Èíîñòðàííûå ÿçûêè


The Institute of Ecology, Linguistics and Low

                                 Degree work
                              «BRITISH MONARCHY
                              AND ITS INFLUENCE

                                         Dunaeva Nina

                                Moscow, 2003
   Part One

    The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland  4
    Direct meaning of the word «monarchy»    6
    The British constitutional monarchy      7

   Part Two

    Kings and Queens of England  9
    The Anglo-Saxon Kings   9
    The Normans  23
    The Angevins 30
    The Plantagenets  33
    The Lancastrians  42
    The Yorkists 46
    The Tudors   48
    The Stuarts  58
        The Commonwealth Interregnum   63
    The Hanoverians   75
    Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 85
    The House of Windsor    87

   Part Three

    The Queen’s role  91
    Queen’s role in the modern State   91
    Queen and Commonwealth  91
    Royal visits 92
    The Queen’s working day 92
    Ceremonies and pageantry     92
    The Queen’s ceremonial duties      93
    Royal pageantry and traditions     93
    Royal succession  93
    The Royal Household     93
    Royal Household departments  94
    Recruitment  94
    Anniversaries     95
    Royal finances    95
    Head of State expenditure 2000-01  95
    Sources of funding      96
    Financial arrangements of The Prince of Wales 96
    Finances of the other members of the Royal Family   96
    Taxation     97
    Royal assets 97
    Symbols      98
    National anthem   98
    Royal Warrants    99
    Bank notes and coinage  100
    Stamps 102
    Coats of Arms     103
    Great Seal   104
    Flags  105
    Crowns and jewels 105
    Transport    105
    Cars   106
    Carriages    107
    The Royal Train   108
    Royal air travel  109

   Part Four

    Members of the Royal Family  111
    HM The Queen 111
    HRH The Duke of Edinburgh    111
    HRH The Prince of Wales and family 112
    HRH The Duke of York    112
    TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex      112
    HRH Princess Royal      112
    HRH Princess Alice      113
    TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester   113
    TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent   113
    TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent  114
    HRH Princess Alexandra  114

    Memorial Plaque
          HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother     115
          HRH The Princess Margaret    115
          Diana, Princess of Wales     115

   Part Five

    The Royal Collection    116
    About the Royal Collection   116
    The Royal Collection Trust   117
    Royal Collection Enterprises 117
    Publishing   118
    Royal Residences  118
    Royal Collection Galleries   118
    Loans  119
    The Royal Residences    119
    About the Royal Residences   119
    Buckingham Palace 120
    The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace   120
    The Royal Mews    121
    Windsor Castle    121
    Frogmore     122
    The Palace of Holyroodhouse  122
    Balmoral Castle   123
    Sandringham House 123
    St James’s Palace 124
    Kensington Palace 124
    Historic residences     124

        Bibliography  126


Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)
Government:  The  United  Kingdom   is   a   constitutional   monarchy   and
parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a Parliament that has two  houses:
the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary  peers,  26  bishops,
and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected  members.  Supreme
legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sits for five years  unless
sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of most of  its  power  in
1911, and now its main function is  to  revise  legislation.  In  Nov.  1999
hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort  to  make  the  body
more democratic. The executive power  of  the  Crown  is  exercised  by  the
cabinet, headed by the prime minister.
Prime Minister: Tony Blair (1997)
Area: 94,525 sq mi (244,820 sq km)
Population  (2003  est.):  60,094,648  (growth  rate:  0.1%);  birth   rate:
11.0/1000; infant mortality rate: 5.3/1000; density per sq mi: 636
Capital and largest city (2000 est.): London, 11,800,000 (metro. area)
Other  large  cities:  Birmingham,  1,009,100;  Leeds,   721,800;   Glasgow,
681,470;  Liverpool,  479,000;  Bradford,   477,500;   Edinburgh,   441,620;
Manchester, 434,600; Bristol, 396,600
Monetary unit: Pound sterling (£)
Languages: English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
Ethnicity/race: English  81.5%;  Scottish  9.6%;  Irish  2.4%;  Welsh  1.9%;
Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions:  Church  of  England  (established  church),  Church   of   Wales
(disestablished),  Church  of  Scotland  (established  church—Presbyterian),
Church   of   Ireland   (disestablished),   Roman    Catholic,    Methodist,
Congregational, Baptist, Jewish
Literacy rate: 99% (1978)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2000 est.): $1.36 trillion; per  capita  $22,800.
Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation:  2.4%.  Unemployment:  5.5%.  Arable  land:
25%. Agriculture: cereals, oilseed,  potatoes,  vegetables;  cattle,  sheep,
poultry; fish. Labor force: 29.2 million (1999);  agriculture  1%,  industry
19%, services 80% (1996 est.). Industries:  machine  tools,  electric  power
equipment,   automation   equipment,   railroad   equipment,   shipbuilding,
aircraft,  motor  vehicles  and  parts,   electronics   and   communications
equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum,  paper  and  paper  products,
food processing, textiles,  clothing,  and  other  consumer  goods.  Natural
resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin,  limestone,  iron  ore,  salt,
clay, chalk, gypsum,  lead,  silica,  arable  land.  Exports:  $282  billion
(f.o.b., 2000):  manufactured  goods,  fuels,  chemicals;  food,  beverages,
tobacco.  Imports:  $324  billion  (f.o.b.,   2000):   manufactured   goods,
machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: EU, U.S., Japan.
Communications: Telephones:  main  lines  in  use:  34.878  million  (1997);
mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998).  Radio  broadcast  stations:  AM
219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998). Radios:  84.5  million  (1997).  Television
broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523  repeaters)  (1995).  Televisions:  30.5
million (1997). Internet Service  Providers  (ISPs):  245  (2000).  Internet
users: 19.47 million (2000).
Transportation: Railways: total: 16,878 km (1996). Highways: total:  371,603
km; paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of  expressways);  unpaved:  0  km
(1998 est.). Waterways: 3,200 km.  Ports  and  harbors:  Aberdeen,  Belfast,
Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow,  Grangemouth,  Hull,
Leith,  Liverpool,  London,  Manchester,  Peterhead,  Plymouth,  Portsmouth,
Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne. Airports: 489 (2000 est.).
International disputes: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland (historic  peace
agreement signed 10 April  1998);  Gibraltar  issue  with  Spain;  Argentina
claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas);  Argentina  claims  South  Georgia
and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius and the  Seychelles  claim  Chagos
Archipelago  (UK-administered  British  Indian  Ocean  Territory);   Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland;  territorial  claim
in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)  overlaps  Argentine  claim  and
partially overlaps  Chilean  claim;  disputes  with  Iceland,  Denmark,  and
Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM.
   Monarchy, form of government in which sovereignty is vested in  a  single
person whose right to rule is generally hereditary and who is  empowered  to
remain in office for life. The power of this sovereign  may  vary  from  the
absolute to that strongly limited by custom or  constitution.  Monarchy  has
existed since the earliest history of humankind and  was  often  established
during periods of external threat or internal crisis because it  provided  a
more efficient focus of power than aristocracy or  democracy,  which  tended
to diffuse power. Most monarchies appear to have been  elective  originally,
but dynasties early became customary. In primitive times, divine descent  of
the monarch was often claimed. Deification was  general  in  ancient  Egypt,
the Middle East, and Asia, and it was also practiced during certain  periods
in ancient Greece and Rome.  A  more  moderate  belief  arose  in  Christian
Europe in the Middle Ages; it stated that  the  monarch  was  the  appointed
agent of divine will. This was symbolized by the coronation of the  king  by
a bishop or the pope, as in the Holy Roman  Empire.  Although  theoretically
at the apex of feudal power, the medieval monarchs were  in  fact  weak  and
dependent upon the nobility for much of their power. During the  Renaissance
and after, there emerged “new monarchs” who broke the power of the  nobility
and centralized the state under their own rigid rule. Notable  examples  are
Henry VII and Henry VIII of England and Louis XIV of France.  The  16th  and
17th  cent.  mark  the  height  of  absolute  monarchy,  which   found   its
theoretical justification in the doctrine of  divine  right.  However,  even
the powerful monarchs of the 17th cent. were somewhat limited by custom  and
constitution  as  well  as  by  the   delegation   of   powers   to   strong
bureaucracies. Such limitations were also felt by the  “benevolent  despots”
of the 18th cent. Changes in intellectual climate, in the demands made  upon
government in a secular and  commercially  expanding  society,  and  in  the
social  structure,  as  the  bourgeoisie   became   increasingly   powerful,
eventually weakened the institution of  monarchy  in  Europe.  The  Glorious
Revolution  in  England  (1688)  and  the  French  Revolution  (1789)   were
important landmarks in the decline  and  limitation  of  monarchical  power.
Throughout  the  19th  cent.  Royal  power  was  increasingly   reduced   by
constitutional provisions and parliamentary incursions. In the  20th  cent.,
monarchs have generally become symbols of national unity, while  real  power
has been transferred to constitutional assemblies. Over the past  200  years
democratic self-government has been established  and  extended  to  such  an
extent that a true functioning monarchy is a rare occurrence  in  both  East
and West. Among the few remaining are Brunei,  Morocco,  and  Saudi  Arabia.
Notable constitutional monarchies include Belgium, Denmark,  Great  Britain,
Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Thailand.
   Constitutional monarchy: System of government  in  which  a  monarch  has
agreed to share power with  a  constitutionally  organized  government.  The
monarch may remain the de facto head of state or may be a purely  ceremonial
head. The constitution allocates the rest of the government's power  to  the
legislature and judiciary. Britain became a  constitutional  monarchy  under
the  Whigs;  other  constitutional  monarchies  include  Belgium,  Cambodia,
Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Thailand.
   "The British Constitutional Monarchy was the consequence of the  Glorious
Revolution of 1688, and was  enshrined  in  the  Bill  of  Rights  of  1689.
Whereby William and Mary in accepting the throne, had to consent  to  govern
'according to the statutes in parliament on."
    A monarch does not have to curry favour for votes from  any  section  of
the community.
   A monarch is almost invariably more popular than an Executive  President,
who can be elected by less than 50% of  the  electorate  and  may  therefore
represent less than  half  the  people.  In  the  1995  French  presidential
election the future President Chirac was not  the  nation's  choice  in  the
first round of voting. In Britain, governments are formed on  the  basis  of
parliamentary seats won. In  the  1992  General  Election  the  Conservative
Prime Minister took the office with only  43%  of  votes  cast  in  England,
Scotland and Wales. The Queen however, as hereditary Head of State,  remains
the representative of the whole nation.
   Elected presidents are concerned more with their  own  political  futures
and power, and as we have seen  (in  Brazil  for  example),  may  use  their
temporary tenure to enrich themselves.  Monarchs  are  not  subject  to  the
influences which corrupt short-term presidents.  A  monarch  looks  back  on
centuries of history and forward to the well  being  of  the  entire  nation
under his/her heir. Elected presidents in their nature  devote  much  energy
to undoing the achievements of their forebears in order  to  strengthen  the
position of their successors.
   A long reigning monarch can put enormous experience at  the  disposal  of
transient political leaders. Since  succeeding  her  father  in  1952  Queen
Elizabeth has had a number of Prime Ministers, the latest of whom  were  not
even in Parliament at the time of her accession. An experienced monarch  can
act as a brake on over ambitious  or  misguided  politicians,  and  encorage
others who are less confident. The reality is  often  the  converse  of  the
theory: the monarch is frequently the Prime Minister's best adviser.
   Monarchs, particularly those in Europe are  part  of  an  extended  Royal
Family,  facilitating  links  between  their  nations.  As  Burke  observed,
nations touch at their summits. A recent example of this was the  attendance
of so many members of Royal Families at the 50th birthday  celebrations  for
Sweden’s King Carl XVI Gustav. Swedish newspapers reported  that  this  this
was a much better indication of their closeness to the rest of  Europe  than
any number of treaties, protocols or directives from the European Union.
   A monarch is trained from Birth for the position of  Head  of  State  and
even where, as after the  abdication  of  Edward  VIII,  a  younger  brother
succeeds, he too has enormous experience of his country, its people and  its
government. The people know who will succeed, and  this  certainly  gives  a
nation invaluable continuity and stability. This also  explains  why  it  is
rare for an unsuitable  person  to  become  King.  There  are  no  expensive
elections as in the US where, as one pro-Monarchist American says, "we  have
to elect a new ' Royal Family' every four years." In the French  system  the
President may be a member of one party, while the  Prime  Minister  is  from
another, which only leads to confused governement. In a  monarchy  there  is
no  such  confusion,  for  the  monarch  does  not  rule  in  conflict  with
government but reigns over the whole nation.
   In ceremonial presidencies the Head of State is often a former politician
tainted  by,  and  still  in  thrall  to,  his  former  political  life  and
loyalties, or an academic or retired diplomat who can never  have  the  same
prestige as a monarch,  and  who  is  frequently  little  known  inside  the
country, and almost totally unknown outside it. For example,  ask  a  German
why is Britain's Head of State and a high proportion will know it  is  Queen
Elizabeth II. Ask a Briton, or any Non- German, who  is  Head  of  State  of
Germany? , and very few will be able to answer correctly.
   Aided by his immediate family, a monarch can carry out a range of  duties
and public engagements - ceremonial, charitable,  environmental  etc.  which
an Executive President  would  never  have  time  to  do,  and  to  which  a
ceremonial President would not add lustre.
   A monarch and members of a Royal Family can become  involved  in  a  wide
range of issues which are forbidden to politicians. All parties have  vested
interests which they cannot ignore. Vernon Bogdanor says in '  The  Monarchy
and the Constitution' - «A politician must inevitably be a spokesperson  for
only part of the nation, not the whole. A politician's motives  will  always
be suspected. Members of the Royal Family, by  contrast,  because  of  their
symbolic position, are able to speak to a much wider constituency  than  can
be commanded by even the most popular  political  leader."  In  a  Republic,
then, who is there to speak out  on  issues  where  the  'here  today,  gone
tomorrow' government is  constrained  from  criticising  its  backers,  even
though such criticism is in the national interest.
   All nations are made up of families,  and  it's  natural  that  a  family
should be at a nation's head.
   While the question of Divine Right is  now  obsolescent,  the  fact  that
"there's  such  divinity  doth  hedge  a  King"  remains  true,  and  it  is
interesting to note that even today Kings are able to play  a  role  in  the
spiritual life of a nation which presidents seem unable to fulfil.
   It has been  demonstrated  that,  even  ignoring  the  enormous  cost  of
presidential elections, a monarch as head of  state  is  no  more  expensive
than a president. In Britain many costs, such as the  upkeep  of  the  Royal
residencies, are erroneosly thought  to  be  uniquely  attributable  to  the
monarchy, even though the  preservation  of  our  heritage  would  still  be
undertaken if the county were a republic! The US government  has  criticised
the cost to the Brazilian people of maintaining their president.
   Even Royal Families which are not reigning are dedicated to  the  service
of their people, and continue to be regarded as the symbol of  the  nation's
continuity. Prominent examples are H.R.H. the Duke of Braganza  in  Portugal
and H.R.H. the County of Paris in France. Royal Families forced to  live  in
exile, such as the Yugoslav and Romanian, are often promoters  of  charities
formed to help their countries.

                         KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND
   The history of the English Crown up to the Union of the Crowns in 1603 is
long and varied. The concept of a single  ruler  unifying  different  tribes
based in England developed in the eighth  and  ninth  centuries  in  figures
such as Offa and Alfred the Great, who began to create  centralised  systems
of government. Following the Norman Conquest, the  machinery  of  government
developed further,  producing  long-lived  national  institutions  including
   The Middle Ages saw several fierce contests for the Crown, culminating in
the Wars of the Roses, which lasted for nearly a century. The  conflict  was
finally ended with the advent of the  Tudors,  the  dynasty  which  produced
some  of  England's  most  successful  rulers  and  a  flourishing  cultural
Renaissance. The end of the Tudor line with the death of the 'Virgin  Queen'
in 1603 brought about the Union of the Crowns with Scotland.

                            THE ANGLO-SAXON KINGS
   In the Dark Ages during the fifth and  sixth  centuries,  communities  of
peoples in  Britain  inhabited  homelands  with  ill-defined  borders.  Such
communities were organised and led by chieftains  or  kings.  Following  the
final withdrawal of the Roman legions from the  provinces  of  Britannia  in
around 408 AD these small kingdoms were left to  preserve  their  own  order
and to deal with invaders and waves of migrant peoples  such  as  the  Picts
from beyond Hadrian's Wall, the Scots from Ireland and Germanic tribes  from
the continent. (King Arthur,  a  larger-than-life  figure,  has  often  been
cited as a leader of one or more  of  these  kingdoms  during  this  period,
although his name now tends to be used as a  symbol  of  British  resistance
against invasion.)
   The invading communities overwhelmed or  adapted  existing  kingdoms  and
created new ones - for example, the Angles in Mercia and  Northumbria.  Some
British kingdoms initially survived  the  onslaught,  such  as  Strathclyde,
which was wedged in the north  between  Pictland  and  the  new  Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of Northumbria.
   By 650 AD, the British Isles were a patchwork of  many  kingdoms  founded
from native or immigrant communities  and  led  by  powerful  chieftains  or
kings. In  their  personal  feuds  and  struggles  between  communities  for
control and supremacy, a small number of kingdoms became dominant:  Bernicia
and Deira (which merged to  form  Northumbria  in  651  AD),  Lindsey,  East
Anglia, Mercia, Wessex and Kent. Until the late seventh  century,  a  series
of warrior-kings in turn  established  their  own  personal  authority  over
other kings, usually won by force or through alliances  and  often  cemented
by dynastic marriages.
   According to the later chronicler Bede, the most famous  of  these  kings
was Ethelberht, king of Kent (reigned c.560-616), who  married  Bertha,  the
Christian daughter of the king of Paris, and who became  the  first  English
king to be converted to Christianity (St Augustine's mission from  the  Pope
to Britain in 597 during  Ethelberht's  reign  prompted  thousands  of  such
conversions). Ethelberht's law code was the  first  to  be  written  in  any
Germanic language and included 90 laws. His influence  extended  both  north
and south of the river Humber: his nephew became king  of  the  East  Saxons
and his daughter married king Edwin of Northumbria (died 633).
   In the eighth century, smaller kingdoms in the British Isles continued to
fall to more powerful kingdoms, which claimed rights over  whole  areas  and
established temporary primacies: Dalriada in Scotland,  Munster  and  Ulster
in Ireland. In England, Mercia and later Wessex  came  to  dominate,  giving
rise to the start of the monarchy.
   Throughout  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  the   succession   was   frequently
contested, by both the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and leaders of  the  settling
Scandinavian communities. The Scandinavian influence was to prove strong  in
the early years. It was the threat  of  invading  Vikings  which  galvanised
English leaders into  unifying  their  forces,  and,  centuries  later,  the
Normans who successfully invaded in 1066 were themselves the descendants  of
Scandinavian 'Northmen'.

                                                 HOUSE OF WESSEX AND ENGLAND
                                                                  802 – 1066

                           EGBERT   =    Redburga


                       ETHELWULF   =    Osburga dau. of Oslac of Isle of

ETHELBERHT                                                        ALFRED
the Great   =   Ealhswith
                                         ETHELBALD       (860–866)
      ETHELRED                           (871–899)

                                                                Ecgwyn =



                               Elgiva   =    EDMUND I


                             EDWY   Ethelfleda  =     EDGAR     = Elfrida,
dau. of Ordgar, Ealdorman of East Anglia
                            (955–959)    dau. of              (959–975)

                                                       EDWARD THE MARTYR


                                        Elfgifu   =   ETHELRED II THE
UNREADY  =    Emma


                              (deposed 1013/14)




      Godwin  =   Gytha

                                  EDWARD THE  =     Eadgyth
            HAROLD II

                                  CONFESSOR           (Edith)


                             EGBERT (802-39 AD)

   Known as the first King of All England, he was forced into exile  at  the
court of Charlemagne, by the powerful Offa, King of Mercia. Egbert  returned
to England in 802 and was recognized as king  of  Wessex.  He  defeated  the
rival Mercians at the battle of Ellendun in 825. In 829,  the  Northumbrians
accepted his overlordship and he was proclaimed "Bretwalda"  or  sole  ruler
of Britain.

                            ÆTHELWULF (839-55 AD)
   [pic]Æthelwulf was the son of Egbert and a sub-king of Kent.  He  assumed
the throne  of  Wessex  upon  his  father's  death  in  839.  His  reign  is
characterized by the usual Viking invasions and  repulsions  common  to  all
English rulers of the time, but the making of war was not  his  chief  claim
to fame. Æthelwulf is remembered, however dimly, as a highly  religious  man
who cared about the establishment and preservation of  the  church.  He  was
also a wealthy man and controlled vast resources. Out  of  these  resources,
he gave generously, to Rome and to religious houses that were in need.
   He was an only child, but had fathered five  sons,  by  his  first  wife,
Osburga. He recognized that there  could  be  difficulties  with  contention
over the succession. He devised a scheme which would guarantee  (insofar  as
it was possible to do so) that each child would have his turn on the  throne
without having to worry about rival  claims  from  his  siblings.  Æthelwulf
provided that the oldest living child would succeed to the throne and  would
control all the resources of the crown, without having  them  divided  among
the others, so that he would have adequate resources to rule.  That  he  was
able to provide for the continuation of his dynasty is a matter  of  record,
but he was not able to guarantee familial harmony with  his  plan.  This  is
proved by what we know of the foul plottings of his  son,  Æthelbald,  while
Æthelwulf was on pilgrimage to Rome in 855.
   Æthelwulf was a wise and capable ruler, whose vision  made  possible  the
beneficial reign of his youngest son, Alfred the Great.

                     ÆTHELBALD (855-8 (subking), 858-60)

   While his father, Æthelwulf, was on pilgrimage to Rome in 855,  Æthelbald
plotted with the Bishop of Sherbourne and the ealdorman of Somerset  against
him. The specific details of the plot are unknown, but upon his return  from
Rome, Æthelwulf found his direct authority limited  to  the  sub-kingdom  of
Kent, while Æthelbald controlled Wessex.
   Æthelwulf died in 858, and full  control  passed  to  Æthelbald.  Perhaps
Æthelbald's premature power grab was occasioned by impatience, or greed,  or
lack of confidence in his father's succession plans. Whatever the  case,  he
did not live long to enjoy it. He died in 860, passing  the  throne  to  his
brother, Æthelbert, just as Æthelwulf had planned.

                            ÆTHELBERT (860-66 AD)
   [pic]Very little is known about Æthelbert, who took his rightful place in
the line of succession to the throne of Wessex at around 30  years  of  age.
Like all other rulers of his day, he had to contend  with  Viking  raids  on
his territories and  even  had  to  battle  them  in  his  capital  city  of
Winchester. Apparently, his military  leadership  was  adequate,  since,  on
this occasion, the Vikings were cut off on their retreat to  the  coast  and
were slaughtered, according to a contemporary source, in a "bloody battle."

                           ÆTHELRED I (866-71 AD)
   Anglo-Saxon king of Wessex, and son of King Æthelwulf, who ruled  England
during a time of great pressure from the invading Danes. He was  an  affable
man, a devoutly religious man and the older brother  of  Alfred  the  Great,
his second-in-command in the  resistance  against  the  invaders.  Together,
they defeated the Danish kings Bagseg and Halfdan at the battle  of  Ashdown
in 870.

                        ALFRED «THE GREAT» (871-899)
    Born at Wantage,  Berkshire,  in  849,  Alfred  was  the  fifth  son  of
Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by  mutual
agreement, Alfred's elder  brothers  succeeded  to  the  kingship  in  turn,
rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age  children  at  a
time when  the  country  was  threatened  by  worsening  Viking  raids  from
   Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies,  numbering
thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid  the  coasts
and inland waters of England for plunder.  Such  raids  were  evolving  into
permanent  Danish  settlements;  in  867,  the  Vikings  seized   York   and
established their own kingdom in  the  southern  part  of  Northumbria.  The
Vikings overcame two other  major  Anglo-Saxon  kingdoms,  East  Anglia  and
Mercia, and their kings were either tortured to death or fled.  Finally,  in
870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent  Anglo-Saxon  kingdom,
Wessex, whose forces were  commanded  by  King  Aethelred  and  his  younger
brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in 871, Alfred  routed  the  Viking
army in a fiercely fought uphill assault. However, further defeats  followed
for Wessex and Alfred's brother died.
   As king of Wessex at the  age  of  21,  Alfred  (reigned  871-99)  was  a
strongminded but highly strung battle  veteran  at  the  head  of  remaining
resistance to the Vikings in southern England. In early 878, the  Danes  led
by King Guthrum seized Chippenham in Wiltshire in  a  lightning  strike  and
used it as a secure base  from  which  to  devastate  Wessex.  Local  people
either surrendered or escaped (Hampshire people fled to the Isle of  Wight),
and the West Saxons were reduced to hit and run attacks  seizing  provisions
when they could. With only his royal bodyguard, a small army of thegns  (the
king's followers) and Aethelnoth ealdorman of Somerset as his  ally,  Alfred
withdrew to the Somerset tidal marshes in which he had probably hunted as  a
youth. (It was during this time that Alfred, in his preoccupation  with  the
defence of his kingdom, allegedly burned some cakes which he had been  asked
to look after; the incident was a legend dating from early  twelfth  century
   A resourceful fighter, Alfred reassessed his  strategy  and  adopted  the
Danes' tactics by building a fortified base  at  Athelney  in  the  Somerset
marshes and summoning a mobile army of  men  from  Wiltshire,  Somerset  and
part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare  against  the  Danes.  In  May
878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of  Edington.  According
to his contemporary biographer Bishop  Asser,  'Alfred  attacked  the  whole
pagan  army  fighting  ferociously  in  dense  order,  and  by  divine  will
eventually won the victory, made great slaughter  among  them,  and  pursued
them to their fortress (Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans  were
brought to the extreme depths of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and  they
sought peace'. This unexpected victory proved to be  the  turning  point  in
Wessex's battle for survival.
   Realising that he could not drive the Danes out of the rest  of  England,
Alfred concluded peace with them in the treaty of Wedmore. King Guthrum  was
converted to Christianity with Alfred as godfather and  many  of  the  Danes
returned to East Anglia where  they  settled  as  farmers.  In  886,  Alfred
negotiated a partition treaty with  the  Danes,  in  which  a  frontier  was
demarcated along the Roman Watling Street and northern and  eastern  England
came under the jurisdiction of the Danes  -  an  area  known  as  'Danelaw'.
Alfred therefore gained control of areas of West Mercia and Kent  which  had
been beyond the boundaries of Wessex. To consolidate alliances  against  the
Danes, Alfred married one of his daughters, Aethelflaed,  to  the  ealdorman
of Mercia -Alfred himself had married Eahlswith, a Mercian noblewoman -  and
another daughter, Aelfthryth, to the  count  of  Flanders,  a  strong  naval
power at a time when the Vikings were settling in eastern England.
   The Danish threat remained, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences in
recognition  that   efficient   defence   and   economic   prosperity   were
interdependent. First, he organised his army (the thegns, and  the  existing
militia known as the fyrd) on a rota basis,  so  he  could  raise  a  'rapid
reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling  his  thegns  and
peasants to tend their farms.
   Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended  settlements
across southern England.  These  were  fortified  market  places  ('borough'
comes from the Old English burh,  meaning  fortress);  by  deliberate  royal
planning, settlers received plots and  in  return  manned  the  defences  in
times of war. (Such plots in London under Alfred's rule in the  880s  shaped
the streetplan which still exists today between Cheapside and  the  Thames.)
This obligation required careful recording in  what  became  known  as  'the
Burghal Hidage', which gave details of the building and  manning  of  Wessex
and Mercian burhs according to their size, the length of their ramparts  and
the number of men needed to garrison  them.  Centred  round  Alfred's  royal
palace in Winchester, this network of burhs with strongpoints  on  the  main
river routes was such that no part of Wessex was more  than  20  miles  from
the refuge of one of these settlements. Together with a  navy  of  new  fast
ships built on Alfred's orders, southern England now had a defence in  depth
against Danish raiders.
   Alfred's concept of kingship extended beyond the  administration  of  the
tribal kingdom of Wessex into a broader context. A  religiously  devout  and
pragmatic man who learnt Latin in his late thirties, he recognised that  the
general deterioration in  learning  and  religion  caused  by  the  Vikings'
destruction  of  monasteries  (the  centres  of  the  rudimentary  education
network) had serious implications  for  rulership.  For  example,  the  poor
standards in Latin had led to a decline in the use  of  the  charter  as  an
instrument of royal government to disseminate the  king's  instructions  and
legislation. In one of his  prefaces,  Alfred  wrote  'so  general  was  its
[Latin] decay in England that there were  very  few  on  this  side  of  the
Humber who could understand their rituals in English or translate  a  letter
from Latin into English ... so few that  I  cannot  remember  a  single  one
south of the Thames when I came to the throne.'
   To improve literacy, Alfred arranged, and took part in,  the  translation
(by scholars from Mercia) from Latin into Anglo-Saxon of a handful of  books
he thought it 'most needful for men to know, and to bring it to pass ...  if
we have the peace, that all the youth now in England ... may be  devoted  to
learning'. These books covered history, philosophy and Gregory  the  Great's
'Pastoral Care' (a handbook for bishops), and copies  of  these  books  were
sent to all the bishops of the kingdom. Alfred  was  patron  of  the  Anglo-
Saxon Chronicle (which was copied and supplemented up to 1154), a  patriotic
history of the English from the Wessex viewpoint  designed  to  inspire  its
readers and celebrate Alfred and his monarchy.
   Like other  West  Saxon  kings,  Alfred  established  a  legal  code;  he
assembled the laws of Offa and other predecessors, and of  the  kingdoms  of
Mercia and Kent,  adding  his  own  administrative  regulations  to  form  a
definitive body of Anglo-Saxon law. 'I  ...  collected  these  together  and
ordered to be written many of them which  our  forefathers  observed,  those
which I liked; and many of those which I did not like I  rejected  with  the
advice of my councillors ... For I dared not presume to set  in  writing  at
all many of my own, because it was unknown to me  what  would  please  those
who should come after us ... Then I ... showed those to all my  councillors,
and they then said that they were all pleased  to  observe  them'  (Laws  of
Alfred, c.885-99).
   By the 890s, Alfred's charters and coinage (which he had  also  reformed,
extending its minting to the burhs he had founded) referred to him as  'king
of the English', and Welsh kings sought alliances with him. Alfred  died  in
899, aged 50, and was buried in Winchester, the burial  place  of  the  West
Saxon royal family.
   By stopping the Viking advance and consolidating his  territorial  gains,
Alfred had started the process by which his successors  eventually  extended
their power over the other Anglo-Saxon kings; the  ultimate  unification  of
Anglo-Saxon England was to be led by Wessex. It is for his  valiant  defence
of his kingdom against  a  stronger  enemy,  for  securing  peace  with  the
Vikings and for his farsighted reforms in the reconstruction of  Wessex  and
beyond, that Alfred - alone of all the English kings and queens -  is  known
as 'the Great'.
                        EDWARD «THE ELDER» (899-924)
   Well-trained by Alfred, his son Edward 'the Elder' (reigned 899-924)  was
a bold soldier who defeated the Danes in Northumbria at  Tettenhall  in  910
and  was  acknowledged  by  the  Viking  kingdom  of  York.  The  kings   of
Strathclyde and the Scots submitted to Edward in 921.  By  military  success
and patient planning, Edward spread English influence and control.  Much  of
this was due to his alliance with his  formidable  sister  Aethelflaed,  who
was married to the ruler of Mercia and seems to have governed  that  kingdom
after her husband's death.
   Edward was able  to  establish  an  administration  for  the  kingdom  of
England, whilst obtaining  the  allegiance  of  Danes,  Scots  and  Britons.
Edward died in 924, and he was buried in the New Minster which  he  had  had
completed at Winchester. Edward was twice married, but it is  possible  that
his eldest son Athelstan was the son of a mistress.
                             ATHELSTAN (924-939)
   Edward's heir Athelstan (reigned 925-39) was  also  a  distinguished  and
audacious soldier  who  pushed  the  boundaries  of  the  kingdom  to  their
furthest extent yet. In 927-8,  Athelstan  took  York  from  the  Danes;  he
forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and  of  the  northern
kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute  (reportedly
including 25,000 oxen), and Athelstan eliminated opposition in Cornwall.
   The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which Athelstan  led  a  force  drawn
from Britain and defeated an invasion by the king of  Scotland  in  alliance
with the Welsh and Danes from  Dublin,  earned  him  recognition  by  lesser
kings in Britain.
   Athelstan's law codes strengthened royal control over his large  kingdom;
currency  was  regulated  to  control  silver's  weight  and   to   penalise
fraudsters.  Buying  and  selling  was  mostly  confined  to   the   burghs,
encouraging town life; areas of settlement in the midlands and Danish  towns
were consolidated  into  shires.  Overseas,  Athelstan  built  alliances  by
marrying four of his half-sisters to various rulers in Western Europe.
   He also had extensive cultural and religious contacts; as an enthusiastic
and discriminating collector of works of art and religious relics,  he  gave
away much of his collection to his followers and to churches and bishops  in
order to retain their support.
   Athelstan died at the height of his power and was buried at Malmesbury; a
church charter of 934 described him as 'King of  the  English,  elevated  by
the right hand of the Almighty ... to the Throne of  the  whole  Kingdom  of
Britain'. Athelstan died childless.
                              EDMUND I (939-46)
   Son of Edward the Elder, succeeded his half-brother, Æthelstan, with whom
he had fought at Brunanburh. Combated the Norse Vikings in  Northumbria  and
subdued them in Cumbria and Strathclyde. He  entrusted  these  lands  to  an
ally, Malcolm I of Scotland. Edmund met his death  when  he  was  killed  at
Pucklechurch, in Gloucestershire, by a robber.
                               EADRED (946-55)
   King of Wessex and acknowledged as overlord of Mercia,  the  Danelaw  and
Northumbria. A challenge to Eadred, which serves to illustrate  one  of  his
chief qualities, developed in the north, in the early 950's. Eric  Bloodaxe,
an aptly named, ferocious, Norse Viking who had  been  deposed  by  his  own
people, established himself as king of Northumbria at York, apparently  with
the fearful acquiescence of the Northumbrians. Eadred responded by  marching
north with a considerable force to meet the threat. He proceeded  to  ravage
the Norse-held territories, then moved back to the south.  He  was  attacked
on the way home by Eric's forces. Eadred was so enraged that  he  threatened
to go back to Northumbria and ravage the entire land.
   This  prospect  frightened  the  already  frightened  Northumbrians  into
abandoning Eric Bloodaxe. It  must  be  that  they  viewed  Eadred  as  more
formidable than a bloodthirsty Viking, who had been thrown out of a  society
known  for  its  bloodthirstiness,  because  he  was  too  bloodthirsty  and
tyrannical for them. In any case, according to the  "AngloSaxon  Chronicle",
"the Northumbrians expelled Eric."
   As  to  his  personal  side,  William   of   Malmesbury   provides   some
illumination.  He  says  that  Eadred  was  afflicted  with  some  lingering
physical malady, since he was, "constantly oppressed by sickness, and of  so
weak a digestion as to be unable to swallow more  than  the  juices  of  the
food he had masticated, to the great annoyance  of  his  guests."  Regarding
his spiritual side, apparently the  pillaging,  ravaging  and  laying  waste
that he did, had no deleterious effects on him.  As  Malmesbury  states,  he
devoted his life to God, "endured with patience his frequent  bodily  pains,
prolonged his prayers and made his palace altogether the school of  virtue."
He died while still a young man, as had so many  of  the  kings  of  Wessex,
"accompanied with the utmost grief of men but joy of angels."

                          EADWIG (EDWY) (955-59 AD)
   On the death of Eadred, who had no children, Eadwig was chosen to be king
since he was the oldest of the children in the natural line of the House  of
Wessex. He became king at 16 and displayed some of the tendencies one  could
expect in one so young, royalty or not. Historians have not  treated  Eadwig
especially well, and it is unfortunate for him that  he  ran  afoul  of  the
influential Bishop Dunstan (friend and  advisor  to  the  recently  deceased
king, Eadred, future Archbishop of Canterbury and future  saint),  early  in
his reign. An incident, which occurred on the day of  Eadwig's  consecration
as  king,  purportedly,  illustrates  the  character  of  the  young   king.
According to the report of the  reliable  William  of  Malmesbury,  all  the
dignitaries and officials of the  kingdom  were  meeting  to  discuss  state
business, when the  absence  of  the  new  king  was  noticed.  Dunstan  was
dispatched, along with another bishop, to find the  missing  youth.  He  was
found with his mind on matters other than those of state, in the company  of
the daughter of a noble woman of the kingdom. Malmesbury writes, Dunstan,  "
regardless of the royal indignation, dragged the  lascivious  boy  from  the
chamber and...compelling him to repudiate the strumpet made  him  his  enemy
forever." The record of this incident  was  picked  up  by  future  monastic
chroniclers and made to be the definitive word on the character  of  Eadwig,
mainly because of St. Dunstan's role in it.
   Dunstan was, after that incident, never exactly a favorite  of  Eadwig's,
and it may be fair to say that Eadwig even hated Dunstan, for he  apparently
exiled him soon after this. Eadwig went on to marry Ælgifu,  the  girl  with
whom he was keeping company at the time  of  Dunstan's  intrusion.  For  her
part,  "the  strumpet"  was  eventually  referred  to  as  among  "the  most
illustrious of women", and Eadwig, in  his  short  reign,  was  generous  in
making grants to the church  and  other  religious  institutions.  He  died,
possibly of the Wessex family ailment, when he was only 20.

