Иностранные языки

Translatioin of Political Literature


Plan



Introduction

Chapter I

§ I. Translation and its aims.

§ II. Translation of Political literature and terms.

Chapter II

§ I. Grammatical difficulties of translation

§ II. Lexical difficulties of translation

§ III. Stylistic difficulties of translation

§ IV. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

§ V. List of set expressions used in Political Literature

Conclusion

Summary



      Introduction

      In this Qualification Paper we’ve set forth to study  the  translation
methods of Political literature and  political  terms  at  a  deeper  level,
their types and ways  of  their  translation  of  Political  literature,  to
consider the function of  political  literature  in  everyday  life  of  the
humanity.

      The object of this Qualification paper can be considered as  one  that
gives the detailed review of the ways  political  literature  and  political
terms can be translated into Russian language.  It  also  helps  to  improve
one’s understanding of  the  principal  rules  of  translation  which  plays
leading role while processing translation.

      The aim of this work is  to  introduce  the  translation  approach  to
Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for  those  willing
to keep up their educational  and  scientific  carrier  in  the  science  of
translation, it was purposed to broaden their view  on  translation  studies
and peculiar features while translating Political literature.

      In this work we set the following tasks:

      - to review all the sources of Political literature

      - to reveal the methods of translation of Political literature

      - to investigate grammatical, lexical, stylistic  and  phraseological
        difficulties of translation of political literature

      We  should  mention  that  this  research  work  represents  a   great
theoretical value for those willing to take up their future carrier  in  the
field of translations as invaluable reference to the methods  and  the  ways
of translation of Political literature.

      And  the  practical  value  of  this  work  involves  the  idea   that
translation    represents    a    field    aimed    at    training    future
translators/interpreters  to  translate  verbal  and  written  materials  on
Political subjects  basing  on  the  study  of  International  politics,  to
differentiate the language features of English, Russian and other  languages
as well as political lexicology, phraseology, syntax and style.

      The source information for  this  research  work  has  been  carefully
studied and investigated before it was applied to the given work.

      The originality of this work is in its creative approach to the  study
and methods of translation, besides, it contains a detailed review  of  ways
and methods of translation.

      The given Qualification paper  contains  introduction,  two  chapters,
conclusion and bibliography list.

      The first chapter gives a detailed review of the study of  the  theory
of translation and also reveals the role of political literature  and  terms
in everyday life of the humanity which are believed  to  be  interesting  to
future  translator/interpreters.  It   also   discussed   the   methods   of
translation of political literature with  purpose  to  make  it  easier  for
translator to achieve adequate translation in the target language.

      The second chapter deals  with  the  detailed  study  of  grammatical,
lexical,  stylistic  difficulties  involved  in  translation  of   political
literature. It also gives some  hints  on  translation  of  idioms  and  set
expressions and their behavior in literature.

      We have also attached some samples of  translation  of  political  set
expressions so that to enable the future  translator  to  benefit  from  the
given paper in their further researches in the fields of translation.

      In  conclusion  we  have  summed  up  the  results  of  our  laborious
investigation translation of political literature.

      At the end of the research paper we  have  attached  the  bibliography
list to enable the future translator to  use  information  sources  used  in
this Paper.



      Chapter I.

      § I. Translation and its aims.

      Most translators prefer to think of their work  as  a  profession  and
would like to see others to treat them like  professionals  rather  than  as
skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this,  translators  need  to
develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do  and  how  they
do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as  well
as others that they are in control of what they do; that they  do  not  just
translate well  because  they  have  ‘flair’  for  translation,  but  rather
because, like other professionals, they have  made  a  conscious  effort  to
understand various aspects of their work.

      Unlike  medicine  and  engineering,  translation  is  a   very   young
discipline in academic terms. It is only  just  starting  to  feature  as  a
subject of study in its own right, not yet  in  all  but  in  an  increasing
number of universities  and  colleges  around  the  world.  Like  any  young
discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of  other  related
disciplines in order to develop and formalize its  own  methods;  but  which
disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a  matter
of some controversy. Almost every aspect of  life  in  general  and  of  the
interaction between speech  communities  in  particular  can  be  considered
relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself  with  how
meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in  various
cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area  to  investigate  in  one
go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever  to  become
a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need  something
other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable  them  to
reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need,  above  all,  to
acquire a sound knowledge of the raw  material  with  which  they  work:  to
understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.

      Translation is a process of rendering  a  text,  written  piece  or  a
speech by means of other  languages.  The  difference  of  translation  from
retelling or  other  kinds  of  transfer  of  a  given  text  is  that  that
translation is a process of creating  an  original  unity  in  contexts  and
forms of original.

    The translation quality is defined by its completeness and value.  “The
completeness and value  of  translation  means  definite  rendering  of  the
contextual  sense  of  the  original  piece  and  a  high-grade  functional-
stylistic conformity.”

    The concept “high-grade functional-stylistic conformity” clearly points
on two existing ways of rendering the form in unity with  the  meaning:  the
first one is a  reproduction  of  specific  features  of  the  form  of  the
original  piece  and  the  second  one  is  the   creation   of   functional
conformities of those features.  It  means  when  translating  the  specific
features of an original literature  we  should  rather  consider  the  style
inherent for the given  genre  but  than  direct  copying  the  form  of  an
original. While translating, we should also remember that different  lexical
and grammatical elements of an original might be translated  differently  if
accepted by the norms of conformity to the whole original.  The  translation
adequacy of  separate  phrases,  sentences  and  paragraphs  should  not  be
considered separately  but  along  with  achievement  of  the  adequacy  and
completeness of the translating piece as a whole  because  the  unity  of  a
piece is created through collecting the components.

    No matter how a translator (interpreter) is talented he should remember
two most important conditions of the process of translation:  the  first  is
that the aim of translation is to get the  reader  as  closely  as  possible
acquainted with the context of a given text and then second –  to  translate
– means to precisely and completely express by means  of  one  language  the
things that had been expressed earlier by the means of another language.

    A translation can be done:

    1. from one language into another, kin-language, non-kin,

    2. from literary language into its dialect or visa versa

    3. from the language of an ancient period into its modern state

    The process of translation, no matter how fast  it  is,  is  subdivided
into two moments. To translate one should first of  all  to  understand,  to
perceive the meaning and the sense of the material.

    Furthermore, to translate one should find  and  select  the  sufficient
means of expression in the language the material is translated into  (words,
phrases, grammatical forms).

    There are  three,  most  identified  types  of  translation:  literary,
special and sociopolitical.

    The ways of achieving the adequacy  and  completeness  in  those  three
types of translation will never completely coincide with each other  because
of their diverse character and tasks set to translator (interpreter).

    The object of literary translation is the literature  itself.  And  its
distinctive feature is a figurative-emotional impact on  the  reader,  which
is attained through a great usage of different linguistic  means,  beginning
from  epithet  and  metaphor  up  to  rhythmical-syntactic  construction  of
phrases.

    Thus, in order to preserve figurative-emotional impact  on  the  reader
while translating a work of art, the translator (interpreter)  will  try  to
render all the specific features of the translating  material.  That’s  why,
on the first place one  should  reconstruct  the  specific  features  of  an
original and the creation of functional conformities to the features of  the
original play the subordinate role.

    The objects of  special  translations  are  materials  that  belong  to
different  fields  of  human  activities,  science   and   technology.   The
distinctive feature of this type of translation is an  exact  expression  of
the sense of translating material, which is attained through wide  usage  of
special terms.

    Thus, in order to render an exact and clear meaning  while  translating
such materials alongside with the selection  of  term  equivalents,  on  the
first place one has to create functional conformities to the features of  an
original, and the creation of specific features of  the  original  play  the
subordinate role.

    And  finally,  the  objects  of  social-politic  translations  are  the
materials of propaganda and agitation  character,  and  therefore  a  bright
emotional sense abundant with special terms.

    Concerning  the  achievement  of  adequacy  this  type  of  translation
possesses the features of literary  and  special  types  of  translation  as
well.



    § II. Translation of Political literature and terms.

    Political literature like any other scientific kind of literature  have
languages items characteristic to them, that requires the translator  to  be
precise and sharp. Most books on general politics are characterized  by  the
passion of  expression,  polemic  style  and  the  specific  feature  is  in
blending the elements of scientific speech  from  one  side  with  different
emotionally colored means of expression from another side.

    The translation of political literature can be considered in two  ways:
as a field of linguistic activity and as a separate field in science.

    As a field of linguistic activity translation of  political  literature
represents one of the types of special translations  possessing  as  objects
of its activity different materials of political character.

    The political translation comes out into a special field of  study  due
to its specific features of written and verbal speech on  political  topics,
which is specified by its essential character  and  the  knowledge  of  this
science.  Sometimes  these  features  are  so  diverse  that  in  order   to
understand them (Russian and English politics as well)  one  should  have  a
special knowledge without which it would be very hard  to  clearly  perceive
the inner sense on politics or a translated piece.

    Therefore, the study of specific features of written and verbal  speech
acquires great importance to translators  (interpreters).  To  the  features
mention above belong the following:

        1. maximal filling the political literature with special  political
           terms, and in verbal speech (among the politicians) – filling it
           with words of political jargon – slang.

        2. presence of special  idiomatic  expressions  and  phraseological
           units in verbal and written  speech  that  are  rarely  used  in
           colloquial speech and general literature.

As an example, I should bring the following idioms: blitzkrieg –
молниеносная война, Comprehensive Program of Disarmament - Всеобъемлющая
программа разоружения,  principal powers – крупные державы, status quo –
статус кво and many others. We have to mark -  if the quantity of political
idioms is limited, then the amount of “politically” related phraseological
idioms is vast in English and Russian languages.

        3. the presence of some stylistic deflection from general  literary
           norms is sometimes very great.

          a)  wide  usage   of   elliptic   constructions,   especially   in
             periodically publishing materials, propaganda and  other  kinds
             of politically important printing media.

          b) preciseness and beauty of self-expression which is achieved  by
             the usage of elliptic constructions along with  wide  usage  of
             passive constructions and an often substitution of  придаточных
             предложений  by  absolute  constructions   and   деепричастными
             оборотами.

          c) the presence of official writing style, mostly in documents  of
             official provisions that  cover  administrative  and  political
             questions.

          d) strictly regulated use of verbal  forms  and  word  phrases  in
             special  chapters  of  political   literature   and   political
             documents.

    As was told before, while translating a political character, like doing
any other special translation a great importance is given to translation  of
special terms.

    In our philological literature exist lots of definitions to the concept
of term, but the essence of majority comes to the following:

    Term – is a word or a combination  of  words,  which  define  a  notion
(subject,  a  phenomenon,  property,  relation  or  a   process)   that   is
characteristic for the given field of science, technology, art or  a  sphere
of social life.

    Terms differ from the words  of  general  usage  by  definite  semantic
limitations  and  specific  meanings  they  define.   Its   very   hard   to
overestimate the general and scientific meaning of terms since the  concrete
knowledge demands definite expression and a  term  does  not  only  fix  the
concept by its notion (name) but specifies it  diverging  it  from  adjacent
components.

    For better functioning, terms must express systematization of  notions,
express their essence or at least be semantically neutral and  at  the  same
time be unambiguous and precise.

    The phenomenon of a separate field of science and the  terms  that  fix
them should be systemized  that  offers  gender  availability  around  which
group  notions  are  formed.  Thus  an  English  term  representative  which
presents a group notion and forms a group of notions  that  belong  to  this
group:  representative  forum  (представительный  форум),   business   world
representative (представитель делового мира), representative  to  the  talks
(представитель на переговорах), representative to the public  (представитель
общественности),  representative   of   political   circles   (представитель
политических  кругов),  representative   to   NATO   (представитель   НАТО),
representative of various strata or the population (представитель  различных
слоёв населения).

