(essay the house of Tudor)


SCHOOL 1276 WITH PROFOUND
THOROUGH OF THE ENGLISH LANGUGE
OF THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT
OF MOSCOW



                                                   THE ESSAY
                           THE HOUSE OF TUDOR


SERGEY SANOVICH

              10 B



                                              2002
                            CONTENTS:
1.Contents....1
2.Introduction..2
3.King Henry VII....2-3
4.King Henry VIII..3-4
5.King Edward VI..4-5
6.Lady Jane Grey...5-8
7.Queen Mary I.....8-11
8.Queen Elizabeth I.......11-15
9.Conclusion.15
10.The list of literature...16

                  INTRODUCTION
I decided to write this essay, because, I am really  interested  in  English
history. The five sovereigns of the Tudor dynasty are among the  most  well-
known figures in Royal history. Of Welsh  origin,  Henry  VII  succeeded  in
ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of  Lancaster  and  York  to
found the highly successful Tudor house. He was  succeeded  by  Henry  VIII,
who is famous for his six wives. This dynasty  ruled   in  Britain  for  118
eventful years.
Henry VIII was followed to the throne by his children  Edward  VI,  Mary  I,
and Elizabeth I. (Another Tudor  descendant,  Jane  Grey,  was  put  on  the
throne after Edward VI's death but was overthrown  after  only  nine  days.)
They increased the influence of the  monarchy,  established  the  Church  of
England, and made England a world power.
When Elizabeth I died in 1603, the Tudor dynasty  ended.  But  the  Stuarts,
who succeeded the Tudors, were descended from Owen Tudor.  Even  the  modern
royal Windsor family can trace its  ancestry  back  to  the  handsome  Welsh
squire who married Queen Catherine of Valois.
                  KING HENRY VII
The founding of dynasty
The founder of the royal Tudor dynasty  was  Henry  VII's  grandfather  Owen
Tudor, a well-born Welsh  man  who  served  as  a  squire  of  the  body  to
England's King Henry V. The king died in  1422  and  some  years  later  his
widow, Catherine of Valois, is said to  have  married  the  handsome  Tudor,
although it is possible they were never legally married.
Henry V was succeeded by his infant son, Henry VI. The new king (who  became
insane as an adult) was little more than a pawn in  the  so-called  Wars  of
the Roses,  a  series  of  power  struggles  between  the  ruling  House  of
Lancaster and the rival House of York. Owen Tudor was  a  staunch  supporter
of the king. In 1461 Tudor led an army into battle against  Yorkists  forces
at Mortimer's Cross in  Herefordshire.  The  Yorkist  side  won;  Tudor  was
killed; Henry VI lost his  throne  and  the  Yorkist  claimant,  Edward  IV,
became king.
Henry Tudor
Owen's son Edmund had married Margaret  Beaufort,  who  was  descended  from
King Edward III's son John of Gaunt, the  Duke  of  Lancaster.  Edmund  died
while Margaret was pregnant with their first child, Henry, who was  born  on
January 28, 1457 at Pembroke Castle  in  Wales.  At  first  Henry  was  kept
hidden in Wales by his uncle, Jasper Tudor. In 1471 Henry VI died -  he  may
have been murdered - in the Tower of London,  and  Henry  Tudor  became  the
Lancastrian claimant to the throne. Fearing for his nephew's safety,  Jasper
Tudor smuggled him to Brittany (in France).
In 1483 Edward IV died suddenly and his young sons, Edward  V  and  Richard,
"disappeared" in the Tower of London. Their uncle, who  had  imprisoned  the
boys, swiftly crowned himself Richard  III.  Not  surprisingly,  he  was  an
unpopular king. In 1485 Henry Tudor  returned  to  Wales,  raised  an  army,
invaded England, and defeated Richard III at the battle of  Bosworth  Field.
Richard died in the battle, and Henry Tudor  became  Henry  VII,  the  first
Tudor king.
In 1486 Henry married  Richard's  niece,  Elizabeth  of  York,  uniting  the
houses of Lancaster and York and ending the  Wars  of  the  Roses  (although
Henry did have to deal with Yorkist uprisings early in his reign).
An Elizabethan writer, Sir Francis Bacon, said that Henry  VII  was  not  an
indulgent husband because  "his  aversion  to  the  House  of  York  was  so
predominant in him as it found place not only in his wars and  councils  but
in  his  chamber  and  bed."  Despite  this  supposed  aversion,  Henry  and
Elizabeth managed to have eight children. The first child, Arthur,  died  in
his teens. Less than a year later Elizabeth died giving birth  to  her  last
child, who also died. Two other children had died young, so  Henry  VII  was
left with just three offspring: Margaret,  who  was  already  the  queen  of
Scotland; Henry, the future king of England; and Mary,  a  future  queen  of
France.
In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis. He had  brought  law  and  order  to
England after years of chaos, and made the country important in the eyes  of
the world. He is not, however, the Tudor king best  remembered  today.  That
honour belongs to his infamous successor, the much-married Henry VIII.