                               EDGAR (959-975)
   Edgar, king in Mercia and the Danelaw from 957, succeeded his brother  as
king of the English on  Edwy's  death  in  959  -  a  death  which  probably
prevented civil war breaking out between the two brothers. Edgar was a  firm
and capable ruler whose power was acknowledged by other rulers  in  Britain,
as well as by Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's late coronation  in  973  at
Bath was the first to be recorded in some detail; his queen  Aelfthryth  was
the first consort to be crowned queen of England.
   Edgar was the patron of a great monastic revival which owed much  to  his
association  with  Archbishop  Dunstan.   New   bishoprics   were   created,
Benedictine monasteries were  reformed  and  old  monastic  sites  were  re-
endowed with royal grants, some of which were of  land  recovered  from  the
   In the 970s and in the absence of Viking attacks, Edgar - a stern judge -
issued laws which for the first time dealt with Northumbria (parts of  which
were in the Danelaw) as well as  Wessex  and  Mercia.  Edgar's  coinage  was
uniform throughout the  kingdom.  A  more  united  kingdom  based  on  royal
justice and order was  emerging;  the  Monastic  Agreement  (c.970)  praised
Edgar as 'the glorious, by the grace  of  Christ  illustrious  king  of  the
English and of the other peoples dwelling within the bounds  of  the  island
of Britain'. After his death on 8 July 975, Edgar was buried at  Glastonbury
Abbey, Somerset.

                      EDWARD II «THE MARTYR» (975-979)
The sudden death of Edgar at the age of  33  led  to  a  succession  dispute
between rival factions supporting his sons Edward and  Ethelred.  The  elder
son Edward was murdered in 978 at Corfe Castle, Dorset, by  his  seven-year-
old half-brother's supporters.

             ETHELRED II «THE UNREADY» (979-1013 AND 1014-1016)
   Ethelred, the younger son of Edgar, became  king  at  the  age  of  seven
following the murder of his half-brother Edward II in 978 at  Corfe  Castle,
Dorset, by Edward's own supporters.
   For the rest of Ethelred's rule (reigned 978-1016), his brother became  a
posthumous  rallying  point  for  political   unrest;   a   hostile   Church
transformed Edward into a royal martyr. Known as the  Un-raed  or  'Unready'
(meaning 'no counsel', or that he was unwise), Ethelred  failed  to  win  or
retain the allegiance of many of his  subjects.  In  1002,  he  ordered  the
massacre of all Danes in England to eliminate potential treachery.
   Not  being  an  able  soldier,  Ethelred  defended  the  country  against
increasingly rapacious Viking raids from  the  980s  onwards  by  diplomatic
alliance with the duke of Normandy in  991  (he  later  married  the  duke's
daughter Emma) and by buying off renewed attacks by  the  Danes  with  money
levied through a tax called the Danegeld. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in  1006
was dismissive: 'in spite of it all,  the  Danish  army  went  about  as  it
pleased'. By 1012, 48,000 pounds of silver was being  paid  in  Danegeld  to
Danes camped in London.
   In 1013, Ethelred fled to Normandy when  the  powerful  Viking  Sweyn  of
Denmark dispossessed him. Ethelred returned to rule after Sweyn's  death  in
1014, but died himself in 1016.

                              SWEYN (1013-1014)
   The son of a Danish king, Sweyn 'Forkbeard' began conquering territory in
England in 1003,  effectively  devastating  much  of  southern  and  midland
England. The English nobility became so disillusioned  with  their  existing
king, Ethelred 'The Unready', that they acknowledged Sweyn as king in  1013.
Sweyn's reign was short, as he died in 1014, but his son  Canute  the  Great
soon returned and reclaimed control of England.

                         EDMUND II, IRONSIDE (1016)
   Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of  his
father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of  the  city  of
London against the invading Knut  Sveinsson  (Canute),  and  was  proclaimed
king  by  the  Londoners.  Meanwhile,  the  Witan  (Council),   meeting   at
Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of  inconclusive  military
engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned  the  nickname
"Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent,  but  was  routed
by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A  subsequent  peace  agreement  was
made, with Edmund controlling  Wessex  and  Canute  controlling  Mercia  and
Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other  would  take
control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died  in  November,
1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.

                       CANUTE «THE GREAT» (1016-1035)
   Son of Sweyn, Canute became undisputed King of England in 1016,  and  his
rivals (Ethelred's surviving sons and Edmund's son) fled  abroad.  In  1018,
the last Danegeld  of  82,500  pounds  was  paid  to  Canute.  Ruthless  but
capable, Canute consolidated his position by marrying Ethelred's widow  Emma
(Canute's first English partner - the Church did not recognise  her  as  his
wife - was set aside, later appointed regent of Norway). During  his  reign,
Canute  also  became  King  of  Denmark  and  Norway;  his  inheritance  and
formidable personality combined to make him  overlord  of  a  huge  northern

During his inevitable absences in Scandinavia, Canute used powerful  English
and Danish earls to  assist  in  England's  government  -  English  law  and
methods of government remained unchanged.
   A second-generation Christian for reasons of politics as well  as  faith,
Canute went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1027-8.  (It  was  allegedly  Christian
humility which made him reject  his  courtiers'  flattery  by  demonstrating
that even he could not stop the waves; later  hostile  chroniclers  were  to
claim it showed madness.)
   Canute was buried at Winchester. Given that there  was  no  political  or
governmental unity within his empire, it failed to survive owing to  discord
between his sons by two different queens - Harold  Harefoot  (reigned  1035-
40) and Harthacnut (reigned 1040-42) - and the factions  led  by  the  semi-
independent Earls of Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex.

                         HAROLD HAREFOOT (1035-1040)
   Harold Harefoot was the son of Canute and his first  wife,  Elfgifu.  The
brothers began by sharing the kingdom of England after their father's  death
- Harold Harefoot becoming king in Mercia and Northumbria, and  Harthacanute
king of Wessex. During the absence of  Hardicanute  in  Denmark,  his  other
kingdom, Harold Harefoot became effective sole ruler. On his death in  1040,
the kingdom of England fell to Hardicanute alone.

                           HARDICANUTE (1035-1042)
   Harthacnut was the son of Canute and his second wife, Emma, the widow  of
Ethelred II. His father intended Hardicanute to become king of  the  English
in preference to his elder brother Harold Harefoot, but he nearly  lost  his
chance of this when he became preoccupied with affairs in Denmark, of  which
he was also king. Instead, Canute's  eldest  son,  Harold  Harefoot,  became
king of England as a whole.  In 1039 Hardicanute  eventually  set  sail  for
England, arriving to find his brother dead and himself king.

                   EDWARD III, THE CONFESSOR (1042-66 AD)
   The penultimate Anglo-Saxon king, Edward was the oldest son  of  Æthelred
II and Emma. He had gone to Normandy in 1013, when  his  father  and  mother
had fled from England. He stayed there during the reign of  Canute  and,  at
his death in 1035,  led  an  abortive  attempt  to  capture  the  crown  for
himself. He was recalled, for some reason, to the court of Hardicanute,  his
   Canute had placed the local control of  the  shires  into  the  hands  of
several powerful earls: Leofric of Mercia (Lady  Godiva's  husband),  Siward
of Northumbria and Godwin of Wessex, the most  formidable  of  all.  Through
Godwin's influence,  Edward  took  the  throne  at  the  untimely  death  of
Hardicanute in 1042. In 1045, he married Godwin's only daughter, Edith.
   Resulting from the connections made during Edward's years in Normandy, he
surrounded himself with his Norman favorites and was  unduly  influenced  by
them. This Norman "affinity" produced  great  displeasure  among  the  Saxon
nobles. The anti-Norman faction was led by (who else?) Godwin of Wessex  and
his son, Harold Godwinsson, took every available  opportunity  to  undermine
the  kings  favorites.  Edward  sought  to  revenge  himself  on  Godwin  by
insulting his own wife and Godwin's daughter, Edith, and  confining  her  to
the monastery of Wherwell. Disputes also  arose  over  the  issue  of  royal
patronage and Edward's inclination to reward his Norman friends.
   A Norman, Robert Champart, who  had  been  Bishop  of  London,  was  made
Archbishop of Canterbury by Edward in  1051,  a  promotion  that  displeased
Godwin immensely. The Godwins were banished from the kingdom  after  staging
an  unsuccessful  rebellion  against  the  king  but  returned,  landing  an
invasionary force in the south of  England  in  1052.  They  received  great
popular support, and in the face of this, the king  was  forced  to  restore
the Godwins to favor in 1053.
   Edward's greatest achievement was the construction of  a  new  cathedral,
where virtually all English  monarchs  from  William  the  Conqueror  onward
would be crowned. It was determined that the minster should not be built  in
London,  and  so  a  place  was  found  to  the  west  of  the  city  (hence
"Westminster"). The new church  was  consecrated  at  Christmas,  1065,  but
Edward could not attend due to illness.
   On his deathbed, Edward named Harold as his  successor,  instead  of  the
legitimate  heir,  his  grandson,  Edgar  the  Ætheling.  The  question   of
succession had been an issue  for  some  years  and  remained  unsettled  at
Edward's death in  January,  1066.  It  was  neatly  resolved,  however,  by
William the Conqueror, just nine months later.
   There is some question as to what kind of person Edward  was.  After  his
death, he was the object of a religious cult and was canonized in 1161,  but
that could be viewed as  a  strictly  political  move.  Some  say,  probably
correctly, that he was a weak, but violent man and that his  reputation  for
saintliness was overstated, possibly a sham  perpetrated  by  the  monks  of
Westminster in the twelfth century. Others seem to think that he was  deeply
religious man and a patient and peaceable ruler.

                              HAROLD II (1066)
   On  Edward's  death,  the  King's  Council  (the  Witenagemot)  confirmed
Edward's brother-in-law Harold, Earl of  Wessex,  as  King.  With  no  royal
blood, and fearing rival claims from William Duke of Normandy and  the  King
of Norway, Harold had himself crowned in  Westminster  Abbey  on  6  January
1066, the day after Edward's death. During his brief  reign,  Harold  showed
he was an outstanding commander.
   In September, Harald Hardrada of  Norway  (aided  by  Harold's  alienated
brother Tostig, Earl of Northumbria) invaded England  and  was  defeated  by
Harold at the Battle of Stamford  Bridge  near  York.  Hardrada's  army  had
invaded using over 300 ships; so many were killed that only  25  ships  were
needed to transport the survivors home.
   Meanwhile, William,  Duke  of  Normandy  (who  claimed  that  Harold  had
acknowledged him in 1064  as  Edward's  successor)  had  landed  in  Sussex.
Harold rushed south and,  on  14  October  1066,  his  army  of  some  7,000
infantry was defeated on the field of Senlac near Hastings. Harold  was  hit
in the eye by an arrow and cut down by Norman swords.
   An abbey was later built, in 1070, to fulfil a vow made by William I, and
its high altar was placed on the  spot  where  Harold  fell.  The  ruins  of
Battle Abbey still remain with a stone slab marking where Harold died.

                                 THE NORMANS
   The Normans came to govern as a result of one of the most famous  battles
in English history, the Battle of Hastings in 1066. From 1066 to  1154  four
kings ruled. The Domesday Book, that great source  of  English  landholding,
was published, the forests were extended, the Exchequer was  founded  and  a
start was made on the Tower of London. In religious affairs,  the  Gregorian
reform movement gathered pace and forced concessions,  while  the  machinery
of government developed to support the  country  while  Henry  was  fighting
abroad.  Meanwhile,  the  social  landscape  was  altered,  as  the   Norman
aristocracy came to prominence. Many of the nobles struggled to keep a  hold
on both Normandy and England, as divided rule meant the threat of  conflict.

   This was the case when  William  the  Conqueror  died.  His  eldest  son,
Robert, became Duke of Normandy, while the next  youngest,  William,  became
king of England. Their younger brother Henry would become  king  on  William
II's death. The uneasy divide continued until Henry captured and  imprisoned
his elder brother.
   The question of the  succession  continued  to  weigh  heavily  over  the
remainder of the period. Henry's son died, and his  nominated  heir  Matilda
was denied the throne by her cousin, Henry's  nephew,  Stephen.  There  then
followed a period of civil war.  Matilda  married  Geoffrey  Plantagenet  of
Anjou, who took control of Normandy. The duchy was therefore separated  from
England once again.
   A compromise was eventually  reached  whereby  the  son  of  Matilda  and
Geoffrey would be heir to the  English  crown,  while  Stephen's  son  would
inherit his baronial lands. All this meant  that  in  1154  Henry  II  would
ascend to the throne as the first undisputed King in over 100 years -  proof
of the dynastic uncertainty of the Norman period.

                                                   THE CONTINENTAL DYNASTIES
                                                                 1066 - 1216

                     HAROLD BLUETOOTH,
                                  King of Denmark

            Gunhilda of     =   SWEYN FORKBEARD
                                  Styrbjorn    =  Thyra
             Richard I, Duke                                            of

                  of Normandy

                            Thorgils Sprakalegg

Elgiva of (1)    =    CANUTE        =  (2) Emma, widow of            Judith
         =     Richard II,
Northampton       (1016–1035)        ATHELRED II
daughter of        Duke of                                      Gytha  =

              Conan I               Normandy
                  Earl of

               HAROLD            HARDICANUTE
               HAREFOOT       (1040–1042)
               Robert I      =    Herlève
                             Duke of


II         EDWARD THE=Eadgyth



                                                 WILLIAM I
=      Matilda, dau. of

                                                 THE CONQUEROR
Baldwin V, Count

       of Flanders

                               WILLIAM II
    Adela  =   Stephen,                                    Adela of   =
                   Count of                                     Louvain


Matilda = Geoffrey, Count

                 of Anjou and Maine

                                                    HENRY II       =
Eleanor of
Aquitaine, divorced

         wife of LOUIS VII,
                                                                     King of

                                RICHARD I                            JOHN
          = Isabella, dau. of

                           (1189–1199)                          (1199–1216)
          Count of


                                                             HENRY III

                    WILLIAM I «THE CONQUEROR» (1066-1087)
   Born around 1028, William was the illegitimate son of Duke  Robert  I  of
Normandy, and Herleve (also known as  Arlette),  daughter  of  a  tanner  in
Falaise.  Known  as  'William  the  Bastard'  to  his  contemporaries,   his
illegitimacy shaped his career when he was young. On his father's  death  in
1035, William was recognised by his family as the heir  -  an  exception  to
the general rule  that  illegitimacy  barred  succession.  His  great  uncle
looked after the Duchy during William's minority,  and  his  overlord,  King
Henry I of France, knighted him at  the  age  of  15.   From  1047  onwards,
William successfully dealt with  rebellion  inside  Normandy  involving  his
kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted  invasions
by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the  French  forces  were
defeated at the Battle of Mortemer) and 1057. William's  military  successes
and reputation helped him to negotiate his marriage  to  Mathilda,  daughter
of Count Baldwin V of Flanders. At the time  of  his  invasion  of  England,
William was a very experienced and ruthless military  commander,  ruler  and
administrator who  had  unified  Normandy  and  inspired  fear  and  respect
outside his duchy.  William's claim to the English throne was based  on  his
assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised  him  the  throne
(he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II  -  having  sworn  in  1064  to
uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a  usurper.
Furthermore,  William  had  the  support  of  Emperor  Henry  IV  and  papal
approval. William took seven months to prepare  his  invasion  force,  using
some 600 transport ships to carry around 7,000  men  (including  2,000-3,000
cavalry) across the Channel. On 28 September 1066, with a  favourable  wind,
William landed  unopposed  at  Pevensey  and,  within  a  few  days,  raised
fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the  King
of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge  near  York  in  late  September,
Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine  days
to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to  replenish
his exhausted veterans as  he  marched.   At  the  Battle  of  Senlac  (near
Hastings) on 14  October,  Harold's  weary  and  under-strength  army  faced
William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel)  supported
by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal  in  number
(they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-
handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of  being  based
on a ridge above the Norman positions.  The first  uphill  assaults  by  the
Normans failed and a rumour spread that William  had  been  killed;  William
rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show  he  was  still  alive.  The
battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the  Norman  counter-attacks
and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all  mobility,  the  other
withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's  horses  were
killed under him.  William skilfully co-ordinated his archers  and  cavalry,
both of which the English forces lacked. During  a  Norman  assault,  Harold
was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of  a  mounted
knight. Two of his  brothers  were  also  killed.  The  demoralised  English
forces fled. (In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built  on  the  site
of the battle, with the high altar occupying the  spot  where  Harold  fell.
The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around  it,
remain.)  William was crowned on Christmas Day 1066  in  Westminster  Abbey.
Three months later, he was confident enough to return  to  Normandy  leaving
two joint regents (one of whom was his half-brother Odo, Bishop  of  Bayeux,
who was later to commission the Bayeux Tapestry) behind  to  administer  the
kingdom. However, it took William six years  to  consolidate  his  conquest,
and even then he had to face constant plotting and fighting  on  both  sides
of the Channel. In 1068,  Harold's  sons  raided  the  south-west  coast  of
England  (dealt  with  by  William's  local  commanders),  and  there   were
uprisings in the Welsh Marches, Devon and Cornwall. William appointed  earls
who, in Wales and in all parts  of  the  kingdom,  undertook  to  guard  the
threatened frontiers and maintain internal security in return for land.   In
1069, the Danes, in alliance with Prince  Edgar  the  Aetheling  (Ethelred's
great-grandson) and other English nobles, invaded the north and  took  York.
Taking personal charge,  and  pausing  only  to  deal  with  the  rising  at
Stafford, William drove the Danes back to their ships on the  Humber.  In  a
harsh campaign lasting into 1070, William systematically  devastated  Mercia
and Northumbria to deprive the Danes of their supplies and prevent  recovery
of  English  resistance.  Churches   and   monasteries   were   burnt,   and
agricultural land was laid to waste, creating a famine for the  unarmed  and
mostly peasant population which lasted at least  nine  years.  Although  the
Danes were bribed to leave the north, King Sweyn of Denmark  and  his  ships
threatened the east coast  (in  alliance  with  various  English,  including
Hereward the Wake) until a treaty of  peace  was  concluded  in  June  1070.
Further north, where the boundary with Scotland was  unclear,  King  Malcolm
III was encroaching into England.  Yet  again,  William  moved  swiftly  and
moved land and sea forces north to invade Scotland. The Treaty of  Abernethy
in 1072 marked a truce, which was reinforced by Malcolm's eldest  son  being
accepted as a hostage.   William consolidated his  conquest  by  starting  a
castle-building campaign in strategic areas. Originally these  castles  were
wooden towers on earthen 'mottes' (mounds) with a  bailey  (defensive  area)
surrounded by earth ramparts, but many were later rebuilt in stone.  By  the
end of William's reign  over  80  castles  had  been  built  throughout  his
kingdom, as a permanent reminder of the new Norman feudal order.   William's
wholesale confiscation of land from English nobles  and  their  heirs  (many
nobles had died at the battles of Stamford Bridge and  Senlac)  enabled  him
to recruit and retain an army, by demanding military duties in exchange  for
land tenancy granted to Norman, French and Flemish allies. He created up  to
180 'honours'  (lands  scattered  through  shires,  with  a  castle  as  the
governing centre), and in return had some 5,000 knights at his  disposal  to
repress rebellions and pursue  campaigns;  the  knights  were  augmented  by
mercenaries and English infantry from the Anglo-Saxon militia,  raised  from
local levies. William also used the  fyrd,  the  royal  army  -  a  military
arrangement which had survived the Conquest. The King's tenants-in-chief  in
turn created knights under obligation to them and  for  royal  duties  (this
was called subinfeudation), with the  result  that  private  armies  centred
around private castles were created - these were to  cause  future  problems
of anarchy for unfortunate or weak kings. By the end of William's  reign,  a
small group of the King's tenants  had  acquired  about  half  of  England's
landed wealth. Only two Englishmen still held large  estates  directly  from
the King. A foreign aristocracy  had  been  imposed  as  the  new  governing
class.  The expenses of numerous campaigns, together with an economic  slump
(caused by the shifts in landed wealth,  and  the  devastation  of  northern
England for military and political reasons), prompted  William  to  order  a
full-scale investigation  into  the  actual  and  potential  wealth  of  the
kingdom to maximise tax  revenues.  The  Domesday  survey  was  prompted  by
ignorance of the state of land holding in England, as well as the result  of
the costs of defence measures in England and  renewed  war  in  France.  The
scope, speed, efficiency and completion of this survey  was  remarkable  for
its time and resulted in the two-volume Domesday Book of 1086,  which  still
exists today. William needed to ensure the  direct  loyalty  of  his  feudal
tenants. The 1086 Oath  of  Salisbury  was  a  gathering  of  William's  170
tenants-in-chief and other important landowners who took an oath  of  fealty
to William.  William's reach extended elsewhere  into  the  Church  and  the
legal system. French superseded  the  vernacular  (Anglo-Saxon).  Personally
devout, William  used  his  bishops  to  carry  out  administrative  duties.
Lanfranc,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury   from   1070,   was   a   first-class
administrator who assisted in government when William was absent in  France,
and who reorganised the Church in England. Having  established  the  primacy
of his archbishopric  over  that  of  York,  and  with  William's  approval,
Lanfranc excommunicated rebels, and set up Church  or  spiritual  courts  to
deal with ecclesiastical matters. Lanfranc  also  replaced  English  bishops
and abbots (some of  whom  had  already  been  removed  by  the  Council  of
Winchester under papal authority) with Norman or  French  clergy  to  reduce
potential  political  resistance.  In  addition,   Canterbury   and   Durham
Cathedrals were rebuilt and some of the bishops' sees were  moved  to  urban
centres.  At his coronation, William promised to uphold  existing  laws  and
customs.  The  Anglo-Saxon  shire  courts  and   'hundred'   courts   (which
administered defence and tax, as well as justice matters)  remained  intact,
as  did  regional  variations  and  private  Anglo-Saxon  jurisdictions.  To
strengthen royal justice, William relied  on  sheriffs  (previously  smaller
landowners,  but  replaced  by  influential   nobles)   to   supervise   the
administration of justice in existing county courts,  and  sent  members  of
his own court to conduct important  trials.  However,  the  introduction  of
Church courts, the mix of Norman/Roman law and the differing customs led  to
a continuing complex legal framework. More  severe  forest  laws  reinforced
William's conversion of the New Forest  into  a  vast  Royal  deer  reserve.
These laws caused great resentment,  and  to  English  chroniclers  the  New
Forest became a symbol of William's greed. Nevertheless the King  maintained
peace and order. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1087 declared 'he was  a  very
stern and violent man, so no one dared do anything contrary to his will  ...
Amongst other things the good security he made in this country is not to  be
forgotten.'  William spent  the  last  months  of  his  reign  in  Normandy,
fighting a counter-offensive in the  French  Vexin  territory  against  King
Philip's annexation of outlying Normandy territory. Before his  death  on  9
September 1087, William divided his 'Anglo-Norman' state between  his  sons.
(The scene was set for centuries  of  expensive  commitments  by  successive
English monarchs to defend their inherited territories in  France.)  William
bequeathed Normandy as he had promised to his  eldest  son  Robert,  despite
their bitter differences (Robert had sided  with  his  father's  enemies  in
Normandy, and even wounded and defeated his father  in  a  battle  there  in
1079). His son, William Rufus, was to succeed William as  King  of  England,
and the third remaining  son,  Henry,  was  left  5,000  pounds  in  silver.
William  was  buried  in  his  abbey  foundation  of  St  Stephen  at  Caen.
Desecrated by Huguenots (1562) and Revolutionaries (1793), the burial  place
of the first Norman king of England is marked by a simple stone slab.

               WILLIAM II (KNOWN AS WILLIAM RUFUS) (1087-1100)
   Strong, outspoken and ruddy (hence  his  nickname  'Rufus'),  William  II
(reigned 1087-1100) extended his father's policies, taking  royal  power  to
the far north of  England.  Ruthless  in  his  relations  with  his  brother
Robert, William extended  his  grip  on  the  duchy  of  Normandy  under  an
agreement between the brothers in 1091. (Robert went on crusade in 1096.)
   William's  relations  with  the  Church  were  not  easy;  he  took  over
Archbishop Lanfranc's revenues after the latter's death in 1089, kept  other
bishoprics vacant to make use of their revenues, and had numerous  arguments
with Lanfranc's popular successor, Anselm. William died on  2  August  1100,
after being shot by an arrow whilst hunting in the New Forest.

                             HENRY I (1100-1135)
   William's younger brother Henry succeeded to the throne. He  was  crowned
three days after his brother's  death,  against  the  possibility  that  his
eldest brother Robert might claim the English  throne.  After  the  decisive
battle of Tinchebrai in 1106 in France,  Henry  completed  his  conquest  of
Normandy from Robert, who then (unusually even  for  that  time)  spent  the
last 28 years  of  his  life  as  his  brother's  prisoner.   An  energetic,
decisive and occasionally cruel ruler, Henry centralised the  administration
of England and Normandy in the royal court,  using  'viceroys'  in  Normandy
and a group of advisers in England to act on his behalf when he  was  absent
across the Channel. Henry successfully sought to  increase  royal  revenues,
as shown by the official records of his exchequer (the Pipe  Roll  of  1130,
the first exchequer account to survive). He established  peaceful  relations
with Scotland, through his marriage to Mathilda of Scotland.   Henry's  name
'Beauclerc' denoted his good education (as the  youngest  son,  his  parents
possibly expected that he would become a bishop);  Henry  was  probably  the
first Norman king to be fluent in English.  In  1120,  his  legitimate  sons
William and Richard drowned in the White Ship  which  sank  in  the  English
Channel. This posed a succession problem, as Henry never allowed any of  his
illegitimate children to expect succession to either  England  or  Normandy.
Henry  had  a  legitimate  daughter  Matilda  (widow  of  Emperor  Henry  V,
subsequently married to the Count of Anjou).  However,  it  was  his  nephew
Stephen (reigned 1135-54), son of William the  Conqueror's  daughter  Adela,
who succeeded Henry after his death, allegedly caused  by  eating  too  many
lampreys (fish) in 1135, as the barons mostly opposed the idea of  a  female

                       STEPHEN AND MATILDA (1135-1154)
   Though charming, attractive and (when required) a brave warrior,  Stephen
(reigned 1135-54) lacked ruthlessness and  failed  to  inspire  loyalty.  He
could neither control his  friends  nor  subdue  his  enemies,  despite  the
support of his brother Henry of Blois (Bishop of Winchester)  and  his  able
wife Matilda of Boulogne. Henry I's  daughter  Matilda  invaded  England  in
1139 to claim the throne, and  the  country  was  plunged  into  civil  war.
Although anarchy never spread over  the  whole  country,  local  feuds  were
pursued under the cover of the civil war; the bond between the King and  the
nobles broke down, and senior figures (including  Stephen's  brother  Henry)
freely changed allegiances as it suited them. In 1141, Stephen was  captured
at Lincoln and  his  defeat  seemed  certain.  However,  Matilda's  arrogant
behaviour antagonised even her own supporters (Angevins),  and  Stephen  was
released in exchange for her captured ally  and  illegitimate  half-brother,
Earl Robert of  Gloucester.  After  the  latter's  death  in  1147,  Matilda
retired to Normandy (which her husband, the Count of  Anjou  had  conquered)
in 1148. Stephen's throne was still disputed. Matilda's eldest  son,  Henry,
who had been given Normandy by his father in 1150 and who  had  married  the
heiress Eleanor Duchess of Aquitaine, invaded England in 1149 and  again  in
1153. Stephen fought stubbornly against Henry;  Stephen  even  attempted  to
ensure his son Eustace's succession by having him crowned in  Stephen's  own
lifetime. The Church refused (having quarrelled with  the  king  some  years
previously); Eustace's death later in  1153  helped  lead  to  a  negotiated
peace (the treaty of  Wallingford)  under  which  Henry  would  inherit  the
throne after Stephen's death.

                                THE ANGEVINS

    Henry II, the son  of  Geoffrey  Plantagenet  and  Henry  I's  daughter
Matilda, was the first in a long line of 14  Plantagenet  kings,  stretching
from Henry II's accession through to Richard III's  death  in  1485.  Within
that line, however, four distinct Royal Houses can be  identified:  Angevin,
Plantagenet, Lancaster and York.
    The first Angevin King, Henry II, began the period as arguably the most
powerful monarch in Europe, with lands stretching from the Scottish  borders
to the Pyrenees. In addition,  Ireland  was  added  to  his  inheritance,  a
mission entrusted to him by Pope Adrian IV (the only English  Pope).  A  new
administrative zeal was evident at  the  beginning  of  the  period  and  an
efficient  system  of  government  was  formulated.   The   justice   system
developed. However there were quarrels with the Church,  which  became  more
powerful following the murder of Thomas à Becket.
    As with many of his predecessors, Henry II spent much of his time  away
from England fighting abroad. This was  taken  to  an  extreme  by  his  son
Richard, who spent only 10 months of a ten-year reign in the country due  to
his involvement in the crusades. The last of the  Angevin  kings  was  John,
whom history has judged harshly. By 1205, six years into his reign,  only  a
fragment of the vast Angevin empire acquired  by  Henry  II  remained.  John
quarrelled  with  the  Pope  over  the  appointment  of  the  Archbishop  of
Canterbury, eventually surrendering. He was also forced to  sign  the  Magna
Carta in 1215, which restated the rights of the church, the barons  and  all
in the land. John died in ignominy, having broken the contract, leading  the
nobles to summon aid from France and creating a precarious position for  his
heir, Henry III.

                       HENRY II CURTMANTLE (1154-1189)
     Henry II ruled over an empire which stretched from the Scottish  border
to the Pyrenees. One  of  the  strongest,  most  energetic  and  imaginative
rulers, Henry  was  the  inheritor  of  three  dynasties  who  had  acquired
Aquitaine by marriage; his charters listed them: 'King of the English,  Duke
of the Normans and Aquitanians and Count of the Angevins'.  The  King  spent
only 13 years of his reign in England; the other 21 years were spent on  the
continent in his territories in what is now France. Henry's rapid  movements
in carrying out his dynastic responsibilities astonished  the  French  king,
who noted 'now in England, now in Normandy, he must fly rather  than  travel
by horse or ship'.  By 1158, Henry had restored to the  Crown  some  of  the
lands and royal power lost by Stephen; Malcom IV of Scotland  was  compelled
to return the northern counties. Locally chosen sheriffs were  changed  into
royally appointed agents charged  with  enforcing  the  law  and  collecting
taxes in the counties. Personally interested in government  and  law,  Henry
made use of juries and re-introduced the sending  of  justices  (judges)  on
regular tours of the country to try cases for the Crown. His  legal  reforms
have led him to be seen as the  founder  of  English  Common  Law.   Henry's
disagreements with the Archbishop of Canterbury  (the  king's  former  chief
adviser), Thomas à Becket, over Church-State  relations  ended  in  Becket's
murder in 1170 and a  papal  interdict  on  England.  Family  disputes  over
territorial ambitions almost wrecked the king's achievements. Henry died  in
France in 1189, at war with his son Richard,  who  had  joined  forces  with
King Philip of France to attack Normandy.
            RICHARD I COEUR DE LION ('THE LIONHEART') (1189-1199)
   Henry's elder son,  Richard  I  (reigned  1189-99),  fulfilled  his  main
ambition by going on crusade in 1190,  leaving  the  ruling  of  England  to
others. After his victories over Saladin  at  the  siege  of  Acre  and  the
battles of Arsuf and  Jaffa,  concluded  by  the  treaty  of  Jaffa  (1192),
Richard was returning from the Holy Land when he was  captured  in  Austria.
In early 1193, Richard was transferred to Emperor Henry VI's  custody.    In
Richard's absence, King Philip of France failed to obtain  Richard's  French
possessions through invasion or negotiation. In England,  Richard's  brother
John occupied Windsor Castle and prepared an invasion of England by  Flemish
mercenaries, accompanied by armed uprisings. Their  mother,  Queen  Eleanor,
took firm action against John by strengthening garrisons and again  exacting
oaths of allegiance to the king. John's subversive activities were ended  by
the payment of a crushing ransom of 150,000 marks of silver to the  emperor,
for Richard's release in 1194. Warned by Philip's famous  message  'look  to
yourself, the devil is loosed', John fled  to  the  French  court.   On  his
return to England, Richard was recrowned at Winchester in 1194.  Five  years
later he died in France during a minor siege against a rebellious baron.  By
the time of his death, Richard had recovered all his lands. His success  was
short-lived. In 1199 his brother John became king  and  Philip  successfully
invaded Normandy. By 1203, John had retreated to England, losing his  French
lands of Normandy and Anjou by 1205.
                              JOHN (1199-1216)
   John was an able administrator interested in law and  government  but  he
neither trusted others nor was trusted by  them.  Heavy  taxation,  disputes
with  the  Church  (John  was  excommunicated  by  the  Pope  in  1209)  and
unsuccessful attempts to recover his French possessions made him  unpopular.
Many of his barons rebelled and in June 1215 they forced the King to sign  a
peace treaty accepting their reforms.  This treaty,  later  known  as  Magna
Carta, limited royal powers, defined feudal  obligations  between  the  King
and the barons, and guaranteed a number  of  rights.  The  most  influential
clauses concerned the freedom of the Church; the redress  of  grievances  of
owners and tenants of land; the need to consult the  Great  Council  of  the
Realm  so  as  to  prevent   unjust   taxation;   mercantile   and   trading
relationships; regulation of the machinery of justice  so  that  justice  be
denied to no one; and the requirement to  control  the  behaviour  of  royal
officials. The most  important  clauses  established  the  basis  of  habeas
corpus ('you have the body'), i.e. that no one shall  be  imprisoned  except
by due process of law, and that 'to no one will we sell, to no one  will  we
refuse or delay right or justice'.  The Charter also established  a  council
of barons who were to ensure that the Sovereign observed the  Charter,  with
the right to wage war on him if he  did  not.  Magna  Carta  was  the  first
formal document insisting that the Sovereign was as much under the  rule  of
law as his people, and that the rights of  individuals  were  to  be  upheld
even against the wishes  of  the  sovereign.  As  a  source  of  fundamental
constitutional principles, Magna Carta came  to  be  seen  as  an  important
definition of aspects of English law, and in later centuries  as  the  basis
of the liberties of the English people.   As a peace treaty Magna Carta  was
a failure and the rebels invited Louis of France to become their king.  When
John died in 1216 England was in the grip of civil war.

                              THE  PLANTAGENETS
   The Plantagenet  period was dominated by three major  conflicts  at  home
and abroad. Edward I  attempted to create  a  British  empire  dominated  by
England, conquering Wales and  pronouncing his eldest son Prince  of  Wales,
and then attacking Scotland. Scotland was to remain elusive and  retain  its
independence until late in the reign  of  the  Stuart  kings. In  the  reign
of Edward III the Hundred Years War began, a struggle  between  England  and
France. At the end of the Plantagenet period, the reign of  Richard  II  saw
the beginning of the long period of civil feuding known as the  War  of  the
Roses. For the next century, the crown would be disputed by two  conflicting
family strands, the Lancastrians and the Yorkists.
   The period also saw the development of  new  social  institutions  and  a
distinctive English culture.  Parliament  emerged  and  grew.  The  judicial
reforms begun in the reign of Henry  II  were  continued  and  completed  by
Edward I. Culture began to flourish. Three Plantagenet  kings  were  patrons
of Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry. During the early part  of
the period, the architectural style of the Normans gave way  to  the Gothic,
in which style Salisbury Cathedral was built. Westminster Abbey  was rebuilt
and the majority of English cathedrals remodelled. Franciscan and  Dominican
orders began to be established in England, while the universities of  Oxford
and Cambridge had their origins in this period. 
   Amidst the order  of  learning  and  art,  however,  were disturbing  new
phenomena. The outbreak of Bubonic plague or the  'Black  Death'  served  to
undermine military campaigns and cause huge social turbulence, killing  half
the   country's   population. The   price   rises   and   labour    shortage
which resulted led to social unrest, culminating in the Peasants' Revolt  in

                                                   THE PLANTAGENET DYNASTIES
                                                                 1216 - 1485

                                                                  HENRY  III
         =      Eleanor, dau. of Count of Provence

                                                 Eleanor,              =
                                                 dau. of
                                                 FERDINAND III,
                                                 King of Castile
                                                 and Leon

II      =   Isabella, dau.