    The capability of a term to express a systematic state of  notions  and
easily merge  with  new  phrases  that  represent  new  group  notions  that
consequently appear along with  the  development  of  a  definite  field  of
science or knowledge maybe called its systematic capability.

    The systematic capability of notions helps us to clarify  the  relation
of notions, raise their semantic definiteness and ease  their  understanding
and remembering.

    In terms, formed on the base of mother  tongue  we  may  differ  direct
meaning and terminological meaning.

    The direct meaning of a term is formed  through  the  elements  of  the
language used for their formation; the terminological  meaning  defines  the
concept of notion expressed by the term.

    The terms, direct and terminological meaning  of  which  correspond  to
each  other,  correctly  orientate  and  underline   the   so-called   their
interrelation. These terms are able to express the essence of notions.

    The terms, whose direct and terminological meaning does not  correspond
to each other belong to semantically neutral group of terms.

    And  at  last,  the  terms  whose  direct  and  terminological  meaning
contradict each other,  should  be  admitted  as  completely  unsatisfactory
because they distort the genuine relations among the  notions,  disorientate
the hearer and do not possess any semantic definiteness.

    Unambiguousness of a term also influences its clear  semantic  features
but since we do not have any researches in this field  this  concept  cannot
always be applied. Therefore, up to 10% of English  and  American  political
terms  do  not  possess  even  a  relative   semantic   definiteness,   i.e.
definiteness in some political concerns. This situation may be explained  by
the fact that the terms according to their nature are firstly simple  words,
and consequently, they develop according to  general  laws  of  linguistics.
The result of this is the appearance  terminological  homonyms  that  hinder
the normal functioning of political terms in a language.

    The definiteness of a term requires preciseness of an  expressed  idea.
It also raises the semantic definiteness of the term averting  its  misusage
according to it form.

    Not all the terms, of course, possess  the  above-mentioned  qualities,
but the translator/interpreter of political material should take  them  into
consideration  while  forming  new  terms  and  solving  the   question   of
preference to one of the available term-synonyms.

    The correct translation of political literature  is  a  laborious  work
despite the terms’ considerable possession of  definite  semantic  clearness
and independence in usage.

    While speaking of difficulties of translation, we imply as a matter  of
the first importance, the translation general  political  literature,  which
either do not yet have any equivalents in the translating language  or  have
several similar notion for the  term  in  question  or  at  least  have  one
equivalent but of doubtful adequacy. There are  lots  of  word  phrases  and
idiom and terms of this kind and their number is  growing  with  development
of  technology  and  interrelation  of  people  and  especially   with   the
development of Political sciences.

    To achieve  a  correct  translation  we  can  recommend  to  group  the
political literature and the used  in  them  according  to  their  field  of
application and some principles  of  translation  of  each  group.  All  the
political terms and idioms existing in politics can be  divided  into  three
groups:

        1. terms – defining the notions of a foreign reality but  identical
           to the reality of the Russian language march - марш

        2. terms – defining the notions of a foreign reality absent in  the
           Russian one but possessing generally  accepted  term-equivalents
           National  Guard  –  Национальная  Гвардия,  Territorial  Army  –
           Территориальная Армия.

        3. terms – defining the notions of a foreign reality that  are  not
           available in the  Russian  language  and  not  having  generally
           accepted  term-equivalents:  alert  hanger  –  ангар  вылета  по
           тревоге.

    The adequacy of translation of the first group is achieved by  the  use
of terms implementing corresponding notions in Russian language.

    At the same time, it is very important for the notion expressed by  the
notion of another language to correspond  in  meaning  rendered  in  Russian
language only by its main,  essential  attributes.  The  translation  of  an
English term poll into Russian опросы населения  (голосование)  is  possible
only  for  the  correspondence  of  their  principal  meaning   though   the
organization and methods of polling are quite different in both countries.

    An adequate translation  of  the  second  group  is  comprised  in  the
selection of generally accepted Russian terminological equivalents.

    Even terms, not fully meeting the above mentioned requirements  due  to
the terminological meaning fixed for  it  through  the  linguistic  activity
will adequately fit into these rules.

    An adequate translation of the words of the third group may be achieved
by means of creation of a new terms, which will  have  to  completely  merge
into the existing system of political terms underlying  the  systematization
of available notions, reflect the essence of the notion it expresses  or  at
least not to contradict it and possess an unambiguousness within  its  field
of application.

    Thus, we have considered all the general principals  in  achieving  and
adequate translation including translation of political literature  and  the
essential features of translation of political terms.



    Chapter II

    § I. Grammatical difficulties of translation

     The translation process of political literature from one language into
another is inevitable without necessary grammatical transformations  (change
of structure). It gets great importance while making translation to  add  or
omit some words since the  structures  of  languages  are  quite  different.
Grammatical  transformations  are  characterized  by  various  principles  –
grammatical, and lexical as well, though the  principal  role  is  given  to
grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes  are  mixed  so  that
they have lexical-grammatical character.

    The vigil of the British Embassy, supported last week by many prominent
people and still continuing, the marches last Saturday, the  resolutions  or
organizations have done something to  show  that  Blair  doesn’t  speak  for
Britain.

    Круглосуточная   демонстрация   у   здания   британского   консульства,
получившая на прошлой недели  поддержку  многих  видных  деятелей,  всё  ещё
продолжается. Эта демонстрация и  состоявшиеся  в  субботу  поход,  а  также
предпринятые различными  организациями  резолюции,  явно  свидетельствуют  о
том, что Блэр отнюдь не говорит от имени всего английского народа.

    While translating this article we have made the following changes.

    The sentence was  divided  into  two  parts.  We  often  do  that  when
translating short newspaper articles (news in brief) and the first lines  of
the articles of informative character (leads). Practically,  we  are  forced
to do that because the first lines usually contain  main  information  given
in the paragraph. These sentences containing  various  information  are  not
characteristic to  the  style  of  Russian  writing.  The  division  of  the
sentence made us repeat the word демонстрация.

    The word vigil – бдение acquired here quite another  political  meaning
круглосуточная демонстрация.  Since  ночное  бодрствование  is  one  of  the
semantic components of the word vigil the term  круглосуточная  демонстрация
fully renders the sense of the given word. Besides, we have to mention  that
one of the words was translated like word expression получившая поддержку.

    We have  also  added  additional  words  like  у  здания  (посольства),
состоявшиеся (в субботу походы), а также принятые различными  (организациями
резолюции). The word last in the last Saturday was omitted because it  would
make the  translation  more  difficult,  but  we  can  conceive  it  by  the
contextual meaning of the sentence.

    The strengthening function of the phrase have done  something  to  show
was rendered by the adverb явно свидетельствуют.

    And the English cliche to speak for was translated by the  Russian  one
говорить от имени. And at last I should say that I metonymically  translated
the word Britain into весь английские народ.

    Thus, while translating this sentence we have made use  of  grammatical
transformations and lexical as well.

    As you know, English has an  analytical  character  and  therefore  the
relation  between  words  is  mostly  expressed  by  word-order,  that’s  by
syntactic means, and  morphological  means  play  the  secondary  role.  The
priority of the role of syntactical changes appears in many cases  but  they
do not always have similar conformities in Russian language which makes  the
translator make use of various transformations while translating a piece  of
political literature. Here we  can  point  to  well-known  features  of  the
location of  syntactic  items  in  the  English,  e.i.  the  combination  of
logically incompatible homogeneous part of the sentence, the  essential  use
of introductory sentences, the break of logical chain of the  sentence,  and
especially while expressing the noun and the attribute of the sentences.

    The syntactic structure of a language imposes restrictions on  the  way
messages may be organized in that language. The order  in  which  functional
elements such as subject, predicator, and object may occur is more fixed  in
some languages than in others. Languages vary in the extent  to  which  they
rely on word order to  signal  the  relationship  between  elements  in  the
clause. Compared to languages such as German, Russian, Finnish, Arabic,  and
Eskimo, word order  in  English  is  relatively  fixed.  The  meaning  of  a
sentence in English, and in languages with similarly fixed word  order  such
as Chinese, often depends entirely on the order in which  the  elements  are
placed. (cf. The man ate the fish and The fish ate the man).

    The  structural  features  of  English  language   require   structural
completeness of the sentence. One can not  omit  a  word  without  supplying
another one instead. This criterion is governed by stylistic  preference  of
the language to prevent word and make the sentence more  emphatic.  Even  if
the repetition is frequent in English its use in  most  cases  is  logically
required and stylistically proved to be necessary. Otherwise, repetition  is
accepted as unnecessary component of the sentence or one  of  the  stylistic
shortcomings of the translation. The demand of syntactical  completeness  of
the sentences and others stylistic criteria explain here the wide  usage  of
structure filling words (слова заместители).  The  structure  filling  words
include pronouns (one, ones, this, that, these, those) and verbs (to do,  to
be, to have, shall, should, will,  would,  can,  could,  might,  may,  must,
ought, need, dare).

    Its quite  evident  that  the  structure  filling  words  do  not  have
denotative meaning, they are absolutely contextual. They should  be  related
to conforming nouns and the verb form the  fill  and  only  afterwards  they
acquire lexical completeness. The verb-filling  words  are  usually  divided
into two parts: fully filling and  partially  filling  ones.  To  the  first
group belong the verb to do in the Present Indefinite which act in the  role
of fully filling word. It can replace the verbs of function. To  the  second
group belong all other structure filling words. They act like a part of  the
whole just like the representative of compound verb form.

    While translating the structure filling words we have to use words with
complete meaning (sometimes pronouns) or make use of  some  other  kinds  of
functional filling.

    The new British Government will face  many  problems,  both  acute  and
chronic: an acute one will be Northern Ireland,  acute  among  chronic  ones
will be inflation and rising prices.

    Новое британское правительство столкнётся  со  многими  проблемами  как
неотложного, так и затяжного характера.  К  неотложным  проблемам  относится
положение в Северной Ирландии, а к проблемам, носящим затяжной  характер,  -
инфляция и рост цен.

    While translating this piece we had to decipher the  structure  filling
words and render their meaning by means of conforming nouns.

    When comparing the grammatical categories  and  forms  of  English  and
Russian languages we identify the following differences: a) the  absence  of
the categories in one of the comparing languages, b) partial  correspondence
and   c)   complete   correspondence.   The   necessity    of    grammatical
transformations arise only on two first cases. When  comparing  the  English
with Russian we should mention that Russian does not have the  notions  like
article and gerund and absolute nominative constructions  as  well.  Partial
conformity and unconformity in meaning and usage of corresponding forms  and
constructions also demands grammatical  transformations.  We  can  refer  to
this case the partial  unconformity  of  the  category  of  number,  partial
unconformity in the forms of passive constructions, partial unconformity  of
the form of infinitive and gerund and some other differences  in  expressing
the modality of the clause and so on.

     First of all we should consider the article for article both  definite
and indefinite which despite its abstract meaning  very  frequently  demands
semantic  expression  in  translation.  As  we  know  both  these   articles
originated from pronouns; the definite one  originated  from  index  pronoun
and the indefinite one from indefinite pronoun, which refers to number  one.
These primary meanings are sometimes obvious in their modern usage. In  this
cases their lexical meaning should be rendered in translation otherwise  the
Russian sentence would be incomplete and ambiguous  for  denotative  meaning
of articles is an inseparable part of the whole context meaning of  a  given
sentence. There are cases when classifying function of  indefinite  articles
is so obvious that one should render its meaning by some lexical item.

    It is commonly stated that government should resign if  defeated  in  a
major issue in the House of Commons which has been made one  of  confidence.
(The Times).

    Обычно утверждают, что правительство должно подать в отставку, если оно
потерпит поражение в  Палате  общин  по  какому-нибудь  серьёзному  вопросу,
который оппозиция считает вопросом о доверии правительству.