                               KING HENRY VIII
Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491. His father and mother, Henry  VII  and
Elizabeth of York, were loving parents, although they saw  little  of  their
children. Henry, their second son, was styled the Duke of York. He  had  his
own servants and minstrels, and a fool named  John  Goose.  He  even  had  a
whipping boy who was punished when Henry did something wrong.
Henry VII loved entertainers, and the  court  attracted  acrobats,  jesters,
magicians and musicians. Prince Henry enjoyed music and grew  up  to  be  an
accomplished musician (although he did not write "Greensleeves,"  as  legend
suggests). At the age of 10 he could play many  instruments,  including  the
fife, harp, viola and drums.
Henry's older brother  Arthur  married  a  Spanish  princess,  Catherine  of
Aragon, when he was fifteen. Prince Arthur danced at his wedding and  seemed
to be in good health, but within a few months he was dead.  Some  historians
think Arthur had tuberculosis.
Young Henry was now heir to the throne. He was  guarded  at  all  times  and
allowed to see few  people.  Henry  was  a  very  tall,  athletic,  handsome
teenager.  He  kept  his  exuberant  personality  under  control  on  public
occasions  because  he  feared  his  father's  temper.  He  received  little
training for his future  role  as  king,  and  would  rely  heavily  on  his
counsellors in the early years of his reign.
In 1509 Henry VII died of tuberculosis and his son became King  Henry  VIII.
He was 17.
Although most people today think of Henry VIII  as  a  fat  tyrant,  in  his
youth he was admired for his  intelligence,  good  looks,  good  nature  and
athletic ability. One of his contemporaries wrote that he was  "one  of  the
best men that lived in his time, in manners more than a man,  most  amiable,
courteous and benign in gesture unto all persons."
But of course, Henry is remembered today for just  one  thing  -  well,  six
things. Six wives, to be exact. He was married to Catherine of Aragon,  Anne
Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard, and Katherine Parr.
                                  EDWARD VI
The Kings son
Edward VI was born on October 12, 1537.  His  parents  were  England's  King
Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife. For  more  than  a  quarter
century Henry had desperately wanted a son, and Edward's birth caused  great
rejoicing. But Queen Jane soon fell ill with childbed fever, and on  October
24 she died.
Until the age of six Edward was raised by his nurse, Mother Jack, and  other
servants. During that time Henry took two wives  in  quick  succession,  but
both marriages ended badly; Anne of Cleves was discarded  because  the  king
found her ugly, and Katherine Howard was  executed  for  adultery.  In  1543
Henry married Katherine Parr, who became a loving stepmother to  Edward  and
his older half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. She was a highly  learned  woman
who personally oversaw Prince Edward's education.
Edward's tutors taught him geography, government, history,  French,  German,
Greek,  and  Latin.  He  was  also  given  lessons  in  etiquette,  fencing,
horseback  riding,  music  and  other  gentlemanly  pursuits.  Perhaps  most
important to Edward was his study of the  Scriptures.  He  became  a  devout
Protestant even though his father, who had severed England's  connection  to
the Roman Catholic Church, remained conservative and mostly Catholic in  his
beliefs.
Although Edward was serious and studious, at times  he  displayed  a  savage
temper. According to one account, he once tore a  living  falcon  into  four
pieces.
The Boy King
Somerset's brother,  Lord  High  Admiral  Thomas  Seymour,  was  jealous  of
Somerset and schemed to put himself in power. The admiral was  arrested  and
charged with  treason.  Somerset  hesitated  to  sign  his  brother's  death
warrant, so Edward gave the council permission to have his  uncle  beheaded.
Somerset himself later fell from the king's favour  and  lost  his  role  as
Protector. The duke of Northumberland took control of the king and  council,
and eventually Somerset, like his brother, was  arrested  and  charged  with
treason.  Under  pressure  from  Northumberland,  fourteen-year-old   Edward
signed Somerset's death warrant. Somerset was executed in 1552.
By this time Edward had completed his education  and  was  participating  in
council meetings. It was decided that the king  would  take  charge  of  the
country at age sixteen. This was bad news for  his  sister  Mary  an  ardent
Catholic who refused to cooperate with Edward's religious reforms.  However,
Edward  got  along  well  with  his  other  sister,  Elizabeth,  a  moderate
Protestant.
Edward suffered bouts of measles and smallpox in April 1552, and  from  that
time his health declined. By the next spring it was obvious  that  the  king
was dying of consumption (tuberculosis). His  father's  will  had  specified
that  Mary  should  become  queen  if  Edward  died  without  children,  but
Northumberland  had  different  ideas.  He  persuaded  Edward  to  name  the
Protestant Lady Jane Grey as his successor. Lady Jane was the  granddaughter
of Henry VIII's sister Mary; she was also Northumberland's  daughter-in-law,
and through her Northumberland hoped to rule England.