(1307–1327)          of PHILIP IV,

                     King of France

     EDWARD III   =   Philippa, dau. of Count

     (1327–1377)        of Hainault and Holland

Edward, Prince   =    Joan, dau. of Earl     Lionel, Duke  = Elizabeth
        Blanche of   =   John, Duke      =     Katharine Swynford,
of Wales,                  of Kent (son              of Clarence       de
Burgh               Lancaster          of Lancaster           dau. of Sir
The Black Prince      of EDWARD I)

   of Guienne

                  RICHARD II                 Edmund,           =   Philippa
                  Mary    =   HENRY IV     John Beaufort,
                 (1377–1399)                 Earl of March
                       Bohun      (1399–1413)

                   Roger, Earl  =   Eleanor                        HENRY V
(1) =  Katherine, dau.                       John Beaufort,
                   of March          Holland
(1413–1422)       of CHARLES VI,                     Duke of Somerset

                                King of France

     Richard, Earl     =    Anne
     HENRY VI                                  Margaret Beaufort   =
Edmund Tudor,
     of Cambridge          Mortimer
     Earl of Richmond


                        Richard, Duke = Cecily
                                          Elizabeth of York,   =    HENRY
                        of York                Neville
                                                 dau. of EDWARD IV

              EDWARD IV     =    Elizabeth, dau.
              (1461–1470,            of Sir Richard
              1471–1483)             Woodville

              EDWARD V
              Elizabeth    =    HENRY VII

                            HENRY III (1216-1272)
   Henry III, King John's son, was only nine when he became King.  By  1227,
when he assumed power from his regent, order had  been  restored,  based  on
his acceptance of Magna Carta.  However,  the  King's  failed  campaigns  in
France (1230 and 1242), his choice of friends and  advisers,  together  with
the cost of his scheme to make one of his younger sons King  of  Sicily  and
help the Pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, led to further  disputes  with
the barons and united opposition in Church and  State.  Although  Henry  was
extravagant and his tax demands were resented, the King's  accounts  show  a
list  of  many  charitable  donations  and  payments  for   building   works
(including the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey which began in  1245).    The
Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of  Westminster  (1259)  were
attempts by the nobles to define common law in the spirit  of  Magna  Carta,
control appointments and set up an  aristocratic  council.  Henry  tried  to
defeat them by obtaining papal absolution  from  his  oaths,  and  enlisting
King Louis XI's help. Henry renounced the Provisions in 1262 and  war  broke
out. The barons, under their  leader,  Simon  de  Montfort,  were  initially
successful and even captured Henry. However, Henry  escaped,  joined  forces
with the lords of the Marches (on  the  Welsh  border),  and  Henry  finally
defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle  of  Evesham  in  1265.  Royal
authority was restored by the Statute of Marlborough (1267),  in  which  the
King also promised to uphold Magna Carta  and  some  of  the  Provisions  of

                            EDWARD I (1272-1307)
    Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his  father  Henry
III after the last Anglo Saxon king  (and  his  father's  favourite  saint),
Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage  of
the arts (his mother, Eleanor of Provence, encouraged  Henry  III  to  spend
money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and  a
still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the  Confessor),
and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing  in  Latin
and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music.  In 1254,  Edward
travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15  to  9-year-old
Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III  gave  him  the
duchy of  Gascony,  one  of  the  few  remnants  of  the  once  vast  French
possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony  was  part  of  a  package
which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and  the  King's  lands
in Wales to provide an income for  Edward.  Edward  then  spent  a  year  in
Gascony, studying its administration.   Edward  spent  his  young  adulthood
learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king,  culminating  in
a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged  and
expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by  the  Pope's  offer  of
the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger  of
powerful  barons  including  Henry's  brother-in-law  Simon   de   Montfort.
Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to  agree  to
the Provisions of Oxford in  1258,  under  which  his  debts  were  paid  in
exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of  24,  partly  nominated
by  the  barons,  assumed  the  functions  of  the  King's  Council.   Henry
repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help  of  the  French  king
Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other  qualities).  This
was the only time Edward was  tempted  to  side  with  his  charismatic  and
politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he  supported  holding  a
Parliament in his father's absence.  However, by the time Louis  IX  decided
to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war  broke  out  in  England  in
1263, Edward had returned to his father's  side  and  became  de  Montfort's
greatest enemy. After winning the battle  of  Lewes  in  1264  (after  which
Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided  by  the  terms  of  the
peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265  -  this  was  the
first time  cities  and  burghs  sent  representatives  to  the  parliament.
(Historians differ as to whether de  Montfort  was  an  enlightened  liberal
reformer  or  an  unscrupulous  opportunist  using  any  means  to   advance
himself.)  In  May  1265,  Edward  escaped  from  tight  supervision  whilst
hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort  in  a
savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his  own  defeat  and  death
'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies  are  theirs  ...  they
are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending  of  the
civil war,  Edward  worked  hard  at  social  and  political  reconciliation
between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been  pacified.
 In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of  one-twentieth  of
every citizen's goods and possessions to finance  Edward's  Crusade  to  the
Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly  respected
French king Louis IX on Crusade.  At  a  time  when  popes  were  using  the
crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and  elsewhere,
Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval  tradition  of
aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died of the plague in  Tunis  before
Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing  their
campaign. Edward decided to continue  regardless:  'by  the  blood  of  God,
though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I  will  enter  Acre
... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'.   Edward  arrived  in
Acre  in  May  1271  with  1,000  knights;  his  crusade  was  to  prove  an
anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief  of  Acre  and  a
handful  of  raids,  and  divisions  amongst  the  international  force   of
Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with  the  Baibars.  In
June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by  an  Assassin  (an  order  of
Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the  year.  He  was  never  to
return on crusade.  Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16  November  1272.  Edward
succeeded to the throne without opposition  -  given  his  track  record  in
military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the  country,
enhanced by his magnified  exploits  on  crusade.  In  Edward's  absence,  a
proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary  right
and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally  arrived  in  London
in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster  Abbey.  Aged  35,  he  was  a
veteran  warrior  ('the  best  lance  in  all  the  world',   according   to
contemporaries), a leader with energy and  vision,  and  with  a  formidable
temper.  Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims  to  primacy
in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was  dominated  by  Wales.
At that  time,  Wales  consisted  of  a  number  of  disunited  small  Welsh
princedoms; the South  Welsh  princes  were  in  uneasy  alliance  with  the
Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the  Norman  kings  to
protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the  Northern  Welsh
based in the  rocky  wilds  of  Gwynedd,  under  the  strong  leadership  of
Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince  of  Gwynedd.  In  1247,  under  the  Treaty  of
Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he  held  North  Wales  in  fee  to  the
English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage  of  the  English  civil
wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace  of  Montgomery  (1267)  had
confirmed his title  as  Prince  of  Wales  and  recognised  his  conquests.
However, Llywelyn maintained  that  the  rights  of  his  principality  were
'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not  attend  Edward's
coronation and refused to do homage. Finally,  in  1277  Edward  decided  to
fight Llywelyn 'as  a  rebel  and  disturber  of  the  peace',  and  quickly
defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined  his  brother
David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and  skilful
use of ships brought from England  for  deployment  along  the  North  Welsh
coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The  death  of
Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and  the  subsequent  execution  of  his
brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence.   Under  the
Statute of  Wales  of  1284,  Wales  was  brought  into  the  English  legal
framework and the shire system was extended. In the same  year,  a  son  was
born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named  Edward,  this  future
king was proclaimed the first English Prince of Wales in  1301).  The  Welsh
campaign had produced one  of  the  largest  armies  ever  assembled  by  an
English king - some 15,000 infantry (including  9,000  Welsh  and  a  Gascon
contingent); the army was a formidable  combination  of  heavy  Anglo-Norman
cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow  skills  laid  the  foundations  of
later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols  of
his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,000  on
a network of castles and lesser strongholds  in  North  Wales,  employing  a
work-force of up to 3,500 men drawn from all over  England.  (Some  castles,
such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in  their  ruined  layouts  today,  as
examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.)  Edward's  campaign
in Wales was based on his determination to ensure  peace  and  extend  royal
authority, and it had broad support in  England.  Edward  saw  the  need  to
widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders  of  the
towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland  left  Edward  deeply  in
debt, and  the  taxation  required  to  meet  those  debts  meant  enrolling
national support for his  policies.      To  raise  money,  Edward  summoned
Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments  twice  a  year.  (The  word
'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with  larger
groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was  needed  to  wage  war  against
Philip of  France  (who  had  confiscated  the  duchy  of  Gascony),  Edward
summoned the most comprehensive assembly  ever  summoned  in  England.  This
became known as the Model Parliament, for it  represented  various  estates:
barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of  Edward's  reign,
Parliament usually contained representatives of all these  estates.   Edward
used his royal authority to  establish  the  rights  of  the  Crown  at  the
expense  of  traditional  feudal  privileges,   to   promote   the   uniform
administration of justice, to raise income to meet  the  costs  of  war  and
government, and to codify  the  legal  system.  In  doing  so,  his  methods
emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help  of
his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward  introduced
much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey  of  local
government (with the results entered into documents  known  as  the  Hundred
Rolls), which not  only  defined  royal  rights  and  possessions  but  also
revealed administrative abuses.  The First  Statute  of  Westminster  (1275)
codified 51 existing laws - many originating from  Magna  Carta  -  covering
areas ranging from  extortion  by  royal  officers,  lawyers  and  bailiffs,
methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to  freedom  of  elections.
Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool,  England's  most
important export at the time. At the request of the  merchants,  Edward  was
given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly  £10,000  a
year. Edward also obtained income from  the  licence  fees  imposed  by  the
Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the  Church  (often
made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence.   The  Statutes  of
Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define  and  regulate
feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal  authority  and  to  a
uniform system  of  justice  for  all;  the  Statute  of  Winchester  (1285)
codified the policing system for preserving  public  order.  Other  statutes
had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework  in  England.
The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation  of  land
and kept entailed estates within families: tenants  were  only  tenants  for
life and not able to sell the property  to  others.  The  Third  Statute  of
Westminster  or  Quia  Emptores  (1290)  stopped  subinfeudation  (in  which
tenants of land belonging to the  King  or  to  barons  subcontracted  their
properties and related feudal services).  Edward's assertion that  the  King
of Scotland owed  feudal  allegiance  to  him,  and  the  embittered  Anglo-
Scottish relations leading to war which followed,  were  to  overshadow  the
rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known  as  the  'Great  Cause'.
Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become  the  vassal
to  Henry  II,  but  in  1189  Richard  I  had  absolved  William  from  his
allegiance. Intermarriage between the  English  and  Scottish  royal  houses
promoted peace between the  two  countries  until  the  premature  death  of
Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret  the
'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway,  she  was  pledged  to  be
married to Edward's then only surviving son,  Edward  of  Caernarvon),  also
died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse  by  the  death  in  the
same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially  carried
from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and  a  memorial  cross  erected  at
every one of the twelve resting  places,  including  what  became  known  as
Charing Cross in London).   In  the  absence  of  an  obvious  heir  to  the
Scottish  throne,  the  disunited  Scottish  magnates  invited   Edward   to
determine the dispute. In order to  gain  acceptance  of  his  authority  in
reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition  from  the  rival
claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the  right  to
determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292,  Edward  and  his  104
assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as  the  claimant
closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore  loyalty  to  Edward  and  was
crowned  at  Scone.   John  Balliol's  position  proved  difficult.   Edward
insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as  sovereign  lord,  had
the right to  hear  in  England  appeals  against  Balliol's  judgements  in
Scotland. In 1294, Balliol  lost  authority  amongst  Scottish  magnates  by
going to Westminster after receiving a summons  from  Edward;  the  magnates
decided to seek allies in France and  concluded  the  'Auld  Alliance'  with
France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony)  -  an  alliance
which was to influence Scottish history for the next  300  years.  In  March
1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the  English  led  by  Edward
sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally  renounced
his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of  'grievous  and  intolerable
injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your  own
whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the  fealty  and  homage  which  we
have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick  as
the financial capital of the  country,  Edward's  forces  overran  remaining
Scottish  resistance.  Scots  leaders  were  taken  hostage,  and  Edinburgh
Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and  spent
the rest of his life in exile in England and  Normandy.   Having  humiliated
Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued:  he  appointed
a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the  Stone  of  Scone  -
also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns  had  been
crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in  the  Coronation  Chair
in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was  returned  to  Scotland
in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites  in  Scotland,
as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did  not  have
the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme.  By 1297,  Edward
was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his  commitments  outweighed
his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France,  in
Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the  clergy  were  refusing
to pay  their  share  of  the  costs,  with  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury
threatening excommunication;  Parliament  was  reluctant  to  contribute  to
Edward's  expensive  and  unsuccessful  military  policies;  the  Earls   of
Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the  barons  presented
a formal statement of their grievances. In the end,  Edward  was  forced  to
reconfirm the Charters (including  Magna  Carta)  to  obtain  the  money  he
required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new  Gascon
Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France  in  1297,  followed  by  a
peace treaty in 1303 under which the  French  king  restored  the  duchy  of
Gascony to Edward.  In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of  campaigns  from
1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen  in  Balliol's  name  and  recovered
most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle  of  Falkirk
in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captured in  1305,  allegedly  by  the
treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was  executed.)  In
1304,  Edward  summoned  a   full   Parliament   (which   elected   Scottish
representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement  of
Scotland were made. The new  government  in  Scotland  featured  a  Council,
which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce  unexpectedly  rebelled  in  1306  by
killing a fellow counsellor and was  crowned  king  of  Scotland  at  Scone.
Despite his failing health, Edward  was  carried  north  to  pursue  another
campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7  July  1307  aged  68.
According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be  carried
on Scottish campaigns and  that  his  heart  be  taken  to  the  Holy  Land.
However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey  in  a  plain  black  marble
tomb, which in later years was painted  with  the  words  Scottorum  malleus
(Hammer of  the  Scots)  and  Pactum  serva  (Keep  troth).  Throughout  the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries,  the  Exchequer  paid  to  keep  candles
burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly  King  of  England,  of
famous memory'.

                            EDWARD II (1307-1327)
   Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval  king.
Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known  being  a  Gascon,
Piers Gaveston), and the barons,  feeling  excluded  from  power,  rebelled.
Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power  and
control the King. The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted  to  limit
royal control of finance and  appointments,  were  counteracted  by  Edward.
Large debts (many inherited)  and  the  Scots'  victory  at  Bannockburn  by
Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.  Edward's victory in  a
civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a  protectionist
measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh  and
Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise  between  the
King and the nobles. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife,  Isabella  of  France,
led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward  was  made  to  renounce
the throne in favour of his son Edward (the  first  time  that  an  anointed
king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013).  Edward  II  was
later murdered at Berkeley Castle.

                            EDWARD III (1327-77)
   Edward III was 14 when he was crowned King and assumed government in  his
own right in 1330. In 1337, Edward created the Duchy of Cornwall to  provide
the heir to the throne with an income independent of the  sovereign  or  the
state. An able soldier, and an inspiring leader, Edward  founded  the  Order
of the Garter in 1348.  At the beginning of the Hundred Years War  in  1337,
actual campaigning started when the King invaded France  in  1339  and  laid
claim to the throne of France. Following a sea victory  at  Sluys  in  1340,
Edward overran  Brittany  in  1342  and  in  1346  he  landed  in  Normandy,
defeating the French King, Philip IV, at the Battle of  Crécy  and  his  son
Edward (the Black Prince) repeated his success at Poitiers (1356).  By  1360
Edward controlled over a quarter of France. His successes  consolidated  the
support of the  nobles,  lessened  criticism  of  the  taxes,  and  improved
relations with Parliament. However, under the  1375  Treaty  of  Bruges  the
French King, Charles V, reversed most of the English conquests;  Calais  and
a coastal strip near Bordeaux were  Edward's  only  lasting  gain.   Failure
abroad provoked criticism at home. The Black Death plague outbreaks of 1348-
9, 1361-2 and 1369 inflicted severe social  dislocation  (the  King  lost  a
daughter to the plague) and caused deflation; severe  laws  were  introduced
to attempt to fix wages and prices. In 1376, the  'Good  Parliament'  (which
saw the election of the first Speaker to  represent  the  Commons)  attacked
the high taxes and criticised the King's advisers. The ageing King  withdrew
to Windsor for the rest of his reign,  eventually  dying  at  Sheen  Palace,

                            RICHARD II (1377-99)
   Edward III's son, the Black Prince, died in 1376.  The  King's  grandson,
Richard II, succeeded to the throne aged 10, on Edward's death. In 1381  the
Peasants' Revolt broke out and Richard, aged 14, bravely rode  out  to  meet
the rebels at Smithfield, London. Wat Tyler, the  principal  leader  of  the
peasants, was killed and the uprisings in  the  rest  of  the  country  were
crushed over the next few weeks (Richard was later forced by  his  Council's
advice to rescind the pardons he had given). Highly  cultured,  Richard  was
one of the greatest royal patrons of the arts; patron  of  Chaucer,  it  was
Richard who ordered the technically innovative transformation of the  Norman
Westminster Hall to what it is  today.  (Built  between  1097  and  1099  by
William II, the Hall was the ceremonial and  administrative  centre  of  the
kingdom; it also housed  the  Courts  of  Justice  until  1882.)   Richard's
authoritarian  approach  upset  vested   interests,   and   his   increasing
dependence  on  favourites  provoked  resentment.  In  1388  the  'Merciless
Parliament' led by a group of  lords  hostile  to  Richard  (headed  by  the
King's uncle, Gloucester) sentenced many of the King's favourites  to  death
and forced Richard to renew his coronation oath.  The  death  of  his  first
queen,  Anne  of  Bohemia,  in  1394  further  isolated  Richard,  and   his
subsequent arbitrary behaviour alienated people further.  Richard  took  his
revenge in 1397, arresting or banishing many of his opponents;  his  cousin,
Henry of Bolingbroke, was  also  subsequently  banished.  On  the  death  of
Henry's father, John of  Gaunt  (a  younger  son  of  Edward  III),  Richard
confiscated the vast properties of his Duchy of  Lancaster  (which  amounted
to a state within a state) and divided them among his  supporters.   Richard
pursued policies of peace with France  (his  second  wife  was  Isabella  of
Valois); Richard still called himself king of France and refused to give  up
Calais, but his reign was concurrent with a 28 year  truce  in  the  Hundred
Years War. His expeditions to Ireland failed to  reconcile  the  Anglo-Irish
lords with the Gaels. In 1399, whilst  Richard  was  in  Ireland,  Henry  of
Bolingbroke returned to claim his father's inheritance.  Supported  by  some
of the leading baronial families (including Richard's former  Archbishop  of
Canterbury), Henry captured and deposed  Richard.  Bolingbroke  was  crowned
King as Henry IV. Risings in  support  of  Richard  led  to  his  murder  in
Pontefract Castle; Henry V subsequently had his body buried  in  Westminster

                              THE  LANCASTRIANS

   The accession of Henry IV sowed the seeds for a period  of  unrest  which
ultimately broke out in civil war.  Fraught  by  rebellion  and  instability
after his usurpation of Richard II, Henry IV found it difficult  to  enforce
his rule. His son, Henry V, fared better, defeating  France  in  the  famous
Battle of Agincourt (1415) and  staking  a  powerful  claim  to  the  French
throne. Success was short-lived with his early death.
   By the reign of the relatively weak Henry VI, civil war broke out between
rival claimants to the throne, dating back to the sons of  Edward  III.  The
Lancastrian dynasty descended from John of Gaunt, third son of  Edward  III,
whose son Henry deposed the unpopular Richard II.   Yorkist  claimants  such
as the Duke of York asserted their legitimate claim to  the  throne  through
Edward III's second surviving son, but through a female line.  The  Wars  of
the Roses therefore tested whether the succession should keep  to  the  male
line or could pass through females.
   Captured and briefly restored, Henry VI was captured and  put  to  death,
and the Yorkist faction led by Edward IV gained the throne.

                            HENRY IV (1399-1413)
   Henry IV was born at Bolingbroke in 1367 to John of Gaunt and Blanche  of
Lancaster. He married Mary Bohun  in  1380,  who  bore  him  seven  children
before her death in 1394. In 1402, Henry  remarried,  taking  as  his  bride
Joan of Navarre.  Henry had an on-again,  off-again  relationship  with  his
cousin, Richard II. He was  one  of  the  Lords  Appellant,  who,  in  1388,
persecuted many of Richard's advisor-favorites,  but  his  excellence  as  a
soldier gained the king's favor - Henry was  created  Duke  of  Hereford  in
1397. In 1398, however, the increasingly  suspicious  Richard  banished  him
for ten years. John of Gaunt's death in 1399 prompted Richard to  confiscate
the vast Lancastrian estates; Henry invaded England  while  Richard  was  on
campaign in Ireland, usurping the throne from the king.  The very nature  of
Henry's usurpation dictated the  circumstances  of  his  reign  -  incessant
rebellion became the order of  the  day.  Richard's  supporters  immediately
revolted upon his deposition  in  1400.  In  Wales,  Owen  Glendower  led  a
national uprising that lasted until 1408; the Scots waged continual  warfare
throughout the reign; the powerful  families  of  Percy  and  Mortimer  (the
latter possessing a stronger claim to the throne than Henry)  revolted  from
1403 to 1408;  and  Richard  Scrope,  Archbishop  of  York,  proclaimed  his
opposition to the Lancastrian claim in 1405.  Two political blunders in  the
latter years of his reign diminished Henry's support. His marriage  to  Joan
of Navarre  (of  whom  it  was  rumored  practiced  necromancy)  was  highly
unpopular - she was, in fact, convicted of witchcraft in  1419.  Scrope  and
Thomas Mawbray were executed in 1405 after  conspiring  against  Henry;  the
Archbishop's  execution  alarmed  the  English   people,   adding   to   his
unpopularity. He developed a nasty skin disorder  and  epilepsy,  persuading
many that God was punishing the king for executing an archbishop.   Crushing
the myriad of rebellions was costly, which involved  calling  Parliament  to
fund such activities. The House of Commons used the  opportunity  to  expand
its powers in 1401, securing recognition of freedom of  debate  and  freedom
from arrest for  dissenting  opinions.  Lollardy,  the  Protestant  movement
founded by John Wycliffe during the reign of  Edward  III,  gained  momentum
and frightened both secular and clerical  landowners,  inspiring  the  first
anti-heresy statute, De Heritico Comburendo, to become law in 1401.   Henry,
ailing from leprosy and epilepsy, watched as  Prince  Henry  controlled  the
government for the last two years of his reign. In 1413, Henry died  in  the
Jerusalem Chamber of  Westminster  Abbey.  Rafael  Holinshed  explained  his
unpopularity in Chronicles of England: "... by punishing such as moved  with
disdain to see him usurp the crown, did at sundry times rebel  against  him,
he won(himself more hatred, than in all his life time ... had been  possible
for him to have weeded out and removed." Unlikely as it  may  seem  (due  to
the amount of rebellion  in  his  reign);  Henry  left  his  eldest  son  an
undisputed succession.

                             HENRY V (1413-1422)
   Henry V, the eldest son of Henry IV and Mary Bohun, was born in 1387.  As
per arrangement by the Treaty of Troyes, he married Catherine,  daughter  of
the French King Charles VI, in June 1420. His only child, the  future  Henry
VI, was born in 1421.
   Henry was an accomplished soldier: at age fourteen he  fought  the  Welsh
forces of Owen ap Glendower;  at  age  sixteen  he  commanded  his  father's
forces at the battle of Shrewsbury; and shortly after his accession  he  put
down a major Lollard uprising and an  assassination  plot  by  nobles  still
loyal to Richard II . He proposed to marry Catherine in 1415, demanding  the
old Plantagenet lands of  Normandy  and  Anjou  as  his  dowry.  Charles  VI
refused and Henry declared war, opening yet another chapter in  the  Hundred
Years' War. The French war served two purposes  -  to  gain  lands  lost  in
previous battles and to focus attention away from any of his cousins'  royal
ambitions. Henry, possessed a  masterful  military  mind  and  defeated  the
French at the Battle of Agincourt in October 1415, and by 1419 had  captured
Normandy, Picardy and much of the Capetian stronghold of the  Ile-de-France.

   By the Treaty of Troyes in 1420, Charles VI not only  accepted  Henry  as
his son-in-law, but passed over his own son to name Henry  as  heir  to  the
French crown. Had Henry lived a mere two months longer, he would  have  been
king of both England and France.
   Henry had prematurely aged due to living the hard life of a  soldier.  He
became seriously ill and  died  after  returning  from  yet  another  French
campaign; Catherine had bore his only son while he was away and  Henry  died
having never seen the child. The historian Rafael Holinshed,  in  Chronicles
of England , summed up Henry's reign as such: "This Henry  was  a  king,  of
life without spot, a prince whom all men loved, and  of  none  disdained,  e
captain against whom fortune never  frowned,  nor  mischance  once  spurned,
whose people him so severe a justicer both loved and obeyed (and  so  humane
withal) that he left no offence unpunished,  nor  friendship  unrewarded;  a
terror to rebels, and suppressor  of  sedition,  his  virtues  notable,  his
qualities most praiseworthy."

                       HENRY VI (1422-61, 1470-71 AD)
   Henry VI was the only child of Henry V and Catherine of Valois,  born  on
December 6, 1421. He married Margaret of Anjou in 1445; the  union  produced
one son, Edward, who was killed in battle one day before Henry's  execution.
Henry came to the throne as an infant after the early death of  his  father;
in name, he was king of both England and France, but a protector ruled  each
realm. He was educated by Richard Beauchamp beginning in 1428. The whole  of
Henry's reign was involved with retaining both of his crowns - in  the  end,
he held neither.
   Hostilities in France continued, but momentum swung to  the  French  with
the appearance  of  Joan  of  Arc  in  1428.  The  seventeen  year  old  was
instrumental in rescuing the French Dauphin Charles in 1429; he was  crowned
at Reims as Charles VII, and she was burned  at  the  stake  as  a  heretic.
English losses in Brittany (1449), Normandy (1450) and  Gascony  (1453)  led
to the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War in 1453. Henry  lost  his  claim
to all French soil except for Calais.
   The Wars of the Roses began in full during Henry's reign. In 1453,  Henry
had an attack of the hereditary  mental  illness  that  plagued  the  French
house of Valois; Richard, Duke of York, was  made  protector  of  the  realm
during the illness. His wife Margaret, a rather headstrong woman,  alienated
Richard upon  Henry's  recovery  and  Richard  responded  by  attacking  and
defeating the queen's forces at St. Albans in  1455.  Richard  captured  the
king in 1460 and forced him to acknowledge Richard as  heir  to  the  crown.
Henry escaped, joined the Lancastvian  forces  and  attacked  at  Towton  in
March 1461, only to be defeated by the Yorks. Richard's son, Edward IV,  was
proclaimed king; Margaret and Henry  were  exiled  to  Scotland.  They  were
captured in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of  London  until  1470.  Henry
was briefly restored to power in Settember 1470. Edward,  Prince  of  Wales,
died after his final victory  at  Tewkesbury  on  May  20,  1471  and  Henry
returned to the Tower. The last Lancastrian king was murdered the  following

                                THE YORKISTS

   The Yorkist conquest of the Lancastrians in 1461 did not put  an  end  to
the Wars of the Roses, which rumbled on until the  start  of  the  sixteenth
century. Family disloyalty in the form of  Richard  III's  betrayal  of  his
nephews, the young King Edward V and his brother, was part of his  downfall.
Henry Tudor, a claimant to  the  throne  of  Lancastrian  descent,  defeated
Richard III in battle and Richard was killed. With the marriage of Henry  to
Elizabeth, the sister of the young Princes in the Tower, reconciliation  was
finally achieved between the warring houses of Lancaster  and  York  in  the
form of the new Tudor dynasty,  which  combined  their  respective  red  and
white emblems to produce the Tudor rose.

                     EDWARD IV (1461-1470 and 1471-1483)
   Edward IV was able to restore order, despite the temporary return to  the
throne of Henry VI (reigned 1470-71, during which time Edward  fled  to  the
Continent in exile) supported by the Earl of Warwick, 'the  Kingmaker',  who
had previously supported Edward and who was killed at the Battle  of  Barnet
in 1471. Edward also made peace with France; by a shrewd  display  of  force
to exert pressure, Edward reached a profitable agreement with  Louis  XI  at
Picquigny in 1475.  At home, Edward  relied  heavily  on  his  own  personal
control in government, reviving the ancient custom of sitting in person  'on
the bench' (i.e. in judgement) to enforce  justice.  He  sacked  Lancastrian
office-holders and used his financial acumen to introduce  tight  management
of royal revenues to reduce the  Crown's  debt.  Building  closer  relations
with  the  merchant  community,  he  encouraged  commercial   treaties;   he
successfully traded in wool on his  own  account  to  restore  his  family's
fortunes and enable the King to 'live of his own', paying the costs  of  the
country's administration from the Crown  Estates  profits  and  freeing  him
from dependence on subsidies from Parliament.  Edward  rebuilt  St  George's
Chapel at Windsor (possibly seeing it as a mausoleum for  the  Yorkists,  as
he was buried  there)  and  a  new  great  hall  at  Eltham  Palace.  Edward
collected illuminated manuscripts - his is the only  intact  medieval  royal
collection to survive (in the British Library)  -  and  patronised  the  new
invention of printing. Edward died in  1483,  leaving  by  his  marriage  to
Elizabeth Woodville a 12-year-old son, Edward, to succeed him.

                         EDWARD V (April-June 1483)
   Edward V was a minor, and his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was made
Protector. Richard had been  loyal  throughout  to  his  brother  Edward  IV
including  the  events  of  1470-71,  Edward's  exile  and  their  brother's
rebellion (the Duke of Clarence, who  was  executed  in  1478  by  drowning,
reputedly in a barrel of Malmsey wine). However, he was  suspicious  of  the
Woodville faction, possibly believing they  were  the  cause  of  Clarence's
death. In response to an attempt  by  Elizabeth  Woodville  to  take  power,
Richard and Edward V entered London in May, with Edward's  coronation  fixed
for 22 June. However, in mid-June Richard assumed the throne as Richard  III
(reigned 1483-85). Edward V and his younger brother  Richard  were  declared
illegitimate, taken to the Royal apartments at the Tower of London  (then  a
Royal residence) and never seen again. (Skeletons, allegedly  theirs,  found
there in 1674 were later buried in Westminster Abbey.)

                           RICHARD III (1483-1485)
   Richard III usurped the throne from the young Edward V,  who  disappeared
with his younger  brother  while  under  their  ambitious  uncle's  supposed
protection.  On becoming  king,  Richard  attempted  genuine  reconciliation
with the Yorkists by  showing  consideration  to  Lancastrians  purged  from
office by Edward IV, and moved Henry VI's body  to  St  George's  Chapel  at
Windsor. The first laws written entirely in English were passed  during  his
reign. In 1484,  Richard's  only  legitimate  son  Edward  predeceased  him.
Before becoming king, Richard had had a strong power base in the north,  and
his reliance on northerners during his reign was to increase  resentment  in
the  south.  Richard  concluded  a  truce  with  Scotland  to   reduce   his
commitments in the north. Nevertheless, resentment against Richard grew.  On
7 August 1485, Henry Tudor (a direct descendant through his mother  Margaret
Beaufort, of John of Gaunt, one of Edward  III's  younger  sons)  landed  at
Milford Haven in Wales to claim the throne. On  22  August,  in  a  two-hour
battle at Bosworth, Henry's forces (assisted by Lord Stanley's private  army
of around 7,000 which was deliberately posted so  that  he  could  join  the
winning side) defeated Richard's larger army and Richard was killed.  Buried
without a monument in Leicester, Richard's bones were scattered  during  the
English Reformation.

                                 THE TUDORS
   The five sovereigns of the Tudor dynasty are among  the  most  well-known
figures in Royal history. Of Welsh origin, Henry  VII  succeeded  in  ending
the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York to found  the
highly successful Tudor house. Henry VII, his son Henry VIII and  his  three
children Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I ruled for 118 eventful years.
   During this period, England developed into one of  the  leading  European
colonial powers, with men such as Sir Walter  Raleigh  taking  part  in  the
conquest of the New World. Nearer to home, campaigns in Ireland brought  the
country under strict English control.
   Culturally and socially, the Tudor period saw  many  changes.  The  Tudor
court played a prominent part in the cultural Renaissance  taking  place  in
Europe, nurturing all-round individuals such as William Shakespeare,  Edmund
Spenser and Cardinal Wolsey. The Tudor period also  saw  the  turbulence  of
two changes of  official  religion,  resulting  in  the  martyrdom  of  many
innocent believers of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. The fear  of
Roman Catholicism induced  by  the  Reformation  was  to  last  for  several
centuries and to play an influential role in the history of the Succession.

                                                                  THE TUDORS
                                                                 1485 - 1603

HENRY VII   =    Elizabeth of York,

(1485–1509)       dau. of EDWARD IV

Catherine of (1)      =   HENRY VIII    =   (2) Anne Boleyn,     =   (3)
Jane, dau.                        Margaret (1)  =  JAMES IV,
Aragon, dau.                (1509–1547)             dau. of Earl
      of Sir John                                                  King of
of FERDINAND V,                                         of Wiltshire
first King of Spain
                                                ELIZABETH I
EDWARD VI                      JAMES V,             =   Mary of
                          MARY I          (1547–1553)
(1558–1603)                       King of Scotland        Lorraine,
                                           (1513–1542)              dau. of


                                               MARY,           =
Henry, Lord

  Queen                     Darnley
                                                      of Scots

THE STUARTS 1603 – 1714                       Anne, dau. of       =

                                                    FREDERICK II,

                                                    King of Denmark


Elizabeth     =   Frederick V,              CHARLES I   =   Henrietta
                         Elector Palatine         (1625–               dau.
   King of France

              Sophia  =  Ernest Augustus,
                               Elector of Hanover

                                                               CHARLES II
        Mary  =  WILLIAM II                    JAMES II           =
Anne Hyde,
                       of Orange                      (1685–
      dau. of Earl of
                     GEORGE I
                                                             deposed 1688)

                    WILLIAM III      =        MARY II

                    (1689–1702)               (1689–1694)

                                    Joint Sovereigns

                          HENRY VII (1485-1509 AD)
   Henry VII, son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort, was born  in  1457.
He married Elizabeth of York in 1486, who bore him  four  children:  Arthur,
Henry, Margaret and Mary. He died in 1509 after reigning 24 years.
   Henry descended from John of Gaunt, through the latter's  illicit  affair
with Catherine Swynford; although  he  was  a  Lancastrian,  he  gained  the
throne through personal battle. The Lancastrian victory  at  the  Battle  of
Bosworth in 1485 left Richard III slain in the field, York ambitions  routed
and  Henry  proclaimed  king.  From  the  onset  of  his  reign,  Henry  was
determined to bring order to England  after  85  years  of  civil  war.  His
marriage to Elizabeth of York combined both the Lancaster and York  factions
within  the  Tudor  line,  eliminating  further  discord   in   regards   to
succession. He faced two  insurrections  during  his  reign,  each  centered
around "pretenders" who claimed a closer dynastic link to  the  Plantagenets
than Henry. Lambert Simnel posed as the Earl of Warwick, but  his  army  was
defeated and he was eventually pardoned and forced to  work  in  the  king's
kitchen. Perkin Warbeck  posed  as  Richard  of  York,  Edward  V's  younger
brother (and co-prisoner in the Tower of  London);  Warbeck's  support  came
from the continent, and after repeated  invasion  attempts,  Henry  had  him
imprisoned and executed.
   Henry greatly strengthened  the  monarchy  by  employing  many  political
innovations to outmaneuver the nobility. The  household  staff  rose  beyond
mere servitude: Henry eschewed public appearances, therefore, staff  members
were the few persons Henry saw on a regular basis. He created the  Committee
of the Privy Council ,a forerunner of the modern cabinet)  as  an  executive
advisory board; he established the Court of the  Star  Chamber  to  increase
royal involvement in civil and criminal cases; and as an  alternative  to  a
revenue tax disbursement  from  Parliament,  he  imposed  forced  loans  and
grants on the nobility. Henry's mistrust of the nobility  derived  from  his
experiences in the Wars of the  Roses  -  a  majority  remained  dangerously
neutral until the very end. His skill at by-passing  Parliament  (and  thus,
the will  of  the  nobility)  played  a  crucial  role  in  his  success  at
renovating government.
   Henry's political acumen was also evident  in  his  handling  of  foreign
affairs. He played Spain off of France by  arranging  the  marriage  of  his
eldest son, Arthur, to  Catherine  of  Aragon,  daughter  of  Ferdinand  and
Isabella. Arthur died within months and Henry secured a  papal  dispensation
for Catherine to marry Arthur's brother, the future Henry VIII; this  single
event had the widest-ranging effect of all  Henry's  actions:  Henry  VIII's
annulment from Catherine was the impetus for the separation  of  the  Church
of England from the body of  Roman  Catholicism.  The  marriage  of  Henry's
daughter,  Margaret,  to  James  IV  of  Scotland  would  also  have   later
repercussions, as the marriage connected the royal families of both  England
and Scotland, leading the Stuarts to the throne after the extinction of  the
Tudor dynasty. Henry encouraged  trade  and  commerce  by  subsidizing  ship
building and entering into lucrative trade  agreements,  thereby  increasing
the wealth of both crown and nation.
   Henry failed to appeal to the general populace: he maintained a  distance
between king and subject. He brought the nobility to heel out  of  necessity
to transform the medieval government that he  inherited  into  an  efficient
tool  for  conducting  royal  business.  Law  and  trade   replaced   feudal
obligation as the Middle Ages began evolving into the modern world.  Francis
Bacon, in his history of Henry VII, described the king as such: "He  was  of
a high mind, and loved his own will and his own way;  as  one  that  revered
himself, and would reign indeed. Had he been a private  man  he  would  have
been termed proud: But in a wise Prince, it was  but  keeping  of  distance;
which indeed he did towards all; not admitting any  near  or  full  approach
either to his power or to his secrets. For he was governed by none."