    In this case the indefinite article acquires the meaning of the pronoun
some. One can easily see its historical relation with the number one in  the
following example:

    Yet, H.G. Wells had not an enemy on earth.

    Однако у Герберта не было ни единого врага на свете.

    As  has  been  pointed  before  the  most  difficult  are  cases   when
classifying meanings of indefinite  articles  demand  semantic  transfer  in
translation.

    We need a Government which believes in  planning  ahead  for  jobs  and
which will use available labor to build homes for the British people.

    Нам  нужно  такое   правительство,   которое   было   бы   убеждено   в
целесообразности планирования занятости и использовало бы  наличную  рабочую
силу в строительстве домов для населения.

    The emphatic role of the indefinite article in its classifying function
is more expressed in the following sentence.

    The Vietnam war had revealed the true nature of a U.S.  foreign  policy
that can be purchased ruthlessly for the benefit of a view in the “military-
industrial complex”.

    Война во Вьетнаме вскрыла истинную природу той  внешней  политики  США,
которая   проводится   беспощадными   методами    ради    выгоды    немногих
представителей «военно-промышленного комплекса».

    Pretty often the definite article demands translation in cases when  it
comes before numerals.

    The two sides also signed a Treaty in  the  Limitation  of  Underground
Nuclear Tests.

    Обе  стороны  подписали  договор  об  ограничении  подземных  испытаний
атомного оружия.

    The Southern nations remained quiet between  1948  and  1958  as  Latin
America’s economy grew at an impressive annual rate of 4.3 percent.

    С 1948 по 1958 южные страны пребывали в относительном спокойствии, в то
время как экономика Латинской Америки развивалась впечатлительным  темпом  в
4.3 процента в год.

    In the following sentence both articles demands translation.

    The influence and authority of the UN Secretariat depends to an  extent
(though not nearly to the extent that is popularly supposed) on the  talents
of one individual – the Secretary-General. The job is a peculiar one.

    Влияние и авторитет секретариата ООН зависят в известной степени  (хотя
и не в такой степени, как обычно полагают)  от  качеств  одного  человека  –
Генерального секретаря. Это чрезвычайно своеобразная должность.

    The lexical meaning of the article is strongly expressed when  it  acts
in like a link connecting parts of the sentences or two  separate  sentences
as given in the example above. From the mentioned above cases we  can  judge
that missing article translation may lead to misinterpretation or  incorrect
and incomplete translation of a sentence.

    The role of verb complexes in English is  quite  evident  therefore  we
will consider only  some  peculiar  cases  of  verb  transformations  during
translation.

    First of all let us consider the verb construction with the preposition
for:

    …American military bases on foreign territories which are intended  for
launching missiles possessed by United States’ armed forces.

    … американские военные базы на территориях других  государств,  которые
предназначены для запуска ракет американскими ВВС.

     In this case the infinitive construction is translated like  adverbial
modifier of purpose.

    The construction with secondary predicate  (so-called  Nominative  with
the Infinitive) is widely used in newspaper style  due  to  its  preciseness
and because it help to avoid the responsibility for the given information.

    The United States Congress  is  aimed  to  control  all  the  financial
expenses of the Government.

    Целью конгресса Соединённых  Штатов  является  контроль  всех  расходов
правительства.

    It  is  natural  that  transformation  is  required  while  translating
sentences with participles of absolute nominative construction.

     But often  enough  grammatical  transformations  are  necessary  while
rendering conforming forms and constructions for some  divergence  in  their
meaning and usage. Such differences of opinions are  observed  in  cases  of
usage of  the  category  of  number.  This  refers  to  both  countable  and
uncountable nouns. Countable nouns have single  and  plural  forms  in  both
languages that usually coincide still we observe cases when their  usage  is
different, ex.:

    War Atrocity on Peace Conference Eve (news head).

    Зверства (интервентов) накануне мирной конференции

    Concerning uncountable  nouns,  especially  those  expressing  abstract
notions we may  have  much  more  difficulties  because  most  of  them  are
paradigmatic. For example: ink – чернила, money – деньги and so on.

    Increasingly,  Southern  Africa  is  becoming  the  arena  of  national
liberation struggles.

    Южная Африка  всё  больше  и  больше  становится  районом  национально-
освободительной борьбы.

    Sometimes, despite the availability of the plural form in Russian – its
usage is impossible owing to difference in combination and usage.

    The Nile Valley appears to have been unfit for human habitation  during
the Stone Ages.

    Долина Нила, по-видимому,  была  не  пригодна  для  жизни  человека  на
протяжении всего каменного века (во все периоды каменного века).

    In Russian the Stone Age expression is of a historical  nature  and  is
never used in plural.

    In cases when plural form is  to  be  preserved  for  it  carries  some
inherent sense one has to apply countable nouns, ex.:

    Strikes broke out in many British industries.

    В ряде отраслей промышленности Англии вспыхнули забастовки.

    Sometimes, owing to some reasons some of constructions has wider  usage
in one languages comparing with other languages. The best  example  of  this
is the passive form – widely used in English mostly due to disappearance  of
word flexion. As a  result,  both  indirect  and  predicative  object  maybe
transformed into the objects of passive construction.

    Stones  and  bottles  were  showered  upon  a  Negro  demonstration  in
Milwaukee by white racists.

    Белые  расисты  обрушили  град  камней  и   бутылок   на   негритянскую
демонстрацию в Милуоки (забросали камнями и бутылками).

    We should notice that the passive-active transformation  can  not  give
sufficient result for in passive construction the stress is  being  made  on
the object of action and in the active  construction  the  stress  is  being
made on the agent of action. The widespread use of passive  construction  in
English happens often enough because it is explained by unimportance of  the
doer of that action and it is most often in  newspaper  style  at  the  same
time the most important is to attract attention to the  passage.  Since  the
structure and word order of simple sentence is subject + predicate +  object
the importance of stylistics is bigger then to distinguish  the  object  one
chooses the passive construction.

    Divergence are  found  in  some  other  cases  of  infinitive  usage  –
infinitive in substantivized constructions  (like  post-positive  attribute)
and infinitive expressing following actions, for example:

    The president warned of drastic steps to be taken against racialists in
the Zambian copper belt.

    Президент предупредил, что будут предприняты  решительные  меры  против
белых расистов в Медном поясе Замбии.

    The infinitive functioning  as  attribute  is  translated  into  object
clause with the verb in the Future tense.

    The Continuative Infinitive is often mistaken  for  the  infinitive  of
purpose, but in this function it expresses the action  following  the  after
the action expressed by predicate and represents the logical development  of
things.

    The Soviet Union decided to sign the Treaty with Germany and  only  did
to discover that Germany itself violated it two years later.

    Советский Союз решил заключить договор с Германией. Но два года  спустя
Германия сама нарушила его.

     The Continuative infinitive very often is used with  the  adverb  only
which stresses it. This emphatic function can be rendered in many ways.

    Thus, all the considered cases – absence of  conforming  form,  partial
correspondence, differences in character and use – urge translators to  make
necessary grammatical transformations while translating  some  piece.  Those
grammatical transformations maybe divided into following types:

    1) substitution

    2) transposition

    3) omission (ellipsis)

    4) supplementation

    Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the
sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by  another  item
(or items), ex:

    I like politics.                   And I do.

    In this example, do is a substitute for like politics . Items  commonly
used in substitution in English include do, one, and the  same,  as  in  the
following examples from Halliday and Hasan:

    You think US will start the war against Iraq? – No one does.

    We make use of  substitution  while  translating  a  piece  because  of
several reasons:  absence  of  similar  construction  in  Russian  language,
unconformity in usage of corresponding  forms  and  constructions  and  some
lexical reasons, which include different word usage and different  norms  of
combinability in English and Russian and the absence of the part  of  speech
with corresponding meaning.

    An attempted overthrow in Peru.

    Попытка совершить переворот в Перу.

    In Russian we do not have the conforming  participle  II  of  the  verb
пытаться. And this made  us  change  the  part  of  speech;  the  participle
attempted was translated into Russian by the noun  попытка.  The  expression
попытка переворота does not conform to the norms of Russian language  that’s
why we have to apply additional word совершить.

    While translating the following text we will have to  use  substitution
several times.

    On the whole the “popular’’ press – with the New York Daily News as its
cheer-leader – is vociferous in its support of the President’s policies  and
merciless toward those who attack them. But among  the  so-called  “quality”
papers led by the New York Times there  is  a  growing  mood  of  doubt  and
questioning.

    В общем «массовые» газеты, во главе с Нью-Йорк дейли ньюс», громогласно
поддерживают политику президента  и  беспощадно  обрушиваются  на  тех,  кто
критикует её. Но среди так называемых  «качественных»  газет,  возглавляемых
«Нью-Йорк  таймс»,  всё  больше  растут  сомнение  и  неуверенность  (в   её
правильности).

    In the first sentence are used the  verbal  noun,  verb  link  and  two
predicative parts expressed by  adjectives  with  object  clauses.  In  this
translation  verbal  nouns  very  replaced  by  predicative  ones   (именные
сказуемые были заменены глагольными): поддерживают and  обрушиваются.   Both
predicative  parts  of  the  sentence  have  been  translated  by   adverbs:
громогласно,  беспощадно.  In   the   second   sentence   the   introductory
construction there is was translated by predicative verb and the  participle
growing was transformed into the function of an  attribute.  The  noun  mood
was omitted and its attribute of doubt and questioning was turned  into  its
object.

    The transformation of ‘active’ into ‘passive’ is also when a translator
uses substitution.

    More light was shed yesterday on the effect  of  C.S.  gas,  which  was
claimed by Pentagon to be virtually harmless to health.

    Вчера поступили дополнительные сведения о вредном действии  газа  C.S.,
который, по утверждению Пентагона, якобы не опасен для здоровья.

    The phraseological unit more light was shed was translated by means  of
lexical transformation and the  passive  construction  was  replaced  by  an
active one. The passive construction in the  object  clause  also  undergone
lexical transformation – verbal construction was substituted by  substantive
one: по утверждению.

    This example can illustrate  the  fact  that  lexical  and  grammatical
transformations are closely related with each other.

    Transposition, that’s, change of  structure  of  the  sentence  may  be
caused by several reasons. But the main of them, as it  has  been  mentioned
before is the difference  in  the  structure  of  the  English  and  Russian
languages. The fixed order of words in English bears  hierarchic  character,
first come the primary parts of the sentence; noun,  predicate  followed  by
secondary parts. In Russian the word order is not fixed but one can  observe
the tendency to  locate  the  main  information  at  the  end  of  sentences
expressing it be the noun. The academic grammar of Russian points  that  the
word order in Russian  sentences  follows  the  model:  adverbial  modifier,
predicate and then the noun  –  that’s  the  order  absolutely  opposite  to
English. In Russian, the secondary part of the sentence  can  stand  at  the
beginning if it represents the starting point of expression  and  introduces
theme of given information, ex:

    Вчера в Вашингтоне состоялась пресс-конференция.

    The  essence  of  the  information  is  пресс-конференция  –  which  is
expressed by the noun located at the  end  of  the  sentence.  Nevertheless,
this word-order is not obligatory, ex:

    Премьер-министр выступил вчера по телевидению.

    Here we find the main essence at the beginning of sentence.

    In English, according to fixed word order, the  noun  of  the  sentence
stands at the beginning of clause. One of the prominent  English  linguists,
Halliday marks that, usually (but not always) a starting point is  intrinsic
to English sentences.

    Still in many cases the English sentence happens to be  the  center  of
informative message, compare A  Press  Conference  was  held  in  Washington
yesterday. Usually it happens when the noun of  the  sentence  is  expressed
with an indefinite article.  Something,  semantically  new  has  got  to  be
expressed in the sentence, and the earlier one should be opposed to the  new
one, which is being expressed. Therefore the  indefinite  article  functions
represents this new information, introduces it.