On July 6, 1553 Edward whispered his last prayer and died.  He  was  fifteen
years old. He would be succeeded --  briefly  --  by  the  unfortunate  Lady
Jane.
                                  JANE GREY
The unhappy childhood
Lady Jane Grey was born in 1537, just two days before King  Edward  VI,  and
may have been his friend in  childhood.  Her  father  was  Henry  Grey,  the
marquis of Dorset (later the  duke  of  Suffolk).  Her  mother  was  Frances
Brandon, a niece of Henry VIII. At that time, Frances Brandon was  third  in
the line of  succession  to  the  throne.  Jane  had  two  younger  sisters,
Katherine and Mary.
Jane's parents were, in her words, "sharp and severe" to her. She once  told
a visitor to her family home, Bradgate Manor, that  her  mother  and  father
expected to do everything "as perfectly as God made the world, or else I  am
sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened . . . that I think myself  in  hell."
She said that her parents pinched her and  abused  her  in  other  ways  she
would not name out of respect for them.
She found refuge in her studies, which she enjoyed so much  that  she  cried
when her lessons  were  over  for  the  day.  "Whatsoever  I  do  else,  but
learning, is full of grief, trouble, fear, and whole misliking," she said.
Jane's parents had big dreams for their intellectual eldest  daughter.  They
hoped she would marry her cousin Edward and thus become  queen  of  England.
When Jane was nine, her parents sent her to live with  Henry  VIII's  widow,
Katherine Parr, and Katherine's new husband, Thomas Seymour. Jane was  happy
with the Seymours, but Katherine soon died and Thomas Seymour was  arrested,
forcing Jane to return to her parents.
Once, on a visit to Henry  VIII's  daughter  Mary,  Jane  openly  disparaged
Mary's Catholic beliefs. Although Mary was  hurt,  she  later  sent  Jane  a
pretty velvet dress to wear to court. Jane, who thought  fine  clothes  were
sinful, tried to refuse the gift, saying it would be "a shame to  follow  my
Lady Mary against God's word," but her parents insisted she wear it  in  the
hope that it would impress the king. Many people expected  Edward  to  marry
Jane, but he wanted to marry Mary, Queen of Scots,  or  some  other  foreign
princess.
By the time Jane was 15, her parents had abandoned their dream  of  marrying
her to King Edward. Jane now believed that she was betrothed to the duke  of
Somerset's son, Lord Hertford. She was stunned  when  her  parents  informed
her that she was instead to marry Guildford Dudley, the youngest son of  the
duke of Northumberland. Guildford was a handsome young man, one year  Jane's
senior, but it seems Jane didn't like him very much. She  refused  to  marry
him, and  went  on  refusing  until  her  mother  literally  beat  her  into
submission.
The unwanted Crown
Jane married Guildford Dudley in May of 1553. The marriage  was  consummated
the following month at Northumberland's command, but  the  couple  continued
to live apart. Jane's new mother-in-law visited her on July 3 and told  her,
"His Majesty hath made you heir to his realm." Jane  said  later  that  this
unexpected news "greatly disturbed" her.
Three days later the king died. Northumberland kept  the  death  secret  for
several days to prevent Edward's sister Mary from claiming  the  crown.  But
on July 9 Mary, who was in Norfolk, heard the news  and  proclaimed  herself
queen. On the same day Jane was taken to Northumberland's house and  led  to
a throne. Everyone bowed or curtsied to her. Realizing what  was  happening,
Jane began to shake. Northumberland made a speech announcing that  Jane  was
the new queen, at which Jane fell on the floor in  a  brief  faint.  No  one
came to her assistance and she remained on the floor, sobbing.
Finally she got to her feet and announced, "The crown is not my  right,  and
pleaseth me not. The Lady Mary is the rightful heir."
When her parents, husband, and father-in-law  remonstrated  with  her,  Jane
dropped to her knees and prayed for guidance. She  asked  God  to  give  her
"such spirit and grace that I may govern to Thy glory and  service,  and  to
the advantage of the realm." Then she  took  her  seat  on  the  throne  and
allowed those present to kiss her hand and swear their allegiance to her.
The next day Jane made her state entry into London. Most  people  felt  that
Mary was the rightful heir to the throne, and very few cheers greeted  Jane.
She was taken to the Tower of London,  as  was  traditional.  She  protested
when the Lord High Treasurer brought her the crown, but after  a  while  she
agreed to wear it. When the treasurer said that another crown would be  made
for her husband, Jane was displeased. Despite Guildford's  rage  and  tears,
she insisted that she would not permit him to be king.
For a few days Northumberland stayed close to Jane, bringing  her  documents
to sign and generally telling her what to do. Despite  Jane's  objection  to
making Guildford king,  Northumberland  announced  that  both  she  and  her
husband would be crowned in two weeks.  Then  Northumberland  left  with  an
army to capture Mary, who was marching toward London with  an  army  of  her
own. While he was gone the nervous royal council decided  to  proclaim  Mary
the rightful queen. The proclamation was made on  July  19.  The  people  of
London were jubilant. Determined to save himself, Jane's father  signed  the
proclamation making Mary queen, then went to his daughter's  apartments  and
tore down her canopy of estate, telling her she was no longer queen.