                           HENRY VIII (1509-47 AD)
   Henry VIII, born in 1491, was the second son of Henry VII  and  Elizabeth
of York. The significance of Henry's reign is,  at  times,  overshadowed  by
his six marriages: dispensing with these forthwith enables a  deeper  search
into the major themes of the reign. He married Catherine  of  Aragon  (widow
of his brother, Arthur) in 1509, divorcing her in 1533; the  union  produced
one daughter, Mary. Henry married the pregnant  Anne  Boleyn  in  1533;  she
gave him another daughter, Elizabeth, but was  executed  for  infidelity  (a
treasonous charge in the king's  consort)  in  May  1536.  He  married  Jane
Seymour by the end of the same month, who died giving birth to Henry's  lone
male heir, Edward,  in  October  1536.  Early  in  1540,  Henry  arranged  a
marriage with  Anne  of  Cleves,  after  viewing  Hans  Holbein's  beautiful
portrait of the German princess. In person, alas,  Henry  found  her  homely
and the marriage was  never  consummated.  In  July  1540,  he  married  the
adulterous Catherine Howard - she  was  executed  for  infidelity  in  March
1542. Catherine Parr became his wife in 1543, providing  for  the  needs  of
both Henry and his children until his death in 1547.
   The court life initiated by his father  evolved  into  a  cornerstone  of
Tudor government in the reign of Henry VIII.  After  his  father's  staunch,
stolid rule, the energetic, youthful and handsome king avoided governing  in
person, much preferring to journey the  countryside  hunting  and  reviewing
his subjects. Matters of state were  left  in  the  hands  of  others,  most
notably Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York. Cardinal Wolsey  virtually  ruled
England until his failure to secure the papal annulment  that  Henry  needed
to marry Anne Boleyn in 1533. Wolsey was quite capable as  Lord  Chancellor,
but his own interests were served more than that of the  king:  as  powerful
as he  was,  he  still  was  subject  to  Henry's  favor  -  losing  Henry's
confidence proved to be his downfall.  The  early  part  of  Henry's  reign,
however, saw the young king invade France, defeat  Scottish  forces  at  the
Battle of Foldden Field (in which James  IV  of  Scotland  was  slain),  and
write a treatise denouncing Martin Luther's Reformist ideals, for which  the
pope awarded Henry the title "Defender of the Faith".
   The 1530's witnessed Henry's growing involvement  in  government,  and  a
series of events which greatly altered England, as  well  as  the  whole  of
Western Christendom: the separation of the  Church  of  England  from  Roman
Catholicism. The separation was actually a by-product of  Henry's  obsession
with producing a male heir; Catherine of Aragon failed  to  produce  a  male
and the need to  maintain  dynastic  legitimacy  forced  Henry  to  seek  an
annulment from the  pope  in  order  to  marry  Anne  Boleyn.  Wolsey  tried
repeatedly to secure a legal annulment from Pope Clement  VII,  but  Clement
was beholden to the Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and nephew  of  Catherine.
Henry  summoned  the  Reformation  Parliament  in  1529,  which  passed  137
statutes in  seven  years  and  exercised  an  influence  in  political  and
ecclesiastic affairs which was  unknown  to  feudal  parliaments.  Religious
reform movements had already taken hold in England, but on  a  small  scale:
the Lollards had been in existence since the mid-fourteenth century and  the
ideas of Luther and  Zwingli  circulated  within  intellectual  groups,  but
continental Protestantism had yet to find favor  with  the  English  people.
The break from Rome was accomplished through law, not social outcry;  Henry,
as Supreme Head of the  Church  of  England,  acknowledged  this  by  slight
alterations in worship ritual instead of a wholesale reworking of  religious
dogma. England moved into an era of "conformity of mind" with the new  royal
supremacy (much akin to the absolutism of France's Louis XIV): by 1536,  all
ecclesiastical and government officials were required  to  publicly  approve
of the break with Rome and take an oath of  loyalty.  The  king  moved  away
from the medieval idea of ruler as chief  lawmaker  and  overseer  of  civil
behavior, to the modern idea of ruler as the ideological icon of the  state.

   The remainder of Henry's reign was anticlimactic. Anne Boleyn lasted only
three years before her execution; she was  replaced  by  Jane  Seymour,  who
laid Henry's dynastic  problems  to  rest  with  the  birth  of  Edward  VI.
Fragmented  noble  factions  involved  in  the  Wars  of  the  Roses   found
themselves reduced to  vying  for  the  king's  favor  in  court.  Reformist
factions won the  king's  confidence  and  vastly  benefiting  from  Henry's
dissolution of the monasteries, as monastic lands and revenues  went  either
to the crown or the nobility. The royal staff continued the rise  in  status
that began under Henry VII, eventually to rival the power of  the  nobility.
Two men, in particular, were prominent figures through the latter stages  of
Henry's reign: Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer.  Cromwell,  an  efficient
administrator,  succeeded  Wolsey   as   Lord   Chancellor,   creating   new
governmental departments for the varying types of revenue  and  establishing
parish priest's duty of recording births, baptisms,  marriages  and  deaths.
Cranmer,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  dealt  with  and  guided  changes  in
ecclesiastical policy and oversaw the dissolution of the monasteries.
   Henry VIII built upon the innovations instituted by his father. The break
with Rome, coupled with an increase in governmental bureaucracy, led to  the
royal supremacy that would last until the execution of  Charles  I  and  the
establishment of the Commonwealth one hundred  years  after  Henry's  death.
Henry was beloved by his subjects, facing only one major  insurrection,  the
Pilgrimage of Grace, enacted by the northernmost counties in retaliation  to
the break with Rome and the poor  economic  state  of  the  region.  History
remembers Henry in much  the  same  way  as  Piero  Pasqualigo,  a  Venetian
ambassador: "... he is in every respect a most accomplished prince."

                          EDWARD VI (1547-1553 AD)
   Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and Jane  Seymour,  was  born  in  1537.  He
ascended the throne at age nine, upon  the  death  of  his  father.  He  was
betrothed to his cousin, Mary Queen of  Scots,  but  deteriorating  English-
Scot relations prohibited their marriage. The frail, Protestant boy died  of
consumption at age sixteen having never married.  Edward's reign  was  beset
by problems from the onset. Ascending the throne while stillin his  minority
presented a backdrop for factional in fighting and power plays. Henry  VIII,
in his last days, sought to eliminate this potential  problem  by  decreeing
that a Council of Regency would govern until the  child  came  of  age,  but
Edward Seymour (Edward VI's  uncle)  gained  the  upper  hand.  The  Council
offered Seymour the Protectorship of the realm and the Dukedom of  Somerset;
he  genuinely  cared  for  both  the  boy  and  the  realm,  but  used   the
Protectorship, as well as Edward's  religious  radicalism,  to  further  his
Protestant interests. The Book  of  Common  Prayer,  the  eloquent  work  of
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, was instituted in 1549 as a handbook to  the  new
style of worship that skated controversial issues in  an  effort  to  pacify
Catholics. Henrician treason and heresy  laws  were  repealed,  transforming
England into a haven for continental heretics. Catholics were  pleased  with
the softer version of Protestantism, but radical  Protestants  clamored  for
further reforms, adding to the  ever-present  factional  discord.   Economic
hardship plagued England during Edward's rule and foreign relations were  in
a state of disarray. The new faith and the dissolution  of  the  monasteries
left a considerable amount of ecclesiastical officials out  of  work,  at  a
time when unemployment soared; enclosure of  monastic  lands  deprived  many
peasants of their means of subsistence. The coinage lost value as new  coins
were minted from inferior metals, as  specie  from  the  New  World  flooded
English markets. A French/Scottish alliance  threatened  England,  prompting
Somerset to invade Scotland, where Scottish forces were trounced at  Pinkie.
Then general unrest and factional maneuvering proved Somerset's undoing;  he
was executed in September 1552. Thus began one of the most corrupt  eras  of
English political history.  The author of this corruption was  the  Earl  of
Warwick, John Dudley. Dudley was an ambitious political survivor  driven  by
the desire to become  the  largest  landowner  in  England.  Dudley  coerced
Edward by claiming that the boy had reached manhood  on  his  12th  birthday
and was now ready to rule; Dudley also held Edward's purse  strings.  Dudley
was created Duke of Northumberland and virtually ruled England, although  he
had no official title. The Council,  under  his  leadership,  systematically
confiscated church territories, as the recent wave of radical  Protestantism
seemed  a  logical,  and  justifiable,  continuation  of  Henrician  reform.
Northumberland's ambitions grew in proportion to  his  gains  of  power:  he
desperately sought to connect himself to the royal  family.   Northumberland
was given the opportunity to indulge in king making - the practice by  which
an influential noble named the  next  successor,  such  as  Richard  Neville
during the Wars of the Roses - when Edward was  diagnosed  with  consumption
in January 1553. Henry VIII named the line of succession  in  his  will;next
in line after Edward were his sisters Mary and Elizabeth,  followed  by  the
descendants  of  Henry's  sister,  Mary:  Frances  Grey  and  her  children.
Northumberland convinced Edward that his Catholic sister, Mary,  would  ruin
the Protestant reforms enacted throughout the reign; in actuality,  he  knew
Mary  would  restore  Catholicism  and   return   the   confiscated   Church
territories which  were  making  the  Council  very  rich.  Northumberland's
appeal to Edward's radicalism worked as intended:  the  dying  lad  declared
his sisters to be bastards and  passed  the  succession  to  Frances  Grey's
daughter,  Lady  Jane  Grey,  one  of   the   boy's   only   true   friends.
Northumberland impelled the Greys to consent to a marriage between his  son,
Guildford and Lady Jane. Edward died on July 6,  1553,  leaving  a  disputed
succession. Jane, against her wishes, was declared  queen  by  the  Council.
Mary  retreated  to  Framlingham  in  Suffolk  and   claimed   the   throne.
Northumberland took an army to capture Mary, but bungled the  escapade.  The
Council abandoned Northumberland as Mary collected popular support and  rode
triumphantly into London.  Jane  after  a  reign  of  only  nine  days,  was
imprisoned in the Tower of London until her 1554 execution at the  hands  of
her cousin Mary.  Edward was a highly intellectual and pious  lad  who  fell
prey to the machinations of his powerful Council  of  Regency.  His  frailty
led to an early death. Had he lived into manhood, he potentially could  have
become one of England's greatest kings. Jane Austen wrote, "This Man was  on
the whole of a very amiable character...", to  which  Beckett  added,  "  as
docile as a lamb, if indeed  his  gentleness  did  not  amount  to  absolute

                      LADY JANE GREY (10-19 July 1553)
   The Accession of Lady Jane Grey was engineered by the  powerful  Duke  of
Northumberland, President  of  the  King's  Council,  in  the  interests  of
promoting his own dynastic line. Northumberland persuaded the sickly  Edward
VI to name Lady Jane Grey as his heir. As one of Henry VIII's  great-nieces,
the young girl was a genuine claimant to  the  throne.  Northumberland  then
married his own son, Lord Guilford Dudley, to Lady Jane.  On  the  death  of
Edward, Jane assumed  the  throne  and  her  claim  was  recognised  by  the
Council. Despite this, the country rallied to Mary,  Catherine  of  Aragon's
daughter and a devout Roman Catholic. Jane reigned for only  nine  days  and
was later executed with her husband in 1554.

                              MARY I (1553-1558)
   Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that is, a queen reigning in her  own
right rather than a queen  through  marriage  to  a  king).  Courageous  and
stubborn, her character  was  moulded  by  her  earlier  years:  an  Act  of
Parliament in 1533 had declared her illegitimate and removed  her  from  the
succession to the throne (she was reinstated in 1544, but  her  half-brother
Edward removed her from the succession once more shortly before his  death),
whilst she was pressurised to give up the Mass and acknowledge  the  English
Protestant Church.
   Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of  Supreme
Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began  the  slow
reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws  to
secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy  was  regarded  as  a
religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a  different
religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance  and  disloyalty).  As  a
result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in  three  years  -  apart
from eminent Protestant clergy such as  Cranmer  (a  former  archbishop  and
author of two Books of Common Prayer), Latimer and  Ridley,  these  heretics
were mostly poor and self-taught  people.  Apart  from  making  Mary  deeply
unpopular, such treatment demonstrated that people were prepared to die  for
the Protestant settlement established in  Henry's  reign.  The  progress  of
Mary's conversion of the country was also limited by  the  vested  interests
of the aristocracy and gentry who had bought the  monastic  lands  sold  off
after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and who refused  to  return  these
possessions voluntarily as Mary invited them to do.
   Aged 37 at her accession, Mary wished to marry and  have  children,  thus
leaving a Catholic heir to consolidate her religious reforms,  and  removing
her half-sister Elizabeth (a focus for Protestant  opposition)  from  direct
succession. Mary's decision to marry Philip, King of  Spain  from  1556,  in
1554 was very unpopular; the protest from the Commons prompted Mary's  reply
that Parliament was 'not accustomed to use such language  to  the  Kings  of
England' and that in her marriage 'she would choose as  God  inspired  her'.
The marriage was childless, Philip  spent  most  of  it  on  the  continent,
England obtained no share in the Spanish monopolies in New World  trade  and
the alliance with Spain dragged England into  a  war  with  France.  Popular
discontent grew when Calais, the last vestige of  England's  possessions  in
France dating from William the Conqueror's time, was captured by the  French
in 1558. Dogged by ill health, Mary died  later  that  year,  possibly  from
cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth.

                           ELIZABETH I (1558-1603)
   Elizabeth I - the last Tudor  monarch  -  was  born  at  Greenwich  on  7
September 1533, the daughter  of  Henry  VIII  and  his  second  wife,  Anne
Boleyn. Her early life  was  full  of  uncertainties,  and  her  chances  of
succeeding to the throne seemed very slight  once  her  half-brother  Edward
was born in 1537. She was then third in line behind her Roman Catholic half-
sister, Princess  Mary.  Roman  Catholics,  indeed,  always  considered  her
illegitimate and she only narrowly  escaped  execution  in  the  wake  of  a
failed rebellion against Queen Mary in 1554.
   Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on her half-sister's death in  November
1558. She  was  very  well-educated  (fluent  in  six  languages),  and  had
inherited intelligence, determination and shrewdness from both parents.  Her
45-year reign is generally considered one of the most  glorious  in  English
history.  During  it  a  secure  Church  of  England  was  established.  Its
doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563,  a  compromise  between
Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.  Elizabeth  herself  refused  to  'make
windows into men's souls ... there is only one  Jesus  Christ  and  all  the
rest is a dispute over trifles'; she asked for outward uniformity.  Most  of
her subjects accepted the compromise as the basis of their  faith,  and  her
church settlement probably saved England  from  religious  wars  like  those
which France suffered in the second half of the 16th century.
   Although  autocratic  and  capricious,  Elizabeth  had  astute  political
judgement and chose her ministers well; these included  Burghley  (Secretary
of  State),  Hatton  (Lord  Chancellor)  and  Walsingham   (in   charge   of
intelligence  and  also  a  Secretary  of   State).   Overall,   Elizabeth's
administration consisted of  some  600  officials  administering  the  great
offices of state, and a similar number dealing with the Crown  lands  (which
funded the administrative costs). Social and  economic  regulation  and  law
and order remained in the hands of the sheriffs at  local  level,  supported
by unpaid justices of the peace.
   Elizabeth's reign also saw many brave  voyages  of  discovery,  including
those of Francis Drake, Walter Raleigh and  Humphrey  Gilbert,  particularly
to  the  Americas.  These  expeditions  prepared  England  for  an  age   of
colonisation and trade expansion,  which  Elizabeth  herself  recognised  by
establishing the East India Company in 1600.
   The arts flourished during Elizabeth's  reign.  Country  houses  such  as
Longleat and Hardwick Hall were built, miniature painting reached  its  high
point, theatres thrived -  the  Queen  attended  the  first  performance  of
Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The image of Elizabeth's  reign  is
one of triumph and success. The Queen herself was often  called  'Gloriana',
'Good Queen Bess' and 'The Virgin Queen'.  Investing  in  expensive  clothes
and jewellery (to look the part,  like  all  contemporary  sovereigns),  she
cultivated this image by touring the country in  regional  visits  known  as
'progresses', often riding on horseback rather than by  carriage.  Elizabeth
made at least 25 progresses during her reign.
   However, Elizabeth's reign was one of considerable danger and  difficulty
for many, with threats of invasion from  Spain  through  Ireland,  and  from
France through Scotland. Much of northern England was in rebellion in  1569-
70. A papal bull of 1570 specifically  released  Elizabeth's  subjects  from
their allegiance, and she passed harsh laws against  Roman  Catholics  after
plots against her life were discovered. One such plot involved  Mary,  Queen
of Scots, who had fled to England in 1568 after her second husband's  murder
and her subsequent marriage to a man believed to have been involved  in  his
murder. As  a  likely  successor  to  Elizabeth,  Mary  spent  19  years  as
Elizabeth's prisoner because Mary was the focus for rebellion  and  possible
assassination plots, such as the Babington Plot of 1586.  Mary  was  also  a
temptation for potential invaders such as Philip II. In a letter of 1586  to
Mary, Elizabeth wrote, 'You have planned ... to take my  life  and  ruin  my
kingdom ... I never proceeded so harshly against you.'  Despite  Elizabeth's
reluctance to take drastic action, on the insistence of Parliament  and  her
advisers, Mary was tried, found guilty and executed in 1587.
   In 1588, aided by bad weather, the English navy scored  a  great  victory
over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130  ships  -  the  'Armada'.  The
Armada  was  intended  to  overthrow  the  Queen  and   re-establish   Roman
Catholicism by conquest, as Philip  II  believed  he  had  a  claim  to  the
English throne through his marriage to Mary.
   During Elizabeth's long reign, the nation also suffered from high  prices
and severe economic depression, especially in the  countryside,  during  the
1590s. The war against Spain was not very successful after  the  Armada  had
been beaten and, together with other campaigns, it was very  costly.  Though
she kept a tight rein on government expenditure, Elizabeth left large  debts
to her successor. Wars during Elizabeth's reign are estimated to  have  cost
over £5 million (at the prices of the time) which Crown revenues  could  not
match - in 1588, for example, Elizabeth's total annual revenue  amounted  to
some £392,000. Despite the combination of financial  strains  and  prolonged
war after 1588, Parliament was not summoned more often. There were  only  16
sittings of the Commons during Elizabeth's reign, five of which were in  the
period  1588-1601.  Although  Elizabeth  freely  used  her  power  to   veto
legislation, she  avoided  confrontation  and  did  not  attempt  to  define
Parliament's constitutional position and rights.
   Elizabeth chose never to marry. If she had chosen a  foreign  prince,  he
would have drawn England into foreign policies for his  own  advantages  (as
in her sister Mary's  marriage  to  Philip  of  Spain);  marrying  a  fellow
countryman could have drawn the Queen into factional  infighting.  Elizabeth
used her marriage prospects as a political  tool  in  foreign  and  domestic
policies. However, the 'Virgin Queen' was presented as a selfless woman  who
sacrificed personal happiness for the good of the nation, to which she  was,
in essence, 'married'. Late in her reign, she addressed  Parliament  in  the
so-called 'Golden Speech' of 1601 when she told MPs: 'There is no jewel,  be
it of never so high a price, which I set before  this  jewel;  I  mean  your
love.' She seems to have been very popular with the  vast  majority  of  her
   Overall,  Elizabeth's  always  shrewd  and,  when   necessary,   decisive
leadership brought successes during a period of great danger  both  at  home
and abroad. She died at Richmond Palace on 24 March 1603,  having  become  a
legend in her lifetime. The date of her accession  was  a  national  holiday
for two hundred years.
                                 THE STUARTS
   The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. King James  I  of
England who began the period was  also  King  James  VI  of  Scotland,  thus
combining the two thrones for the first time.
   The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to  1714,  a
period which saw a flourishing Court culture  but  also  much  upheaval  and
instability, of plague, fire and war. It was an  age  of  intense  religious
debate and radical politics. Both contributed to a bloody civil war  in  the
mid-seventeenth century between Crown and Parliament (the Cavaliers and  the
Roundheads), resulting in a parliamentary victory for  Oliver  Cromwell  and
the dramatic execution of King Charles I. There was a short-lived  republic,
the first  time  that  the  country  had  experienced  such  an  event.  The
Restoration  of  the  Crown  was  soon  followed   by   another   'Glorious'
Revolution. William  and  Mary  of  Orange  ascended  the  throne  as  joint
monarchs and defenders of Protestantism, followed by Queen Anne, the  second
of James II's daughters.
   The end of the Stuart line with the  death  of  Queen  Anne  led  to  the
drawing up of the Act of  Settlement  in  1701,  which  provided  that  only
Protestants could hold the  throne.  The  next  in  line  according  to  the
provisions of this act was George of Hanover, yet  Stuart  princes  remained
in the wings. The Stuart legacy was to linger on in the  form  of  claimants
to the Crown for another century.

                            JAMES I (1603-25 AD)
   James I was born in 1566 to Mary Queen of Scots and her  second  husband,
Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. He descended from the Tudors through  Margaret,
daughter of Henry VII : both Mary Queen of  Scots  and  Henry  Stewart  were
grandchildren of Margaret Tudor. James ascended  the  Scottish  throne  upon
the abdication of his mother in 1567,  but  Scotland  was  ruled  by  regent
untilJames reached his majority. He married Anne of  Denmark  in  1589,  who
bore  him  three  sons  and  four  daughters:  Henry,  Elizabeth,  Margaret,
Charles, Robert, Mary and Sophia. He was  named  successor  to  the  English
throne by his cousin, Elizabeth I and ascended that throne  in  1603.  James
died of a stroke in 1625 after ruling Scotland for 58 years and England  for
22 years.
   James was profoundly affected by his years as a boy  in  Scottish  court.
Murder and intrigue had plagued the Scottish throne  throughout  the  reigns
of his mother and grandfather (James V)  and  had  no  less  bearing  during
James's rule. His father had been butchered mere months after  James'  birth
by enemies of Mary and Mary,  because  of  her  indiscretions  and  Catholic
faith, was forced to abdicate the throne. Thus, James  developed  a  guarded
manner. He was thrilled to take the English crown and leave  the  strictures
and poverty of the Scottish court.
   James' twenty-nine years of Scottish kingship did little to  prepare  him
for the English monarchy: England and Scotland, rivals  for  superiority  on
the island since the first emigration of the  Anglo-Saxon  races,  virtually
hated each other. This inherent mistrust, combined with  Catholic-Protestant
and Episcopal-Puritan tensions,  severely  limited  James'  prospects  of  a
truly successful reign. His personality also caused problems: he  was  witty
and well-read, fiercely believed in the divine right  of  kingship  and  his
own importance, but found great difficulty in  gaining  acceptance  from  an
English society that found  his  rough-hewn  manners  and  natural  paranoia
quite unbecoming. James saw  little  use  for  Parliament.  His  extravagant
spending habits and nonchalant ignoring of the  nobility's  grievances  kept
king and Parliament constantly at odds. He came to the thrown at the  zenith
of monarchical power, but never truly grasped the depth and  scope  of  that
   Religious dissension was the basis of an event that confirmed and  fueled
James' paranoia: the Gunpowder Plot of November  5,  1605.  Guy  Fawkes  and
four other Catholic dissenters were caught attempting to blow up  the  House
of Lords on  a  day  in  which  the  king  was  to  open  the  session.  The
conspirators were executed, but a fresh  wave  of  anti-Catholic  sentiments
washed  across  England.  James  also  disliked  the  Puritans  who   became
excessive in their demands on the king,  resulting  in  the  first  wave  of
English  immigrants  to  North  America.  James,  however,  did  manage   to
commission an Authorized Version of the Bible, printed in English in 1611.
   The relationship between king and Parliament steadily eroded. Extravagant
spending (particularly on James' favorites), inflation and  bungled  foreign
policies discredited James in the  eyes  of  Parliament.  Parliament  flatly
refused to disburse funds to a king who  ignored  their  concerns  and  were
annoyed by  rewards  lavished  on  favorites  and  great  amounts  spent  on
decoration.  James  awarded  over   200   peerages   (landed   titles)   as,
essentially, bribes designed to  win  loyalty,  the  most  controversial  of
which  was  his  creation  of  George  Villiers  (his  closest  advisor  and
homosexual  partner)  as  Duke  of   Buckingham.   Buckingham   was   highly
influential in foreign  policy,  which  failed  miserably.  James  tried  to
kindle Spanish relations by seeking a marriage between his son  Charles  and
the Spanish Infanta (who was less than receptive to the clumsy overtures  of
Charles and Buckingham), and by executing Sir Walter Raleigh at  the  behest
of Spain.
   James was not wholly unsuccessful as king, but  his  Scottish  background
failed to translate well into a changing English society. He  is  described,
albeit humorously, in 1066 and All That, as such: "James I slobbered at  the
mouth and had favourites; he was thus a bad king"; Sir Anthony  Weldon  made
a more somber observation: "He was very crafty and cunning in petty  things,
as the circumventing any great man, the change of a Favourite, &c.  inasmuch
as a very wise man was wont to say, he believed him the very wisest fool  in

                             CHARLES I (1625-49)
   Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son  of  James
VI of Scotland (from 1603 also James I of England) and Anne of  Denmark.  He
became heir to the throne on the death of  his  brother,  Prince  Henry,  in
1612. He succeeded, as the second Stuart King of England, in 1625.
   Controversy and  disputes  dogged  Charles  throughout  his  reign.  They
eventually led to civil wars, first with the Scots from 1637  and  later  in
England (1642-46 and 1648). The Civil Wars  deeply  divided  people  at  the
time, and historians still disagree about the real causes of  the  conflict,
but it is clear that Charles was not a successful ruler.
   Charles was reserved (he had a residual stammer), self-righteous and  had
a high concept of royal authority, believing in the divine right  of  kings.
He was a good linguist and a sensitive man of refined  tastes.  He  spent  a
lot on the arts, inviting the  artists  Van  Dyck  and  Rubens  to  work  in
England, and buying a great collection of paintings by  Raphael  and  Titian
(this collection was later dispersed under  Cromwell).  His  expenditure  on
his court and his picture collection greatly increased  the  crown's  debts.
Indeed, crippling lack of money was a key problem for both the early  Stuart
   Charles was also deeply religious. He favoured the high Anglican form  of
worship, with much ritual, while  many  of  his  subjects,  particularly  in
Scotland,  wanted  plainer  forms.  Charles  found  himself  ever  more   in
disagreement on religious and financial matters with many leading  citizens.
Having broken an engagement to the Spanish infanta, he had married  a  Roman
Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France,  and  this  only  made  matters  worse.
Although Charles had promised Parliament in 1624  that  there  would  be  no
advantages for recusants  (people  refusing  to  attend  Church  of  England
services), were he to marry a Roman Catholic bride, the French  insisted  on
a commitment to  remove  all  disabilities  upon  Roman  Catholic  subjects.
Charles's lack of scruple was shown by the fact  that  this  commitment  was
secretly added to the marriage treaty, despite his promise to Parliament.
   Charles had inherited disagreements with Parliament from his father,  but
his own actions (particularly engaging in ill-fated  wars  with  France  and
Spain at the same time) eventually brought about a crisis  in  1628-29.  Two
expeditions to France failed - one of which had been led  by  Buckingham,  a
royal favourite of both James I and Charles  I,  who  had  gained  political
influence and military power. Such was the general  dislike  of  Buckingham,
that he was impeached by Parliament in 1628, although he was murdered  by  a
fanatic before he could lead the second expedition to France. The  political
controversy over Buckingham demonstrated that, although the monarch's  right
to choose his own Ministers was accepted as an essential part of  the  royal
prerogative, Ministers had to be acceptable to Parliament or there would  be
repeated confrontations. The King's chief opponent in Parliament until  1629
was Sir John Eliot, who was finally imprisoned in the Tower of London  until
his death in 1632.
   Tensions between the King and Parliament centred  around  finances,  made
worse by the costs of war  abroad,  and  by  religious  suspicions  at  home
(Charles's marriage was seen as  ominous,  at  a  time  when  plots  against
Elizabeth I and the Gunpowder Plot in James I's reign were  still  fresh  in
the collective memory, and when the Protestant cause was going badly in  the
war in Europe). In the first four years of his rule, Charles was faced  with
the alternative of either obtaining parliamentary  funding  and  having  his
policies questioned by argumentative Parliaments who  linked  the  issue  of
supply to remedying their grievances, or conducting a war without  subsidies
from Parliament. Charles dismissed his fourth Parliament in March  1629  and
decided to make do without either its advice or the  taxes  which  it  alone
could grant legally.
   Although opponents later called this period 'the Eleven Years'  Tyranny',
Charles's decision to rule without Parliament  was  technically  within  the
King's royal prerogative, and the absence of a  Parliament  was  less  of  a
grievance to  many  people  than  the  efforts  to  raise  revenue  by  non-
parliamentary means. Charles's leading  advisers,  including  William  Laud,
Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Earl  of  Strafford,  were  efficient  but
disliked. For much of the 1630s, the King  gained  most  of  the  income  he
needed from such measures  as  impositions,  exploitation  of  forest  laws,
forced loans, wardship and, above all, ship money  (extended  in  1635  from
ports to the  whole  country).  These  measures  made  him  very  unpopular,
alienating many who were the natural supporters of the Crown.
   Scotland (which Charles had left at the age of 3, returning only for  his
coronation in 1633) proved the catalyst for rebellion. Charles's attempt  to
impose a High Church liturgy and prayer book  in  Scotland  had  prompted  a
riot in 1637 in Edinburgh which escalated into general unrest.  Charles  had
to recall Parliament; however, the Short Parliament of  April  1640  queried
Charles's request for funds for war against  the  Scots  and  was  dissolved
within weeks. The Scots occupied Newcastle and, under the treaty  of  Ripon,
stayed in occupation of Northumberland and Durham and they were to  be  paid
a subsidy until their grievances were redressed.
   Charles was finally forced to call another Parliament in  November  1640.
This one, which came to be known as The Long Parliament,  started  with  the
imprisonment of Laud and Strafford  (the  latter  was  executed  within  six
months, after a Bill of Attainder which did not allow for  a  defence),  and
the abolition of the King's Council (Star Chamber), and moved on to  declare
ship money and other fines illegal. The King agreed  that  Parliament  could
not be dissolved without its own consent, and  the  Triennial  Act  of  1641
meant that no more than three years could elapse between Parliaments.
   The Irish uprising of October 1641 raised tensions between the  King  and
Parliament  over  the  command  of  the  Army.  Parliament  issued  a  Grand
Remonstrance repeating their grievances, impeached 12 bishops and  attempted
to impeach the Queen. Charles responded by entering the Commons in a  failed
attempt to arrest five Members  of  Parliament,  who  had  fled  before  his
arrival. Parliament reacted by passing a Militia Bill allowing troops to  be
raised only under officers approved by Parliament.  Finally,  on  22  August
1642 at Nottingham, Charles raised the  Royal  Standard  calling  for  loyal
subjects to support him (Oxford was to be  the  King's  capital  during  the
war). The Civil War, what Sir William Waller (a  Parliamentary  general  and
moderate) called 'this war without an enemy', had begun.
   The Battle of Edgehill in October 1642 showed that early on the  fighting
was even. Broadly speaking, Charles retained the north, west and  south-west
of the country, and Parliament had London, East Anglia and  the  south-east,
although there were pockets of resistance everywhere, ranging from  solitary
garrisons to whole cities. However, the Navy sided  with  Parliament  (which
made continental aid difficult), and Charles lacked the  resources  to  hire
substantial mercenary help.
   Parliament had entered an armed alliance with  the  predominant  Scottish
Presbyterian group under the Solemn League and Covenant of  1643,  and  from
1644 onwards Parliament's armies gained the upper hand -  particularly  with
the improved training and discipline  of  the  New  Model  Army.  The  Self-
Denying Ordinance was passed to exclude Members of Parliament  from  holding
army commands, thereby getting rid of  vacillating  or  incompetent  earlier
Parliamentary generals. Under strong generals like Sir  Thomas  Fairfax  and
Oliver Cromwell, Parliament won victories at Marston Moor (1644) and  Naseby
(1645). The capture of the King's secret correspondence after Naseby  showed
the extent to which he had been seeking  help  from  Ireland  and  from  the
Continent, which alienated many moderate supporters.
   In May 1646, Charles placed himself in the hands  of  the  Scottish  Army
(who handed him to the English Parliament after nine months  in  return  for
arrears of payment - the Scots had  failed  to  win  Charles's  support  for
establishing Presbyterianism in England). Charles did not see his action  as
surrender, but as an opportunity to regain lost ground by playing one  group
off against another; he saw the monarchy as  the  source  of  stability  and
told parliamentary commanders 'you cannot be without me: you  will  fall  to
ruin if I do not sustain  you'.  In  Scotland  and  Ireland,  factions  were
arguing, whilst in England  there  were  signs  of  division  in  Parliament
between the Presbyterians and the Independents,  with  alienation  from  the
Army  (where  radical  doctrines  such  as  that  of  the   Levellers   were
threatening commanders' authority). Charles's  negotiations  continued  from
his captivity at Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight (to  which  he  had
'escaped' from Hampton Court in November 1647) and  led  to  the  Engagement
with the Scots, under which the Scots would provide an army for  Charles  in
exchange for the imposition of the Covenant on  England.  This  led  to  the
second Civil War of 1648, which ended with Cromwell's victory at Preston  in
   The Army, concluding that permanent peace was impossible  whilst  Charles
lived, decided that  the  King  must  be  put  on  trial  and  executed.  In
December, Parliament was purged, leaving a small rump totally  dependent  on
the Army, and the Rump Parliament established a High  Court  of  Justice  in
the first week of January 1649. On 20  January,  Charles  was  charged  with
high treason 'against the realm  of  England'.  Charles  refused  to  plead,
saying that he did not recognise the legality of  the  High  Court  (it  had
been established by a Commons purged of dissent, and without  the  House  of
Lords - nor had the Commons ever acted as a judicature).
   The King was sentenced to death on 27 January. Three days later,  Charles
was beheaded on a  scaffold  outside  the  Banqueting  House  in  Whitehall,
London. The King asked for warm clothing before his execution:  'the  season
is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some observers may  imagine
proceeds from fear. I would have no such imputation.' On  the  scaffold,  he
repeated his case: 'I must tell you that the liberty  and  freedom  [of  the
people] consists in having of Government, those laws  by  which  their  life
and their goods may be most their  own.  It  is  not  for  having  share  in
Government, Sir, that is  nothing  pertaining  to  them.  A  subject  and  a
sovereign are clean different things. If  I  would  have  given  way  to  an
arbitrary way, for to have all laws changed according to the  Power  of  the
Sword, I needed not to have come here, and therefore I tell you ...  that  I
am the martyr of the people.' His final words were 'I go from a  corruptible
to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be.'
   The King was buried on 9 February at  Windsor,  rather  than  Westminster
Abbey, to avoid public  disorder.  To  avoid  the  automatic  succession  of
Charles I's son Charles, an Act was passed  on  30  January  forbidding  the
proclaiming of another monarch. On 7 February 1649, the office of  King  was
formally abolished.
The Civil Wars were essentially  confrontations  between  the  monarchy  and
Parliament  over  the  definitions  of  the  powers  of  the  monarchy   and
Parliament's authority. These constitutional disagreements were  made  worse
by religious animosities and financial disputes.  Both  sides  claimed  that
they stood for the rule of law, yet civil war was by definition a matter  of
force. Charles I, in his unwavering belief that he stood for  constitutional
and social stability, and the right of the people to enjoy the  benefits  of
that stability, fatally weakened his position  by  failing  to  negotiate  a
compromise with Parliament and paid the price. To many, Charles was seen  as
a martyr for his people and, to this day, wreaths of  remembrance  are  laid
by his supporters on the anniversary of  his  death  at  his  statue,  which
faces down Whitehall to the site of his execution.

                  THE COMMONWEALTH INTERREGNUM (1649-1660)
   Cromwell's convincing military successes at Drogheda in  Ireland  (1649),
Dunbar in Scotland (1650) and Worcester in  England  (1651)  forced  Charles
I's son, Charles, into foreign exile  despite  being  accepted  as  King  in
   From 1649 to 1660, England was therefore a republic during a period known
as the Interregnum ('between reigns'). A  series  of  political  experiments
followed, as  the  country's  rulers  tried  to  redefine  and  establish  a
workable constitution without a monarchy.
   Throughout the Interregnum, Cromwell's relationship with Parliament was a
troubled one, with tensions over the nature  of  the  constitution  and  the
issue of supremacy, control of the armed forces and  debate  over  religious
toleration. In 1653 Parliament was dissolved, and under  the  Instrument  of
Government, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, later refusing the  offer
of the throne. Further disputes with the House of Commons followed;  at  one
stage Cromwell resorted to regional rule by a number  of  the  army's  major
generals. After Cromwell's death  in  1658,  and  the  failure  of  his  son
Richard's short-lived Protectorate, the  army  under  General  Monk  invited
Charles I's son, Charles, to become King.