    A smash-and-grab  raid  on  two  of  the  most  important  nationalized
industries is being organized by the Tory Party.

    Консерваторы  собираются   обрушиться   на   две   самые   значительные
национализированные отрасли промышленности.

    (the metaphor smash-and-grab  has  not  been  preserved  in  translated
version)

    Nevertheless, similar word order in English and Russian  sentences  are
also evident.

    A meeting of firemen’s and  employers’  representatives  scheduled  for
today has been postponed.

    Намеченная   на   сегодня   встреча   представителей    пожарников    и
предпринимателей была отложена.

    A Catholic priest in South Africa told of the malnutrition, disease and
starvation there.

    Один католический священник из Южной Африки рассказывал о  существующем
там недоедании, болезнях и голоде.

    Transposition is required when the English sentence  contains  a  large
group of nouns with indefinite article and then it  is  natural  that  they,
being the center of informative  message  are  placed  at  the  end  of  the
sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate  can  not  bear
the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

    A big wave of  actions  by  all  sections  of  workers  –  skilled  and
unskilled, men and women, manual and  non-manual  –  for  higher  wages  and
equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in  shaping  the  environment
at work is rising.

    Сейчас нарастает огромная волна забастовок трудящихся всех категорий  –
квалифицированных  и  не  квалифицированных,  мужчин  и  женщин,  работников
физического и умственного труда – за повышение зарплаты,  за  равную  оплату
женского труда, за сокращение рабочего дня, за улучшение условий труда.

    It is very frequent when grammatical and lexical transformations demand
supplementation or omission of some words or  elements.  Therefore  omission
and supplementation are frequently combined with other types of  grammatical
transformations and more frequently with substitution of  parts  of  speech.
Supplementation of parts of speech are  characterized  by  several  factors:
difference in structures of the sentences and that short  English  sentences
demand  spread  translation  in  the  Russian  language.  Absence  of   some
corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant in  both  languages  is  also
one of the reasons of applying additional words in translation.

    The American troops were thought to be heading toward  Saigon,  but  no
one seemed to be aware of fierce resistance of the nation.

    Полагали, что американские войска направляется на Сайгон, но  казалось,
что никто не знал о жестоком сопротивлении местного населения.

    The construction Nominative +  Infinitive  with  two  omitted  elements
(which  was)  was  given  in  object  clause  plus  introductory  sentences…
который,  как  полагали  раньше,  движется…  Thus,  the  difference  in  the
structure of sentences demanded supplementation in the given translation.

    In the following example, supplementation  was  caused  by  absence  of
corresponding word in Russian to English conservationists.

    The actions of Congress and of North Carolina and Tennessee  statesmen,
aided by gifts of wise conservationists, have set this land aside  as  Great
Smoky National Park.

    Эта местность на берегу реки Смоки-Хилл была превращена в  Национальный
парк благодаря усилиям Конгресса и государственных деятелей штатов  Северная
Каролина и Теннеси, а  также  благодаря  пожертвованиям  любителей  природы,
понимающих всю важность её сохранения.

    While translating this sentence besides transposition we have made many
other transformations and as a matter of  the  first  importance  we  should
mentions the supplementation we have accomplished. In regard to the  absence
on  corresponding  word   in   the   Russian   language   to   the   English
conservationists we have rendered it by two  words  любителей  природы;  and
taking into consideration the combinability of the attribute  wise  we  have
translated  it  by  adverbial  modifier  applying  introductory  words  like
понимающих всю важность её сохранения, the noun сохранения renders  all  the
essence of the given sentence which is  contained  in  conservationists.  To
make the perception of the sentence  easier  we  have  we  added  the  words
штатов, на берегу реки. The last supplementation was made on  the  basis  of
its  spread  context.  The  passive  participle  aided   was   rendered   by
preposition  благодаря.  We  should   also   point   to   lexico-grammatical
transformation: have set this land aside – эта местность …была превращена.

    Ellipsis involves the omission of an item. In other words, in  ellipsis
an item is replaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving  something  unsaid
which is nevertheless understood. It doesn’t  include  every  instance  when
the hearer or reader has to  supply  missing  information,  but  only  those
cases where grammatical structure itself points to an  item  or  items  that
can fill the slot in question. Here are some examples of ellipsis:

    The United States donated two millions dollars and Britain  one  and  a
half millions pounds.  (omitted item: donated in second clause ).

    Here are four strategies. Choose any of them. (omitted item strategy)

     Use of synonymy pairs is characterized to all styles of written speech
of English language. Preserving such synonymy pair is accepted  as  pleonasm
and it is absolutely superfluous even when  translating  official  documents
that demand preciseness. For example:

    The Treaty was declared null and void.

    Договор был объявлен недействительным.

    Condemned by almost all members of the United States, and  regarded  as
an outcast  and  criminal  system  by  the  vast  majority  of  mankind,  it
(apartheid) is able to exist and defy censure solely because of the aid  and
support given to it by the Western imperialist countries.

    Апартеид осуждён почти всеми членами  ООН,  и  подавляющее  большинство
человечества считает эту систему преступной. Апартеид  существует  благодаря
помощи и поддержке империалистических государств Запада.

    In this example are used two synonymy pairs: outcast and criminal,  aid
and support. In the first case преступный sufficiently renders  the  essence
of both synonyms. The lexical meaning of the attribute outcast –  изгнанный,
отверженный  doesn’t  fit  to  this  context  neither  owing  to  norms   of
combinability nor to the power of its meaning. The second pair  of  synonyms
can  be  preserved  without  any  difficulty  –  помощь  и  поддержка.   The
participle given is omitted for its meaning is supplied by case flexion.

    The battle was fierce while it lasted.

    Бой был жесток.

    Time complex object in this in this case  functions  as  a  clichй  and
doesn’t have corresponding equivalent in Russian.

    So we can see that in the majority cases of translation some  piece  of
political literature we have make necessary changes. We  should  remind  you
that it is not always an English  sentence  completely  corresponds  to  the
Russian one. Very frequently the structure of a Russian sentence  absolutely
differs from the one English. It has different  word  order,  parts  of  the
sentences and pretty often differs even the  order  of  sentences.  In  some
instances, parts of speech expressed in English are translated into  Russian
by the help of different parts of  speech.  You  should  remember  that  the
compressed way of expression in the English can not be followed  in  Russian
and we therefore have to “decompress” them so  that  to  make  the  easy  to
perceive and understand, e.i. we have to add some words  or  expressions  or
even sentences in whole. Nevertheless, some differences  in  usage  of  some
specific features make us leave some elements unsaid while  translating  the
whole. And all these cases are explained by grammatical  transformations  we
have just investigated.



    § II. Lexical difficulties of transformation.

    Every word in a language carries some concrete notion. The semantics of
a word reflects different signs of the  subject  and  the  relation  of  its
meanings to other objects it denotes. The semantics of a word includes  word
perception characteristic to the studied language,  being  more  precise  to
the bearers of the studied language.  When  studying  the  reality  of  some
object we can identify that its name reveals its functions which  finds  the
reflection in the semantics of the word. Lets take as an  example  the  word
glasses – очки. In English it reveals the substance of which the  object  is
made and in Russian firstly it reveals its function – second eyes – очи.

    Despite distinguishing all kinds of differences  we  should  say  that,
both languages sufficiently reflect one and the same perception of  reality.
Therefore the difficulty stylistic devices represents  to  a  translator  is
based on word  play,  if  in  corresponding  words  of  both  languages  are
featured different signs.

    The second reason,  causing  lexical  difficulties  to  translation  of
political literature is the difference in the semantic volume of a word.  In
every language a word  exists  in  a  close  connection  with  the  lexical-
semantic system of a given language. It may have various  kinds  of  lexical
meanings (lexical-semantic) variants; it may widen  or  narrow  its  meaning
and make it more abstract or concrete.

    The third reason presenting lexical  difficulties  in  translation  the
difference  in  combinability.   Words  in  languages  have  some   definite
relation characteristic only to the given language. It should  be  mentioned
that word combinability is possible if words point to similar  objects  they
denote. This difference of word combinability in various languages  is  very
important; therefore some types of combinability are easily accepted in  one
of language and are completely unacceptable in other languages.

    Last but not the least is the accepted usage of words in a language. It
is, of course related to the development of a given languages and  formation
of its lexical system. Every language worked out its own  clichйs  and  some
set expressions used by speakers, nevertheless those  word  expressions  are
not  phraseological  units  but  they  possess  complete  form,  which,   in
comparison with the phraseological units, are never broken  by  adding  some
introductory words or substitution of some of its elements.

    Translation studies showed  that  there  are  cases  when  due  to  the
distinguished signs a word acquires wider semantic volume  and  can  not  be
covered by corresponding equivalent in the  target  language.  Let  us  take
teenager for example: etymologically it is  related  to  the  numerals  from
thirteen till nineteen. The Russian подросток does  not  semantically  cover
its meaning  in  complete  volume  for  its  is  narrower  in  its  meaning.
Therefore the word teenager is  usually  translated  by  different  words  –
подросток, юноша, and in plural as молодёжь.

    Difference in the semantic structure of a word represents  one  of  the
main reason causing lexical difficulty in translation. These difference  are
related to peculiar features of separate words or word  groups.  And  it  is
quite  natural  that  this  matter  covers  a  wide   range   of   examples.
Practically, even identical words in  different  languages  are  not  always
equal in their meaning, they never correspond completely. Most often is  the
correspondence of first lexical-semantic variants  of  such  words  –  their
primary meaning – then we have various  lexical-semantic  variants  for  the
course of development of these words was of different nature.

    This is characterized by different functioning of a word  in  language,
different in usage and combinability, but even the  primary  meaning  of  an
English word maybe wider of the corresponding one in Russian.

    The semantic structure of a word  predefines  the  possibility  of  its
contextual use, and the translation of contextual meaning  presents  a  hard
task to translators.

    Contextual meaning of a word in many instances depends on the character
of semantic context, on the  semantics  of  the  words  combining  with  it.
Occasional meanings, suddenly originated  in  the  context  are  not  always
arbitrary – its is based  into  the  semantic  structure  of  the  word.  In
contextual usage of a word in poetry or prose – often point to the  author’s
penetration  into  the  depth  of  the  word’s   semantic   structure.   For
paradigmatic and semantic relations are characteristic to any words and  the
lexical potential of words can be revealed  in  both  cases.  But  revealing
these potentials of words is  closely  connected  with  the  specificity  of
lexical-semantic aspects of every language and here  forth  we  may  observe
the difficulty of translation  of  contextual  meaning  of  words.  What  is
possible in  one  language  maybe  impossible  in  another  because  of  its
difference in semantic structure and its usage.

    In an atomic war women and children will be the first hostages.

    The word hostage according to different dictionaries has got  only  one
meaning – заложник. But in the  given  instance  the  hostage  acquired  the
meaning жертва. Its contextual meaning probably exists in  its  paradigmatic
meaning; any  hostage  may  get  killed  therefore  while  translating  this
example we have to use the word жертва since заложник is  not  used  in  the
given contextual meaning.

    Первыми жертвами в атомной войне будут женщины и дети.

    A very interesting contextual meaning of exploitation will be given  in
the following example:

    Britain’s worldwide exploitation was shaken to the  roots  by  Colonial
Liberation Movements.

    The contextual meaning of  the  word  originated  metonymically  –  any
colonial system lives on exploitation, which  comprises  basis  of  colonial
power. The corresponding Russian  эксплуатация  can  not  be  used  in  this
contextual meaning, the contextual surroundings of exploitation  (worldwide,
shaken to the  roots)  also  prevents  it.  The  only  possible  variant  of
translation is by means of metonymic transposition – substitution:

    Колониальное могущество Англии было подорвано (потрясено до  основания)
национально-освободительным движением во всех колониях.