"Out of obedience to you and my mother I have grievously sinned," Jane  said
quietly. "Now I willingly relinquish the crown. May  I  not  go  home?  "Her
father left without answering her.
The bitterness of death
Jane remained in the Tower, where she and Guildford soon  became  prisoners.
Her father and Northumberland were also arrested and  brought  back  to  the
tower. Henry Grey was released after a few days.  He  and  Frances  did  not
write to Jane or try to  save  her  life.  Although  Northumberland  hastily
converted to Catholicism and spoke of his desire to  live  and  kiss  Mary's
feet, he was executed in August.
On November 13 Jane and Guildford were tried and sentenced  to  death.  Jane
wasn't worried, however, because she had been  told  that  the  queen  would
pardon her. Then, in February of 1554, Sir  Thomas  Wyatt  raised  a  revolt
against Mary. He was quickly arrested, but  his  rebellion  hardened  Mary's
heart against her enemies. She signed Jane and Guildford's  death  warrants.
When Jane heard the news she said, "I am ready and glad  to  end  my  woeful
days." The queen offered to reprieve  Jane  if  she  would  convert  to  the
Catholic faith, but Jane refused.
Jane's father had supported the rebels, and he too was sentenced  to  death.
Now he wrote to  Jane  and  asked  for  her  forgiveness.  She  wrote  back,
"Although it hath pleased God to hasten my death by you,  by  whom  my  life
should rather have been lengthened, yet can I  patiently  take  it,  that  I
yield God more hearty thanks for shortening my woeful days."
Queen Mary granted Guildford permission to meet with  Jane  one  last  time,
but Jane refused to see her husband,  saying  that  they  would  meet  in  a
better place, where friendships were happy.
On February 11 Jane watched from a window as her  husband  walked  to  Tower
Hill to be executed; later she saw his headless body being brought  back  to
the Tower, at which she cried, "Oh Guildford! Guildford! Oh, the  bitterness
of death!"
About an hour later, Jane too made the walk to Tower Hill. On  the  scaffold
she knelt and recited the 51st Psalm, then  blindfolded  herself  and  asked
the executioner  to  kill  her  quickly.  Unable  to  find  the  block,  she
exclaimed, "What shall I do? Where is it?" A bystander  helped  her  to  the
block. She put her head on it and said, "Lord, into Thy hands I  commend  my
spirit." The executioner killer her with one blow  and  held  up  her  head,
saying, "So perish all the queen's enemies! Behold the head of a traitor!"
                                   MARY I
From Princess to bastard
"Bloody Mary" Tudor was  born  on  February  18,  1516.  She  was  the  only
surviving child of King Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine of Aragon.  Henry
doted on Princess Mary when she was little, calling her "the greatest  pearl
in the kingdom." The princess  received  an  excellent  education,  and  was
carefully sheltered.
In 1522 Henry arranged Mary's betrothal to Holy  Roman  Emperor  Charles  V.
Charles was an adult, and Mary was just six years old;  the  marriage  would
take place when she was twelve. Mary had met Charles and liked the  idea  of
marrying him. But in 1525 Charles broke off the engagement so that he  could
marry Princess Isabella of Portugal. That  same  year  Henry  sent  Princess
Mary to live in Wales, as was traditional for the king's heir.
The year 1527 started off well for Princess Mary. She returned  to  live  at
her father's court and celebrated her engagement to a son  of  the  king  of
France. But Henry VIII's attitude toward Mary and her mother had started  to
change. He had decided that God disapproved of his  marriage  to  Catherine;
why else had the queen failed to produce healthy male children? And  he  was
in love with the woman who was to become his second wife: Anne Boleyn.
Soon Mary learned that Henry wanted to annul his  marriage  to  her  mother.
For this, the king  needed  the  pope's  permission.  While  he  waited,  he
continued to treat Catherine as his queen and Mary as his heir.  But  Mary's
legitimacy was now in doubt,  making  her  less  valuable  on  the  marriage
market. The French  engagement  was  broken  off  and  no  other  match  was
arranged for her, although her father's advisors considered marrying her  to
King Henry's illegitimate  son,  Henry  Fitzroy.  (Fitzroy  married  someone
else. He died young and without heirs.)
Henry grew increasingly angry with Catherine for resisting  his  attempt  to
end their marriage. Finally, in 1531, he sent  Catherine  away  from  court.
After being shuffled between various castles and palaces,  the  queen  ended
up a prisoner at Kimbolton Castle, near Huntingdon. Realizing that the  pope
would never grant  his  divorce,  Henry  split  from  the  Catholic  church,
established the Church of England, had his marriage  declared  invalid,  and
married Anne Boleyn. Anne gave birth to a daughter, Princess  Elizabeth,  in
1533.
