on
right using all these methods.
V. A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a classic
definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is “to forecast
and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.” This
definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on
management have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about
“command”, they say a manager must “motivate” or “direct” and “lead”
Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful.
However, in most companies, the activities of a manager depend on the
level at which he/she is working. Top managers, such as directors, will
be more involved in long planning, policy making and the relations of the
company. These strategy decisions are part of the planning function
mentioned by Fayol.
One the other hand, middle management is help an organization to
run efficiently. It is urgent order or sorting out a technical problem.
Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating,
coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their
Managers in the lodging industry perform five basic operations.
. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these
should be and how the organization can achieve them. For this
task they need analytical ability.
. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the
resources of the company are to be used, how the work is to
be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select
people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need
analytical ability but also understanding of human beings.
. The third task is to motivate and communicate effectively.
They must be able to get people to work as a team, and to be
as productive as possible.
To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels
organization – their superiors, colleagues and subordinates. To succeed
in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is
measurement. Having set standards, managers have to measure the
performance of the organization and of its staff in relation to those
standards. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, managers
develop people more productive and to grow as human beings. They make
them bigger and richer persons.
VI. In carrying out management functions, such as planning,
organising, motivating and controlling, a manager will be continually
making decisions. Decision-making is a key of management responsibility
Some decisions are of the routine kind. They are decisions which
are made quickly. Because a manager is experienced, he knows what to do
in certain situations. He does not have to think too much before taking
Other decisions are often intuitive ones. They are not really
rational. The manager may have a gut feeling that a certain course of
action is the right one.
Many decisions are more difficult to make since they involve
problem-solving. Very often they are strategic decisions which will
affect the future direction of the enterprise. To make good decisions the
manager should be able to select rationally a course of action. In
practice, decisions are usually made in circumstances which are not
ideal. They must be made quickly, with insufficient information. It is
probably rare that a manager can make an entirely rational decision.
When a complex problem arises, the manager has to collect facts
and weigh up courses of action. He must be systematic in dealing with the
problem. A useful approach to this sort of decision-making is as follows:
the process consists of four phases:
a) Defining the problem;
b) Analyzing and collecting information;
c) Working out options;
d) Deciding on the best solution.
As a first step, the manager must identify and define the problem.
And it is important that he does not mistake the symptoms of a problem
for the real problem he must solve. At this early stage the manager must
also take into account the rules and principles of the company which may
affect the final decision. These factors will limit the solution of the
The second step is to analyze the problem and decide what
additional information is necessary before a decision can be taken.
Getting the facts is essential in decision-making. However, as already
mentioned, the manager will rarely have all the knowledge he needs. This
is one reason why making decisions involves a degree of risk. It is the
manager’s job to minimize that risk.
Once the problem has been defined and the facts collected, the
manager should consider the options for solving it. This is necessary
because there are usually several ways of solving a problem. The
enterprise might be modernized or service might be improved, for example.
Before making a decision, the manager will carefully access the
options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Having
done this, he will have to take a decision. Perhaps he will compromise
using more than the option.
VII. Communications in excellent companies are different from those
in other companies. Excellent companies have “open communications”.
People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. The
companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and
One problem with communication is that we do not, in fact,
communicative as effectively as we think we do. This is important for
managers. It suggests that, when giving instructions, managers must make
sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted
A breakdown in communications is to happen if there are some
kinds of social distance between people. In organizations people may have
difficulty communicating if they are different in status, or if one
person has a much higher position than the other. It is risky to tell the
truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy – they may not like what they
hear and hold it against you. For this reason staffs often “filter”
One way of reducing social distance – and improving communications
– is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible, for example, to have
a common dining-room for all staff.
Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage
communication. The physical layout of an office must be carefully
Another important barrier to communication is selective
perception. This means that people perceive things in different ways. The
world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. A
manager will say something but the employee will interpret his meaning
Communication problems will arise, from time to time, in the best-
run companies. However, to minimize such problems, managers must remember
one thing. Communication should be a two-way process. Managers should
encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are
saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did you understand
VIII. In the lodging industry it is important that managers should
be effective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The problem
is that there are so many pressures on managers, reducing their
efficiency. The managers find that they do not have enough time to devote
to the really important jobs. They find that other people take up a lot
of their time, so that they have little time of their own.
Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut out
unproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced.
Before being able to control his time, the manager must find out
how he is actually using it. He must know where it goes. The best way to
do this is to record how he uses time. One way of logging time is to note
down all the activities and indicate how long they took. The manager can
ask questions such as: Are some of the things I am doing wasting time?
Should I be spending more time on certain activities? Knowing how to
spend time is an essential skill of a manager.
IX. People entering the lodging industry frequently wonders whether
it is better to begin their careers in a small or large hotel. What
branch of hotel operation is the best to start in after graduation? Where
you start is probably less important than how well you work and whether
you make the most of opportunities. It is important to learn something
about all phases of hotel operation. You may prefer to work first in
those departments you know least about. Then with some exposure to all
areas, you can begin to focus on your areas of interest.
X. We must not forget that the successful managers are necessarily
people who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses, but
must bring “character” to the job. They are people of integrity, who will
look for that quality in others.
1) Is the lodging industry the most important element of the social
2) Must the manager bring “character” to the job?
3) Why is the hotel distinguished by the additional service among
4) What main methods of the management can we number in the lodging
5) Is the administrative method based on the directive instructions or
is the economic one?
6) What kind of operations do managers perform in the hospitality
7) How must the manager use his time?
8) Why do the communication play the main role in the manager’s
9) Is the decision-making the key of the manager’s career?
10) How can one start his manager’s career?