    Contextual meaning of a  word  is  always  effective  semantically  and
stylistically owing  to  its  unexpectedness  as  well.  It  often  used  in
stylistic purposes and therefore a translator runs into  two  obstacles:  he
should avoid (нивелировка) and at the same time not to break  the  norms  of
translation.

    The most difficulty presents the translation of emotional coloring that
demands lexical changes. There is a wide range of words in a  language  that
besides their logical meaning have emotional  meanings  or  co-meaning.  One
should not  mix  emotional  co-meaning  with  the  multiple  meaning  words.
Emotional meaning of words usually  presents  in  paradigmatic  meanings  of
words, that is it is objective and but subjective, like in the words:  hate,
love, friendship.  But  it  is  not  an  exception  when  emotional  meaning
originates from contextual usage. Emotional meaning, based in  the  word  is
usually created by association – positive or negative – which a word  causes
and the associations that exist in it despite the context of perception.

    A peculiar group of words demanding transformation in  translation  are
the words that possess different volume of meaning in  Russian  and  English
languages. To this group belong international words,  some  words  of  human
perception, mental activity.

    But we should mention that the words that belong to these groups are of
different semantic structure. International words and  the  words  of  human
perception, mental activity represents polysemantic words in English.

    International words are  words  that  are  used  in  a  wide  range  of
languages in one or  several  forms.  These  words  express  scientific  and
social-politic notions. The volume meaning of these words does  not  usually
coincide (except term-words). Though it is  well-known  that  they  comprise
the false-friends of translators and the mistakes in their  translation  are
frequent. These  mistakes  are  caused  not  only  by  difference  in  their
semantic structure but by the  difference  of  their  usage  as  well  which
demand lexical changes:

    We are told that television this autumn will give a massive coverage to
the General Election.

    Сообщают, что нынешней осенью  передачи  по  телевидению  будут  широко
освещать парламентские выборы.

    The word massive along with the meaning массивный, has  other  meanings
like массовый, грандиозный,  огромный,  широкий  and  so  on.  For  example:
massive success – огромный успех, massive problems – важные проблемы.

    Since international words possess wider meaning volume  they  are  more
used in English if comparing to Russian:

    Never before in the history of  the  world  have  there  been  so  many
persons engaged in the translation of both secular and religious  materials.


    Ещё  никогда  в  истории  человечества  столько  людей  не   занимались
переводом как светской, так и духовной литературы.

    Russian words религиозные материалы are absolutely unacceptable in this
case because of their different usage. In this instance the usage plays  the
main role though their meaning is identical in both languages.

       Lexical transformations are also caused by necessity to concretize  a
word while  translating.  It  is  characteristic  to  English  language  the
availability  of  words  with  wide  spread  meaning.  They  can  be  nouns,
adjectives and verbs, for example: thing, point, stiff; nice, fine, bad;  to
say, to go, to come, to get.

      Translation of these words depends on  the  context,  which  helps  to
identify their concrete meaning. Usually  they  are  translated  by  various
Russian words  that  have  concrete  meaning  (importance).  Practically  it
refers to verbs — to  verbs  of  speech  and  verbs  of  movement.  Concrete
lexical meaning(importance), this or that the lexical-semantic variant of  a
verb depends on structure and  lexical  meaning  of  words  that  distribute
them.

      At the by-election victory went to the Labor candidate.

      На дополнительных выборах победа досталась лейбористам (победу одержал
кандидат от лейбористской партии).

       Among nouns of  wide  meaning  a  special  group  comprises  abstract
nouns, that frequently demand concrete definitions in translation.  So,  for
example, despite the presence of a word президентство in Russian  -  English
word  presidency  usually  refers  to  the  words  a  пост   президента   or
президентская всласть.

      An ageing Speaker cannot take on the burdens of the presidency.

      Престарелый спикер не может взять на себя бремя  президентской  власти
(в случае смерти президента).

      The use of words of  abstract  meaning  strongly  differs  in  various
languages.  Therefore  follows  the  necessity  of  concrete  definition  in
translating.

      The Saigon regime used every form of pressure and violence to compel a
reluctant electorate to go to the polls.

     Сайгонский режим прибегал ко всем видам давления и насилия, чтобы
заставить упрямых избирателей принять участие в выборах.

     Sometimes it is necessary to concretize  some  word  due  to  different
qualitative distinction (valeur) the generalizing words have  in  languages.
The  following  words  belong  to  them:  meal  and  трапеза  that   usually
illustrate the this phenomenon and the words limbs  and  члены,  from  which
limbs is widely common, and Russian word the члены has much narrower usage.

     In the given translation, besides concrete definition of руки and ноги,
we also had to use fixed word phrase.

     The following problem which demands careful  consideration  in  lexical
transformations of translation is problem  of  word  combinability.  In  all
languages there are typical norms of  word  combinability.  The  concept  of
norm is relative, on the one hand, with  system  of  language,  and  on  the
other hand, it is closely connected with speech, in  which  the  originality
of speech formation  is  displayed.   Each  language  can  form  uncountable
number new word combinations that will be understood by its bearers. In  any
language there exists generally accepted  tradition  of  word  combinations,
which do not coincide with the corresponding tradition of word  combinations
in the other languages.

     And it makes look for  similarly  accepted  word  combinations  in  the
target  language.  The  main  part  combined  words  usually  coincides   in
translation,  but  the  second  one  is  frequently  translated  by  a  word
possessing other logical meaning, but performing the same function,  as  for
example, trains run — поезда ходят, rich feeding — обильная пища.

     Labor Party protests followed sharply on the Tory deal with Spain.

     За  сообщением  о  сделке  консервативного  правительства  с   Испанией
немедленно последовал протест лейбористской партии.

     The wider  is  the  semantic  volume  of  a  word,  the  wider  is  its
combinability, thus due to this feature it can interact  with  various  word
forms and word combinations. And this features  enables  the  translator  to
use his creativity in translation.

     Along   with   traditional   combinations   in   languages   unexpected
combinations are also possible, but they are quite clear,  for  they  follow
generally accepted semantic models of word combinability. This phenomenon  —
the connection of words with  completely  various  semantic  features  -  is
peculiar to all languages, but in each language it  has  various  rules  and
traditions. In  English  language  such  unexpected  word  combinations  are
formed very easily. It is probably caused  by  conversion  and  easiness  in
formation  of  new  words  in  various  ways,  heterogeneity  of   languages
vocabulary and some other reasons. Not only  poets  and  writers,  but  also
journalists frequently create unexpected word combination that  makes  their
statements significantly vivid and  original.  The  unexpectedness  of  word
usage is closely connected with expressiveness of the statement.

     Unexpected usage of word combinations hardens the task of  translators,
for words interrelate in combinations not only with one word, but also  with
a large number of other words of the sentence, for example:

     The use of an adjective sharp in this context is  unexpected:  none  of
its meanings given in dictionaries gives the  description  of  a  hand.  The
difficulty of its translation  is  aggravated  by  presence  of  the  second
definition white, which excludes translation by words костлявый and сухой.

      Белая, сухощавая рука мадам лежала на широком колене Адама.

     In the given translation the sense of the sentence  has  been  rendered
but the unexpectedness of the used word was lost.

      The last feature of lexical transformation to  be  discussed  in  this
Paper is  traditional  word  usage  for  every  language  and  which  causes
frequent lexical transformations. This traditional usage is to  some  extent
related to another approach to the phenomena of reality. For example:

     The military base is built on terraces rising from the lake.

     For Russian the traditional use will be:

     Военная база построена на террасах, спускающихся к озеру.

      In this case preposition is omitted  in  translation  because  as  the
originality of the English word usage required complete transformation.

      To the traditional word usage  can  also  be  referred  the  so-called
clichйs — order, and the clichйs in wider sense.

      Hands up!

      Руки вверх!

      Long live America!

      Да здравствует Америка!

      The assault of the castle was followed by continuous bombing. Loss  of
life was uncountable.

     За штурмом крепости последовала длительная бомбардировка.  Жертвы  были
бесчисленны.

     The Commonwealth countries handle a quarter of the world's trade.

     На страны Британского  содружества  приходится  четверть  всей  мировой
торговли

     As you can  see  from  the  examples  given  above  –  in  translations
corresponding Russian clichйs are also used.



      § III. Stylistic difficulties of translation

      In the previous chapters we carefully considered the  grammatical  and
lexical transformations that occur while  translating  political  literature
from English into Russian. And we  have  figured  out  that  most  of  these
reasons are rooted in national and cultural settings of both languages.

      Practically, stylistic devices in almost  all  languages  are  similar
still though their functions in speech  vary.  Identical  stylistic  devices
are used differently in languages;  they  perform  different  functions  and
have different value in stylistic system of  their  language  what  actually
explains their necessity when  transformations  in  translation  occur.  The
stylistic changes are as necessary as grammatical  or  lexical  ones.  While
applying some grammatical  or  lexical  transformation  in  translation  the
translator is guided  by  principle  of  rendering  grammatical  of  lexical
meaning. When rendering stylistic meaning of the source  text  a  translator
should be guided by the same principle –  to  recreate  in  translation  the
same impression that might be left by the original text.

   A translator should not try to preserve the stylistic  device  given  in
the sentence, but reproduce its function in the target language.

   We should not  forget  that  almost  all  stylistic  devices  are  multi
functional. It is like  when  polysemantic  words  in  English  and  Russian
languages do not coincide in their lexical-semantic variants  and  the  same
is when differ  the  function  of  identical  stylistic  device.  Thus  when
comparing stylistic devices we can easily identify complete  correspondence,
partial correspondence and even  sometimes  absence  of  correspondence  and
their functions.

   To illustration it we  can  compare  alliteration  in  the  English  and
Russian languages. The function of alliteration coincides in both  languages
— in this function alliteration is  one  of  the  basic  devices  of  poetic
speech. However the usage of alliteration for pleasant sounding in prose  is
more characteristic for the English language, than for Russian.  The  second
function  of  alliteration  is  logical.   Alliteration   emphasizes   close
relationship  between  components  of  the  statement.  Especially  brightly
alliteration shows the unity of an epithet with an attributed word.

    The third function of alliteration in English  language  –  to  attract
attention of the reader — is widely used  in the names  of  literary  works,
newspaper headings and often in articles.

     The use of alliteration is a convincing acknowledgement  that  various
functions  of  stylistic  devices  in  different  languages  do  not  always
coincide in usage.

   We have already discussed functional translation  of stylistic  devices.
But it  is  extremely  important  to  distinguish  in  the  translated  text
original  and  imagined  alliterations  so   that   to   avoid   unnecessary
emphasizing  and to keep  stylistic  equivalence  which  presents  necessary
component of adequate translation. there is a constant danger to smooth  and
de-color the  original  text  or,  on  the  contrary,  to  make  translation
brighter and stylistically colored. But sometimes a  translator  consciously
applies some "«smoothing" or neutralization in other words.

    Repetition as you know is a more widespread  stylistic  device  in  the
English language, than in Russian.

   In some cases repetition as the stylistic device should  be  necessarily
kept in translation, but for the difference  in  combinability  and  various
semantic structures of polysemantic  words  or  words  of  wide  meaning  in
English and Russian languages the translator has to change and replace  some
of elements.

    The repetition is widely used  with  stylistic  purposes  in  newspaper
publicity. In these cases the translator is  compelled  to  apply  stylistic
changes,  make substitution or omission.

       A  policy  of  see  no  stagnation,  hear  no  stagnation,  speak  no
stagnation has had too long a run for our money.