Mary was now officially a bastard, called "the lady  Mary,"  but,  like  her
mother, she refused to accept her change in status. Henry was infuriated  by
his daughter's defiance and threatened to have her executed if she  did  not
stop referring to herself  as  a  princess.  When  Mary  was  eighteen,  her
household was disbanded and she was sent to  live  in  Princess  Elizabeth's
household, where she was treated badly. Henry refused to  see  her,  but  he
was not completely indifferent to Mary. Once, glimpsing her at a window,  he
nodded and touched his hat politely.
Catherine and Mary were not permitted to visit  each  other,  and  Catherine
died in 1536 without seeing her daughter again. Now  Mary  was  alone.  Four
months after Catherine's death, however, Mary's greatest enemy toppled  from
power when Anne Boleyn  was  arrested  on  false  charges  of  adultery  and
executed. Anne had hated Mary and stated that  she  wanted  her  dead.  With
Anne gone, Henry treated his  eldest  daughter  somewhat  more  kindly.  His
third, fourth, and sixth wives were all well-disposed toward Mary. (She  got
along less well with his teenaged fifth wife,  Katherine  Howard.)  Although
she never regained her former status or  her  father's  affection,  she  was
once again part of the royal family.
At first she got along well with the king's  other  children.  As  Elizabeth
and Edward grew up, however, up their Protestant  views  put  them  at  odds
with Mary, who never swayed  from  her  devout  Catholicism.  After  Henry's
death in 1547, Mary's nine-year-old half-brother became King Edward  VI.  As
king, Edward scolded and bullied Mary about her beliefs. On his deathbed  he
disinherited her in favor of their teenaged cousin Lady Jane Grey.
Lady Jane Grey did not want to be queen, but that  didn't  stop  her  father
and his supporters from trying to  seize  the  throne  for  her  after  King
Edward's death in 1553. Few people supported "Queen Jane," however.  In  the
end even Jane's ambitious father abandoned  her,  and  Mary  was  proclaimed
queen. After a lifetime of sorrow and danger,  the  37-year-old  Mary  Tudor
was now the most powerful person in England.
The unhappy Queen
Soon  after  her  accession,  Mary  began  considering  the  possibility  of
marrying Prince Philip of Spain, the  son  of  her  former  fianc,  Emperor
Charles V. It worried her that Philip was 11 years  her  junior  because  he
was "likely to be disposed to be amorous, and such is not my desire, not  at
my time  of  life,  and  never  having  harbored  thoughts  of  love."  With
difficulty the emperor's envoy convinced  her  that  Philip  was  a  stable,
mature adult who would help protect her kingdom.
Mary's subjects were alarmed to learn  of  her  engagement  to  the  Spanish
prince, fearing  that  England  would  become  part  of  Spain.  The  queen,
however, had no intention of turning the country over to Philip. He  arrived
in England on July 20, 1554, and met Mary for the first  time  on  July  23.
Mary liked Philip from the start, and he treated  her  kindly,  although  he
probably found her  unattractive.  (The  men  who  had  accompanied  him  to
England later described Mary as old, badly dressed, and  almost  toothless.)
The wedding took place two days later.  Two  months  later,  Mary's  doctors
told her that she was pregnant.
In December a law was passed that allowed bishops of the Church  of  England
to convict heretics and sentence  them  to  death  by  burning.  Almost  300
people were burned alive during Mary's  reign  with  Mary's  full  approval,
earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary."
By the summer of 1555 it became obvious that Mary was  no  longer  pregnant,
if she had ever been. Mary was bitterly disappointed.  Philip  left  England
that August, promising Mary that he  would  soon  return.  Mary  missed  him
desperately. Philip didn't return to England until  March  of  1557.  During
his absence he had become the king of Spain. After a few months  in  England
he left to go to war; Mary never saw him again.  She  became  depressed  and
paranoid. Tortured by loneliness and unhappiness, Queen Mary fell  ill.  She
died on November 17, 1558  and  was  succeeded  by  her  half-sister,  Queen
Elizabeth I.
                                 ELISABETH I
The unwanted Princess
Elizabeth I was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace  near  London.
Her father was England's King Henry VIII; her mother was the  king's  second
wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth had an older half-sister,  Mary,  who  was  the
daughter of the king's first wife, Catherine of Aragon.
King Henry had moved heaven and earth to marry Anne Boleyn.  He  had  parted
from the Catholic Church, established the Church of  England,  and  annulled
his twenty-four year marriage to Queen Catherine - partly because  he  loved
Anne, and partly because he wanted the male heir Catherine  could  not  give
him. Henry and Anne were convinced that their first child would  be  a  boy.
The new queen even had a document drawn up ahead of time that announced  the
birth of a prince. When the prince turned out to be a princess, her  parents
were dismayed.