                         OLIVER CROMWELL (1649-1658)
   Oliver Cromwell, born in Huntingdon in 1599, was a strict Puritan with  a
Cambridge education when he went  to  London  to  represent  his  family  in
Parliament. Clothed conservatively, he possessed  a  Puritan  fervor  and  a
commanding voice, he quickly made a name for himself by serving in both  the
Short Parliament (April 1640) and the Long Parliament (August  1640  through
April 1660). Charles I, pushing his finances to  bankruptcy  and  trying  to
force a new prayer book on Scotland, was badly  beaten  by  the  Scots,  who
demanded £850  per  day  from  the  English  until  the  two  sides  reached
agreement. Charles had no choice but to summon Parliament.
   The Long Parliament, taking an aggressive stance, steadfastly refused  to
authorize any funding until Charles was brought to heel. The  Triennial  Act
of 1641 assured the summoning of Parliament at least every  three  years,  a
formidable challenge to royal prerogative. The Tudor institutions of  fiscal
feudalism (manipulating antiquated feudal fealty  laws  to  extract  money),
the Court of the  Star  Chamber  and  the  Court  of  High  Commission  were
declared illegal  by  Act  of  Parliament  later  in  1641.  A  new  era  of
leadership from the House of Commons  (backed  by  middle  class  merchants,
tradesmen and Puritans) had commenced. Parliament resented  the  insincerity
with which Charles settled with both them and the Scots,  and  despised  his
links with Catholicism.
   1642 was a banner year for Parliament. They stripped Charles of the  last
vestiges of prerogative by abolishing episcopacy, placed the army  and  navy
directly under parliamentary supervision and declared this bill  become  law
even if the king  refused  his  signature.  Charles  entered  the  House  of
Commons (the first king to do so), intent on arresting John Pym, the  leader
of Parliament and four others, but the five conspirators had  already  fled,
making the king appear inept. Charles traveled north to recruit an army  and
raised his standard  against  the  forces  of  Parliaments  (Roundheads)  at
Nottingham on August 22, 1642. England was again embroiled in civil war.
   Cromwell added sixty horses to the Roundhead cause when war broke out. In
the 1642 Battle at Edge Hill, the Roundheads were defeated by  the  superior
Royalist (Cavalier) cavalry, prompting Cromwell to build a trained  cavalry.
Cromwell proved most capable as a military leader. By the Battle of  Marston
Moor in 1644, Cromwell's New Model  Army  had  routed  Cavalier  forces  and
Cromwell earned the nickname "Ironsides" in  the  process.  Fighting  lasted
until July 1645 at the final Cavalier  defeat  at  Naseby.  Within  a  year,
Charles surrendered to the Scots, who turned  him  over  to  Parliament.  By
1646, England was ruled solely by Parliament,  although  the  king  was  not
executed until 1649.
   English society splintered  into  many  factions:  Levellers  (intent  on
eradicating economic  castes),  Puritans,  Episcopalians,  remnants  of  the
Cavaliers and other religious and political radicals argued  over  the  fate
of the realm. The sole source of authority rest with  the  army,  who  moved
quickly to end the debates.  In  November  1648,  the  Long  Parliament  was
reduced to a "Rump" Parliament by the  forced  removal  of  110  members  of
Parliament by Cromwell's army, with another 160  members  refusing  to  take
their seats in opposition to the action. The remainder, barely enough for  a
quorum, embarked  on  an  expedition  of  constitutional  change.  The  Rump
dismantled the machinery of government, most of that, remained loyal to  the
king, abolishing not only the monarchy, but also the Privy  Council,  Courts
of Exchequer and Admiralty and even the House of Lords.  England  was  ruled
by an executive Council of State  and  the  Rump  Parliament,  with  various
subcommittees dealing with day-to-day affairs. Of great importance  was  the
administration in the shires and parishes: the machinery administering  such
governments  was  left  intact;  ingrained  habits  of  ruling  and  obeying
harkened back to monarchy.
   With the death of the ancient constitution  and  Parliament  in  control,
attention was turned to crushing rebellions in the  realm,  as  well  as  in
Ireland and Scotland. Cromwell forced submission from the nobility,  muzzled
the press and defeated Leveller rebels in  Burford.  Annihilating  the  more
radical elements of revolution resulted  in  political  conservatism,  which
eventually  led  to  the  restoration  of  the  monarchy.  Cromwell's   army
slaughtered over  forty  percent  of  the  indigenous  Irishmen,  who  clung
unyieldingly to Catholicism and loyalist sentiments; the remaining  Irishmen
were forcibly transported to County Connaught with the Act of Settlement  in
1653. Scottish Presbyterians fought for a Stuart restoration, in the  person
of Charles II, but were handily defeated, ending the last remnants of  civil
war. The army then turned its attention to internal matters.
   The  Rump  devolved  into  a  petty,  self-perpetuating   and   unbending
oligarchy, which lost credibility in the eyes of the  army.  Cromwell  ended
the Rump Parliament with great indignity on April  21,  1653,  ordering  the
house cleared at the point of a sword. The army called for a new  Parliament
of Puritan saints, who proved as  inept  as  the  Rump.  By  1655,  Cromwell
dissolved his new Parliament, choosing to rule alone (much  like  Charles  I
had done in 1629). The cost of keeping a  standard  army  of  35,000  proved
financially incompatible with  Cromwell's  monetarily  strapped  government.
Two wars  with  the  Dutch  concerning  trade  abroad  added  to  Cromwell's
financial burdens.
   The military's solution was to form yet another version of Parliament.  A
House of Peers was created, packed with Cromwell's supporters and with  true
veto power, but the Commons proved most antagonistic towards  Cromwell.  The
monarchy was restored in all but name; Cromwell went from the title of  Lord
General of the Army to that of Lord Protector of the  Realm  (the  title  of
king was suggested, but wisely rejected by Cromwell when a  furor  arose  in
the military ranks). The Lord Protector died on September  3,  1658,  naming
his son Richard  as  successor.  With  Cromwell's  death,  the  Commonwealth
floundered and the monarchy was restored only two years later.
   The failure of Cromwell and the Commonwealth was  founded  upon  Cromwell
being caught between opposing forces. His attempts to placate the army,  the
nobility, Puritans and Parliament resulted in the alienation of each  group.
Leaving the political machinery of the parishes and shires  untouched  under
the new constitution was the height of  inconsistency;  Cromwell,  the  army
and Parliament were unable to make  a  clear  separation  from  the  ancient
constitution and traditional customs of loyalty and obedience  to  monarchy.
Lacey Baldwin Smith cast an astute  judgment  concerning  the  aims  of  the
Commonwealth: "When Commons was purged out of existence by a military  force
of its own creation, the country learned  a  profound,  if  bitter,  Lesson:
Parliament could no more exist without the  crown  than  the  crown  without
Parliament. The ancient constitution had never been King and Parliament  but
King in Parliament; when one element of that mystical union  was  destroyed,
the other ultimately perished."
   Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658)
   There is definitely an association between John Knox and Oliver Cromwell.
Knox, in his book The Reformation of Scotland, outlined  the  whole  process
without which the British model of government under  Oliver  Cromwell  never
would not have been possible. Yet Knox was more consistently  covenantal  in
his thinking. He recognized that civil government is  based  on  a  covenant
between the magistrate (or the representative or  king)  and  the  populace.
His view was that when the magistrate defects from the covenant, it  is  the
duty of the people to overthrow him.
   Cromwell was not  a  learned  scholar,  as  was  Knox,  nevertheless  God
elevated him to a greater leadership role. Oliver Cromwell was born  into  a
common family of English country Puritans having none of the  advantages  of
upbringing that would prepare him to be leader of a nation.  Yet  he  had  a
God-given ability to earn the loyalty and  respect  of  men  of  genius  who
served him  throughout  his  lifetime.  John  Bunyan,  author  of  Pilgrim's
Progress served under his  command  in  the  English  Civil  War,  and  John
Milton, who penned Paradise Lost, served as his personal secretary.
   Cromwell's early years were ordinary, but after a  conversion  experience
at age 27, he was seized by a sense of divine destiny.  He  became  suddenly
zealous for God. He was a country  squire,  a  bronze-faced,  callous-handed
man of property. He  worked  on  his  farm,  prayed  and  fasted  often  and
occasionally exhorted the  local  congregation  during  church  meetings.  A
quiet, simple, serious-minded man, he spoke little. But when  he  broke  his
silence, it was with great  authority  as  he  commanded  obedience  without
question or dispute. As a justice of the peace, he  attracted  attention  to
himself by collaring loafers at  a  tavern  and  forcing  them  to  join  in
singing a hymn. This exploit together  with  quieting  a  disturbance  among
some student factions at the neighboring town of Cambridge  earned  him  the
respect of the Puritan locals and they  sent  him  to  Parliament  as  their
representative. There  he  attracted  attention  with  his  blunt,  forcible
speech as a member of the Independent Party which was made up of Puritans.
   The English people were bent  upon  the  establishment  of  a  democratic
parliamentary system of civil government and the elimination of the  "Divine
Right of Kings." King Charles I, the tyrant  who  had  long  persecuted  the
English Puritans by having their ears cut  off  and  their  noses  slit  for
defying his attempts to force episcopacy on their churches, finally  clashed
with Parliament over a long ordeal with new  and  revolutionary  ideas.  The
Puritans, or "Roundheads" as they were  called,  finally  led  a  civil  war
against the King and his Cavaliers.
   When he discerned the weaknesses of the  Roundhead  army,  Cromwell  made
himself captain of the cavalry. Cromwell had never been trained in war,  but
from the very beginning he showed consummate genius as a  general.  Cromwell
understood that successful revolutions were always fought by farmers  so  he
gathered a thousand hand-picked Puritans - farmers and herdsmen -  who  were
used to the open fields. His regiment  was  nicknamed  "Ironsides"  and  was
never beaten once, although they  fought  greatly  outnumbered  -  at  times
three to one.
   It was an army the likes of which hadn't been seen since ancient  Israel.
They would recite the Westminster Confession and march into  battle  singing
the Psalms of David striking terror into the heart of the enemy.  Cromwell's
tactic was to strike with the cavalry through  the  advancing  army  at  the
center, go straight through the lines and then circle to either the left  or
the right milling the mass  into  a  mob,  creating  confusion  and  utterly
destroying  them.  Cromwell  amassed  a  body  of  troops  and  soon  became
commander-in-chief. His discipline created the only body of  regular  troops
on  either  side  who  preached,  prayed,  paid  fines  for  profanity   and
drunkenness,  and  charged  the  enemy  singing  hymns   -   the   strangest
abnormality in an age when every vice imaginable characterized soldiers  and
   In the meantime, Charles I invited an Irish Catholic army to his aid,  an
action for which he was tried for high treason and  beheaded  shortly  after
the war. After executing the  national  sovereign,  the  Parliament  assumed
power. The  success  of  the  new  democracy  in  England  was  short-lived.
Cromwell found that a democratic parliamentary system  run  by  squires  and
lords oppressed  the  common  people  and  was  almost  as  corrupt  as  the
rulership of the deposed evil king. As Commander-in-Chief of  the  army,  he
was able to seize rulership and served a term as "Lord Protector."
   During the fifteen years in which Cromwell ruled, he drove  pirates  from
the Mediterranean Sea, set English captives free,  and  subdued  any  threat
from France, Spain and Italy. Cromwell made Great Britain  a  respected  and
feared  power  the  world  over.  Cromwell  maintained  a  large  degree  of
tolerance for rival denominations. He stood for a  national  church  without
bishops. The  ministers  might  be  Presbyterian,  Independent  or  Baptist.
Dissenters were  allowed  to  meet  in  gathered  churches  and  even  Roman
Catholics and Quakers were tolerated. He worked for  reform  of  morals  and
the improvement of  education.  He  strove  constantly  to  make  England  a
genuinely Christian nation and she enjoyed  a  brief  "Golden  Age"  in  her
   When Charles I was beheaded, the understanding was  that  he  had  broken
covenant with the people. The view of Cromwell and  the  Puritans  was  that
when the magistrate breaks covenant, then he may  legitimately  be  deposed.
The Puritan understanding of the covenantal nature  of  government  was  the
foundation for American colonial government. This was true of  Massachusetts
and Connecticut and to a lesser extent in the Southern  colonies.  When  the
Mayflower Compact was written, the Pilgrims had a  covenantal  idea  of  the
nature of civil  government.  This  was  a  foundation  for  later  colonies
established throughout the 1600s. These covenants were  influenced  by  what
Knox had done in Scotland and what the Puritans had done in England.

                        RICHARD CROMWELL (1658-1659)
   The eldest surviving son of Oliver Cromwell, Richard was  Lord  Protector
of England from September 1658 to May 1659, but failed  in  his  efforts  to
lead the Commonwealth.
   Richard served in the Parliaments of 1654 and 1656  and  some  government
posts, but showed little of his father's ability. Constitutional changes  in
1657 allowed Cromwell to choose his successor. He began to prepare  Richard,
appointing him to the council of state and the House of Lords.
   He was proclaimed Lord Protector immediately after his father's death, on
3rd September 1658. Unfortunately, the Commonwealth had been  held  together
by his father and Richard was no Oliver.  It  was  an  unstable  mixture  of
zealous reform and a yearning for  stability,  Parliamentary  authority  and
military power.
   Richard soon faced serious problems. The army were disillusioned  with  a
government that had grown increasingly ceremonious. They grew more  restless
when Richard appointed himself commander in  chief.  A  new  Parliament  was
elected in 1659 but a vacuum of power prompted the  army  council  to  seize
power. In April 1659 it forced Richard to dissolve Parliament.
   The officers now  recalled  the  Rump  Parliament,  dissolved  by  Oliver
Cromwell in 1653. It dismissed Richard  as  Lord  Protector;  he  officially
abdicated in May. Yet the Rump was incapable of governing without  financial
and military support and the army itself remained bitterly  divided.  George
Monck, one of the army's most capable officers, marched south from  Scotland
to protect Parliament but, on arriving in London,  realised  that  only  the
restoration of Charles II could put an end to the political chaos  that  now
gripped the state.
   Richard, having amassed large debts during his time in office,  left  for
Paris in 1660 to escape  his  creditors,  living  under  the  name  of  John
Clarke. After living in Geneva, he  returned  to  England  in  around  1680,
where he lived quietly until his death.

                            CHARLES II (1660-85)
   Although those who had signed Charles I's  death  warrant  were  punished
(nine regicides were put to death, and  Cromwell's  body  was  exhumed  from
Westminster Abbey and buried in a common pit), Charles pursued a  policy  of
political tolerance and power-sharing. In April 1660,  fresh  elections  had
been held and a Convention met with the House of Lords.  Parliament  invited
Charles to return, and he arrived at Dover on 25 May.
   Despite  the  bitterness  left  from  the  Civil  Wars  and  Charles  I's
execution, there were few  detailed  negotiations  over  the  conditions  of
Charles II's restoration to the throne. Under the Declaration  of  Breda  of
May 1660, Charles had promised pardons, arrears of  Army  pay,  confirmation
of  land  purchases  during  the  Interregnum   and   'liberty   of   tender
consciences' in religious matters, but several issues  remained  unresolved.
However, the Militia Act of 1661 vested control of the armed forces  in  the
Crown,  and  Parliament  agreed  to  an  annual  revenue  of  £1,200,000  (a
persistent deficit of £400,000-500,000  remained,  leading  to  difficulties
for Charles in his foreign policy).  The  bishops  were  restored  to  their
seats in the House of Lords, and the Triennial Act of 1641  was  repealed  -
there  was  no  mechanism  for  enforcing  the  King's  obligation  to  call
Parliament at least once every three years. Under the 1660 Act of  Indemnity
and Oblivion, only the lands of the Crown and the Church were  automatically
resumed; the  lands  of  Royalists  and  other  dissenters  which  had  been
confiscated and/or sold on were left for private negotiation or  litigation.

   The early years of Charles's reign saw an appalling plague which hit  the
country in 1665 with 70,000 dying in London alone, and  the  Great  Fire  of
London in 1666 which destroyed St Paul's amongst  other  buildings.  Another
misfortune included the second Dutch war of 1665 (born of English and  Dutch
commercial and colonial rivalry).  Although  the  Dutch  settlement  of  New
Amsterdam was overrun and renamed New York before the war started,  by  1666
France and Denmark had allied with the Dutch. The war  was  dogged  by  poor
administration culminating in a Dutch attack on the Thames in 1667; a  peace
was negotiated later in the year.
   In 1667, Charles dismissed his Lord Chancellor, Clarendon  -  an  adviser
from Charles's days of exile (Clarendon's daughter Anne was the  first  wife
of Charles's brother James and was mother of Queens Mary  and  Anne).  As  a
scapegoat  for  the  difficult  religious  settlement  and  the  Dutch  war,
Clarendon had failed to build a 'Court interest'  in  the  Commons.  He  was
succeeded by a series of ministerial combinations, the first  of  which  was
that of  Clifford,  Ashley,  Buckingham,  Arlington  and  Lauderdale  (whose
initials formed the nickname Cabal). Such combinations (except  for  Danby's
dominance of Parliament from 1673 to 1679) were largely kept in  balance  by
Charles for the rest of his reign.
   Charles's foreign policy was a wavering balance of alliances with  France
and the Dutch in turn. In 1670, Charles signed the secret  treaty  of  Dover
under which Charles would declare himself a Catholic and England would  side
with France against the Dutch - in return Charles  would  receive  subsidies
from the King of  France  (thus  enabling  Charles  some  limited  room  for
manoeuvre with Parliament, but leaving the possibility of public  disclosure
of the treaty by Louis). Practical considerations prevented  such  a  public
conversion, but Charles  issued  a  Declaration  of  Indulgence,  using  his
prerogative  powers  to  suspend  the  penal  laws  against  Catholics   and
Nonconformists. In the face of an Anglican Parliament's opposition,  Charles
was eventually forced to withdraw the Declaration in 1673.
   In 1677 Charles married his niece Mary to William  of  Orange  partly  to
restore the balance after his brother's  second  marriage  to  the  Catholic
Mary of Modena and to re-establish  his  own  Protestant  credentials.  This
assumed a greater importance as it became clear that Charles's  marriage  to
Catherine of Braganza would produce no legitimate  heirs  (although  Charles
had a number  of  mistresses  and  illegitimate  children),  and  his  Roman
Catholic brother James's position as heir apparent raised the prospect of  a
Catholic king.
   Throughout Charles's reign, religious toleration dominated the  political
scene. The 1662 Act of Uniformity had imposed the use of the Book of  Common
Prayer, and insisted that clergy subscribe to Anglican doctrine (some  1,000
clergy lost their livings). Anti-Catholicism was widespread;  the  Test  Act
of  1673  excluded  Roman  Catholics  from  both   Houses   of   Parliament.
Parliament's reaction to the Popish Plot of 1678  (an  allegation  by  Titus
Oates that Jesuit priests were conspiring to murder the King, and  involving
the Queen and the Lord Treasurer, Danby) was to impeach Danby and present  a
Bill to exclude James  (Charles's  younger  brother  and  a  Roman  Catholic
convert)  from  the  succession.  In   1680/81   Charles   dissolved   three
Parliaments which had all tried to introduce Exclusion Bills  on  the  basis
that 'we are not like to have a good end'.
   Charles sponsored the founding of the Royal Society  in  1660  (still  in
existence today) to promote scientific research. Charles also  encouraged  a
rebuilding programme, particularly in the last years  of  his  reign,  which
included extensive rebuilding at Windsor Castle, a huge but uncompleted  new
palace at Winchester and the Greenwich Observatory. Charles was a patron  of
Christopher Wren in the  design  and  rebuilding  of  St  Paul's  Cathedral,
Chelsea  Hospital  (a  refuge  for  old  war  veterans)  and  other   London
   Charles died in 1685, becoming a Roman Catholic on his deathbed.

                             JAMES II (1685-88)
   Born in 1633 and named after his grandfather James I, James II grew up in
exile after the Civil War (he served in the armies of Louis XIV) and,  after
his brother's restoration, commanded the  Royal  Navy  from  1660  to  1673.
James converted to Catholicism in 1669. Despite  his  conversion,  James  II
succeeded to the throne peacefully at the age of  51.  His  position  was  a
strong one - there  were  standing  armies  of  nearly  20,000  men  in  his
kingdoms and he had a revenue of around  £2  million.  Within  days  of  his
succession, James announced the  summoning  of  Parliament  in  May  but  he
sounded a warning note: 'the best way to engage me  to  meet  you  often  is
always to use me well'. A rebellion led by Charles's illegitimate  son,  the
Duke of Monmouth, was easily crushed after the battle of Sedgemoor in  1685,
and savage punishments were imposed by  the  infamous  Lord  Chief  Justice,
Judge Jeffreys, at the 'Bloody Assizes'.
   James's reaction to the Monmouth rebellion was to plan  the  increase  of
the standing army  and  the  appointment  of  loyal  and  experienced  Roman
Catholic officers. This,  together  with  James's  attempts  to  give  civic
equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissenters, led to  conflict  with
Parliament, as it was  seen  as  James  showing  favouritism  towards  Roman
Catholics. Fear of Catholicism was widespread (in 1685,  Louis  XIV  revoked
the Edict of Nantes which gave protection to French  Protestants),  and  the
possibility of a standing army  led  by  Roman  Catholic  officers  produced
protest in Parliament. As a result, James prorogued Parliament in  1685  and
ruled without it.
   James attempted to promote the Roman Catholic cause by dismissing  judges
and  Lord  Lieutenants  who  refused  to  support  the  withdrawal  of  laws
penalising religious dissidents, appointing Catholics to important  academic
posts, and to senior military and political positions. Within  three  years,
the majority of James's subjects had been alienated.
   In 1687 James issued the Declaration of Indulgence  aiming  at  religious
toleration; seven bishops who asked James to reconsider  were  charged  with
seditious libel, but later acquitted to popular Anglican acclaim.  When  his
second (Roman Catholic) wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth on 10 June 1688  to
a son (James Stuart, later known  as  the  'Old  Pretender'  and  father  of
Charles Edward Stuart, 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'),  it  seemed  that  a  Roman
Catholic  dynasty  would  be  established.  William  of  Orange,  Protestant
husband of James's elder daughter, Mary (by  James's  first  and  Protestant
wife, Anne Hyde), was therefore welcomed  when  he  invaded  on  5  November
1688. The Army and the  Navy  (disaffected  despite  James's  investment  in
them) deserted to William, and James fled to France.
   James's attempt to regain the throne by taking a French army  to  Ireland
failed - he was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne  in  1690.  James  spent
the rest of his life in exile in France, dying there in 1701.

                WILLIAM III (1689-1702) AND MARY II (1689-94)
   In 1689 Parliament declared that James had  abdicated  by  deserting  his
kingdom.  William  (reigned  1689-1702)  and  Mary  (reigned  1689-94)  were
offered the throne as joint monarchs. They accepted a Declaration of  Rights
(later a Bill), drawn up by a Convention of Parliament,  which  limited  the
Sovereign's power, reaffirmed Parliament's claim  to  control  taxation  and
legislation, and provided guarantees  against  the  abuses  of  power  which
James II and the other Stuart Kings had committed. The  exclusion  of  James
II and his heirs was extended to exclude  all  Catholics  from  the  throne,
since 'it hath been found by experience that it  is  inconsistent  with  the
safety and welfare of this protestant kingdom to be  governed  by  a  papist
prince'. The Sovereign was required in  his  coronation  oath  to  swear  to
maintain the Protestant religion.
   The Bill was designed to ensure Parliament could function free from royal
interference. The Sovereign was  forbidden  from  suspending  or  dispensing
with laws passed by Parliament,  or  imposing  taxes  without  Parliamentary
consent. The Sovereign was  not  allowed  to  interfere  with  elections  or
freedom of speech, and proceedings in Parliament were not to  be  questioned
in the courts or in any body outside Parliament itself. (This was the  basis
of modern parliamentary privilege.) The Sovereign  was  required  to  summon
Parliament  frequently  (the  Triennial  Act  of  1694  reinforced  this  by
requiring  the  regular  summoning  of  Parliaments).  Parliament  tightened
control over the King's expenditure; the financial settlement  reached  with
William and Mary deliberately made them dependent upon  Parliament,  as  one
Member of Parliament said, 'when princes have not  needed  money  they  have
not needed us'. Finally the King was forbidden to maintain a  standing  army
in time of peace without Parliament's consent.
   The Bill of Rights added further defences of individual rights. The  King
was forbidden to establish his own courts or to act as a judge himself,  and
the courts were forbidden to impose excessive bail or fines,  or  cruel  and
unusual punishments. However, the Sovereign could still summon and  dissolve
Parliament, appoint and dismiss  Ministers,  veto  legislation  and  declare
   The so-called 'Glorious Revolution' has been much debated over the degree
to which it was conservative or radical  in  character.  The  result  was  a
permanent  shift  in  power;  although  the  monarchy  remained  of  central
importance, Parliament had become a permanent feature of political life.
   The  Toleration  Act  of  1689  gave  all  non-conformists  except  Roman
Catholics freedom of  worship,  thus  rewarding  Protestant  dissenters  for
their refusal to side with James II.
   After 1688 there was a  rapid  development  of  party,  as  parliamentary
sessions  lengthened  and  the  Triennial  Act  ensured   frequent   general
elections. Although the Tories had fully supported the  Revolution,  it  was
the Whigs (traditional critics of the monarchy) who  supported  William  and
consolidated their position. Recognising the  advisability  of  selecting  a
Ministry from the  political  party  with  the  majority  in  the  House  of
Commons, William appointed a Ministry in  1696  which  was  drawn  from  the
Whigs; known as the Junto, it was regarded  with  suspicion  by  Members  of
Parliament as it met separately, but it may be regarded  as  the  forerunner
of the modern Cabinet of Ministers.
   In 1697, Parliament decided to give an annual grant of  £700,000  to  the
King for life, as a contribution to the expenses of civil government,  which
included  judges'  and  ambassadors'  salaries,  as  well   as   the   Royal
Household's expenses.
   The Bill of Rights had established the succession with the heirs of  Mary
II, Anne and  William  III  in  that  order,  but  by  1700  Mary  had  died
childless, Anne's only surviving child (out of 17  children),  the  Duke  of
Gloucester, had died at the age of 11 and William was dying. The  succession
had to be decided.
   The Act of Settlement of 1701  was  designed  to  secure  the  Protestant
succession to the throne, and to  strengthen  the  guarantees  for  ensuring
parliamentary system of government. According to the Act, succession to  the
throne  went  to  Princess  Sophia,  Electress  of  Hanover  and  James  I's
granddaughter, and her Protestant heirs.
   The Act also laid down the conditions under which alone the  Crown  could
be held. No Roman Catholic, nor anyone married to a  Roman  Catholic,  could
hold the English Crown. The Sovereign now  had  to  swear  to  maintain  the
Church of England (and after 1707, the  Church  of  Scotland).  The  Act  of
Settlement  not  only  addressed  the  dynastic  and  religious  aspects  of
succession, it also further restricted the powers and  prerogatives  of  the
   Under the Act, parliamentary consent had to be given for the Sovereign to
engage in war or leave the country, and judges were to hold office  on  good
conduct  and  not  at  royal   pleasure   -   thus   establishing   judicial
independence. The Act of Settlement reinforced the Bill of Rights,  in  that
it  strengthened  the  principle  that  government  was  undertaken  by  the
Sovereign  and  his  or  her  constitutional  advisers  (i.e.  his  or   her
Ministers), not by the Sovereign and any personal advisers whom  he  or  she
happened to choose.
   One of William's main reasons for accepting the throne was  to  reinforce
the struggle against Louis XIV. William's foreign policy  was  dominated  by
the priority to contain French expansionism. England and  the  Dutch  joined
the coalition against France during the Nine Years War. Although  Louis  was
forced to recognise William as King under  the  Treaty  of  Ryswick  (1697),
William's policy of intervention in Europe was costly in  terms  of  finance
and his popularity. The Bank of England, established in 1694 to raise  money
for the war by borrowing, did not loosen the King's  financial  reliance  on
Parliament as  the  national  debt  depended  on  parliamentary  guarantees.
William's Dutch advisers were resented, and in 1699 his  Dutch  Blue  Guards
were forced to leave the country.
   Never of robust health, William died as a result of complications from  a
fall whilst riding at Hampton Court in 1702.

                               ANNE (1702-14)
   Anne, born in 1665, was the second daughter of James II  and  Anne  Hyde.
She played no part in her father's reign, but  sided  with  her  sister  and
brother-in-law (Mary II and William III)  during  the  Glorious  Revolution.
She married George, Prince of Denmark, but the  pair  failed  to  produce  a
surviving heir. She died at 49 years of age, after a  lifelong  battle  with
the blood disease porphyria.
   The untimely death of William III nullified, in  effect,  the  Settlement
Act of 1701: Anne was James' daughter through his Protestant  marriage,  and
therefore,  presented  no  conflict  with  the  act.  Anne  refrained   from
politically antagonizing  Parliament,  but  was  compelled  to  attend  most
Cabinet meetings to keep her half-brother, James the  Old  Pretender,  under
heel. Anne was the last sovereign to veto an act of Parliament, as  well  as
the final Stuart monarch. The most significant  constitutional  act  in  her
reign was the Act of Union in 1707, which created Great Britain  by  finally
fully uniting England and Scotland (Ireland joined the Union in 1801).
   The Stuart trait of relying on favorites  was  as  pronounced  in  Anne's
reign as it had been in James I's reign. Anne's closest confidant was  Sarah
Churchill, who exerted great influence over the king.  Sarah's  husband  was
the Duke of Marlborough, who masterly led the English to  several  victories
in  the  War  of  Spanish  Succession.  Anne  and   Sarah   were   virtually
inseparable: no king's mistress had ever wielded the power  granted  to  the
duchess, but Sarah became too confident in her position.  She  developed  an
overbearing demeanor towards Anne, and berated the Queen in public.  In  the
meantime, Tory leaders had planted one Abigail Hill in the  royal  household
to capture Anne's need for sympathy  and  affection.  As  Anne  increasingly
turned to Abigail, the question of succession rose again, pitting the  Queen
and the Marlborough against each other in a heated debate. The  relationship
of Anne and the Churchill's  fell  asunder.  Marlborough,  despite  his  war
record, was dismissed from public service and Sarah was shunned in favor  of
   Many of the internal conflicts in English society were simply  the  birth
pains of the two-party system of government.  The  Whig  and  Tory  Parties,
fully enfranchised by the last years of Anne's reign, fought for control  of
Parliament and influence over the Queen. Anne was torn  personally  as  well
as politically by the succession question: her Stuart  upbringing  compelled
her to choose as heir her half-brother, the Old Pretender  and  favorite  of
the Tories, but she had already elected to side with Whigs  when  supporting
Mary and William over James II. In the  end,  Anne  abided  by  the  Act  of
Settlement, and the  Whigs  paved  the  way  for  the  succession  of  their
candidate, George of Hanover.
   Anne's reign may be considered successful,  but  somewhat  lackluster  in
comparison to the rest of the Stuart line. 1066 and All That, describes  her
with its usual tongue-in-cheek manner: "Finally the Orange... was  succeeded
by the memorable dead queen,  Anne.  Queen  Anne  was  considered  rather  a
remarkable woman and hence was usually referred to as Great Anna,  or  Annus
Mirabilis. The Queen had many favourites (all women), the most memorable  of
whom were Sarah Jenkins and Mrs Smashems, who were the  first  wig  and  the
first Tory... the Whigs being the first to realize that the Queen  had  been
dead all the time chose George I as King."

                               THE HANOVERIANS
  The Hanoverians came to power in difficult circumstances that looked  set
to undermine the stability of British society. The  first  of  their  Kings,
George I, was only 52nd in line to the throne, but  the  nearest  Protestant
according the Act of Settlement. Two descendants of James  II,  the  deposed
Stuart King, threatened to take the throne and were supported  by  a  number
of 'Jacobites' throughout the realm.
  The Hanoverian period for all that,  was  remarkably  stable,  not  least
because of the longevity of its Kings. From  1714  through  to  1837,  there
were only five, one of whom, George III, remains the longest  reigning  King
in British History. The period was also one of political stability, and  the
development of constitutional monarchy. For vast tracts  of  the  eighteenth
century politics were dominated by the great Whig families, while the  early
nineteenth century saw Tory domination. Britain's  first  'Prime'  Minister,
Robert Walpole, dates from this period, while  income  tax  was  introduced.
Towards the end of the  reign,  the  Great  Reform  Act  was  passed,  which
amongst other things widened the electorate.
   It was in this period that Britain came to acquire much of  her  overseas
Empire, despite the loss of the American colonies, largely  through  foreign
conquest in the various wars of the century. At the end  of  the  Hanoverian
period the British empire covered a third of the globe while  the  theme  of
longevity was set to continue, as the longest reigning  monarch  in  British
history, Queen Victoria, prepared to take the throne.

                                                             THE HANOVERIANS
                                                                 1714 - 1837

                                                   GEORGE I       =
Sophia Dorothea, dau. of Duke of Brunswick and Celle

II     =    Caroline, dau. of Margrave of

(1727–1760)         Brandenburg-Anspach

                                  Augusta of                        =
Frederick Lewis,
                                  Saxe-Gotha-Altenberg            Prince of

                        GEORGE III    =   Sophia Charlotte of

(1760–1820)        Mecklenburg-Strelitz

GEORGE IV                                                  WILLIAM IV
                                      Edward,            =   Victoria
(1820–1830)                                                  (1830–1837)
                                         Duke of Kent         of Saxe-


                             GEORGE I (1714-27)
   George I was born March 28, 1660, son of Ernest, Elector of  Hanover  and
Sophia, granddaughter of James I. He  was  raised  in  the  royal  court  of
Hanover, a German province, and married Sophia, Princess of Zelle, in  1682.
The marriage produced one son  (the  future  George  II)  and  one  daughter
(Sophia Dorothea, who married her  cousin,  Frederick  William  I,  King  of
Prussia). After ruling England for  thirteen  years,  George  I  died  of  a
stroke on a journey to his beloved Hanover on October 11, 1727.
   George, Elector of Hanover since 1698, ascended the throne upon the death
of Queen Anne, under the terms of the 1701 Act  of  Settlement.  His  mother
had recently died and he meticulously settled his affairs in Hanover  before
coming to England. He realized his position and  considered  the  better  of
two evils to be the Whigs (the other alternative was  the  Catholic  son  of
James II by Mary of Modena, James Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender).  George
knew that any decision was bound to offend at  least  half  of  the  British
population. His character and mannerisms  were  strictly  German;  he  never
troubled himself to learn the English language, and spent at least  half  of
his time in Hanover.
   The pale little 54 year-old man arrived in  Greenwich  on  September  29,
1714, with a full retinue of German friends, advisors and servants  (two  of
which,  Mohamet  and  Mustapha,  were  Negroes  captured  during  a  Turkish
campaign). All were determined to  profit  from  the  venture,  with  George
leading the way. He also arrived with two mistresses and no  wife  -  Sophia
had been imprisoned for adultery. The English population was unkind  to  the
two mistresses, labeling the tall, thin Ehrengard Melusina  von  Schulenberg
as the "maypole", and the short, fat Charlotte Sophia  Kielmansegge  as  the
"elephant".  Thackeray  remarked,  "Take  what  you  can  get  was  the  old
monarch's maxim...  The  German  women  plundered,  the  German  secretaries
plundered, the German cooks and  attendants  plundered,  even  Mustapha  and
Mohamet... had a share in the booty."
   The Jacobites, legitimist Tories, attempted to depose George and  replace
him with the Old Pretender in 1715. The rebellion was a dismal failure.  The
Old Pretender failed to arrive in Britain  until  it  was  over  and  French
backing evaporated with  the  death  of  Louis  XIV.  After  the  rebellion,
England settled into a much needed time of  peace,  with  internal  politics
and foreign affairs coming to the fore.
   George's ignorance of the English language and  customs  actually  became
the cornerstone of his style of rule: leave England to it's own devices  and
live in Hanover as much as possible. Cabinet positions became of the  utmost
importance;  the  king's  ministers  represented  the  executive  branch  of
government, while Parliament represented the legislative. George's  frequent
absences required the creation of the post of Prime Minister,  the  majority
leader in the House of Commons who acted in the king's stead. The first  was
Robert Walpole, whose political mettle was tried in 1720 with the South  Sea
Company debacle. The South Sea Company  was  a  highly  speculative  venture
(one of many that was currently plaguing British economics  at  that  time),
whose investors cajoled government participation. Walpole resisted from  the
beginning, and after the venture collapsed and  thousands  were  financially
ruined, he worked feverishly to restore  public  credit  and  confidence  in
George's government. His success put  him  in  the  position  of  dominating
British politics for the next 20 years, and the  reliance  on  an  executive
Cabinet  marked  an  important  step  in   the   formation   of   a   modern
constitutional monarchy in England.
   George avoided entering European conflicts by establishing a complex  web
of continental alliances. He and his Whig  ministers  were  quite  skillful;
the realm managed to stay out of war until George II declared war  on  Spain
in 1739. George I and his son, George II,  literally  hated  each  other,  a
fact that the Tory party used to gain political strength. George I,  on  his
many trips to Hanover, never placed the  leadership  of  government  in  his
son's hands, preferring to rely on his ministers when he  was  abroad.  This
disdain between father and son was a blight which became a tradition in  the
House of Hanover.
   Thackeray, in The Four Georges, allows  both  a  glimpse  of  George  I's
character, and the circumstances under which he  ruled  England:  "Though  a
despot in Hanover, he was a moderate ruler in England. His aim was to  leave
it to itself as much as possible, and to live  out  of  it  as  much  as  he
could. His heart was in Hanover. He was more than fifty-four  years  of  age
when he came amongst us: we took him  because  we  wanted  him,  because  he
served our turn; we laughed at his uncouth German ways, and sneered at  him.
He took our loyalty for what it was worth;  laid  hands  on  what  money  he
could; kept us assuredly from Popery and wooden shoes.  I,  for  one,  would
have been on his side in those days. Cynical, and selfish,  as  he  was,  he
was better than a king out of  St.  Germains  [the  Old  Pretender]  with  a
French King's orders in his pocket, and a swarm of Jesuits in his train."

                             GEORGE II (1727-60)
   George II was born November 10, 1683,  the  only  son  of  George  I  and
Sophia. His youth was spent in the  Hanoverian  court  in  Germany,  and  he
married Caroline of Anspach in 1705. He was truly devoted to  Caroline;  she
bore him three  sons  and  five  daughters,  and  actively  participated  in
government affairs, before she died in 1737. Like  his  father,  George  was
very much a German prince, but at the age of 30 when George I  ascended  the
throne, he was young enough to absorb the English culture that  escaped  his
father. George II died of a stroke on October 25, 1760.
   George possessed three passions: the army, music and  his  wife.  He  was
exceptionally brave and has  the  distinction  of  being  the  last  British
sovereign to command troops in the field (at Dettingen  against  the  French
in 1743). He inherited his father's love of opera, particularly the work  of
George Frederick Handel, who had been George I's court musician in  Hanover.
Caroline proved to be his greatest  asset.  She  revived  traditional  court
life (which had all but vanished under George I,  was  fiercely  intelligent
and an ardent supporter of Robert Walpole. Walpole continued in the role  of
Prime Minister at Caroline's  behest,  as  George  was  loathe  keeping  his
father's head Cabinet member. The hatred George felt towards his father  was
reciprocated by his son, Frederick, Prince of Wales, who died in 1751.
   Walpole retired in 1742, after establishing the foundation of the  modern
constitutional monarchy: a Cabinet responsible to a Parliament,  which  was,
in turn, responsible to an electorate. At that  time,  the  system  was  far
from truly democratic; the electorate was essentially the voice  of  wealthy
landowners  and  mercantilists.  The  Whig  party  was  firmly  in  control,
although legitimist Tories attempted one last Jacobite  rebellion  in  1745,
by again trying to restore a Stuart to the  throne.  Prince  Charles  Edward
Stuart, known as the Young Pretender or Bonnie  Prince  Charlie,  landed  in
Scotland and marched as far south as Derby,  causing  yet  another  wave  of
Anti-Catholicism to wash over England. The Scots  retreated,  and  in  1746,
were butchered by the Royal Army at Culloden  Moor.  Bonnie  Prince  Charlie
escaped to France and died in Rome. The Tories became suspect due  to  their
associations  with  Jacobitism,  ensuring  oligarchic  Whig  rule  for   the
following fifty years.
   Walpole managed to keep George out of continental conflicts for the first
twelve years of the reign,  but  George  declared  war  on  Spain  in  1739,
against Walpole's wishes. The Spanish war extended  into  the  1740's  as  a
component of the  War  of  Austrian  Succession,  in  which  England  fought
against French dominance in Europe. George shrank away  from  the  situation
quickly: he negotiated a hasty peace with France, to  protect  Hanover.  The
1750's found England again at war  with  France,  this  time  over  imperial
claims. Fighting was intense in Europe, but North  America  and  India  were
also theatres of the war. Government faltering in  response  to  the  French
crisis brought William Pitt  the  Elder,  later  Earl  of  Chatham,  to  the
forefront of British politics.
   Thackeray describes George II and Walpole as such, in  The  Four  Georges
"... how he was a choleric little sovereign; how he shook his  fist  in  the
face of his father's courtiers; how he kicked his coat and wig about in  his
rages; and called everybody thief, liar, rascal with whom he  differed:  you
will read in all the  history  books;  and  how  he  speedily  and  shrewdly
reconciled himself with the bold minister, whom  he  had  hated  during  his
father's life, and by whom he was served during fifteen  years  of  his  own
with admirable prudence, fidelity, and success. But for Robert  Walpole,  we
should have had the Pretender back again."