      Слишком долго мы расплачиваемся за политику  полного  игнорирования  и
замалчивания застоя в нашей экономике.

       The  triple  repetition  of  no  stagnation  has  been   omitted   in
translation, though is partially compensated by the use  of  synonymic  pair
at a word (stagnation), but neutralization is evident  in  translation.  The
neutralization happened when  translating the phraseological  unit  to  have
(too long) a run for our money.

      Among stylistic devices used in political literature  rather  frequent
there are synonymic  and  alliterated  pairs.  The  use  of  such  pairs  is
traditional for all styles of the English language including business  style
as well.  When translating official documents such pairs are  frequently  by
one word. For example, the just and equitable treatment of all nations  from
UN Charter is given in Russian  as  справедливое отношение ко  всем  нациям,
for in Russian there is no absolute synonym for the word just.

      Metaphor is used in  all  emotionally  –  colored  styles  of  speech.
However in style of fiction the metaphor always carries original  character,
whereas in political literature the original metaphor is used rather  seldom
and basically — copied  metaphors. Nevertheless in advanced clauses  of  the
English and American  political literature,  the  purpose  of  which  is  to
assure, to make people believe and to impress the reader, that is  to  force
him to agree with the point of view given in the article, one can often  see
rather bright and colorful metaphors.

      Sometimes the  difficulty  of  translation  of  metaphor  consists  in
translating some word combination or a phraseological unit, which  does  not
have figurative equivalent in Russian.

      We have already discussed the necessity of neutralization of means  of
expressiveness  when  translating  English  or  American  politics.  Let  us
consider the problem of extended metaphor. The extended metaphor  represents
a chain of the logically connected  figurative  components.  Sometimes  such
components of the extended metaphors pass  through  the  whole  clause.  The
below-mentioned example is taken from clause of the American observer  James
Reston.

   The latest official explanation of the President's Indochina  policy  is
that " he is backing out of the saloon with both guns firing  ",  but  there
is a catch to this.

   He insists that the guys in the white hats keep control  of  the  saloon
before he leaves town. He  wants  a  non-communist  bartender,  and  a  non-
communist sheriff, and a secure non-communist  town  before  he  rides  away
into the sunset of November, 1972.

      In the final paragraph of the article the elements of one metaphor are
partially repeated: but all  this  is  a  little  more  complicated  than  "
backing out of the saloon ".

     The images of this extended metaphor are taken from so-called "western"
— of film about cowboys in "wild" West. In this case  all  elements  of  the
developed(unwrapped) metaphor, perhaps, can be kept in translation.

     Согласно  последнему  официальному  объяснению  политики  президента  в
отношении  Индокитая,  «он  хочет  выбраться  из  бара,  пятясь  к  двери  и
отстреливаясь из двух пистолетов». Но за этим кроется что-то еще.

      Он хочет, чтобы парни в белых шапках следили за порядком в баре до тех
 пор, пока он не уедет из города. Он хочет, чтобы бармен не был коммунистом
 и чтобы шериф не был коммунистом и чтобы город заведомо  не  был  в  руках
 коммунистов. И только тогда он поскачет навстречу ноябрьским сумеркам 1972
 года.

      And at the end of clause —  «но все это несколько сложнее, чем  пятясь
к двери, выбраться из бара».

      However there are cases,  when  the  preservation  of  all  figurative
components of the developed(unwrapped) metaphor is impossible,  as  well  as
preservation of both components of synonymic pair, for it  would  break  the
stylistic norms of Russian.

      Being purely linguistic and stylistic device – metonymy is  used  more
and  more  in  political  literature,  perhaps,  even  more  than  metaphor.
Metonymy translation presents one  of  numerous  problems  for  the  use  of
metonymy  significantly differs in English and  Russian  languages.  Due  to
this fact the translator is often forced to go back to the  primary  meaning
of a word, that is to the meaning that was firstly created by metonymy.

      It is a widespread case of metonymy usage – substitution  of  concrete
notion by an abstract one, which can not always be preserved.

     "It (the flood) has hurl us a great deal, " the Pakistan Prime Minister
told correspondents last week as he toured the destruction  in  the  flooded
provinces. ("Newsweek")

     «Наводнение нанесло нам огромный ущерб»,—сказал корреспондентам премьер-
министр Пакистана, на прошлой неделе во время  поездки  по  пострадавшим  от
наводнения районам.

     Concerning the translation of comparison as  a  stylistic  device,  the
difficulties arise only if the words of English and  Russian  languages  are
various in the  semantic  structure.  We  have  already  considered  in  the
chapter of lexical transformations  the  question  of  translation  of  such
terms and now we would like to give the example of stylistic comparison.

      Instant history, like instant  coffee,  can  sometimes  be  remarkably
palatable. At least it is in this memoir by a former White  House  aide  who
sees L.B.J. as " an extraordinarily gifted President who was the  wrong  man
from the wrong place at the wrong time under the wrong circumstances ".

      Современная история, как и такой современный продукт, как  растворимый
кофе, иногда может быть необыкновенно приятна. По  крайней  мере,  такой  ее
преподносит в своих мемуарах бывший помощник президента Джонсона,  считающий
его  «исключительно  одаренным   президентом,   который   был   неподходящим
человеком, из неподходящего места (штат Техас), в  неподходящее  время,  при
неподходящих обстоятельствах».

      In order to preserve this playing comparison,  the  interpreters  were
forced to apply additional words.

      We discussed above the importance of articles in translation  and  now
we should mention once again that they can serve in stylistic purposes.

      An expressiveness gets  the  definite  article,  before  a  indefinite
pronoun one.

   ... this is the one way we can achieve success in elections.

   ...это единственный способ достигнуть победы на выборах.

      The given synonyms compensate render the stress contained the original
text.

      There is another kind of stylistic transformation  –  actualization  –
which involves  transition  of  something  simple  into  something  unusual,
strange. It reveals potential expressiveness put in the lexical  morphologic
and syntactic means of a language.

      Actualization of the  passive  form  often  occurs  while  translating
political literature but it is not as colored  as  in  the  translations  of
fiction.

     The General Assembly was gaveled to order by its outgoing President.

     Уходящий со  своего  поста  председатель  Генеральной  Ассамблее  навел
порядок в зале, энергично стуча молотком.

     The expressiveness and emphasis created by the passive form of the verb
that had been formed as a result of conversion are  compensated  by  lexical
means. The compressed nature of sentence was lost for the verb to gavel  has
two semantic components one of action and an  instrument  that  were  to  be
rendered in translation.

      Now from everything that has been discussed above we  can  infer  that
the usage of some of stylistic devices in English is peculiar  –  and  bears
specific national character, therefore  their  direct  translation  in  many
instances is impossible. Moreover, the impression left by some of  stylistic
device maybe different in both  languages,  compare  soft  panic  and  тихая
паника. It can be explained not  only  by  national  features  of  stylistic
means  and  devices  of  some  of  the  language  but  by  the  their  multi
functioning character also – that do not always coincide – as it  was  shown
on the matter of  alliteration.  This  is  the  main  criteria  causing  the
necessity  of  stylistic  transformations  that  involve  substitution   and
changes. Therefore we should warn the future  translators  and  interpreters
that it is not important to classify the device itself but the point  is  to
be able to realize their ongoing effect  and  to  identify  the  purpose  of
their application in the translation they are working on.



      § IV. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

     As far as idioms and phraseological units are concerned in translation,
the first difficulty that  a  translator  comes  across  is  being  able  to
recognize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic  expression.  This  is  not
always so obvious. There are various  types  of  idioms,  some  more  easily
recognizable than  others.  Those  which  are  easily  recognizable  include
expressions which violate truth conditions, such as It's  raining  cats  and
dogs, throw caution to the winds, storm in a tea cup,  jump  down  someone's
throat, and food for thought. They also include expressions which seem  ill-
formed because they do not follow the grammatical  rules  of  the  language,
for example trip the light fantastic, blow  someone  to  kingdom  come,  put
paid to, the powers that be, by and large, and the  world  and  his  friend.
Expressions which start with like  (simile-like  structures)  also  tend  to
suggest that they should not be interpreted literally. These include  idioms
such as like a bat out of hell and like water off a duck's  back.  Generally
speaking, the more difficult an expression is to  understand  and  the  less
sense it makes in a  given  context,  the  more  likely  a  translator  will
recognize it as an idiom. Because they do  not  make  sense  if  interpreted
literally, the highlighted expressions in the following  text  are  easy  to
recognize as idioms (assuming one is not already familiar with them):

      This can only be done, I believe, by a full and frank  airing  of  the
issues. I urge you all to speak your minds and not to pull any punches.

      Provided  a  translator  has  access  to  good  reference  works   and
monolingual dictionaries of idioms, or, better still, is  able  to  consult
native speakers of the language, opaque idioms which do not make sense  for
one reason or another can actually be a blessing in disguise. The very fact
that s/he cannot make sense of an expression in a particular  context  will
alert the translator to the presence of an idiom of some sort.

      There are two cases in which an idiom can be easily misinterpreted if
one is not already familiar with it:

      (a)   Some idioms are 'misleading'; they seem transparent because they
offer a reasonable literal interpretation and their idiomatic  meanings  are
not necessarily signalled in the surrounding text. A large number of  idioms
in English,  and  probably  all  languages,  have  both  a  literal  and  an
idiomatic meaning, for example go out  with  ('have  a  romantic  or  sexual
relationship with someone') and take someone for a ride ('deceive  or  cheat
someone in some way'). Such idioms lend themselves  easily  to  manipulation
by speakers and writers who will sometimes play on both  their  literal  and
idiomatic meanings. In this case, a translator who is not familiar with  the
idiom in question may easily accept the literal interpretation and miss  the
play on idiom.

       (b)  An idiom in the source language may have a very close counter

part in the target language which looks similar on the surface but has

a totally  or  partially  different  meaning.  For  example,  the  idiomatic
question Has the cat had/got  your  tongue?  is  used  in  English  to  urge
someone to answer a question or contribute to a  conversation,  particularly
when their failure to do so becomes annoying.

      Apart from being alert to the  way  speakers  and  writers  manipulate
certain features of idioms and to the possible confusion which could  arise
from  similarities  in  form  between  source  and  target  expressions,  a
translator must also consider the collocational environment which surrounds
any expression whose meaning is not readily accessible. Idiomatic and fixed
expressions have individual collocational patterns. They form  collocations
with other items in the text as single units and enter  into  lexical  sets
which are different  from  those  of  their  individual  words.  Take,  for
instance, the idiom to  have  cold  feet.  Cold  as  a  separate  item  may
collocate with words like weather, winter, feel, or country.  Feet  on  its
own will perhaps collocate with socks,  chilblain,  smelly,  etc.  However,
having cold feet, in its idiomatic use, has nothing necessarily to do  with
winter, feet, or chilblains and will therefore generally  be  used  with  a
different set of collocates.

      The ability to distinguish senses  by  collocation  is  an  invaluable
asset to a translator working from a foreign language. It is often subsumed
under the general umbrella of  'relying  on  the  context  to  disambiguate
meanings',  which,  among  other  things,  means  using  our  knowledge  of
collocational patterns to decode the meaning of a  word  or  a  stretch  of
language. Using our knowledge of collocational patterns may not always tell
us what an idiom means but it  could  easily  help  us  in  many  cases  to
recognize an idiom, particularly one which has a literal as well as a  non-
literal meaning.