Over the next few years Anne had three miscarriages, and  Henry  -  who  had
become disenchanted with her even before Elizabeth's birth - decided  to  be
rid of her. In 1536 he had Anne arrested on false charges of  adultery.  The
Archbishop of Canterbury bowed to the king's will by declaring that  Henry's
marriage to Anne had never been valid. Like her half-sister Mary,  two-year-
old Elizabeth was now considered illegitimate. Anne was  executed,  and  two
weeks later the king married Jane Seymour.
In 1537 Queen Jane died after giving birth to a son, Edward.  Elizabeth  and
Mary participated in his christening ceremony. As Edward grew older, he  and
Elizabeth became close; although they lived  in  separate  households,  they
wrote to each other often.
When Elizabeth was four, Katherine Champernowne became  her  governess.  The
well-educated Champernowne - known as Kat Ashley after her marriage in  1545
- began teaching Elizabeth  astronomy,  geography,  history,  math,  French,
Flemish, Italian, Spanish, and other subjects. Elizabeth  was  an  excellent
student. Her tutor Roger Ascham later wrote, "She talks French  and  Italian
as well as she does English. When she writes Greek  and  Latin,  nothing  is
more beautiful than her handwriting."
In 1540 Elizabeth's father married Anne  of  Cleves.  Repelled  by  what  he
perceived as his bride's ugliness, Henry quickly had the  marriage  annulled
and instead married Anne Boleyn's first cousin Katherine  Howard.  Katherine
was very young - about fifteen - and something of a  featherbrain,  but  she
was kind to Elizabeth, who was surely appalled when, in a repetition of  the
past, the queen was arrested  and  charged  with  adultery.  This  time  the
charges were true. Queen Katherine was beheaded in 1542, when Elizabeth  was
seven years old.
Katherine Howard's violent death seems to  have  had  a  lasting  impact  on
Elizabeth. At the age of eight she met one of  Prince  Edward's  classmates,
Robert Dudley, and told him of an important decision she had made.  "I  will
never marry," she said. It was a decision that would shape her life.
Thomas Seymour
In 1543 Elizabeth gained yet  another  stepmother  when  Henry  married  his
sixth and final wife, Katherine Parr. Four  years  later  Henry  VIII  died,
leaving his crown to Edward. According  to  Henry's  will,  if  Edward  died
without heirs he would be succeeded by Mary. If  Mary  died  without  heirs,
Elizabeth would become queen.
Soon after Henry's  death,  Elizabeth  received  a  marriage  proposal  from
handsome Thomas Seymour, who was England's Lord Admiral and the  brother  of
the late Queen Jane. Knowing that Seymour was simply seeking the power  that
marriage to the king's sister could bring him, Elizabeth  turned  him  down.
So Seymour proposed to the widowed Queen Katherine, who  had  been  in  love
with him before her marriage to Henry VIII. Unaware  of  Seymour's  previous
proposal to her stepdaughter, Katherine happily accepted. They were  quickly
married, and the following year Elizabeth went to  live  with  them  at  the
royal Old Manor House in Chelsea.
Thomas Seymour still had designs on pretty red-haired Elizabeth. He took  to
visiting her bedroom in the morning before she  was  dressed.  During  these
visits he sometimes tickled her or slapped her  bottom;  once  he  tried  to
kiss her. Elizabeth giggled and seemed  to  enjoy  his  attention,  but  Kat
Ashley was disturbed by the  Lord  Admiral's  behaviour,  and  the  servants
began to gossip. Queen Katherine was aware of what was going on, but saw  it
all as innocent romping.  Once  she  even  joined  in  the  "joke,"  holding
Elizabeth in the garden while her husband cut off Elizabeth's dress.
Hoping to further deceive his wife,  Seymour  told  her  that  he  had  seen
Elizabeth  with  her  arms  around  a  man's  neck.  Concerned,  the   queen
questioned Elizabeth, who cried and insisted it wasn't true.  Now  Katherine
began to suspect that her husband, not some mystery  man,  had  been  making
advances to her stepdaughter. She started watching  the  Lord  Admiral  more
carefully. One day  Katherine  went  looking  for  him  and  Elizabeth  and,
according to one account, "came suddenly upon  them,  where  they  were  all
alone, he having her in his arms." Understandably upset, Katherine  banished
Elizabeth from the Old Manor House.
A few months later Katherine  died  after  childbirth  and  Seymour  resumed
plotting to marry Elizabeth. Elizabeth  knew  that  she  could  not  legally
marry without the permission of the king's council, and she  refused  to  be
drawn into the Lord Admiral's schemes.  In  1549  Seymour  was  arrested  on
charges of conspiring to marry Elizabeth and take over the  government.  Kat
Ashley was also arrested, along with another of Elizabeth's  employees,  and
Elizabeth herself was closely interrogated. She kept her wits about her  and
denied any involvement in Seymour's treasonous activities. In  the  end  she
convinced the Council of her innocence, and her servants were released  from
prison.
When Elizabeth heard that Seymour had  been  beheaded  for  his  crimes  she
supposedly said only, "This day died a man  of  much  wit  and  very  little
judgement." She had learned that she must keep her feelings  to  herself  if
she hoped to survive.