                          GEORGE III (r. 1760-1820)
   George III was born  on  4  June  1738  in  London,  the  eldest  son  of
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of  Saxe-Gotha.  He  became
heir to the throne on the death  of  his  father  in  1751,  succeeding  his
grandfather, George II, in 1760. He was the  third  Hanoverian  monarch  and
the first one to be born  in  England  and  to  use  English  as  his  first
   George III is widely remembered  for  two  things:  losing  the  American
colonies and going mad. This is far from the whole  truth.  George's  direct
responsibility for the loss of the colonies is not great. He  opposed  their
bid for independence to the end, but he did not develop the  policies  (such
as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend duties of 1767 on tea, paper  and
other products) which led to war in 1775-76 and which  had  the  support  of
Parliament. These policies were largely due  to  the  financial  burdens  of
garrisoning and administering the vast expansion of territory brought  under
the British Crown in America, the costs of a series of wars with France  and
Spain in North America, and the loans given to the East India Company  (then
responsible for administering India). By the  1770s,  and  at  a  time  when
there was no income tax, the national debt required an annual revenue of  £4
million to service it.
   The declaration of American independence on 4 July 1776, the end  of  the
war with the surrender by British forces in 1782, and the defeat  which  the
loss of  the  American  colonies  represented,  could  have  threatened  the
Hanoverian throne. However, George's strong defence of what he  saw  as  the
national interest and the prospect of long  war  with  revolutionary  France
made him, if anything, more popular than before.
   The American war, its political aftermath  and  family  anxieties  placed
great strain on George in the 1780s. After serious bouts of illness in 1788-
89 and again in 1801, George became permanently deranged  in  1810.  He  was
mentally unfit to rule in the last decade of his reign;  his  eldest  son  -
the later George IV -  acted  as  Prince  Regent  from  1811.  Some  medical
historians have said that George III's mental instability was  caused  by  a
hereditary physical disorder called porphyria.
   George's accession in 1760 marked a significant change in royal finances.
Since 1697, the monarch had  received  an  annual  grant  of  £700,000  from
Parliament as a contribution to the Civil List, i.e. civil government  costs
(such as judges' and ambassadors' salaries) and the expenses  of  the  Royal
Household. In 1760, it was decided that the whole cost  of  the  Civil  List
should be provided  by  Parliament  in  return  for  the  surrender  of  the
hereditary revenues by the  King  for  the  duration  of  his  reign.  (This
arrangement still applies today, although civil  government  costs  are  now
paid by Parliament, rather than financed directly by the  monarch  from  the
Civil List.)
   The first 25 years of George's reign were politically  controversial  for
reasons other than the conflict with America. The King was accused  by  some
critics, particularly Whigs (a leading political  grouping),  of  attempting
to reassert royal authority in an unconstitutional manner. In  fact,  George
took a conventional view of the constitution and  the  powers  left  to  the
Crown after the conflicts between Crown and Parliament in the 17th century.
   Although he was careful  not  to  exceed  his  powers,  George's  limited
ability and lack of subtlety in dealing with the shifting  alliances  within
the Tory and Whig political groupings in Parliament meant that he  found  it
difficult to bring together ministries which could enjoy the support of  the
House of Commons. His problem was solved first by the long-lasting  ministry
of Lord North (1770-82) and then, from 1783,  by  Pitt  the  Younger,  whose
ministry lasted until 1801.
   George III was the most attractive of the Hanoverian monarchs. He  was  a
good family man (there were 15 children) and devoted to his wife,  Charlotte
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  for  whom  he  bought  the  Queen's  House  (later
enlarged to become Buckingham Palace). However, his  sons  disappointed  him
and,  after  his  brothers  made  unsuitable  secret  marriages,  the  Royal
Marriages Act of 1772 was passed at George's insistence.  (Under  this  Act,
the Sovereign must give consent to the marriage of any lineal descendant  of
George II, with certain exceptions.)
   Being extremely conscientious, George  read  all  government  papers  and
sometimes annoyed his ministers by  taking  such  a  prominent  interest  in
government and policy. His political influence could be decisive.  In  1801,
he forced Pitt the Younger to  resign  when  the  two  men  disagreed  about
whether Roman Catholics should have full civil rights. George  III,  because
of his coronation oath to maintain the rights and privileges of  the  Church
of England, was against the proposed measure.
   One of the  most  cultured  of  monarchs,  George  started  a  new  royal
collection of books (65,000 of his books were later  given  to  the  British
Museum, as the nucleus of a national library)  and  opened  his  library  to
scholars. In 1768, George founded and paid the initial costs  of  the  Royal
Academy of Arts (now famous for its exhibitions). He was the first  king  to
study science as  part  of  his  education  (he  had  his  own  astronomical
observatory), and examples of his collection of scientific  instruments  can
now be seen in the Science Museum.
   George III also took a keen interest in agriculture, particularly on  the
crown estates at Richmond and Windsor, being known as  'Farmer  George'.  In
his last years, physical as well  as  mental  powers  deserted  him  and  he
became blind. He died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820,  after  a  reign
of almost 60 years - the second longest in British history.

                             GEORGE IV (1820-30)
   George IV was 48 when he became Regent  in  1811.  He  had  secretly  and
illegally married a Roman Catholic, Mrs Fitzherbert. In 1795  he  officially
married Princess Caroline of Brunswick, but the marriage was a  failure  and
he  tried  unsuccessfully  to  divorce  her  after  his  accession  in  1820
(Caroline died in 1821). Their only child  Princess  Charlotte  died  giving
birth to a stillborn child.
   An outstanding, if extravagant, collector and builder, George IV acquired
many important works of art (now in the Royal Collection), built  the  Royal
Pavilion at Brighton, and transformed Windsor Castle and Buckingham  Palace.
George's fondness for pageantry helped to develop  the  ceremonial  side  of
monarchy. After his father's long illness, George resumed royal  visits;  he
visited Hanover in 1821 (it had not been visited  by  its  ruler  since  the
1750s), and Ireland and Scotland over the next couple of years.
   Beset by debts, George was in a weak position in relation to his  Cabinet
of ministers. His concern for  royal  prerogative  was  sporadic;  when  the
Prime Minister Lord  Liverpool  fell  ill  in  1827,  George  at  one  stage
suggested that ministers  should  choose  Liverpool's  successor.  In  1829,
George IV was forced by  his  ministers,  much  against  his  will  and  his
interpretation of his coronation oath, to agree  to  Catholic  Emancipation.
By  reducing  religious  discrimination,  this  emancipation   enabled   the
monarchy to play a more national role.
   George's  profligacy  and  marriage  difficulties  meant  that  he  never
regained much popularity, and he spent  his  final  years  in  seclusion  at
Windsor, dying at the age of 67.

                            WILLIAM IV  (1830-37)
   At the age of 13, William became a midshipman and began a career  in  the
Royal Navy. In 1789, he was made duke of Clarence. He retired from the  Navy
in 1790. Between 1791 and 1811 he lived with his mistress, the  actress  Mrs
Jordan,  and  the  growing  family  of   their   children   known   as   the
Fitzclarences. William married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen in  1818,
but their children died in infancy. The third son  of  George  III,  William
became heir apparent at the age of 62 when his older brother died.
   William's reign (reigned 1830-37) was dominated  by  the  Reform  crisis,
beginning  almost  immediately  when  Wellington's  Tory  government  (which
William supported) lost the general election  in  August  1830.  Pledged  to
parliamentary reform, Grey's Whig government won a  further  election  which
William had to call in 1831 and then pushed through a  reform  bill  against
the opposition of the Tories and the House of Lords,  using  the  threat  of
the creation of 50 or more peers to do so. The  failure  of  the  Tories  to
form an alternative government in 1832 meant that William had  to  sign  the
Great Reform Bill. Control of peerages had been used as a party weapon,  and
the royal prerogative had been damaged.
   The Reform Bill abolished some of  the  worst  abuses  of  the  electoral
system (for example, representation for so called 'rotten  boroughs',  which
had long ceased to be of any importance, was  stopped,  and  new  industrial
towns obtained representation). The Reform Act also introduced  standardised
rules for the franchise  (different  boroughs  had  previously  had  varying
franchise rules) and, by extending the  franchise  to  the  middle  classes,
greatly increased the role of public opinion in the political process.
   William understood the theory of the more limited monarchy,  once  saying
'I have my view of things, and I tell them to my ministers. If they  do  not
adopt them, I cannot help it. I have done my duty.'  William  died  a  month
after Victoria had come of age, thus avoiding another regency.

                            VICTORIA (1837-1901)

   Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on 24 May 1819.  She  was
the only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son  of  George  III.  Her
father died shortly after her birth  and  she  became  heir  to  the  throne
because the three uncles who were ahead of her in succession  -  George  IV,
Frederick Duke of York, and William IV -  had  no  legitimate  children  who
survived. Warmhearted and lively,  Victoria  had  a  gift  for  drawing  and
painting; educated by a governess at home, she was  a  natural  diarist  and
kept a regular journal throughout her life. On William IV's death  in  1837,
she became Queen at the age of 18.
   Queen Victoria is associated  with  Britain's  great  age  of  industrial
expansion, economic progress and - especially - empire.  At  her  death,  it
was said, Britain had a worldwide empire on which the sun never set.
   In the early part of her reign, she was influenced by two men: her  first
Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband,  Prince  Albert,  whom  she
married in 1840. Both men taught her much about how  to  be  a  ruler  in  a
'constitutional monarchy' where the monarch had very few  powers  but  could
use much influence. Albert took an active interest  in  the  arts,  science,
trade and industry; the project for which he  is  best  remembered  was  the
Great Exhibition of 1851, the profits from which  helped  to  establish  the
South Kensington museums complex in London.
   Her marriage to Prince Albert brought  nine  children  between  1840  and
1857. Most of her children married into  other  royal  families  of  Europe:
Edward VII (born 1841,  married  Alexandra,  daughter  of  Christian  IX  of
Denmark); Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh  and  of  Saxe-Coburg  and  Gotha  (born
1844, married Marie of  Russia);  Arthur,  Duke  of  Connaught  (born  1850,
married Louise Margaret of Prussia); Leopold, Duke  of  Albany  (born  1853,
married Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont);  Victoria,  Princess  Royal  (born  1840,
married Friedrich III, German Emperor); Alice  (born  1843,  married  Ludwig
IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine); Helena (born 1846, married  Christian
of Schleswig-Holstein); Louise (born 1848, married John Campbell,  9th  Duke
of Argyll); Beatrice (born 1857,  married  Henry  of  Battenberg).  Victoria
bought Osborne House (later presented to the nation by Edward  VII)  on  the
Isle of Wight as a family home in 1845, and Albert bought Balmoral in 1852.
   Victoria was deeply attached to her husband and she sank into  depression
after he died, aged 42, in 1861. She had lost  a  devoted  husband  and  her
principal trusted adviser in affairs of state. For the  rest  of  her  reign
she wore black.  Until  the  late  1860s  she  rarely  appeared  in  public;
although she never neglected her official Correspondence, and  continued  to
give audiences to her ministers and official visitors, she was reluctant  to
resume a full public life. She was persuaded to open  Parliament  in  person
in 1866 and 1867, but she was widely criticised for living in seclusion  and
quite a strong republican movement developed. (Seven attempts were  made  on
Victoria's life, between 1840 and 1882 -  her  courageous  attitude  towards
these attacks greatly strengthened her popularity.) With time,  the  private
urgings of her family and the flattering  attention  of  Benjamin  Disraeli,
Prime Minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880, the  Queen  gradually  resumed
her public duties.
   In foreign policy, the Queen's influence during the middle years  of  her
reign was generally used to  support  peace  and  reconciliation.  In  1864,
Victoria pressed her ministers not  to  intervene  in  the  Prussia-Austria-
Denmark war, and her letter to the German Emperor  (whose  son  had  married
her daughter) in 1875 helped to avert a second  Franco-German  war.  On  the
Eastern Question in the 1870s - the issue of Britain's  policy  towards  the
declining Turkish Empire in Europe - Victoria  (unlike  Gladstone)  believed
that Britain, while pressing for necessary reforms, ought to uphold  Turkish
hegemony as  a  bulwark  of  stability  against  Russia,  and  maintain  bi-
partisanship at a time when Britain could be involved in war.
   Victoria's popularity grew with the increasing  imperial  sentiment  from
the 1870s onwards. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the government of  India
was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown with  the  position
of Governor General  upgraded  to  Viceroy,  and  in  1877  Victoria  became
Empress  of  India  under  the  Royal  Titles  Act  passed   by   Disraeli's
   During Victoria's long reign, direct political power moved away from  the
sovereign. A series of Acts broadened the social and economic  base  of  the
electorate.  These  acts  included  the  Second  Reform  Act  of  1867;  the
introduction of the secret ballot in  1872,  which  made  it  impossible  to
pressurise voters by bribery or intimidation; and the Representation of  the
Peoples Act of 1884 - all householders and lodgers  in  accommodation  worth
at least £10 a year, and occupiers of land worth £10 a year,  were  entitled
to vote.
   Despite this decline in the Sovereign's power,  Victoria  showed  that  a
monarch who had a high level of prestige and who was prepared to master  the
details of political life could  exert  an  important  influence.  This  was
demonstrated by her mediation between the Commons and the Lords, during  the
acrimonious passing of the Irish Church Disestablishment  Act  of  1869  and
the 1884 Reform Act. It was during Victoria's reign that the modern idea  of
the constitutional  monarch,  whose  role  was  to  remain  above  political
parties, began to evolve. But Victoria herself was not  always  non-partisan
and she  took  the  opportunity  to  give  her  opinions  -  sometimes  very
forcefully - in private.
   After the Second Reform Act of 1867, and  the  growth  of  the  two-party
(Liberal  and  Conservative)  system,  the  Queen's   room   for   manoeuvre
decreased.  Her  freedom  to  choose  which  individual  should  occupy  the
premiership   was   increasingly   restricted.   In   1880,    she    tried,
unsuccessfully, to stop William Gladstone - whom she  disliked  as  much  as
she admired Disraeli and whose  policies  she  distrusted  -  from  becoming
Prime Minister. She much  preferred  the  Marquess  of  Hartington,  another
statesman from the Liberal party which had just won  the  general  election.
She did not get her way. She was a very strong supporter  of  Empire,  which
brought her closer both to Disraeli and to the Marquess  of  Salisbury,  her
last Prime Minister. Although conservative in some respects - like  many  at
the time she opposed giving women the vote - on social  issues,  she  tended
to favour measures to improve the  lot  of  the  poor,  such  as  the  Royal
Commission on  housing.  She  also  supported  many  charities  involved  in
education, hospitals and other areas.
   Victoria and her family travelled  and  were  seen  on  an  unprecedented
scale, thanks to transport improvements and other technical changes such  as
the spread of newspapers and the invention of photography. Victoria was  the
first reigning monarch to use trains - she made her first train  journey  in
   In her later years, she almost became the symbol of the  British  Empire.
Both the Golden (1887) and the Diamond (1897) Jubilees,  held  to  celebrate
the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the queen's accession, were  marked  with
great  displays  and  public  ceremonies.  On   both   occasions,   Colonial
Conferences attended by the Prime Ministers of the  self-governing  colonies
were held.
   Despite her advanced age, Victoria continued her  duties  to  the  end  -
including an official visit to Dublin in 1900. The Boer War in South  Africa
overshadowed the end of her reign. As in  the  Crimean  War  nearly  half  a
century earlier, Victoria reviewed her troops  and  visited  hospitals;  she
remained undaunted by British reverses during  the  campaign:  'We  are  not
interested in the possibilities of defeat; they do not exist.'
   Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, on 22  January  1901
after a reign which lasted almost 64 years, the longest in British  history.
She was buried at Windsor  beside  Prince  Albert,  in  the  Frogmore  Royal
Mausoleum, which she had built for their  final  resting  place.  Above  the
Mausoleum door are inscribed Victoria's words: 'farewell best beloved,  here
at last I shall rest with thee, with thee in Christ I shall rise again'.

   The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha came to the British Royal Family in 1840  with
the marriage of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert,  son  of   Ernst,  Duke  of
Saxe-Coburg & Gotha. Queen Victoria herself remained a member of  the  House
of Hanover.
   The only British monarch of  the  House  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha  was  King
Edward VII, who reigned for nine years at the beginning of  the  modern  age
in the early years of the 20th century. King George V replaced  the  German-
sounding title with that of Windsor during the First  World  War.  The  name
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha survived  in  other  European  monarchies,  including  the
current Belgian Royal Family and  the  former  monarchies  of  Portugal  and

                                                       SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA
                                                                 1837 - 1917
                                                                THE WINDSORS
                                                          1917 – PRESENT DAY

                     VICTORIA      =      m. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg &
                     (1837-1910)           (Prince Consort)

                           EDWARD VII      =   m. Princess Alexandra, dau.
of CHRISTIAN IX, King of
                           (1910 – 1936)          Denmark

                       DUKE OF WINDSOR
                GEORGE VI     =    m. Lady Elizabeth
                       EDWARD VIII
                        1936-1952              Bowes-Lyon, dau. of Earl of
                       (abdicated 1936)
                                                        Strathmore and


Queen Mother)

                                           QUEEN ELIZABETH II
                                               (1952 – present day)

                            EDWARD VII (1901-10)
   Edward VII, born November 9, 1841, was the eldest son of Queen  Victoria.
He took the family name of his father,  Prince  Consort  Albert,  hence  the
change in lineage, although he was still Hanoverian on  his  mother's  side.
He married Princess Alexandra of Denmark in 1863, who bore  him  three  sons
and three daughters. Edward died on May 6, 1910, after  a  series  of  heart
   Victoria, true to the Hanoverian name, saw the worst in Edward.  She  and
Albert imposed a  strict  regime  upon  Edward,  who  proved  resistant  and
resentful throughout his youth. His marriage at age twenty-two to  Alexandra
afforded him some relief  from  his  mother's  domination,  but  even  after
Albert's death in 1863, Victoria consistently denied her  son  any  official
governmental role.  Edward  rebelled  by  completely  indulging  himself  in
women, food, drink, gambling, sport and travel.  Alexandra  turned  a  blind
eye to his extramarital activities, which continued well  into  his  sixties
and found him implicated in several divorce cases.
   Edward succeeded the throne upon Victoria's  death;  despite  his  risqué
reputation, Edward threw himself into his role of king  with  vitality.  His
extensive European travels gave him a solid foundation as an  ambassador  in
foreign relations. Quite a few of  the  royal  houses  of  Europe  were  his
relatives, allowing him to actively assist in foreign  policy  negotiations.
He also maintained an active social life, and his  penchant  for  flamboyant
accouterments set trends among  the  fashionable.  Victoria's  fears  proved
wrong: Edward's forays  into  foreign  policy  had  direct  bearing  on  the
alliances between Great Britain and both France and Russia, and  aside  from
his sexual indiscretions, his manner and style endeared him to  the  English
   Social legislation was the focus of Parliament during Edward's reign. The
1902 Education Act provided subsidized secondary education, and the  Liberal
government passed a series of acts benefiting children after 1906;  old  age
pensions were established in 1908. The 1909 Labour Exchanges  Act  laid  the
groundwork for national health insurance,  which  led  to  a  constitutional
crisis over the means of budgeting such social legislation. The  budget  set
forth  by  David  Lloyd-George  proposed  major  tax  increases  on  wealthy
landowners and was defeated in Parliament. Prime Minister  Asquith  appealed
to Edward to create several new peerages  to  swing  the  vote,  but  Edward
steadfastly refused. Edward died amidst the budgetary crisis at  age  sixty-
eight, which was resolved the following year  by  the  Liberal  government's
passage of the act.
   Despite Edward's colorful personal life and Victoria's perceptions of him
as profligate, Edward ruled peacefully (aside from the  Boer  War  of  1899-
1902)  and  successfully  during  his  short  reign,  which  is   remarkable
considering the shifts in European power that occurred in the  first  decade
of the twentieth century.

                            THE HOUSE OF WINDSOR
   The House of Windsor came into being in 1917, when the name  was  adopted
as the British Royal Family's  official  name  by  a  proclamation  of  King
George V, replacing the historic name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. It  remains  the
family name of the current Royal Family.
   During the twentieth century, kings and queens of the United Kingdom have
fulfilled the varied duties of constitutional monarchy. One  of  their  most
important roles was national figureheads lifting public  morale  during  the
devastating world wars of 1914-18 and 1939-45.
   The period saw the modernization of the monarchy in tandem with the  many
social changes which have taken place over  the  past  80  years.  One  such
modernization has been the use of mass communication  technologies  to  make
the Royal Family accessible to a broader public the  world  over.  George  V
adopted the new relatively new medium  of  radio  to  broadcast  across  the
Empire at Christmas; the Coronation ceremony  was  broadcast  on  television
for the first time in 1953, at The Queen's insistence; and  the  World  Wide
Web has been used for the past five years to provide a global audience  with
information about the Royal Family.  During  this  period  British  monarchs
have  also  played  a  vital  part  in  promoting  international  relations,
retaining  ties  with  former  colonies  in  their  role  as  Head  of   the

                             GEORGE V (1910-36)
   George V was born June  3,  1865,  the  second  son  of  Edward  VII  and
Alexandra. His early education was somewhat  insignificant  as  compared  to
that of the heir apparent,  his  older  brother  Albert.  George  chose  the
career of professional naval officer and  served  competently  until  Albert
died in 1892, upon which George assumed the role of the  heir  apparent.  He
married Mary of Teck (affectionately called May) in 1893, who bore him  four
sons and one daughter. He died the year after his  silver  jubilee  after  a
series of debilitating attacks of bronchitis, on January 20, 1936.
   George ascended the throne in the midst of a constitutional  crisis:  the
budget controversy of 1910. Tories in the House of Lords were at  odds  with
Liberals in the Commons pushing for social reforms. When  George  agreed  to
create enough Liberal peerages to pass the  measure  the  Lords  capitulated
and gave up the power of absolute veto,  resolving  the  problem  officially
with passage of the Parliament Bill in 1911. The first World War  broke  out
in 1914, during which George and May made several visits to  the  front;  on
one such visit, George's horse rolled on top of him, breaking his  pelvis  -
George remained in pain for the rest  of  his  life  from  the  injury.  The
worldwide depression of 1929-1931 deeply  affected  England,  prompting  the
king  to  persuade  the  heads  of  the  three  political  parties  (Labour,
Conservative and Liberal) to unite into a coalition government. By  the  end
of the 1920's, George and the Windsors were but one of  few  royal  families
who retained their status in Europe.
   The relationship between England and the rest  of  the  Empire  underwent
several changes. An independent Irish Parliament  was  established  in  1918
after the Sinn Fein uprising in 1916, and  the  Government  of  Ireland  Act
(1920)  divided  Ireland  along  religious  lines.  Canada,  Australia,  New
Zealand and South Africa demanded the right  of  self-governance  after  the
war, resulting in the creation of the British  Commonwealth  of  Nations  by
the Statute of Westminster in 1931. India was accorded some degree of  self-
determination with the Government of India Act in 1935.
   The nature of the monarchy evolved through the influence  of  George.  In
contrast to his grandmother  and  father  -  Victoria's  ambition  to  exert
political influence in  the  tradition  of  Elizabeth  I  and  Edward  VII's
aspirations  to  manipulate  the  destiny  of  nations  -   George's   royal
perspective  was  considerably  more  humble.  He  strove  to  embody  those
qualities, which the nation saw  as  their  greatest  strengths:  diligence,
dignity  and  duty.  The  monarchy  transformed  from  an   institution   of
constitutional legality to the bulwark of  traditional  values  and  customs
(particularly those concerning the family). Robert  Lacey  describes  George
as such: ". . . as his official biographer felt  compelled  to  admit,  King
George V was distinguished 'by no exercise of social gifts, by  no  personal
magnetism, by no intellectual powers. He was neither a wit nor  a  brilliant
raconteur, neither  well-read  nor  well-educated,  and  he  made  no  great
contribution  to  enlightened  social  converse.  He   lacked   intellectual
curiosity and only late in life acquired some measure  of  artistic  taste.'
He was, in other words, exactly like most of his subjects. He  discovered  a
new job for modern kings and queens to do - representation."

                    EDWARD VIII ( JANUARY-DECEMBER 1936)
   As Prince of Wales,  Edward  VIII  (reigned  January-December  1936)  had
successfully carried out a number of regional visits  (including  areas  hit
by economic depression) and other official  engagements.  These  visits  and
his official tours overseas, together with his good war record  and  genuine
care for the underprivileged, had made him popular.

The first monarch to be a qualified pilot, Edward created The King's  Flight
(now known as 32 (The Royal) Squadron) in 1936 to provide air transport  for
the Royal family's official duties.
   In 1930, the Prince, who had already had a number of affairs, had met and
fallen in love with a married American woman, Mrs  Wallis  Simpson.  Concern
about Edward's private life grew in the Cabinet, opposition parties and  the
Dominions, when Mrs Simpson obtained a divorce in  1936  and  it  was  clear
that Edward was determined to marry her.
   Eventually Edward realised he had to choose between  the  Crown  and  Mrs
Simpson who, as a twice-divorced woman, would not have  been  acceptable  as
Queen.  On  10  December  1936,  Edward  VIII  executed  an  Instrument   of
Abdication which was given legal effect the following day, when Edward  gave
Royal Assent to His  Majesty's  Declaration  of  Abdication  Act,  by  which
Edward VIII and any children he might have were excluded from succession  to
the throne. In 1937, Edward was created Duke of Windsor and  married  Wallis
   During the Second World War, the Duke  of  Windsor  escaped  from  Paris,
where he was living at the time of the fall of France, to  Lisbon  in  1940.
The Duke of Windsor was then appointed Governor of the Bahamas,  a  position
he held until 1945. He lived abroad until the end  of  his  life,  dying  in
1972 in Paris (he is buried at  Windsor).  Edward  was  never  crowned;  his
reign lasted 325 days. His brother Albert became King, using his  last  name

                             GEORGE VI (1936-52)
   George VI, born December 14, 1895, was the second son  of  George  V  and
Mary of Teck. He was an unassuming, shy boy who greatly admired his  brother
Edward, Prince of Wales.  From  childhood  to  the  age  of  thirty,  George
suffered with a bad stammer in his speech, which  exacerbated  his  shyness;
Lionel Logue, an Australian speech therapist, was  instrumental  in  helping
George overcome the speech defect. George married Lady Elizabeth  Bowes-Lyon
in 1923, who bore him two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret.  He  died  from
cancer on February 6, 1952.
   Due to the controversy surrounding the abdication of Edward VIII, popular
opinion of the throne was at its lowest  point  since  the  latter  half  of
Victoria's  reign.  The  abdication,  however,  was  soon  overshadowed   by
continental developments, as Europe inched closer to yet another World  War.
After several years of pursuing "appeasement" policies with  Germany,  Great
Britain (and France) declared war on Germany on September 3,  1939.  George,
following in his father's footsteps, visited  troops,  munitions  factories,
supply docks and bomb-damaged areas  to  support  the  war  effort.  As  the
Nazi's bombed London,  the  royal  family  remained  at  Buckingham  Palace;
George went so far as to practice firing his revolver, vowing that he  would
defend  Buckingham  to  the  death.  Fortunately,  such  defense  was  never
necessary. The actions of the King and Queen during the  war  years  greatly
added to the prestige of the monarchy.
   George predicted the hardships following the end of the war as  early  as
1941. From 1945-50, Great Britain underwent marked transitions. The Bank  of
England,  as  well  as  most  facets  of  industry,  transportation,  energy
production  and  health  care,  were  brought  to  some  degree  of   public
ownership. The birth pangs of the Welfare State and the change  from  Empire
to multiracial Commonwealth troubled the  high-strung  king.  The  political
turmoil  and  economic  hardships  of  the  post-war  years  left  the  king
physically and emotionally drained by the time of his death.
   In the context of royal history, George VI was one of only five  monarchs
who succeeded the throne in the  lifetime  of  his  predecessor;  Henry  IV,
Edward IV, Richard III, and William III were the other  four.  George,  upon
his ascension, wrote to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin concerning the  state
of the monarchy: "I am new to the job but I hope that time will  be  allowed
to me to make amends for what has happened." His  brother  Edward  continued
to advise George on matters of the day, but such advice was a hindrance,  as
it was contradictory to policies pursued by George's ministers.  The  "slim,
quiet man with tired eyes" (as described by Logue)  had  a  troubled  reign,
but he did much to leave the monarchy in better condition than he found  it.

                         ELIZABETH II (1952-PRESENT)
   Elizabeth II, born April 21, 1926, is the eldest daughter  of  George  VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. She married Philip Mountbatten, a distant  cousin,
in 1947; the pair have  four  children:  Charles,  Prince  of  Wales,  Anne,
Andrew and Edward. She has reigned for forty-six years, and appears  capable
of remaining on the throne for quite some time.
   Monarchy, as an institution in Europe, all but disappeared during the two
World Wars: a scant ten monarchs remain today, seven of which have  familial
ties to England. Elizabeth is, by far, the best known of these, and  is  the
most widely  traveled  Head  of  State  in  the  world.  Her  ascension  was
accompanied by constitutional innovation; each  independent,  self-governing
country proclaimed Elizabeth, Queen of their individual state. She  approves
of the transformation from Empire to Commonwealth, describing the change  as
a "beneficial and civilized metamorphosis." The indivisibility of the  crown
was formally abandoned by statute in 1953, and "Head  of  the  Commonwealth"
was added to the long list of royal titles which she possesses.
   Elizabeth's travels have won  the  adulation  of  her  subjects;  she  is
greeted with honest enthusiasm and warm regard with each visit  abroad.  She
has been the master link in a  chain  of  unity  forged  among  the  various
countries within the Commonwealth. Hence,  the  monarchy,  as  well  as  the
Empire, has evolved - what once was the image of absolute  power  is  now  a
symbol of fraternity.
   Elizabeth has managed to maintain  a  division  between  her  public  and
private life. She is the first monarch to  send  her  children  to  boarding
schools in order to remove them from  the  ever-probing  media.  She  has  a
strong sense of duty and diligence and dispatches her queenly business  with
great candor, efficiency and dignity. Her knowledge  of  current  situations
and trends is uncannily up to date, often to the embarrassment of her  Prime
Ministers. Harold Wilson, upon his retirement, remarked, "I shall  certainly
advise my successor to do his homework before his audience." Churchill,  who
had served four monarchs, was impressed and delighted by her  knowledge  and
wit. She possesses a sense of humor  rarely  exhibited  in  public  where  a
dignified presence is her goal.
   Elizabeth, like her father  before  her,  raised  the  character  of  the
monarchy through her actions. Unfortunately, the  actions  of  her  children
have tarnished the royal name. The much publicized divorces of Charles  from
Diana  and  Andrew  from  Sarah  Ferguson  have  been  followed  by  further
indiscretions by the princes, causing a heavily-taxed  populace  to  rethink
the necessity of a monarchy. Perhaps Elizabeth will not  reign  as  long  as
Victoria, but her exceptionally long reign has provided  a  bright  spot  in
the life of her country.

                             THE MONARCHY TODAY
                              THE QUEEN'S ROLE
   The Queen is the United Kingdom's Head of State. As well as carrying  out
significant constitutional functions, The Queen also acts  as  a  focus  for
national  unity,  presiding  at   ceremonial   occasions,   visiting   local
communities and representing Britain around the world.  The  Queen  is  also
Head of  the  Commonwealth.  During  her  reign  she  has  visited  all  the
Commonwealth countries, going on 'walkabouts' to gain  direct  contact  with
people from all walks of life throughout the world.
   Behind and in front of the cameras, The Queen's work goes on. No two days
in The Queen's working life are ever the same.

                      QUEEN'S ROLE IN THE MODERN STATE
   Until the end of  the  17th  century,  British  monarchs  were  executive
monarchs - that is, they had the right to make and pass  legislation.  Since
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  monarch  has  become   a
constitutional monarch, which means that he or she is  bound  by  rules  and
conventions and remains politically impartial.
   On almost all matters he or she acts on the advice  of  ministers.  While
acting constitutionally, the Sovereign retains an important  political  role
as Head of State, formally appointing  prime  ministers,  approving  certain
legislation and bestowing honours.
   The Queen also has  important  roles  to  play  in  other  organisations,
including the Armed Forces and the Church of England.

                      QUEEN'S ROLE IN THE MODERN STATE
   Until the end of  the  17th  century,  British  monarchs  were  executive
monarchs - that is, they had the right to make and pass  legislation.  Since
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  monarch  has  become   a
constitutional monarch, which means that he or she is  bound  by  rules  and
conventions and remains politically impartial.
   On almost all matters he or she acts on the advice  of  ministers.  While
acting constitutionally, the Sovereign retains an important  political  role
as Head of State, formally appointing  prime  ministers,  approving  certain
legislation and bestowing honours.
The  Queen  also  has  important  roles  to  play  in  other  organisations,
including the Armed Forces and the Church of England.

                           QUEEN AND COMMONWEALTH
    The Queen is not only Queen of the  United  Kingdom,  but  Head  of  the
Commonwealth, a voluntary association of 54 independent countries.
   Most of these countries have progressed from British rule to  independent
self-government, and the Commonwealth now serves to foster international co-
operation and trade links between people all over the world.
  The Queen is also Queen of a number of Commonwealth realms, including
  Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

                                ROYAL VISITS
   Visits to all kinds of places throughout the United Kingdom, Commonwealth
and overseas are an important part of the work of The Queen and  members  of
the Royal family. They allow members of the  Royal  family  to  meet  people
from all walks of life and backgrounds,  to  celebrate  local  and  national
achievements and to  strengthen  friendships  between  different  countries.
Many of the visits are connected to charities and other  organisations  with
which members of the Royal family are  associated.  In  other  cases,  royal
visits help to celebrate historic occasions in  the  life  of  a  region  or
nation. All visits are carefully planned to ensure that as  many  people  as
possible have the opportunity to see or meet members of the Royal family.

                           THE QUEEN'S WORKING DAY

   The Queen has many different  duties  to  perform  every  day.  Some  are
familiar public duties, such  as  Investitures,  ceremonies,  receptions  or
visits within the United Kingdom or abroad. Away from the cameras,  however,
The Queen's work goes on. It  includes  reading  letters  from  the  public,
official papers and briefing notes; audiences with  political  ministers  or
ambassadors; and meetings  with  her  Private  Secretaries  to  discuss  her
future diary plans. No two days are ever the same and The Queen must  remain
prepared throughout.

                          CEREMONIES AND PAGEANTRY
   The colourful ceremonies  and  traditions  associated  with  the  British
Monarchy are rich in history and meaning and fascinating to watch. In  some,
The Queen takes part in person. In others - such as Guard Mounting  or  Swan
Upping - the ceremony  is  performed  in  The  Queen's  name.  Many  of  the
ceremonies take place on a regular basis - every year or even  every  day  -
which means that British people and visitors to London and  other  parts  of
the United Kingdom may have an opportunity to see some of these  interesting
events take place.

                        THE QUEEN'S CEREMONIAL DUTIES

   The Queen has many ceremonial roles. Some - such as the State Opening  of
Parliament,  Audiences  with  new  ambassadors  and  the   presentation   of
decorations at Investitures - relate to The Queen's role as Head of State.
   Others - such as the presentation of Maundy  money  and  the  hosting  of
garden parties - are historical ceremonies in which kings  and  queens  have
taken part for decades or even centuries.

   In addition to the events in which The Queen takes part, there  are  many
other ceremonies and traditions associated with the British  Monarchy.  Some
of these have military  associations,  involving  troops  from  the  present
Armed Forces as well as the members of the historical royal  bodyguard,  the
Yeomen of the Guard. Others are traditions which are less  well  known  than
the colourful pageantry but are interesting in their own right. Some -  such
as  the  customary  broadcasts  by  the  Sovereign  on  Christmas  Day   and
Commonwealth Day - are fairly recent in  origin,  but  have  rapidly  become
familiar and popular traditions.

                              ROYAL SUCCESSION
   When a sovereign dies, or abdicates, a successor is  immediately  decided
according to rules which were laid  down  at  the  end  of  the  seventeenth
century. The coronation of a new sovereign is a ceremony of great  pageantry
and celebration that has remained essentially the same for over  a  thousand
years. As well as explaining  accession,  succession  and  coronation,  this
section looks at the titles which have been held  by  different  members  of
the Royal Family throughout history.