      Once an idiom or fixed expression has been recognized and interpreted
correctly, the next step is to decide how to translate it into  the  target
language. The difficulties involved in translating  an  idiom  are  totally
different from those involved in interpreting it. Here, the question is not
whether a given idiom is transparent,  opaque,  or  misleading.  An  opaque
expression may be easier to translate than  a  transparent  one.  The  main
difficulties involved in translating idioms and fixed  expressions  may  be
summarized as follows:

      (a) An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the  target
language. The way a language chooses to express, or  not  express,  various
meanings cannot be predicted and only occasionally matches the way  another
language chooses to express the same meanings. One language may  express  a
given meaning by means of a single word, another may express it by means of
a transparent fixed expression, a third may  express  it  by  means  of  an
idiom, and so on. It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find  equivalent
idioms and expressions in the target language as a matter of course.

      Like single words,  idioms  and  fixed  expressions  may  be  culture-
specific. Formulae such as Merry Christmas and say  when  which  relate  to
specific social or religious occasions provide good examples.

      Basnett-McGuire (1980: 21) explains that the expression say  when  'is
... directly linked to English social  behavioral  patterns'  and  suggests
that 'the translator putting the phrase into Russian has  to  contend  with
the problem  of  the  non-existence  of  a  similar  convention  in  either
culture'. Less problematic, but to some extent also  culture-specific,  are
the sort of fixed formulae that are used in formal correspondence, such  as
Yours faithfully and Yours sincerely in English. These, for instance,  have
no equivalents in Arabic formal correspondence. The same mismatch occurs in
relation to French and several other  languages  but  in  Russian  we  have
similar expression Ваш верный!

      Idioms and fixed expressions which contain culture-specific items  are
not necessarily untranslatable. It is not the specific items an  expression
contains but rather the meaning it conveys and its association with culture-
specific  contexts  which  can  make  it  untranslatable  or  difficult  to
translate. For example, the English expression to carry coals to Newcastle,
though culture-specific in the  sense  that  it  contains  a  reference  to
Newcastle coal and uses it as  a  measure  of  abundance,  is  nevertheless
closely  paralleled  in  Russian  by  в  Тулу  со  своим  самоваром.   Both
expressions convey the same meaning, namely: to supply something to someone
who already has plenty of it.

An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart  in  the  target
language, but its context of use may be different; the two  expressions  may
have different connotations, for instance, or they may not be  pragmatically
transferable. To sing a different tune is an English idiom  which  means  to
say or do something that signals a change in opinion because it  contradicts
what one has said or done before.   To go to the dogs ('to lose  one's  good
qualities') has a similar counterpart in German,  but  whereas  the  English
idiom can be used in connection  with  a  person  or  a  place,  its  German
counterpart can only be used in connection with a person and often means  to
die or perish.

c) An idiom may be  used  in  the  source  text  in  both  its  literal  and
idiomatic senses  at  the  same  time.  Unless  the  target-language  idiom
corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in  meaning,  the
play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the target text.

d) An idiom or fixed expression  may  have  a  similar  counterpart  in  the
target language,  but  its  context  of  use  may  be  different;  the  two
expressions may have different connotations, for instance, or they may  not
be pragmatically transferable. An idiom may be used in the source  text  in
both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same time. Unless the  target-
language idiom corresponds to the source-language idiom both in form and in
meaning, the play on idiom cannot be successfully reproduced in the  target
text.

   Using idioms in English and American politics is very much a  matter  of
style. Languages such as Arabic and Chinese which make a  sharp  distinction
between  written  and  spoken  discourse  and  where  the  written  mode  is
associated with a high level of formality  tend,  on  the  whole,  to  avoid
using  idioms  in  written  texts.  Fernando  and  Flavell     discuss   the
difference in rhetorical effect of using idioms  in  general  and  of  using
specific types of idiom  in  the  source  and  target  languages  and  quite
rightly conclude that 'Translation is an exacting art. Idiom more  than  any
other feature of language demands that the translator be not  only  accurate
but highly sensitive to the rhetorical nuances of the language’.



      § V. Samples of translation.
Blitzkrieg   молниеносная война.
Comprehensive Programme of Disarmament n  Всеобъемлющая программа
разоружения.
International Nuclear Information System n  международная система ядерной
информации.
National Guard n  Национальная гвардия.
abet resistance v  оказывать поддержку движению сопротивления (vi) .
abrogated a treaty v  расторгнул договор (vi) .
1. abrogating a convention n  расторжение договора.
2. abrogating a convention v  расторгающий договор (vi) .
absolute rule n  самовластие.
absolute war n  решительные боевые действия.
accelerate upon an agreement v  ускорять достижение соглашения (vi) .
1. adhering to treaty provisions n  соблюдение положений договора.
2. adhering to treaty provisions v  соблюдающий положения договора (vi)
adjustment of disputes n  урегулирование разногласий.
administration of peace-keeping operations n  осуществление операций по
поддержанию мира.
bar the way to war v  преграждать путь к войне (vi) .
basic war plan n  основной стратегический план.
beam the opposition v  подавлять сопротивление (vi) .
brush blaze n  локальная война.
brush fire war n  местная война.
call to the colors v  объявлять мобилизацию (vi) .
carried the day v  одержал победу (vi) .
challenge to the world community n  вызов международному сообществу.
change in a policy n  смена политики.
chemical warfare agreement n  соглашение о запрещении химического оружия.
circumvention of an agreement n  обход соглашения.
claims to world superiority n  притязания на мировое господство.
comparison of military expenditures in accordance with international
standards n  сопоставление военных бюджетов по международным стандартам.
compensation allowance n  денежная компенсация.
competitive co-existence n  сосуществование в условиях соперничества.
completion of talks n  завершение переговоров.
compliance with commitments n  соблюдение обязательств.
conduct an arms race v  вести гонку вооружений (vi) .
conduct diplomacy v  проводить дипломатию (vi) .
conduct of disarmament negotiations n  ведение переговоров по разоружению.
consolidation of peace n  укрепление мира.
construction of all-embracing system of international secutity n  создание
всеобъемлющей системы международной безопасности.
consultative board n  консультативный совет.
contending nation n  воюющее государство.
contest the air v  оспаривать господство в воздухе (vi) .
control agency n  орган управления.
convene a meeting v  созывать совещание (vi) .
convene the UN Security Council v  созывать Совет Безопасности ООН (vi) .
conventional armament n  обычное вооружение.
desperate situation n  отчаянное положение.
detentist n  сторонник разрядки международной напряженности.
deterioration of resistance n  ослабление сопротивления.
deterioration of resistance n  ослабление сопротивления.
diminished international tension n  спад международной безопасности.
diplomatic attack n  дипломатическая атака.
diplomatic co-operation n  дипломатическое сотрудничество.
diplomatic decision n  дипломатическое решение.
disarmament issue n  проблема разоружения.
disarmament negotiation n  переговоры о разоружении.
disaster control n  меры по ликвидации последствий нападения.
1. drafting an agreement n  составление текста соглашения.
2. drafting an agreement v  составляющий текст соглашения (vi) .
ease international tension v  смягчать международную обстановку (vi) .
entered into alliance v  вступил в союз (vi) .
established an organization v  создал организацию (vi) .
financial service n  служба финансового довольствия.
graves registration service n  похоронная служба.
1. heading off the arms race n  воспрепятствование гонке вооружений.
2. heading off the arms race v  воспрепятствовавший гонке вооружений (vi) .
implement a goal v  осуществлять цель (vi) .
in-depth assessment n  глубокая оценка.
isolationist posture n  изоляционистская политика.
large-scale production n  крупномасштабное производство.
1. leading to positive solutions n  приведение к положительным результатам.
2. leading to positive solutions v  приводящий к положительным результатам
legal branch n  юридическая служба.
ligitimate rights n  законные права.
maintain mastery v  удерживать господство в воздухе (vi) .
maintain neutrality v  соблюдать нейтралитет (vi) .
maintain stability v  поддерживать стабильность (vi) .
maintained a status quo v  сохранил статус-кво (vi) .
making demands v  выдвигающий требования (vi) .
1. managing non-compliance n  урегулирование вопроса о несоблюдении.
2. managing non-compliance v  урегулировавший вопрос о несоблюдении
mandatory embargo n  обязательное эмбарго.
meet an aggression v  отражать нападение агрессора (vi) .
meet the demand v  отвечать требованию (vi) .
militarese n  военный язык.
military high court n  верховный военный суд.
mounting of international tension n  усиление международной напряженности.
moved a resolution v  предложил резолюцию (vi) .
mutual co-operation n  взаимное сотрудничество.
mutual commitment n  взаимное обязательство.
mutual deterrence n  взаимное сдерживание путем устрашения.
mutually acceptable agreement n  взаимоприемлемое решение.
mutually advantageous treaty n  взаимовыгодный договор.
mutually beneficial reductions of armaments n  взаимовыгодные сокращения
вооружений.
mutually beneficial treaty n  взаимовыгодный договор.
negotiated treaty text n  согласованный текст договора.
negotiating atmosphere n  атмосфера на переговорах.
negotiating forum n  форум для переговоров.
negotiating parties n  договаривающиеся стороны.
negotiating priority n  приоритетный вопрос на переговорах.
negotiating process n  процесс переговоров.
negotiating stalemate n  тупик на переговорах.
negotiations behind the scene n  закулисные переговоры.
new mentality n  новая психология.
no-cities strategy n  стратегия избежания поражения крупных городов.
noble goal n  благородная цель.
non-aligned status n  статус неприсоединившегося государства.
non-alignment with military blocs n  неприсоединение к военным блокам.
non-armament agreements n  соглашения о невооружении.
non-governmental expert n  неправительственный эксперт.
non-interference in internal affairs n  невмешательство во внутренние дела.
non-strategic a  нестратегический.
nuclear co-operation agreement n  соглашение о сотрудничестве в ядерной
области.
observed a status v  соблюл статус (vi) .
observer status n  статус обозревателя.
1. observing a truce n  соблюдение условий перемирия.
2. observing a truce v  соблюдающий условия перемирия (vi) .
1. observing to treaty provisions n  соблюдение положений договора.
2. observing to treaty provisions v  соблюдающий положения договора (vi) .
occurrence of nuclear war n  возникновение ядерной войны.
offensive-arms agreement n  соглашение о наступательных вооружениях.
offer co-operation v  предлагать сотрудничество (vi) .
1. overcoming the deadlock n  выход из тупика.
2. overcoming the deadlock v  выходящий из тупика (vi) .
overcontrol n  чрезмерная централизация управления.
overhead expenses n  накладные расходы.
prolongation of a treaty n  продление договора.
1. putting a stop to the arms race n  остановка гонки вооружения .
2. putting a stop to the arms race v  останавливающий гонку (vi) .
putting in jeopardy v  ставящий под угрозу (vi) .
random surprise verification n  выборочная внезапная проверка.
range of measures n  комплекс мер.
1. re-establishing equilibrium n  восстановление равновесия.
2. re-establishing equilibrium v  восстанавливающий равновесие (vi) .
reduction of military budgets n  сокращение военных бюджетов.
1. rendering assistance n  оказание содействия.
2. rendering assistance v  оказывающий содействие (vi) .
severe contraction n  резкое сокращение.
system of declaration n  система объявлений.
tables of information and characteristics n  информационно-
характеристические таблицы.
1. tabling for consideration n  представление на рассмотрение.
2. tabling for consideration v  представляющий на рассмотрение (vt) .
tactical program n  программа оперативно-тактической подготовки.
take a series of unilateral steps v  предпринимать серию односторонних
шагов (vi) .
take-it-or-leave-it approach n  бескомпромиссный подход.
1. taking the strain off n  разрядка напряженности.
2. taking the strain off v  разряжающий напряженность (vi) .
tangible progress n  ощутимый прогресс.
throwdown v  1) свергать (vi) ; 2) свергать (vt) .
top level forum n  высокий форум.
top priority n  высший приоритет.
top secret adv  секретно.
top-priority a  первоочередной.
topical problem n  актуальная проблема.
topicality of proposals n  актуальность предложений.
treaty assessment n  оценка действия договора.
treaty of unlimited duration n  бессрочный договор.
turn down a resolution v  отклонять резолюцию (vi) .
turn out data v  выдавать данные (vi) .
turned down a resolution v  отклонил резолюцию (vi) .
ultimate truth n  истина в последней инстанции.
ulterior motive n  скрытый мотив.
ultimate reply n  решительный ответ.
unacceptable conditions n  неприемлемые условия.
unacceptable damage n  неприемлемый ущерб.
unacceptable terms n  неприемлемые условия.
unattainable goal n  неосуществимая цель.
unavailing efforts n  тщетные усилия.
unbridled escalation of the arms race n  неконтролируемая гонка вооружений.
unchangeable status quo n  неизменный статус - кво.
uncontrollable situation n  неуправляемая ситуация.
under the agreement adv  по соглашению.
under the conditions of glasnost adv  в условиях гласности.
under the conditions of openness adv  в условиях гласности.
under the conditions of peace adv  в условиях мира.
under the eagis of the United Nations adv  под эгидой ООН.
under the treaty adv  согласно договору.
undermine an agreement v  подрывать соглашение (vi) .
undermine stability v  подрывать стабильность (vi) .
1. undermining a meeting n  подрыв совещания.
2. undermining a meeting v  подрывающий совещание (vi) .
unit veto n  всеобщее вето.
universal annihilation n  всеобщее уничтожение.
unofficial meeting n  неофициальная встреча.
unproductive conference n  безрезультатное совещание.
unswerving supporter n  непоколебимый сторонник.
urgent demand n  настоятельное требование.
urgent problem n  неотложная проблема.
vote for a resolution v  голосовать за резолюцию (vi) .
voted-down draft n  отклоненный проект.
1. waging operations n  проведение боевых действий.
2. waging operations v  проводящий боевые действия (vi) .
1. wandering away n  уклонение.
2. wandering away v  уклоняющийся (vi) .
wanton aggression n  ничем не вызванная агрессия.
wanton interference n  ничем не вызванное вмешательство.
war by proxy n  война чужими руками.
war diplomacy n  дипломатия войны.
war of annihilation n  война на уничтожение.
war of attrition n  война на истощение.
war of liberation n  освободительная война.
war preparedness n  готовность к войне.
war propaganda n  пропаганда войны.
war-time diplomacy n  дипломатия военного времени.
widening of international ties n  расширение международных связей.
won with wide recognition v  получил широкое признание (vi) .
working language n  рабочий язык.