Perilous years
Elizabeth continued to get along well with her brother, King Edward, but  in
1553 Edward  died.  On  his  deathbed  he  was  persuaded  by  the  duke  of
Northumberland to name Lady Jane Grey to succeed him.  Lady  Jane  tried  to
refuse the crown, but Northumberland (who was her father-in-law)  proclaimed
her to  be  the  new  queen.  Meanwhile,  Henry  VIII's  daughter  Mary  was
proclaimed queen by her supporters.  Northumberland  surrendered  to  Mary's
forces. He and Jane Grey were imprisoned and later executed.
Queen Mary was determined to restore Catholicism as the  country's  official
religion. She pressured Elizabeth to convert. Elizabeth obediently  attended
one Mass, but complained the whole time of feeling  ill.  Because  this  and
Elizabeth's popularity with the English people, Mary grew wary of  her  half
sister.
When Sir Thomas Wyatt led an uprising  against  Mary,  the  queen  suspected
that Elizabeth was involved. Elizabeth was taken to London and  confined  at
Whitehall Palace. Eventually, although no  evidence  against  her  could  be
found, she was sent to the Tower, where Anne Boleyn, Katherine Howard,  Jane
Grey and so many others had awaited execution. When Elizabeth saw  that  she
was being brought into the Tower via the Traitor's Gate,  she  panicked  and
begged to be brought through some other gate.
Told that she must enter this way, she cried, "Oh Lord, I never throught  to
come in here as a prisoner . . . I come in as  no  traitor  but  as  true  a
woman to the Queen's Majesty as any as is now living;  and  thereon  will  I
take my death." She sat down on the stairs and refused to  move.  When  told
that it wasn't healthy to sit in the rain, she  replied  tearfully,  "It  is
better sitting here than in a worse place!"
One of her servants started to sob and Elizabeth told him  angrily  that  he
shouldn't cry, saying, "I thank God that I know my truth to be such that  no
man can have cause to weep for me!" With that she continued into the Tower.
Despite her very reasonable fears, she  was  released  from  the  Tower  two
months later, on the eighteenth  anniversary  of  her  mother's  death.  She
remained a prisoner, however. In 1555 she was moved  under  heavy  guard  to
Hampton Court, where the queen was staying. Mary refused  to  see  her,  but
Mary's new husband Philip of Spain met with Elizabeth  and  fell  under  her
spell. At his encouragement Mary finally reconciled with Elizabeth.
Over 250 Protestants were burned at the stake during the  reign  of  "Bloody
Mary," and Elizabeth's failure to truly convert to the  Catholic  faith  put
her in constant danger, as did  other  people's  conspiracies  to  overthrow
Mary and place Elizabeth on the throne.
Finally, on November 17, 1558, Mary died  and  Elizabeth's  years  of  peril
came to an end. She was now the queen of England.
Gloriana
Elizabeth's advisors urged the twenty-five-year old queen to  quickly  marry
some foreign prince and produce heirs so that the throne would not  pass  to
Henry VIII's great-niece, Mary Stuart,  the  queen  of  Scotland.  Elizabeth
stood by her early decision never to marry. (One of the many  proposals  she
rejected was from Mary's widower, Philip of Spain.)
Elizabeth had a romantic nature, and may  already  have  been  in  love  her
childhood friend, Robert Dudley, whom she later made the Earl of  Leicester.
Although Elizabeth was a hard-working monarch, like her  father  she  had  a
great appetite for entertainment. She  enjoyed  archery,  dancing,  hunting,
riding, and tennis. Whatever she did, Leicester was usually nearby.  He  was
given  a  bedroom  near  hers,  and  rumours  about  the  nature  of   their
relationship were rampant.
Leicester had a wife named Amy. In 1559, while Leicester was at  court,  Amy
fell down the staircase of her country home, broke her neck, and  died.  She
had been alone in the house  at  the  time  of  her  accident,  and  it  was
whispered that she had been murdered so that Elizabeth and  Leicester  could
marry. But  Elizabeth  did  not  marry  Leicester.  Twenty  years  later  he
infuriated the queen by secretly marrying her cousin  Lettice  Knollys,  but
Elizabeth forgave him, and he remained her favourite until his death.
Elizabeth was glorified by poets and artists as Gloriana, the Virgin  Queen.
With the help  of  fine  clothes,  jewels  and  cosmetics,  the  vain  queen
maintained a glamorous image despite her advancing age. In  her  mid-fifties
she fell in love with  Robert  Devereux,  Earl  of  Essex,  son  of  Lettice
Knollys. Essex was  in  his  early  twenties,  good-looking,  and  extremely
arrogant. Although he reigned as the queen's favourite for  many  years,  he
did not always  show  Elizabeth  the  deference  she  demanded.  Once,  when
Elizabeth slapped him during an  argument,  Essex  threatened  to  draw  his
sword on her. Elizabeth sent him to Ireland  to  quell  a  rebellion;  while
there, Essex ignored the queen's orders and pursued his own agenda. When  he
defied her by returning to England without permission, Elizabeth placed  him
under house arrest. After his release Essex attempted to  lead  an  uprising
against the queen, and the  heartbroken  Elizabeth  had  no  choice  but  to
sentence him to death. Essex was executed in 1601.