                             THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD
   Divided into five departments, the Royal Household assists The  Queen  in
carrying out her official duties. Members of the Royal Household  carry  out
the work and roles which were performed  by  courtiers  historically.  There
are 645 full-time employees, employed across a wide  range  of  professions.
People employed within the Royal Household are recruited  from  the  general
workforce on merit, in terms of  qualifications,  experience  and  aptitude.
Details of the latest vacancies are listed in the Recruitment pages of  this
   The Royal Household includes The Queen's Household, plus  the  Households
of other members of the Royal Family who undertake public  engagements.  The
latter comprise members of  their  private  offices  and  other  people  who
assist with their public duties.

                         ROYAL HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENTS
   Royal Household's functions are divided across  five  departments,  under
the overall authority of the Lord Chamberlain,  the  senior  member  of  The
Queen's  Household.  These  departments   developed   over   centuries   and
originated  in  the  functions  of  the  Royal  Court.  As  a  result,   the
departments and many job titles have ancient names -  the  jobs  themselves,
however, are thoroughly modern!
   Most of the departments are based in Buckingham  Palace,  although  there
are also offices in St. James's Palace, Windsor Castle and the  Royal  Mews.
Members of the Royal Household also often travel with The Queen on  overseas
visits and during The Queen's stays  at  Balmoral  Castle  and  Sandringham,
since The Queen's work continues even when she is away from London.
   In addition to the full-time members of the Royal  Household,  there  are
other part-time members of The Queen's Household. These  include  the  Great
Officers of State who take part in important Royal ceremonies,  as  well  as
Ladies-in-waiting, who are appointed personally  by  The  Queen  and  female
members of the Royal Family.

   People are employed within the Royal  Household  from  a  wide  range  of
sectors and  professions,  including  catering,  housekeeping,  accountancy,
secretarial and administrative fields,  public  relations,  human  resources
management, art curatorship and strategic planning disciplines. The  special
nature of the Royal Household means that  unique  career  opportunities  are
   Employment in the Royal Household offers excellent  career  opportunities
for those who  wish  to  take  a  new  direction.  Positions  in  the  Royal
Household receive good remuneration and benefits.  For  domestic  positions,
there are often enhanced by  accommodation.  The  Royal  Household  is  also
committed  to  training  and  development,  including  NVQ  and   vocational
training, general management and skills-based training  across  a  range  of
disciplines - from carriage driving  to  an  in-house  diploma  for  footmen
which is widely recognised in its specialised field as a  valued  vocational
   Jobs at Buckingham Palace and  in  other  Royal  residences  are  usually
advertised in national, regional or  specialist  media  in  the  usual  way.
Details of the latest vacancies are listed in the Recruitment pages of  this
section  and  applications  can  be  made  by   downloading   the   standard
application form. All positions are also advertised internally to  encourage
career development and to offer  opportunities  for  promotion  to  existing
   A number of vacancies occur on a regular basis,  including  positions  as
housemaids, footmen and secretaries. In addition,  nearly  200  Wardens  are
employed  each  year  for  Buckingham  Palace's  Summer  Opening  programme.
Speculative enquiries are welcome for these posts throughout the year.
   Recruitment is in  all  cases  on  merit,  in  terms  of  qualifications,
experience  and  aptitude.  The  Royal  Household  is  committed  to   Equal

   Since 1917, the Sovereign  has  sent  congratulatory  messages  to  those
celebrating their 100th and 105th birthday and every  year  thereafter,  and
to those celebrating  their  Diamond  Wedding  (60th),  65th,  70th  wedding
anniversaries and every  year  thereafter.  For  many  people,  receiving  a
message from The Queen on these anniversaries is a very special moment.
   For data privacy reasons, there is no  automatic  alert  from  government
records for wedding anniversaries. The  Department  for  Work  and  Pensions
informs the Anniversaries Office of birthdays for  recipients  of  UK  State
pensions. However, to ensure that  a  message  is  sent  for  birthdays  and
wedding anniversaries alike, an application needs to be made  by  a relative
or friend in advance of the special day.
   The Queen's congratulatory  messages  consist  of  a  card  containing  a
personalised message with  a  facsimile  signature.  The  card  comes  in  a
special envelope, which is delivered through the normal postal channels.
   More information about applying for a message and interesting facts about
the tradition are contained in this section. 

                               ROYAL FINANCES

   This  section  provides  the  latest  information  on   Head   of   State
expenditure, together with information about Royal financial arrangements.
   It includes information about the four sources of funding  of  The  Queen
(or officials of the Royal Household acting on her behalf). The  Civil  List
meets official expenditure relating to The Queen's duties as Head  of  State
and Head of the Commonwealth. Grants-in-Aid from Parliament  provide  upkeep
of the Royal Palaces and for Royal travel. The Privy  Purse  is  traditional
income for the Sovereign's public and private use.  Her  Majesty's  personal
income meets entirely private expenditure.
   The Queen pays tax on her personal income and capital  gains.  The  Civil
List and the  Grants-in-Aid  are  not  taxed  because  they  cover  official
expenditure. The Privy Purse is fully taxable, subject to  a  deduction  for
official expenditure.
   These pages also contain information about the financial arrangements  of
other members of the Royal Family, together with information  on  the  Royal
Philatelic Collection.

                      HEAD OF STATE EXPENDITURE 2000-01
   Head of State expenditure is the official  expenditure  relating  to  The
Queen's duties as Head of State and Head of the Commonwealth. Head of  State
expenditure is met from public funds in exchange for the  surrender  by  The
Queen of the revenue from the Crown Estate.
   Head of State expenditure for 2001-02, at £35.3 million, is  1.0%  higher
than in the previous year (a decrease of 1.3% in real terms).  The  £350,000
increase is mainly attributable to fire precautions work at  the  Palace  of
Holyroodhouse, offset by the fact that costs transferred from other  funding
sources to the Civil List with effect from 1st April 2001 are only  included
in 2001 Civil List expenditure for nine months. They will be included for  a
full year in 2002 and subsequently.  Costs  have  been  transferred  to  the
Civil List from other funding sources in order to  utilise  the  Civil  List
reserve brought forward at 1st January 2001. Head of State  expenditure  has
reduced from £84.6 million (expressed  in  current  pounds)  in  1991-92,  a
reduction of 58%.

                             SOURCES OF FUNDING
   The four sources of funding of The  Queen,  or  officials  of  the  Royal
Household acting on Her Majesty's behalf, are: the Civil List,  the  Grants-
in-Aid for upkeep of Royal Palaces and for Royal  travel,  the  Privy  Purse
and The Queen's personal wealth and income.

   The Prince of Wales does not receive any money from the  State.  Instead,
he receives the annual net surplus of the Duchy of Cornwall and uses  it  to
meet the costs of all aspects of his public  and  private  commitments,  and
those of Prince William and Prince Harry.
   The Duchy's name is derived from the Earldom of  Cornwall,  which  Edward
III elevated to a duchy in 1337. The Duchy's founding charter  included  the
gift of estates spread throughout England. It also  stated  that  the  Duchy
should be in the stewardship of the Heir Apparent, to provide the Heir  with
an income independent of the Sovereign or the State.
   After 660 years, the Duchy's land holdings have become more  diversified,
but the Duchy is still  predominantly  an  agricultural  estate.  Today,  it
consists of around 57,000 hectares, mostly in the South of  England.  It  is
run on a commercial basis, as prescribed by  the  parliamentary  legislation
which governs its activities.
   Prince Charles became the 24th Duke of Cornwall on The Queen's  accession
in 1952. He is in effect a trustee, and is not entitled to the  proceeds  of
disposals of assets. The Prince must pass on the estate intact, so  that  it
continues to  provide  an  income  from  its  assets  for  future  Dukes  of
   The Duchy's net surplus for the year to 31 March 2002 was £7,827,000.  As
a Crown body, the Duchy is tax exempt, but The Prince of  Wales  voluntarily
pays income tax (currently at 40%) on his taxable income from it.

   Under the Civil List Acts, The  Duke  of  Edinburgh  receives  an  annual
parliamentary allowance to enable him to  carry  out  public  duties.  Since
1993, The  Queen  has  repaid  to  the  Treasury  the  annual  parliamentary
allowances received by other members of the Royal family.
   The annual amounts payable to members of the Royal family (which are  set
every ten years) were reset at their 1990 levels for  the  next  ten  years,
until December 2010. Apart from an increase of £45,000 on  the  occasion  of
The Earl of Wessex's marriage, these amounts remain as follows:
   Parliamentary annuity (not repaid by The Queen)
|HRH The Duke of Edinburgh  | £359,000 |

   Parliamentary annuities (repaid by The Queen)
|HRH The Duke of York                                         |£249,000  |
|HRH The Earl of Wessex                                       |£141,000  |
|HRH The Princess Royal                                       |£228,000  |
|HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester                    |£87,000   |
|TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester                       |          |
|TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent HRH Princess Alexandra, Hon.|*£636,000 |
|Lady Ogilvy                                                  |          |

   * Of the £636,000, £175,000 is provided by The  Queen  to  The  Duke  and
Duchess of Gloucester,  £236,000  to  The  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Kent  and
£225,000 to Princess Alexandra.
   As with the Civil List itself, most of these sums are spent on staff  who
support public engagements and correspondence.

   The Queen has always been subject to Value Added Tax and  other  indirect
taxes and she has paid local rates (Council Tax) on a  voluntary  basis.  In
1992, however, The Queen offered to pay income tax and capital gains tax  on
a voluntary basis. As from 1993, her personal income  has  been  taxable  as
for any taxpayer and  the  Privy  Purse  is  fully  taxable,  subject  to  a
deduction for official expenditure. The Civil  List  and  the  Grants-in-Aid
are not remuneration for The Queen and are thus disregarded for tax.
   Although The Queen's estate will be subject to Inheritance Tax,  bequests
from Sovereign to Sovereign  are  exempt.  This  is  because  constitutional
impartiality requires an appropriate degree of  financial  independence  for
the Sovereign and because the Sovereign is unable  to  generate  significant
new wealth through earnings or  business  activities.  Also,  the  Sovereign
cannot retire and so cannot mitigate Inheritance Tax by  passing  on  assets
at an early stage to his or her successor.
   As a Crown body, the Duchy of Cornwall is tax exempt, but since 1969  The
Prince of Wales has made voluntary contributions to the Exchequer.  As  from
1993, The Prince's income from the Duchy has been fully subject to tax on  a
voluntary basis. He has always paid tax, including income tax, in all  other

                                ROYAL ASSETS
   The Queen does not 'own' the Royal Palaces, art treasures from the  Royal
Collection, jewellery heirlooms and the Crown Jewels, all of which are  held
by Her Majesty as Sovereign and not as an individual. They  must  be  passed
on to The Queen's successor in due course. The Queen  and  some  members  of
the Royal Family past and present have made private collections  -  such  as
the stamp collection begun by George  V.  This  is  separate  to  the  Royal
Collection, although exhibitions and loans of stamps are sometimes made.

   Many of the most familiar objects and events in national life incorporate
Royal symbols or represent the Monarchy in some way. Flags, coats  of  arms,
the crowns and treasures used at coronations and  some  ceremonies,  stamps,
coins and the singing of the national anthem have strong  associations  with
the Monarchy and play a significant  part  in  our  daily  existence.  Other
objects - such as the Great Seal of the Realm - may be less familiar to  the
general public but still have a powerful symbolic role.

                               NATIONAL ANTHEM
   'God Save The King' was a patriotic  song  first  publicly  performed  in
London in 1745, which came to be referred to as  the  National  Anthem  from
the beginning of the nineteenth century. The words and tune  are  anonymous,
and may date back to the seventeenth century.
   In September 1745 the 'Young Pretender' to  the  British  Throne,  Prince
Charles Edward Stuart, defeated the army of King George II  at  Prestonpans,
near Edinburgh. In a fit of patriotic fervour after news of Prestonpans  had
reached London, the leader of the band at the  Theatre  Royal,  Drury  Lane,
arranged 'God Save The  King'  for  performance  after  a  play.  It  was  a
tremendous success and was repeated nightly thereafter. This  practice  soon
spread to other theatres, and the custom of greeting the  Monarch  with  the
song as he  or  she  entered  a  place  of  public  entertainment  was  thus
   There is no authorised version of the National Anthem as the words are a
matter of tradition. Additional verses have been added down the years, but
these are rarely used. The words used are those sung in 1745, substituting
'Queen' for 'King' where appropriate. On official occasions, only the first
verse is usually sung, as follows:

God save our gracious Queen!

Long live our noble Queen!

God save the Queen!

Send her victorious,

Happy and glorious,

Long to reign over us,

God save the Queen.

   An additional verse is occasionally sung:

Thy choicest gifts in store

On her be pleased to pour,

Long may she reign.

May she defend our laws,

And ever give us cause,

To sing with heart and voice,

God save the Queen.
   The British tune has been used in other countries - as European  visitors
to Britain in the eighteenth century noticed  the  advantage  of  a  country
possessing such a recognised musical symbol  -  including  Germany,  Russia,
Switzerland  and  America  (where  use   of   the   tune   continued   after
independence). Some 140 composers, including Beethoven,  Haydn  and  Brahms,
have used the tune in their compositions.

                               ROYAL WARRANTS
   Royal Warrants are granted to people  or  companies  who  have  regularly
supplied goods or services for a minimum of five consecutive  years  to  The
Queen, The Duke of Edinburgh,  Queen  Elizabeth  The  Queen  Mother  or  The
Prince of Wales. They are advised by the Lord Chamberlain  who  is  head  of
the  Royal  Household  and  chairman  of  the  Royal  Household  Tradesmen's
Warrants Committee. Each of these four  members  of  the  Royal  family  can
grant only one warrant to any individual business. However, a  business  may
hold warrants from more than one member of the Royal family  and  a  handful
of companies holds all four.
   The warrants are  a  mark  of  recognition  that  tradesmen  are  regular
suppliers of goods and services to the Royal households. Strict  regulations
govern the warrant, which allows the grantee  or  his  company  to  use  the
legend 'By Appointment' and display the Royal Arms on his products, such  as
stationery, advertisements  and  other  printed  material,  in  his  or  her
premises and on delivery vehicles.
   A Royal Warrant is initially granted for five years, after which time  it
comes up for review by the Royal Household Tradesmen's  Warrants  Committee.
Warrants may not be renewed if the quality or  supply  for  the  product  or
service  is  insufficient,  as  far  as  the  relevant  Royal  Household  is
concerned. A  Warrant  may,  however,  be  cancelled  at  any  time  and  is
automatically reviewed if the grantee dies or leaves  the  business,  or  if
the firm goes bankrupt or is sold. There  are  rules  to  ensure  that  high
standards are maintained.
   Since the Middle Ages, tradesmen who have acted as suppliers of goods and
services  to  the  Sovereign  have  received  formal  recognition.  In   the
beginning,  this  patronage  took  the  form   of   royal   charters   given
collectively to various guilds in  trades  and  crafts  which  later  became
known as livery companies. Over the centuries, the relationship between  the
Crown and  individual  tradesmen  was  formalised  by  the  issue  of  royal
   In the reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Hewytt was  appointed  to  'Serve  the
Court with Swannes and Cranes and all kinds of  Wildfoule'.  A  hard-working
Anne  Harris  was  appointed  as  the  'King's  Laundresse'.  Elizabeth  I's
household book listed, among other things, the Yeomen Purveyors of  'Veales,
Beeves & Muttons; Sea & Freshwater Fish'. In 1684 goods and services to  the
Palace included a  Haberdasher  of  Hats,  a  Watchmaker  in  Reversion,  an
Operator for the Teeth and  a  Goffe-Club  Maker.  According  to  the  Royal
Kalendar of 1789, a Pin Maker, a Mole Taker, a Card Maker and a Rat  Catcher
are among other tradesmen appointed to the court.  A  notable  omission  was
the Bug Taker - at that time one of the busiest functionaries at  court  but
perhaps not one to be recorded in a Royal Kalendar. Records also  show  that
in 1776 Mr Savage Bear was 'Purveyor of Greens Fruits  and  Garden  Things',
and that in 1820 Mr William Giblet  was  supplying  meat  to  the  table  of
George IV.
   Warrant holders today represent a large cross-section  of  British  trade
and industry (there is a small number of foreign names),  ranging  from  dry
cleaners  to  fishmongers,  and  from  agricultural  machinery  to  computer
software. A number of firms have a record of Royal  Warrants  reaching  back
over more than 100 years. Warrant-holding firms do not provide  their  goods
or  services  free  to  the  Royal  households,  and  all  transactions  are
conducted on a strictly commercial basis. There are currently  approximately
800 Royal Warrant holders, holding over 1,100 Royal  Warrants  between  them
(some have more than one Royal Warrant).
   On 25  May  1840,  a  gathering  of  'Her  Majesty's  Tradesmen'  held  a
celebration in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday. They  later  decided  to
make this an annual event and formed themselves  for  the  purpose  into  an
association which eventually became  known  as  the  Royal  Warrant  Holders
   The Association acts both in  a  supervisory  role  to  ensure  that  the
standards of quality  and  reliability  in  their  goods  and  services  are
upheld, and as a channel of communication for its members in their  dealings
with the  various  departments  of  the  Royal  Household.  The  Association
ensures that the Royal Warrant is not used by  those  not  entitled  and  is
correctly applied by those who are.

                           BANK NOTES AND COINAGE
   There are close ties - past and present - between the  Monarchy  and  the
monetary system. They can be seen, for example, in the title of  the  'Royal
Mint' and the representation of  the  monarch  on  all  circulating  British
   The first coins were struck in the British Isles  2000  years  ago  using
designs copied from Greek coins. Following the Roman invasion of Britain  in
43 AD, the Roman coinage system was introduced. After the decline  of  Roman
power in Britain from the fifth century  AD,  the  silver  penny  eventually
emerged as the dominant coin circulating  in  England  but  no  standardized
system was yet in place.
   In the eighth century, as strong kings emerged with power over more  than
one region, they began to centralize the currency.  Offa  introduced  a  new
coinage in the form of the silver penny, which for centuries was to  be  the
basis  of  the  English  currency.  Alfred  introduced  further  changes  by
authorising mints in the burhs he had founded. By  800  AD  coins  regularly
bore  the  names  of  the  kings  for  whom  they  were  struck.  A  natural
development was the representation of  their  own  images  on  their  coins.
Coinage played a part in spreading the fame of kings - the more often  coins
passed through men's hands, and  the  further  afield  they  were  taken  by
plunder or trade, the more famous their  royal  sponsors  became.  Athelstan
(d. 939) is the first English king to be shown on his coins wearing a  crown
or circlet. For many  people,  the  king's  image  on  coins  was  the  only
likeness of the monarch which they were likely to see in their lifetimes.
   By the end of the  tenth  century  the  English  monarchy  had  the  most
sophisticated coinage system in western Europe. The system allowed kings  to
exploit the wealth of a much enlarged kingdom and to raise  the  very  large
sums of money which they had to use as bribes to limit  the  effect  of  the
Vikings' invasions at the end of the tenth century.
   For five centuries in England, until 1280, silver pennies were  the  only
royal coins in circulation. Gradually a  range  of  denominations  began  to
emerge, and by the mid fourteenth century a  regular  coinage  of  gold  was
introduced. The gold sovereign came into existence in 1489 under King  Henry
VII. Throughout this period, counterfeiting coinage was regarded as a  grave
crime against the state amounting to high  treason  and  was  punishable  by
death under an English statute of 1350. The crime was considered  to  be  an
interference with the administration of government  and  the  representation
of the monarch. Until the nineteenth century the Royal  Mint  was  based  at
the Tower of London, and  for  centuries  was  therefore  under  the  direct
control of the monarch.
   The English monarchy was the first  monarchy  in  the  British  Isles  to
introduce a coinage for practical and propaganda purposes.  Only  one  early
Welsh king, Hywel Dda, minted a coin, though it may not have  been  produced
in Wales itself. The first Scottish king to issue a coinage was David I  (d.
1153). Until the reign of Alexander III  (1249-1286)  Scottish  coinage  was
only issued sparingly. During the reign of Alexander III coins began  to  be
minted in much larger quantities, a result of increasing trade  with  Europe
and the importation of foreign silver.
   After the death of Alexander III in  1289,  Scotland  fell  into  a  long
period of internal strife and  war  with  England.  A  nominal  coinage  was
issued under John Balliol c.1296 and then  in  reign  of  Robert  the  Bruce
(1306-1329), but the first substantial issue of coinage did not  come  until
the reign of David II (1329-1371). The accession by James VI to the  English
throne in 1603 saw the fixing of value of the Scottish coinage  to  a  ratio
of 1 / 12 with English coinage. After  the  Act  of  Union  in  1707  unique
Scottish coinage came to an end. The last Scottish  minted  coins  were  the
sterling issues based on the English denominations that  were  issued  until
1709 with the  "E"  mintmark  for  Edinburgh.  Some  British  coinages  have
featured Scottish devices, the Royal Arms of Scotland or the thistle  emblem
during the 20th century, but these are a part of the coinage of  the  United
Kingdom, not unique to Scotland.
   In the United Kingdom a streamlining of coinage production took place  in
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Until  the  Restoration  of  Charles
II, coins were struck by hand. In 1816, there was  a  major  change  in  the
British coinage, powered by the Industrial Revolution. The Royal Mint  moved
from The Tower of London to new premises on nearby Tower Hill, and  acquired
powerful new steam powered coining presses. Further changes  took  place  in
the 1960s, when the Mint moved  to  modern  premises  at  Llantrisant,  near
   After over a thousand years and many changes  in  production  techniques,
the monarch continues to be depicted on the obverse of  modern  UK  coinage.
Certain traditions are observed in this representation.  From  the  time  of
Charles II onwards  a  tradition  developed  of  successive  monarchs  being
represented on the  coinage  facing  in  the  opposite  direction  to  their
immediate predecessor. There was an exception to this in the brief reign  of
Edward VIII, who liked portraits of himself facing to the left, even  though
he should have faced to the right according to tradition.  The  designs  for
proposed coins in the Mint collection show Edward VIII facing to  the  left.
The tradition has been restored since the reign of George VI.
   During The Queen's reign there have  been  four  representations  of  Her
Majesty on circulating coinage. The original coin portrait  of  Her  Majesty
was by Mary Gillick and was adopted at the beginning of the reign  in  1952.
The following effigy was by Arnold Machin OBE, RA, approved by the Queen  in
1964. That portrait, which features the same tiara  as  the  latest  effigy,
was used on all the decimal coins from 1968. The next effigy was by  Raphael
Maklouf FRSA and was adopted in 1985. The latest portrait was introduced  in
1998 and is the work of Ian  Rank-Broadley  FRBS,  FSNAD.  In  keeping  with
tradition, the new portrait continues to show the Queen  in  profile  facing
to the right. Her Majesty is wearing the tiara which  she  was  given  as  a
wedding present by her grandmother Queen Mary.
   Images of the monarch on bank notes are a  much  more  recent  invention.
Although bank notes began to be issued from the  late  seventeenth  century,
they did not come to predominate over coins until  the  nineteenth  century.
Only since 1960 has the British Sovereign  been  featured  on  English  bank
notes, giving The Queen a unique distinction above her predecessors.

   There is a close relationship between the British Monarchy and the postal
system of  the  United  Kingdom.  Present-day  postal  services  have  their
origins in  royal  methods  of  sending  documents  in  previous  centuries.
Nowadays, the image of The Queen on postage stamps preserves the  connection
with the Monarchy.
   For centuries letters on affairs of State to  and  from  the  Sovereign's
Court, and despatches in time of war, were  carried  by  Messengers  of  the
Court and couriers employed for particular occasions.  Henry  VIII's  Master
of the Posts set up post-stages along the major roads of the  kingdom  where
Royal Couriers, riding post-haste, could change  horses.  In  Elizabeth  I's
day, those carrying the royal mail were to 'blow their horn as oft  as  they
met company, or four times every mile'. Letters of particular urgency -  for
example, reprieves for condemned  prisoners  -  bore  inscriptions  such  as
'Haste, haste - post haste - haste for life for life hast' and the  sign  of
the gallows. During the reign of James I (1603-25) all  four  posts  of  the
kingdom still centred on the Court: The Courte  to  Barwicke  (the  post  to
Scotland); The Courte to Beaumoris (to Ireland); The  Courte  to  Dover  (to
Europe) and The Courte to Plymouth (the Royal Dockyard).
   Charles I opened his posts to public use, as a means  of  raising  money.
Although public use of the royal posts increased, the running  of  the  mail
continued to centre round the post requirements of  the  Sovereign's  Court.
Until the 1780's the Mails did not leave London until the Court letters  had
been received at the General Post Office, and as late as 1807 Court  letters
coming into London were, unlike ordinary letters, delivered the  moment  the
mail arrived. The postal system rapidly spread during Victoria's reign  with
the introduction of the Uniform Penny  Postage  in  1840,  and  the  Queen's
letters  bore  postage  stamps  like  everyone  else's.   Royal   Messengers
continued to carry certain letters by hand.  The  increase  in  the  Court's
mail led to special postal facilities being provided in 1897 in the form  of
a Court Post Office - an arrangement which  still  exists  today  under  the
management of the Court Postmaster.
   Symbols of the  royal  origins  of  the  UK's  postal  system  remain:  a
miniature silhouette of the Monarch's head is depicted on  all  stamps;  the
personal cyphers of The Queen and her predecessors (going back to  Victoria)
appear on many letterboxes dating from their  respective  reigns  throughout
the country; and the postal delivery service is known as the Royal Mail.

                                COATS OF ARMS
   The function of the Royal Coat of Arms is to identify the person  who  is
Head of State. In respect of the United Kingdom, the royal  arms  are  borne
only by the Sovereign. They are used in many ways  in  connection  with  the
administration and government of the country,  for  instance  on  coins,  in
churches and on public buildings. They are familiar to most people  as  they
appear on the products and goods of Royal Warrant holders.
   The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom have evolved over many years
and reflect the history of the Monarchy and of the country.  In  the  design
the shield shows the various royal emblems of different parts of the  United
Kingdom: the three lions of England in the first and  fourth  quarters,  the
lion of Scotland in the second and the harp of Ireland in the third.  It  is
surrounded by a garter bearing the motto Honi soit qui mal  y  pense  ('Evil
to him who evil thinks'), which symbolises  the  Order  of  the  Garter,  an
ancient order of knighthood of which the Queen is Sovereign. The  shield  is
supported by the English lion and Scottish unicorn and is surmounted by  the
Royal crown. Below it appears the motto of the Sovereign, Dieu et mon  droit
('God and my right'). The  plant  badges  of  the  United  Kingdom  -  rose,
thistle and shamrock - are often displayed beneath the shield.
   Separate Scottish and English quarterings of  the  Royal  Arms  originate
from the Union of the Crown in 1603. The Scottish version of the Royal  Coat
of Arms shows the lion of Scotland in the first and  fourth  quarters,  with
that of England being in the second. The harp of Ireland  is  in  the  third
quarter. The mottoes read  In  defence  and  No  one  will  attack  me  with
impunity. From the times of the Stuart kings, the Scottish quarterings  have
been used for official  purposes  in  Scotland  (for  example,  on  official
buildings and official publications).
   The special position of Wales as a Principality  was  recognised  by  the
creation of the Prince  of  Wales  long  before  the  incorporation  of  the
quarterings for Scotland and Ireland in the Royal  Arms.  The  arms  of  the
Prince of Wales show the arms of the ancient Principality in the  centre  as
well as these quarterings.
   Coats of Arms of members of the Royal Family are broadly similar  to  The
Queen's with small differences to identify them.

                                 GREAT SEAL
   The Great Seal of the Realm is the chief seal of the Crown, used to  show
the  monarch's  approval  of   important   state   documents.   In   today's
constitutional monarchy, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the  Government
of the day, but the seal remains an  important  symbol  of  the  Sovereign's
role as Head of State.
   The practice of using  this  seal  began  in  the  reign  of  Edward  the
Confessor in the 11th century, when a  double-sided  metal  matrix  with  an
image of the Sovereign was used to make an impression in wax for  attachment
by ribbon or cord to royal documents. The seal meant that  the  monarch  did
not need to sign every official document in person; authorisation  could  be
carried out instead by an appointed officer. In centuries  when  few  people
could read or write, the seal  provided  a  pictorial  expression  of  royal
approval which all could understand. The uniqueness of the official  seal  -
only one matrix was in existence at  any  one  time  -  also  meant  it  was
difficult to forge or tamper with official documents.
   The Great Seal matrix has changed many times throughout the centuries.  A
new matrix is engraved at the beginning of each reign on the  order  of  the
Sovereign; it is traditional that on the death  of  the  Sovereign  the  old
seal is used until the new Sovereign orders otherwise. For many monarchs,  a
single seal has sufficed. In the case of some long-reigning  monarchs,  such
as Queen Victoria, the original  seal  simply  wore  out  and  a  series  of
replacements was required.
   The Queen has had two  Great  Seals  during  her  reign.  The  first  was
designed by Gilbert Ledward and came into  service  in  1953.  Through  long
usage and the  heat  involved  in  the  sealing  process,  the  matrix  lost
definition. From summer 2001 a new Great Seal, designed  by  sculptor  James
Butler and produced by the Royal Mint, has been in use. At a meeting of  the
Privy Council on 18 July 2001 The Queen handed the new seal matrix  over  to
the Lord High Chancellor,  currently  Lord  Irvine  of  Lairg,  who  is  the
traditional keeper of the Great Seal.
   The Great Seal matrix will be  used  to  create  seals  for  a  range  of
documents  requiring  royal  approval,  including  letters   patent,   royal
proclamations, commissions, some writs (such as writs for  the  election  of
Members of Parliament), and the documents  which  give  power  to  sign  and
ratify treaties. During the year 2000-01, more  than  100  documents  passed
under the Great Seal. Separate seals exist for Scotland - the Great Seal  of
Scotland - and for Northern Ireland.
   The process of sealing takes place nowadays at the House of Lords in  the
office of the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery. A system  of  'colour  coding'
is used for the seal impression, depending on the type of document to  which
it is being affixed. Dark green seals are affixed to  letters  patent  which
elevate individuals to the  peerage;  blue  seals  are  used  for  documents
relating to the close members of the Royal Family; and scarlet red  is  used
for documents appointing a bishop and for most other patents.

   A number of different types of flag are associated with The Queen and the
Royal Family. The Union Flag (or Union Jack) originated  as  a  Royal  flag,
although it is now also flown by many people and organisations elsewhere  in
the United Kingdom by long established custom. The  Royal  Standard  is  the
flag flown when The Queen is in residence in one of the  Royal  Palaces,  on
The Queen's car on official journeys and on aircraft (when on  the  ground),
and represents the Sovereign and the United Kingdom.  The  Queen's  personal
flag, adopted in 1960, is personal to her alone and can be flown by  no  one
other than The Queen. Members of the Royal Family have  their  own  personal
variants  on  the  Royal  Standard.  The  Prince  of  Wales  has  additional
Standards which he uses in Wales and Scotland.

                              CROWNS AND JEWELS
   The crowns  and  treasures  associated  with  the  British  Monarchy  are
powerful symbols of monarchy for the British  people  and,  as  such,  their
value represents more than gold and precious stones. Today  the  crowns  and
treasures associated with English kings and queens since  1660  and  earlier
are used for the Coronation of Monarchs of the United  Kingdom.  The  crowns
and regalia used by Scottish monarchs (the Honours of Scotland) and  Princes
of Wales (the Honours  of  the  Principality  of  Wales)  continue  to  have
symbolic meaning in Scotland and Wales. All three collections  of  treasures
can be viewed today in their different locations  -  the  Tower  of  London,
Edinburgh Castle and the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
   The Queen's State and private motor cars are housed in  the  Royal  Mews.
For official duties - providing transport for State and  other  visitors  as
well as The Queen herself - there are nine State limousines,  consisting  of
one Bentley, five Rolls-Royces and  three  Daimlers.  They  are  painted  in
Royal maroon livery and the Bentley and Rolls-Royces uniquely  do  not  have
registration number plates. Other vehicles  include  a  number  of  Vauxhall
Sintra 'people carriers'.
   The most recent State  car,  which  is  used  for  most  of  The  Queen's
engagements, is a State Bentley presented to The Queen to  mark  her  Golden
Jubilee in 2002. The one-off model, conceived by  a  Bentley-led  consortium
of British motor industry manufacturers and suppliers, is the first  Bentley
to be used for State occasions. It was designed with input from  The  Queen,
The Duke of Edinburgh and Her Majesty's Head Chauffeur.
   In technical terms,  the  car  has  a  monocoque  construction,  enabling
greater use to be made of  the  vehicle's  interior  space. This  means  the
transmission tunnel now runs underneath the floor,  without  encroaching  on
the cabin and has enabled the stylists  to  work  with  a  lowered  roofline
whilst preserving the required interior height. The  rear  doors  have  been
redesigned enabling The Queen to stand up straight before stepping  down  to
the ground. The rear seats are upholstered in Hield Lambswool  Sateen  cloth
whilst all remaining upholstery is in light grey Connolly hide. Carpets  are
pale blue in the rear and dark blue in the front.
   A Rolls-Royce Phantom VI was presented to  The  Queen  in  1978  for  her
Silver Jubilee by the  Society  of  Motor  Manufacturers  and  Traders.  The
oldest car in the fleet is the Phantom IV, built in 1950, 5.76 litre with  a
straight eight engine and a Mulliner body. There is also a 1987  Phantom  VI
and two identical Phantom V models  built  in  the  early  1960s.  The  1978
Phantom VI and the two Phantom V  models  have  a  removable  exterior  roof
covering, which exposes an inner lining of perspex, giving a clear  view  of
   All the cars have fittings for the shield bearing the Royal Coat of  Arms
and the Royal Standard. The Queen has her own mascot  for  use  on  official
cars. Designed for her by the artist Edward Seago in the form of  St  George
on a horse poised victorious over a slain dragon, it is made of  silver  and
can be transferred from car to car as necessary.  The  Duke  of  Edinburgh's
mascot, a heraldic lion wearing a crown, is adapted from his arms.
   For her private use The  Queen  drives  a  Daimler  Jaguar  saloon  or  a
Vauxhall estate (like every  other  qualified  driver,  The  Queen  holds  a
driving licence). The Duke of Edinburgh has a Range  Rover  and,  for  short
journeys round London,  uses  a  Metrocab.  The  private  cars  are  painted
Edinburgh green.
   A number of Royal Mews  vehicles  have  now  been  converted  to  run  on
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - a more environmentally  friendly  fuel  than
petrol or diesel. Converted vehicles include one of the Rolls-Royce  Phantom
IVs, a Daimler and The Duke of Edinburgh's Metrocab.

   The Queen's State and private motor cars are housed in  the  Royal  Mews.
For official duties - providing transport for State and  other  visitors  as
well as The Queen herself - there are nine State limousines,  consisting  of
one Bentley, five Rolls-Royces and  three  Daimlers.  They  are  painted  in
Royal maroon livery and the Bentley and Rolls-Royces uniquely  do  not  have
registration number plates. Other vehicles  include  a  number  of  Vauxhall
Sintra 'people carriers'.
   The most recent State  car,  which  is  used  for  most  of  The  Queen's
engagements, is a State Bentley presented to The Queen to  mark  her  Golden
Jubilee in 2002. The one-off model, conceived by  a  Bentley-led  consortium
of British motor industry manufacturers and suppliers, is the first  Bentley
to be used for State occasions. It was designed with input from  The  Queen,
The Duke of Edinburgh and Her Majesty's Head Chauffeur.
   In technical terms,  the  car  has  a  monocoque  construction,  enabling
greater use to be made of  the  vehicle's  interior  space. This  means  the
transmission tunnel now runs underneath the floor,  without  encroaching  on
the cabin and has enabled the stylists  to  work  with  a  lowered  roofline
whilst preserving the required interior height. The  rear  doors  have  been
redesigned enabling The Queen to stand up straight before stepping  down  to
the ground. The rear seats are upholstered in Hield Lambswool  Sateen  cloth
whilst all remaining upholstery is in light grey Connolly hide. Carpets  are
pale blue in the rear and dark blue in the front.
   A Rolls-Royce Phantom VI was presented to  The  Queen  in  1978  for  her
Silver Jubilee by the  Society  of  Motor  Manufacturers  and  Traders.  The
oldest car in the fleet is the Phantom IV, built in 1950, 5.76 litre with  a
straight eight engine and a Mulliner body. There is also a 1987  Phantom  VI
and two identical Phantom V models  built  in  the  early  1960s.  The  1978
Phantom VI and the two Phantom V  models  have  a  removable  exterior  roof
covering, which exposes an inner lining of perspex, giving a clear  view  of
   All the cars have fittings for the shield bearing the Royal Coat of  Arms
and the Royal Standard. The Queen has her own mascot  for  use  on  official
cars. Designed for her by the artist Edward Seago in the form of  St  George
on a horse poised victorious over a slain dragon, it is made of  silver  and
can be transferred from car to car as necessary.  The  Duke  of  Edinburgh's
mascot, a heraldic lion wearing a crown, is adapted from his arms.
   For her private use The  Queen  drives  a  Daimler  Jaguar  saloon  or  a
Vauxhall estate (like every  other  qualified  driver,  The  Queen  holds  a
driving licence). The Duke of Edinburgh has a Range  Rover  and,  for  short
journeys round London,  uses  a  Metrocab.  The  private  cars  are  painted
Edinburgh green.
   A number of Royal Mews  vehicles  have  now  been  converted  to  run  on
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - a more environmentally  friendly  fuel  than
petrol or diesel. Converted vehicles include one of the Rolls-Royce  Phantom
IVs, a Daimler and The Duke of Edinburgh's Metrocab.