                                 Conclusion

       In the  given  Qualification  Paper  we  have  investigated  various
translation methods of political literature from English  into  Russian.  We
tried to give a detailed study of the features of translation  of  Political
literature for it is one of the types  of  translation  that  has  not  been
studied in details in our country up to this time.

      Moreover,  we’ve  studied  the  translation   methods   of   Political
literature and political terms at a deeper level,  the  types  and  ways  of
translation of Political literature; we’ve also considered the  function  of
political literature in everyday life of the humanity.

      The aim of this work was to  introduce  the  translation  approach  to
Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for  those  willing
to keep up their educational  and  scientific  carrier  in  the  science  of
translation, it was purposed to broaden their view  on  translation  studies
and peculiar features while translating Political literature.

      In this work we’ve completed the following tasks:

      - we’ve reviewed all the sources of Political literature

      - methods of translation of Political literature have been  carefully
        studied

      - the grammatical, lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties
        of translation of political literature were discussed

      The originality of this work is in its creative approach to the  study
of methods of translation, besides, it contains a detailed  review  of  ways
and methods of translation.

The given Qualification  paper  contains  introduction,  two  chapters,  and
samples  of  translations  of  political  set  expressions,  conclusion  and
bibliography list.



                                   Summary

      Most translators prefer to think of their work  as  a  profession  and
would like to see others to treat them like  professionals  rather  than  as
skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this,  translators  need  to
develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do  and  how  they
do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as  well
as others that they are in control of what they do; that they  do  not  just
translate well  because  they  have  ‘flair’  for  translation,  but  rather
because, like other professionals, they have  made  a  conscious  effort  to
understand various aspects of their work.

      Unlike  medicine  and  engineering,  translation  is  a   very   young
discipline in academic terms. It is only  just  starting  to  feature  as  a
subject of study in its own right, not yet  in  all  but  in  an  increasing
number of universities  and  colleges  around  the  world.  Like  any  young
discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of  other  related
disciplines in order to develop and formalize its  own  methods;  but  which
disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a  matter
of some controversy. Almost every aspect of  life  in  general  and  of  the
interaction between speech  communities  in  particular  can  be  considered
relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself  with  how
meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in  various
cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area  to  investigate  in  one
go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever  to  become
a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need  something
other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable  them  to
reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need,  above  all,  to
acquire a sound knowledge of the raw  material  with  which  they  work:  to
understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.



       In this research work we have completed the following tasks:

      - we have reviewed all the sources of Political literature

      - we revealed the  methods  and  ways  of  translation  of  Political
        literature

      - and we have also investigated grammatical, lexical,  phraseological
        and stylistic difficulties of translation of Political literature.

       In  this  Qualification  paper  we  have  reviewed  almost  all  the
grammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties  of  translation  of  Political
Literature.

       While reviewing the grammatical changes we considered the  following
transformations: substitution, omission, transposition and  supplementation.


    Substitution is one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the
sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) is replaced by  another  item
(or items), ex:

    I like Politics.              And I do.  or

    Will the United Stated start the war against Iraq? – No one knows.

    The words like do, one, the same are usually used in substitution.

    Omission, as you know is when an item is replaced by nothing. This is a
case of leaving something unsaid  which  is  nevertheless  understood.   The
example is:

    In the World War II the Soviet Union lost over 70 millions of life. And
the United States less than 10.

    A hearer will easily infer what happened to the  United  States  during
the war.

    Transposition is required when the English sentence  contains  a  large
group of nouns with indefinite article and then it  is  natural  that  they,
being the center of informative  message  are  placed  at  the  end  of  the
sentence. Besides, a short, compared with the noun predicate  can  not  bear
the emphatic sense of a large group of nouns.

    A big wave of  actions  by  all  sections  of  workers  –  skilled  and
unskilled, men and women, manual and  non-manual  –  for  higher  wages  and
equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in  shaping  the  environment
at work is rising.

    Сейчас нарастает огромная волна забастовок трудящихся всех категорий  –
квалифицированных  и  не  квалифицированных,  мужчин  и  женщин,  работников
физического и умственного труда – за повышение зарплаты,  за  равную  оплату
женского труда, за сокращение рабочего дня, за улучшение условий труда.

       Supplementation happens to be very frequent when  translating  texts
on International politics because we do not always have corresponding  words
for some English or American notions like:

       During the World War II one of the basic changes in the US  military
bases was the construction of emergency hangars in case of sudden attack.

       Одним из немаловажных перемен в военных базах США  во  время  Второй
Мировой Войны была разработка конструкции  ангаров  для  срочного  вылета  в
случае внезапной атаки.

       There is no  corresponding  word  in  Russian  military  system  for
emergency hangar therefore we had to make use of supplementation.

       Thus, we have come to conclusion that the  above  mentioned  changes
are necessary while processing a translation of  Political  literature  from
English into Russian.

       While discussing the lexical problems of translation  we  considered
lexical-semantic features of both languages and investigated such  cases  as
difference in word volume, word combinability, generally accepted  tradition
of word usage, we have also considered contextual meaning of  words  in  the
process of translation. In addition we investigated the  emotional  coloring
that plays an important role while processing  a  translation  of  Political
Literature. We have studied  the  translation  of  international  words  and
unexpected usage of word  combinability  that  makes  the  translation  task
harder.

    A very interesting  contextual  meaning  of  exploitation  was  in  the
following example:

    Britain’s worldwide exploitation was shaken to the  roots  by  Colonial
Liberation Movements.

    The contextual meaning of  the  word  originated  metonymically  –  any
colonial system lives on  exploitation,  which  is  the  basis  of  colonial
power. The corresponding Russian  эксплуатация  can  not  be  used  in  this
contextual meaning, the contextual surroundings of exploitation  (worldwide,
shaken to the  roots)  also  prevents  it.  The  only  possible  variant  of
translation is by means of metonymic transposition – substitution:

    Колониальное могущество Англии было подорвано (потрясено до  основания)
национально-освободительным движением во всех колониях.

      The use of words of  abstract  meaning  strongly  differs  in  various
languages.  Therefore  arises  the  necessity  of  concrete  definition   in
translating.

      The Saigon regime used every form of pressure and violence to compel a
reluctant electorate to go to the polls.

     Сайгонский режим прибегал ко всем видам давления и насилия, чтобы
заставить упрямых избирателей принять участие в выборах.

   In the study of stylistic transformation during  translation  we  found,
that the repetition is widely used  with  stylistic  purposes  in  newspaper
publicity. In these cases the translator is  compelled  to  apply  stylistic
changes,  make substitution or omission.

       A  policy  of  see  no  stagnation,  hear  no  stagnation,  speak  no
stagnation has had too long a run for our money.

      Слишком долго мы расплачиваемся за политику  полного  игнорирования  и
замалчивания застоя в нашей экономике.

       The  triple  repetition  of  no  stagnation  has  been   omitted   in
translation, though is partially compensated by the use  of  synonymic  pair
at a word (stagnation), but neutralization is evident  in  translation.  The
neutralization happened when translating the  phraseological  unit  to  have
(too long) a run for our money.

     Still, studying the difficulties of translation of Political literature
we have come  to  conclusion  that  the  most  difficulty  to  a  translator
represent set expressions and phraseological units that are widely  used  in
American and English politics. In most cases we do  not  have  corresponding
notions in Russian or have some words that do  not  sufficiently  cover  the
whole meaning of the word in question: for example:

     The Cold War last for more than forty years.

     Холодная война длилась более сорока лет.

     In this case we used word for word (verbatim) translation for we do not
have any words that would  convey  the  sense  the  Americans  put  in  this
expression.

     Therefore a translator, majoring in the translation of Politics  should
have a good command  not  only  of  English  itself,  but  should  know  the
principles of International politics and other Political sciences.

     To wind up this discourse, we would like to remind you, that while  our
country is rapidly integrating into the International  community,  the  need
of highly experienced translators of Political literature  will  be  evident
to make the International Events easily accessible to general public.

                                Bibliography

                            (information sources)
   1. Fathy A. Osman. Senior interpreter/translator, IMF, Washington, DC
   2. In other words – a course book on translation.  Mona Baker, London and
      New York, 1992.
   3. The Craft of Translation, John Biguenet & Rainer Schulte, The
      University of Chicago Press.
   4. Translation features, Basnett-McGuire, New York Publishing house 1980.
   5. A course book on Military Translation, Ministry of Defense of the
      USSR, Moscow 1962.
   6. Translation difficulties, T.R. Levitskaya & A.M. Fitterman,
      “International Relations” Publishing house, Moscow 1976.
   7. Difficulties of translation from English into Russian, Zrajevskaya
      L.M. & Belyaeva, Moscow Publishing House, 1972.
   8. Translation and linguistics, Schweitzer A.D.
   9.  English Grammar, L.S. Barhudarov & D.A. Schteling, Moscow 1965.
  10.  Exercise book on translation of humanitarian texts, Malchevskaya,
      Saint Petersburg 1980.
  11.  America and Russian and the Cold War, Walter LaFeber, 6th Edition,
      Cornell University 1991.
  12.  Comparative Politics, Washington State University, 1996.
  13. International Conflict Cooperation and Management, Slippery Rock
      University, Pennsylvania, 2000.
  14. www.worldtranslationservice.com
  15. www.translateweb.org
  16. www.monabaker.trans.com
  17. www.chicagopress.com


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