   Housed in the Royal Mews is the  collection  of  historic  carriages  and
coaches, most of which are still in use  to  convey  members  of  the  Royal
family in State ceremonial processions or on other royal occasions.
   The oldest coach is the Gold State Coach, first used by George  III  when
he opened Parliament in 1762 and used  for  every  coronation  since  George
IV's in 1821. As its name implies, it is gilded all over  and  the  exterior
is decorated with painted panels. It weighs four  tons  and  requires  eight
horses to pull it.
   The coach now used by The Queen at the State  Opening  of  Parliament  is
known as the Irish State Coach because the original was  built  in  1851  by
the Lord Mayor of Dublin, who was also a coachbuilder. Although  extensively
damaged by fire in 1911, the existing coach was completely restored in  1989
by the Royal Mews carriage restorers, who stripped the  coach  to  the  bare
wood and applied twenty coats of paint, including  gilding  and  varnishing.
The exterior is blue and black with gilt  decoration  and  the  interior  is
covered in blue damask. It is normally driven from the box seat  using  four
   Other coaches include the Scottish State Coach (built in  1830  and  used
for Scottish and English processions), Queen Alexandra's State  Coach  (used
to convey the Imperial State Crown to Parliament  for  the  State  Opening),
the 1902 State Landau, the Australian State Coach (presented  to  The  Queen
in 1988 by the Australian  people  to  mark  Australia's  bicentenary),  the
Glass Coach (built in 1881 and used for royal weddings) and  the  State  and
Semi-State Landaus (used in State processions).
   In addition there are two barouches, broughams  (which  every  day  carry
messengers on their official rounds  in  London),  Queen  Victoria's  Ivory-
Mounted Phaeton (used by The Queen since 1987 for her  Birthday  Parade)  as
well as a number of other carriages. In all, there are over 100 coaches  and
carriages in the Royal Collection.
   All the carriages and coaches are maintained by craftsmen  in  the  Royal
Mews department and some of the coaches and carriages can be viewed on  days
when the Royal Mews is open to the public.

                               THE ROYAL TRAIN

   Modern Royal  Train  vehicles  came  into  operation  in  1977  with  the
introduction of four new saloons to mark The Queen's  Silver  Jubilee.  This
continued a service which originated on  13  June,  1842,  when  the  engine
Phlegethon, pulling the royal saloon and six  other  carriages,  transported
Queen Victoria from Slough to Paddington. The journey took 25 minutes.
   It is perhaps somewhat misleading to talk of 'the  Royal  Train'  because
the modern train consists of carriages drawn from a total of eight  purpose-
built saloons, pulled by one of the two Royal Class 47  diesel  locomotives,
Prince William  or  Prince  Henry.  The  exact  number  and  combination  of
carriages forming a Royal Train is  determined  by  factors  such  as  which
member of the Royal family is travelling and the time and  duration  of  the
journey. When not pulling the Royal Train, the two locomotives are used  for
general duties.
   The Royal Train enables members of the Royal family to travel  overnight,
at times when the weather is too bad to fly, and to work and  hold  meetings
during  lengthy  journeys.  It  has   modern   office   and   communications
facilities. Journeys on  the  train  are  always  organised  so  as  not  to
interfere with scheduled services. (Where appropriate, The Queen  and  other
members of the Royal  family  use  scheduled  services  for  their  official
   The carriages are a distinctive maroon with red and  black  coach  lining
and a grey roof. The carriages available  include  the  royal  compartments,
sleeping, dining and  support  cars.  The  Queen's  Saloon  has  a  bedroom,
bathroom and a sitting room with an entrance which opens onto the  platform.
The Duke of Edinburgh's Saloon has a similar layout plus a  kitchen.  Fitted
out at  the  former  British  Rail's  Wolverton  Works  in  Buckinghamshire,
Scottish landscapes by Roy  Penny  and  Victorian  prints  of  earlier  rail
journeys hang in both saloons.
   A link with the earliest days of railways is displayed  in  the  Duke  of
Edinburgh's Saloon: a piece of  Isambard  Kingdom  Brunel's  original  broad
gauge rail,  presented  on  the  150th  anniversary  of  the  Great  Western
Railway. (Brunel accompanied Queen Victoria on her inaugural 1842 journey.)
   The current Queen's and Duke's Saloons came into service  in  1977,  when
they were extensively used during the Silver Jubilee royal tours. They  were
not, however, new. They began life in 1972 as prototypes  for  the  standard
Inter-City Mark III passenger carriage and were subsequently fitted out  for
their royal role at the Wolverton Works. All work  on  the  Royal  Train  is
normally done at Wolverton.
   Railtrack PLC manages the Royal Train and owns the rolling stock. Day-to-
day operations are conducted by another privatised company,  English,  Welsh
and Scottish Railways. The cost of maintaining and using the  train  is  met
by the  Royal  Household  from  the  Grant-in-Aid  which  it  receives  from
Parliament each year for air and rail travel. In 2000-01 the total  cost  of
the Royal Train was £596,000; the train made 17 journeys.
   A number of former Royal Train  carriages  are  now  on  display  at  the
National Railway Museum in York.

                              ROYAL AIR TRAVEL
   The history of Royal flying dates back more than 80 years to  1917,  when
The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII) became the first member of  the
Royal family to fly, in France during the First World War. The  Prince  went
on to become a skilful pilot. From 1930 onwards members of the Royal  family
made increasing use of aircraft, largely  operating  from  Hendon  in  north
London. In 1936, on becoming King Edward VIII, the former  Prince  of  Wales
was the first British Monarch to fly.
   Since then many members of the Royal family have learnt to fly. The  Duke
of York trained as a Royal Navy helicopter  pilot  and  flew  in  operations
during the 1982 Falklands Conflict - the first member of  the  Royal  family
to see active service since the Second World War. In an  unblemished  flying
career spanning more than 40 years The Duke  of  Edinburgh  has  flown  more
different aircraft types than most pilots. The Prince  of  Wales,  too,  has
accumulated many hours flying both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.
   Royal flying was formalised on 21 July 1936  with  the  creation  of  The
King's Flight at Hendon.  The  new  flight  operated  a  single  twin-engine
Dragon Rapide, G-ADDD, formerly  the  king's  private  aircraft.  The  first
Captain of the King's Flight was Wing  Commander  E.H.  Fielden  (who  later
became an Air Vice-Marshal). The Dragon Rapide was replaced in May  1937  by
an Airspeed Envoy III, G-AEXX, the  first  aircraft  purchased  specifically
for the Flight. The Second World  War  saw  The  King's  Flight  temporarily
disbanded, although members of the  Royal  family  continued  to  fly  using
military aircraft.
   In 1946 The King's Flight was  reformed,  in  greater  strength,  at  RAF
Benson with four Vickers Vikings. The following year all were  heavily  used
during the Royal Tour of South Africa.
   After The Queen's accession The King's Flight  was  renamed  The  Queen's
Flight. The first helicopter -  a  Westland  Dragonfly  -  was  acquired  in
September 1954 and was quickly championed by  The  Duke  of  Edinburgh  (who
qualified as a helicopter pilot the following  year).  It  was  replaced  in
1958 by two Westland Whirlwinds.  In  1964  Hawker  Siddeley  Andovers  were
introduced for fixed wing flying and saw  more  than  25  years  of  service
before being superceded, in the  Flight's  50th  anniversary  year,  by  the
current British Aerospace 146. In June 1969 the Whirlwinds were replaced  by
two Westland Wessex. These served for nearly 30 years, together making  more
than 10,000 flights and each flying the equivalent of 20  times  around  the
world, before being replaced on 1 April 1998 by a single Sikorsky S-76.
   In 1995, The Queen's Flight was amalgamated with No. 32  Squadron,  which
was renamed No 32 (The Royal) Squadron. At the same time the squadron  moved
from RAF Benson to its current location at RAF Northolt.
   Nowadays, official flying for members of the Royal family is provided  by
BAe 146 and Hawker S125 jet aircraft of No. 32 (The Royal)  Squadron,  based
at RAF Northolt just north west of London, and the Sikorsky S-76  helicopter
operated by the Royal Household from Blackbushe Aerodrome in  Hampshire.  In
2000-01, 32 Squadron had two four-engined BAe 146s (each  of  which  carries
19 to 23 passengers) and five twin-engined HS 125s (each  of  which  carries
seven passengers). The  Royal  Travel  Office  based  at  RAF  Northolt  co-
ordinates use of the different types of aircraft by  members  of  the  Royal
family, ensuring that their use is both appropriate and cost-effective.
   In 2000-01, the BAe 146 were used for Royal flying over 142 flying hours,
the HS125 for 149 flying hours and the Sikorsky for 459  flying  hours.  No.
32 (The Royal) Squadron  is  primarily  a  Royal  Air  Force  communications
flying squadron. In fact, Royal flying accounts for less  than  20%  of  the
combined tasking of both the BAe 146 and the HS125, which are more  commonly
used by senior military officers and Government ministers.
   The cost of official royal travel by air is met by the Royal Travel Grant-
in-aid, the annual funding provided by the Department  of  Transport,  Local
Government and the Regions (DTLGR). In 2000-01, the cost of  official  royal
travel by 32 Squadron was £1,793,000.
   Aircraft of No. 32 (The Royal) Squadron have a distinctive red, blue  and
white livery; the Royal Household S-76 is  finished  in  the  red  and  blue
colours of the Brigade of Guards (as were aircraft  in  the  early  days  of
Royal flying).
   Today, the BAe 146 and HS 125 of No 32 (The Royal) Squadron and the Royal
Household's S-76 are used for official duties  by  The  Queen  and,  at  her
discretion, other members of the Royal family, continuing a tradition  begun
with a single aircraft more than 60 years ago.

                              THE ROYAL FAMILY
                         MEMBERS OF THE ROYAL FAMILY
   In her role as Head of State The Queen is supported  by  members  of  the
Royal Family, who carry out a wide range of public and official duties.  The
biographies in this section contain information  about  various  members  of
the Royal Family, including early life and education, professional  careers,
official Royal work, involvement with  charities  and  other  organisations,
personal interests and more

                                HM THE QUEEN
    The Queen was born in London on 21 April 1926, the first child  of  The
Duke and Duchess of York, subsequently King George VI and  Queen  Elizabeth.
Five weeks later she was christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in  the  chapel
at Buckingham Palace.
    The Princess's early years were spent at  145  Piccadilly,  the  London
house taken by her parents shortly  after  her  birth;  at  White  Lodge  in
Richmond Park; and at the country homes of her grandparents, King  George  V
and Queen Mary, and the Earl and Countess of Strathmore. When  she  was  six
years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park as  their
own country home.

                          HRH THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH
   Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron  Greenwich,
was born Prince of Greece and Denmark in Corfu on 10  June  1921;  the  only
son of Prince Andrew of Greece. His paternal family is of Danish  descent  -
Prince Andrew was the grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark.  His  mother
was Princess Alice of Battenberg,  the  eldest  child  of  Prince  Louis  of
Battenberg and sister of Earl Mountbatten of Burma. Prince  Louis  became  a
naturalised British subject in 1868, joined  the  Royal  Navy  and  rose  to
become an Admiral of the Fleet and First Sea Lord in 1914. During the  First
World War he  changed  the  family  name  to  Mountbatten  and  was  created
Marquess of  Milford  Haven.  Prince  Philip  adopted  the  family  name  of
Mountbatten when he became a naturalised British subject and  renounced  his
Royal title in 1947.
   Prince Louis married one of Queen Victoria's  granddaughters.  Thus,  The
Queen  and  Prince  Philip  both  have  Queen  Victoria  as  a  great-great-
grandmother. They are also related through his father's side.  His  paternal
grandfather, King George I of Greece, was Queen Alexandra's brother.

   The Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince  Philip,
Duke of Edinburgh, is heir apparent to the throne.
   The Prince was born at Buckingham Palace on 14  November  1948,  and  was
christened Charles Philip Arthur George.
   When, on the accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth  in  1952,  he  became  heir
apparent, Prince Charles automatically  became  Duke  of  Cornwall  under  a
charter of King Edward III dating back to 1337, which  gave  that  title  to
the Sovereign's eldest son. He also became, in the  Scottish  Peerage,  Duke
of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron  Renfrew,  Lord  of  the  Isles,  and
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.
   The Prince was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester  in  1958.  In
1968, The Prince of Wales was installed as a Knight of the Garter. The  Duke
of Rothesay (as he is known in Scotland)  was  appointed  a  Knight  of  the
Thistle in 1977. In June 2002 The Prince  of  Wales  was  appointed  to  the
Order of Merit.

                            HRH THE DUKE OF YORK
   The Duke of York was born on 19 February 1960 at Buckingham Palace. He is
the second son and the third child of The Queen and The Duke of  Edinburgh. 
He was the first child to be born to  a  reigning  monarch  for  103  years.
Named Andrew Albert Christian Edward he was known  as  Prince  Andrew  until
his marriage, when he was created The Duke of York, Earl  of  Inverness  and
Baron Killyleagh.

   The Earl of Wessex is the third son and youngest child of The  Queen  and
The Duke of Edinburgh. He was born on 10 March 1964  and  christened  Edward
Antony Richard Louis at Buckingham Palace. He was  known  as  Prince  Edward
until his marriage, when he was created The  Earl  of  Wessex  and  Viscount
Severn; at the same time it was  announced  that  His  Royal  Highness  will
eventually succeed to the title of The Duke of Edinburgh.
   In March 1989, The Queen appointed Prince Edward a Commander of the Royal
Victorian Order.

                             HRH PRINCESS ROYAL
   The Princess Royal, the second child and only daughter of The  Queen  and
The Duke of Edinburgh, was born at Clarence  House,  London,  on  15  August
1950, when her mother  was  Princess  Elizabeth,  heir  presumptive  to  the
throne. She was baptised Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise  at  Buckingham  Palace
on 21 October 1950.
   She received the title Princess Royal from The Queen in  June  1987;  she
was previously known as Princess Anne. Her Royal  Highness  is  the  seventh
holder of the title.
   In 1994 The Queen appointed The Princess a Lady of the Most  Noble  Order
of the Garter. In 2000, to mark her 50th birthday, The  Princess  Royal  was
appointed to the Order of the  Thistle,  in  recognition  of  her  work  for

                             HRH PRINCESS ALICE
   Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester is the widow of the  late  Duke  of
Gloucester, third son of George V.
   Lady Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott was born  on  Christmas  Day,
1901 at Montagu House, London. She was the third  daughter  of  the  seventh
Duke of Buccleuch, who had been a  fellow  midshipman  of  the  future  king
George V.
   Lady Alice was educated at home until the age of 12.  She  then  went  to
school at West Malvern, spending a year in Paris before  returning  home  to
be presented at Court in  1920.  Lady  Alice  has  greatly  enjoyed  outdoor
pursuits, including skiing, and has  been  an  accomplished  watercolourist.
She also travelled  widely,  living  for  many  months  in  Kenya  and  also
spending time in India on a visit to her brother.

   Born in 1944, The Duke of Gloucester is the second son of the  late  Duke
of Gloucester and Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester. He  is  a  grandson
of George V and a first cousin to The Queen.  He  succeeded  his  father  as
Duke of Gloucester in June 1974.
   In July 1972 Prince Richard (as he was then known) married  Birgitte  Eva
van  Deurs  from  Odense,  Denmark  at   St   Andrew's   Church,   Barnwell,
Northamptonshire. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester  have  three  children:
(Alexander) Earl of Ulster, born in 1974; The Lady Davina Windsor,  born  in
1977; and The Lady Rose Windsor, born in 1980.
   The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester both  carry  out  a  large  number  of
official engagements each year, individually and  together.  They  undertake
visits in regions  throughout  the  United  Kingdom  and  travel  abroad  on
official visits and to support their varied patronages.

                      TRH THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF KENT
   Born in 1935, HRH The Duke of Kent is the son of the late Prince  George,
fourth son of King George V, and  the  late  Princess  Marina,  daughter  of
Prince Nicholas of Greece. He is cousin to both The Queen and  The  Duke  of
Edinburgh. The present Duke of Kent inherited his title following the  death
of his father in 1942.
   In 1961 The Duke of Kent became engaged to  Miss  Katharine  Worsley  and
they married in York Minster. The couple have three children:  George,  Earl
of St Andrews, born in June 1962; Lady Helen Taylor, born in April 1964  and
Lord Nicholas Windsor, born on 25 July 1970.
   The Duke and The Duchess of Kent undertake a  large  number  of  official
Royal  engagements.  Each  has  close  associations  with  many   charities,
professional bodies and other organisations.

   Prince Michael was born on 4 July  1942  at  the  family  home  in  Iver,
Buckinghamshire. He was christened Michael George Charles Franklin  and  one
of his godfathers was President Roosevelt. He is a cousin to both The  Queen
and The Duke of Edinburgh, and his older brother and sister are The Duke  of
Kent and Princess Alexandra. Prince Michael's  father,  Prince  George,  was
the fourth son of  George  V  and  his  mother,  Princess  Marina,  was  the
daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece.
   The Prince is a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.

                           HRH PRINCESS ALEXANDRA
   Princess Alexandra was born on Christmas Day 1936 at 3, Belgrave  Square,
her family's London home. She is the second child and only daughter  of  the
late Duke and Duchess of Kent (her brothers are the  present  Duke  of  Kent
and Prince Michael of Kent). Much  of  her  childhood  was  spent  at  their
country home, Coppins, in  Buckinghamshire.  Her  father  was  killed  in  a
wartime flying accident in 1942 when she was just five years old.

                               MEMORIAL PLAQUE
                        4 August 1900 - 30 March 2002

   Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother died peacefully in her sleep
on Saturday 30 March 2002, at Royal Lodge, Windsor. Queen  Elizabeth  was  a
much-loved member of the Royal Family. Her life, spanning  over  a  century,
was devoted to the service of her  country,  the  fulfilment  of  her  Royal
duties and the support of her family.

                          HRH THE PRINCESS MARGARET
                      21 AUGUST 1930 - 9 FEBRUARY 2002

   Her Royal  Highness  The Princess  Margaret,  Countess  of  Snowdon  died
peacefully in her sleep on Saturday 9 February, 2002,  in  The  King  Edward
VII Hospital, London.
   The younger daughter of King George VI  and  Queen  Elizabeth  The  Queen
Mother, and sister to The Queen, Princess Margaret  was  a  hardworking  and
much-loved member of the Royal Family.
   Read more about the Princess and her funeral  and  memorial  services  in
this section.

                          DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES

   Diana, Princess of Wales died on Sunday, 31 August 1997 following  a  car
crash in Paris. There was widespread public mourning at the  death  of  this
popular figure,  culminating  with  her  funeral  at  Westminster  Abbey  on
Saturday, 6 September 1997. Even after her death,  however,  the  Princess's
work lives on in the form of commemorative charities and projects set up  to
help those in need.

                             ART AND RESIDENCES
                            THE ROYAL COLLECTION
   The Royal Collection, one of the finest art collections in the world,  is
held in trust by The Queen as Sovereign for her successors and  the  Nation.
It is on public display at the principal royal residences and is shown in  a
programme of special exhibitions and through loans  to  institutions  around
the world.

                         ABOUT THE ROYAL COLLECTION
   Shaped by the personal tastes of kings and  queens  over  more  than  500
years, the Royal Collection includes paintings, drawings  and  watercolours,
furniture,  ceramics,   clocks,   silver,   sculpture,   jewellery,   books,
manuscripts, prints and maps, arms and armour, fans,  and  textiles.  It  is
held in trust by The Queen as Sovereign for her successors and  the  Nation,
and  is  not  owned  by  her  as  a  private  individual.   Curatorial   and
administrative responsibility for  the  Collection  is  held  by  the  Royal
Collection Department, part of the Royal Household.
   The Collection has largely been  formed  since  the  Restoration  of  the
Monarchy in 1660.   Some  items   belonging  to   earlier   monarchs,   for 
example Henry VIII, also survive.  The  greater  part  of  the  magnificent 
collection   inherited   and   added  to  by  Charles  I  was  dispersed  on
Cromwell's orders during the Interregnum.  The  royal  patrons  now  chiefly
associated with notable additions to the Collection  are  Frederick,  Prince
of Wales; George III; George IV;  Queen  Victoria  and  Prince  Albert;  and
Queen Mary, Consort of George V.
   The Royal Collection is on display at the principal royal residences, all
of which are open to the public.  Unlike most art  collections  of  national
importance, works of art from the Royal Collection can  be  enjoyed  in  the
historic settings for which they were originally commissioned or  acquired. 
Much of the Collection is still in use at the working royal palaces.
   The official residences  of  The  Queen  have  a  programme  of  changing
exhibitions  to  show  further  areas  of  the  Collection  to  the  public,
particularly  those  items  that  cannot  be  on   permanent   display   for
conservation reasons. The Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty The  Queen  will  be
marked by the creation of  two  flagship  exhibition  spaces  at  Buckingham
Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse.
   Loans are made to institutions throughout  the  world,  as  part  of  the
commitment to make the Collection widely available and to show works of  art
in new contexts. Touring exhibitions remain an important part of  the  Royal
Collection's work to broaden public access. 
   Over 3,000 objects from the Royal Collection are  on  long-term  loan  to
museums and  galleries  around  the  United  Kingdom  and  abroad.  National
institutions housing works of art from the Collection  include  The  British
Museum, National Gallery, the Victoria and  Albert  Museum,  the  Museum  of
London, the National Museum of Wales and the National Gallery of Scotland.
   The Royal Collection is the only collection of major national  importance
to receive no Government funding or public subsidy and  is  administered  by
the Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity.  The Trust was set  up  by
The Queen in 1993 under the chairmanship of The Prince of  Wales,  following
the establishment of the Royal Collection Department as a new department  of
the Royal Household in 1987. Income  from  the  public  opening  of  Windsor
Castle,  Buckingham  Palace  and  the  Palace  of  Holyroodhouse  and   from
associated  retail  activities   supports   curatorial,   conservation   and
educational  work,  loans  and  travelling  exhibitions  and  major  capital
projects. These projects include the restoration  of  Windsor  Castle  after
the fire in 1992, the  rebuilding  of  The  Queen's  Gallery  at  Buckingham
Palace and the construction of an entirely new  gallery  at  the  Palace  of

                         THE ROYAL COLLECTION TRUST
   The Royal Collection is the only collection of major national  importance
to receive no Government funding or public subsidy.   It is administered  by
the Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity established  by  The  Queen
in 1993 under the chairmanship of The Prince of  Wales.   The  role  of  the
Trust is to ensure that the Collection is conserved  and  displayed  to  the
highest standards and  that  public  understanding  of  and  access  to  the
Collection is increased through exhibition,  publication,  education  and  a
programme of loans.
   These wide-ranging activities are funded by  monies  raised  through  the
Trust's trading arm, Royal Collection Enterprises, from the  public  opening
of Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace and the  Palace  of  Holyroodhouse  and
from retail sales of publications and other merchandise.   Current  projects
funded through the Royal Collection Trust include  the  major  expansion  of
exhibition space at Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse  to
mark The Queen's Golden Jubilee in 2002.
   The Royal Collection Trust determines how the income generated should  be
used in pursuit of its stated objectives.
   The Trust's primary aims are to ensure that:
- the Collection is subject to proper custodial control;
-  the Collection is  maintained  and  conserved  to  the  highest  possible
-  as much of the Collection as possible can  be  seen  by  members  of  the
- the Collection is presented and interpreted so as to enhance the  public's
appreciation and understanding;
-  appropriate acquisitions are made when resources become available.

                        ROYAL COLLECTION ENTERPRISES
   Royal Collection Enterprises Limited, the trading subsidiary of the Royal
Collection Trust, generates income for the presentation and conservation  of
the Royal Collection, and for projects to  increase  public  access.  It  is
responsible for  the  management  and  financial  administration  of  public
admission  to  Windsor  Castle  and  Frogmore  House,   Buckingham   Palace,
including the Royal  Mews,  and  The  Queen's  Galleries.  Royal  Collection
Enterprises  also  promotes  access  to   the   Royal   Collection   through
publishing, retail merchandise and the Picture Library.

   Publishing forms an  important  part  of  the  Royal  Collection  Trust's
ongoing programme to extend knowledge  and  enjoyment  of  the  Collection's
treasures.  Over fifty books about the Royal Collection have  been  produced
in recent years, ranging from scholarly exhibition catalogues to  books  for
   In the mid-1990s the Royal Collection  established  its  own  imprint  to
build a definitive series about the royal residences and the works of  art. 
These books are written by or in consultation with  the  Royal  Collection's
own curators.
   Royal Collection publications are available  from  the  Royal  Collection
shops at the Royal Mews, Windsor Castle, the Palace  of  Holyroodhouse,  the
Summer Opening of the State Rooms at Buckingham Palace.
   All profits from the sale of Royal Collection publications are  dedicated
to the Royal Collection Trust.

                              ROYAL RESIDENCES
   The Royal Collection comprises the contents of all the royal palaces. 
   These include the official residences of The Queen, where the  Collection
plays an important part in  the  life  of  a  working  palace  -  Buckingham
Palace, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse (administered by  the
Royal Collection Trust); the unoccupied residences - Hampton  Court  Palace,
Kensington Palace (State Apartments),  Kew  Palace,  the  Banqueting  House,
Whitehall and the Tower  of  London  (administered  by  the  Historic  Royal
Palaces Trust);  and  Osborne  House  (owned  and  administered  by  English
   Items from the Collection may also be seen at the private  homes  of  The
Queen - Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle.

                         ROYAL COLLECTION GALLERIES
   Dedicated gallery spaces allow works from the Collection to be  presented
and interpreted in different contexts, outside their historic settings,  and
give public access  to  items  that  cannot  be  on  permanent  display  for
conservation  reasons.   The  exhibitions  in  The  Queen's  Galleries   are
accompanied by full catalogues, bringing to the public new research  on  the
subject by the Royal Collection's curators.
   The new Queen's Gallery at the Palace of Holyroodhouse  in  Edinburgh was
inaugurated by Her Majesty The Queen on 29  November  2002  and  opened  its
doors to the public the  following  day,  St  Andrew's  Day.  The  inaugural
exhibition is Leonardo da Vinci: The  Divine and the Grotesque (30  November
2002 - 30 March 2003), the largest exhibition devoted to Leonardo  da  Vinci
ever held in Scotland and  the  first  to  examine  the  artist's  life-long
obsession with the human form. All 68 works come from the Royal  Collection,
which holds the world's finest group of Leonardo's drawings.
   A new exhibition also opened at Windsor Castle in the Drawings Gallery on
9 November 2002. The exhibition celebrates the centenary  of  the  Order  of
Merit with a series of original drawings of holders of the honour, past  and
present. It also features manuscripts and badges from former holders.

   Some 3,000 objects from the Royal Collection are on long-term loan to 160
institutions  across  the  UK  and  overseas.   These  include  the  Raphael
Cartoons of The Acts of the Apostles at the Victoria and Albert Museum,  the
Van der Goes Trinity Altarpiece at the National  Gallery  of  Scotland,  and
the Roman sculpture The Lely Venus, at The British Museum.
   Every year hundreds of objects from the Collection are  lent  to  special
exhibitions worldwide.  These loans support  international  scholarship  and
enable material to be seen in new contexts. 
   Touring exhibitions of works from the Royal Library are an important  way
to broaden access to items that, for  conservation  reasons,  cannot  be  on
permanent display.  The millennial  exhibition  Ten  Religious  Masterpieces
was the year 2000's most popular art exhibition outside  London,  attracting
over 200,000 visitors over the period of its tour.

                            THE ROYAL RESIDENCES
   The residences associated with today's Royal Family are divided into  the
Occupied Royal Residences, which are held in trust for  future  generations,
and the Private Estates which have been handed down to The Queen by  earlier
generations of the Royal Family.
   Beautifully furnished with treasures from the Royal Collection,  most  of
the Royal residences are open to the public when not in official use.
   These pages contain details of the history and role of  these  Residences
and Estates, and provide information  for  visitors  on  opening  times  and
admission prices for those that are open to the public. 

                         ABOUT THE ROYAL RESIDENCES
   Throughout the centuries, Britain's kings and queens have built or bought
palaces to serve as family homes, workplaces and as centres of government.
   The residences associated with today's Royal Family are divided into  the
Occupied Royal Residences, which are held in trust for  future  generations,
and the Private Estates which have been handed down to The Queen by  earlier
generations of the Royal Family.

                              BUCKINGHAM PALACE
   Buckingham  Palace  has  served  as  the  official  London  residence  of
Britain's sovereigns since 1837. It evolved  from  a  town  house  that  was
owned from  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  by  the  Dukes  of
Buckingham. Today it is The Queen's official residence. Although in use  for
the many official  events  and  receptions  held  by  The  Queen,  areas  of
Buckingham Palace are opened to visitors on a regular basis.
   The State Rooms of the Palace are open  to  visitors  during  the  Annual
Summer Opening in August and September. They  are  lavishly  furnished  with
some of the greatest treasures from the  Royal  Collection  -  paintings  by
Rembrandt, Rubens, Vermeer, Poussin,  Canaletto  and  Claude;  sculpture  by
Canova and Chantrey; exquisite examples of Sèvres  porcelain,  and  some  of
the finest English and French furniture in the world.
   Visits to Buckingham Palace can be combined with visits  to  The  Queen's
Gallery, which reopened in May 2002.

   The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace is a permanent  space  dedicated
to changing exhibitions of  items  from  the  Royal  Collection,  the  wide-
ranging collection of art and treasures held in trust by The Queen  for  the
nation. Constructed forty years ago on the west front of  Buckingham  Palace
out of the bomb-damaged ruins of the former private chapel, the gallery  has
recently been redeveloped. It was reopened by The Queen on 21 May  2002  and
is now open to the public on a daily basis.
   The inaugural exhibition of the  redeveloped  gallery  is  a  spectacular
celebration of the individual tastes of monarchs and other  members  of  the
royal family who have shaped one of  the  world's  greatest  collections  of
art.  Mixing  the  famous  with  the  unexpected,  the  selection   of   450
outstanding works for Royal  Treasures:  A Golden  Jubilee  Celebration  has
been made across the entire breadth of  the  Royal  Collection,  from  eight
royal residences and over five centuries of collecting.

                               THE ROYAL MEWS
   One of the finest  working  stables  in  existence,  the  Royal  Mews  at
Buckingham Palace provides a unique opportunity  for  visitors  to  see  the
work of the Royal Household department that provides road transport for  The
Queen and members of the Royal  Family  by  both  horse-drawn  carriage  and
motor car.
   The Royal Mews has a permanent display of State vehicles.  These  include
the magnificent Gold State Coach used for Coronations  and  those  carriages
used for Royal and State occasions, State Visits,  weddings  and  the  State
Opening of Parliament. A State motor vehicle is  also  usually  on  display.
For much of the year visitors to the Royal Mews can also see the  30  or  so
carriage-horses which play an important role in  The  Queen's  official  and
ceremonial duties.

                               WINDSOR CASTLE
   Windsor Castle is an official residence of  The  Queen  and  the  largest
occupied castle in the world.  A royal palace  and  fortress  for  over  900
years, the Castle remains a working palace today. Visitors can  walk  around
the State Apartments, extensive suites of rooms at the heart of the  working
palace; for part of the year visitors can also see  the  Semi  State  rooms,
which are some of the most  splendid  interiors  in  the  castle.  They  are
furnished with treasures from the Royal Collection  including  paintings  by
Holbein, Rubens, Van Dyck  and  Lawrence,  fine  tapestries  and  porcelain,
sculpture and armour.
   Within the Castle complex there are many additional attractions.  In  the
Drawings Gallery regular exhibitions of treasures  from  the  Royal  Library
are mounted. Another popular feature is the Queen  Mary's  Dolls'  House,  a
miniature mansion built to perfection. The fourteenth-century  St.  George's
Chapel is the burial place of ten sovereigns,  home  of  the  Order  of  the
Garter, and setting for many royal weddings. Nearby on  the  Windsor  Estate
is Frogmore House, an attractive country residence with strong  associations
to three queens - Queen Charlotte, Queen Victoria and Queen Mary.
   In celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Her  Majesty  The  Queen,  a  new
landscape  garden  has  been  created  by  the  designer  and  Chelsea  Gold
Medallist Tom Stuart-Smith. The garden, the first to be made at  the  Castle
since the 1820s, transforms the visitor entrance and provides a setting  for
band  concerts  throughout  the  year. The   informal   design   takes   its
inspiration from Windsor's historic parkland landscape and  the  picturesque
character of the Castle, introduced by the architect  Sir  Jeffry  Wyatville
for George IV in the 1820s.

   Frogmore House lies in the tranquil setting of the private Home  Park  of
Windsor  Castle.  A  country  residence  of  various  monarchs   since   the
seventeenth century, the house is especially linked to Queen  Victoria.  The
house  and  attractive  gardens  were  one  of  Queen  Victoria's  favourite
retreats. In the gardens stands the Mausoleum where Queen Victoria  and  her
husband Prince Albert are buried.

                         THE PALACE OF HOLYROODHOUSE
   Founded as a monastery in 1128, the Palace of Holyroodhouse in  Edinburgh
is The Queen's official residence in Scotland. Situated at the  end  of  the
Royal  Mile,  the  Palace  of  Holyroodhouse  is  closely  associated   with
Scotland's turbulent past, including Mary, Queen of Scots,  who  lived  here
between 1561 and 1567. Successive kings and queens have made the  Palace  of
Holyroodhouse the premier royal residence in Scotland. Today, the Palace  is
the setting for State ceremonies and official entertaining.

                               BALMORAL CASTLE
   Balmoral Castle on the Balmoral Estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland is  the
private residence of  The  Queen.  Beloved  by  Queen  Victoria  and  Prince
Albert, Balmoral Castle has remained a favourite  residence  for  The  Queen
and her family during the summer holiday period  in  August  and  September.
The Castle is located on the large Balmoral Estate, a working  estate  which
aims to protect the environment while contributing to the local economy.
   The Estate grounds, gardens and the Castle Ballroom are open to  visitors
from the beginning of April  to  the  end  of  July  each  year,  under  the
management of the Balmoral Estate Office.

                              SANDRINGHAM HOUSE

   Sandringham  House  in  Norfolk  has  been  the  private  home  of   four
generations of Sovereigns since 1862. The Queen and  other  members  of  the
Royal family regularly spend Christmas at  Sandringham  and  make  it  their
official base until February each year.
   Like Balmoral, the Sandringham Estate  is  a  commercial  estate  managed
privately on The Queen's behalf.  Sandringham  House,  the  museum  and  the
grounds are open to visitors.

                              ST JAMES’S PALACE
   St. James's Palace is the senior Palace of the  Sovereign,  with  a  long
history as a royal residence. As the home of several members  of  the  Royal
Family and their  household  offices,  it  is  often  in  use  for  official
functions and is not open to the public.

                              KENSINGTON PALACE
   Kensington Palace in London  is  a  working  Royal  residence.  Of  great
historical importance, Kensington Palace  was  the  favourite  residence  of
successive sovereigns until 1760. It was also the birthplace  and  childhood
home of Queen Victoria. Today Kensington  Palace  accommodates  the  offices
and private apartments of a number of members of the Royal Family.  Although
managed by Historic Royal Palaces, the Palace is furnished with  items  from
the Royal Collection.

                             HISTORIC RESIDENCES
   Some of the most celebrated Royal residences used  by  former  kings  and
queens can still be visited today.
   The Tower of London,  begun  by  William  I,  is  a  fascinating  complex
constructed over several centuries.  It  provided  historic  Royal  families
with a residence for more than five centuries, and was a  prison  for  other
Royal figures, including Lady Jane Grey. The Tower  housed  the  Royal  Mint
until 1810. There were also armouries and workshops in  which  weapons  were
designed and manufactured; items including armour worn by Henry VIII  remain
there today. The Tower remains  the  storehouse  of  the  Crown  Jewels  and
regalia, as it has done for nearly 700 years. Today the Tower is  under  the
management of the Historic Royal Palaces Trust.
   Hampton Court Palace is also managed by Historic Royal Palaces. Given  by
Cardinal Wolsey to Henry  VIII  c.1526,  the  palace  was  a  residence  for
figures including Mary I and Elizabeth I, Charles I, William  III  and  Mary
II, and retains many furnishings and objects from  their  times.  It  houses
some important works of art and furnishings in the Royal Collection.
   The Banqueting House in Whitehall is the only remaining part of  London's
old Palace of Whitehall. It was created by Inigo Jones for James I.  Charles
I commissioned Rubens to paint the  vast  ceiling  panels,  which  celebrate
kingship in general and the Stuart reign in  particular.  It  was  from  the
Banqueting House that Charles I stepped on to the  scaffold  on  30  January
1649. In 1689 the Prince and Princess  of  Orange  went  to  the  Banqueting
House to accept the crown, becoming joint Sovereigns William  III  and  Mary
II. Today the Banqueting House is managed by Historic Royal Palaces.
   Other historic Royal residences which  can  be  visited  include  Osborne
House, the beloved home of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the  Isle  of
Wight, and the Brighton Pavilion, former residence of George IV when he  was
Prince Regent.


Thorpe, Lewis, trans., Geoffrey of Monmouth: The History of the Kings of
Britain, Penguin Books, London, 1966;
G. R. Elton, Modern Historians on British History, 1485–1945:
A Critical Bibliography, 1945–1969 (1971);
 P. Catterall, British History, 1945–1987:
C. Read, Bibliography of British History: Tudor Period, 1485–1603 (2d ed.
1959, repr. 1978);
C. L. Mowat, Great Britain since 1914 (1971);
G. Davies, Bibliography of British History: Stuart Period, 1603–1714 (1928;
2d ed., ed. by M. F. Keeler, 1970);
Sir George Clark, ed., The Oxford History of England (2d ed., 16 vol.,
G. S. Graham, A Concise History of the British Empire (1971);
F. E. Halliday, A Concise History of England (1980);
F. M. L. Thompson, ed., The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950
Encyclopedia Britannica