Two years later Elizabeth became very ill. Perhaps she did not want to  live
without Essex; when her doctors offered her medicine, she  refused  to  take
it. She died on March 24, 1603 at the age of 69.
                                 CONCLUSION
During this period from 1485 to 1603, England  developed  into  one  of  the
leading European colonial powers,  with  men  such  as  Sir  Walter  Raleigh
taking part in the conquest of the New World. Nearer to home,  campaigns  in
Ireland brought the country under strict  English  control.  Culturally  and
socially, the Tudor period saw  many  changes.  The  Tudor  court  played  a
prominent  part  in  the  cultural  Renaissance  taking  place  in   Europe,
nurturing all-round individuals such as William Shakespeare, Edmund  Spenser
and Cardinal Wolsey. The  Tudor  period  also  saw  the  turbulence  of  two
changes of official religion, resulting in the martyrdom  of  many  innocent
believers of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism.  The  fear  of  Roman
Catholicism induced by the Reformation was to  last  for  several  centuries
and to play an influential role in the history of the Succession.



         THE LIST OF LITERATURE:
1. I. I. Burova. The Monarchs of England. . . 1997.
2.      .    :         
   . . . 2001.
3.     : www.royal.gov.uk.
4. ,     : www.royalty.nu.



                                   EXTRACT

                             The house of Tudor
INTRODUCTION.  I  decided  to  write  this  essay,  because,  I  am   really
interested in English history. The five sovereigns of the Tudor dynasty  are
among the most well-known figures in Royal history.  Of Welsh origin,  Henry
VII succeeded in ending  the  Wars  of  the  Roses  between  the  houses  of
Lancaster and York to found  the  highly  successful  Tudor  house.  He  was
succeeded by Henry VIII, who is famous  for  his  six  wives.  This  dynasty
ruled  in Britain for 118 eventful years. Henry VIII  was  followed  to  the
throne by his children Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth  I.  (Another  Tudor
descendant, Jane Grey, was put on the throne after  Edward  VI's  death  but
was overthrown after only nine days.)  They increased the influence  of  the
monarchy, established the Church  of  England,  and  made  England  a  world
power. When Elizabeth I died in 1603,  the  Tudor  dynasty  ended.  But  the
Stuarts, who succeeded the Tudors, were descended from Owen Tudor. Even  the
modern royal Windsor family can trace its  ancestry  back  to  the  handsome
Welsh squire who married Queen Catherine of Valois.
KING HENRY VII.  1). The house of  Tudor was founded by Owen Tudor, a  well-
born Welsh man who served as a squire of the body to  England's  King  Henry
V. The king died in 1422 and  some  years  later  his  widow,  Catherine  of
Valois, is said to have married the handsome Tudor. The  middle  of  the  XV
century- the time of  so-called  Wars  of  the  Roses,  a  series  of  power
struggles between the ruling House of  Lancaster  and  the  rival  House  of
York. Owen Tudor was a staunch supporter of the king. In 1461 Tudor  led  an
army  into  battle  against  Yorkists  forces   at   Mortimer's   Cross   in
Herefordshire. The Yorkist side won; Tudor was killed;  Henry  VI  lost  his
throne and the Yorkist claimant, Edward IV, became king. Owen's  son  Edmund
had married Margaret Beaufort, who was descended from King Edward III's  son
John of Gaunt, the  Duke  of  Lancaster.  Edmund  died  while  Margaret  was
pregnant with their first child, Henry, who was born on January 28, 1457  in
Wales. At first Henry was kept hidden in Wales by his uncle,  Jasper  Tudor.
In 1471 Henry VI died - he may have been murdered - in the Tower of  London,
and Henry Tudor became the Lancastrian claimant to the throne.  Fearing  for
his nephew's safety, Jasper Tudor smuggled him to  Brittany  (in  France).In
1483 Edward IV died suddenly and his  young  sons,  Edward  V  and  Richard,
"disappeared" in the Tower of London. Their uncle, who  had  imprisoned  the
boys, swiftly crowned himself Richard  III.  Not  surprisingly,  he  was  an
unpopular king. In 1485 Henry Tudor  returned  to  Wales,  raised  an  army,
invaded England, and defeated Richard III at the battle of  Bosworth  Field.
Richard died in the battle, and Henry Tudor  became  Henry  VII,  the  first
Tudor king. 2). In 1486 Henry married Richard's niece,  Elizabeth  of  York,
uniting the houses of Lancaster and York and ending the Wars  of  the  Roses
(although Henry did have  to  deal  with  Yorkist  uprisings  early  in  his
reign). Henry VII was left with just  three  offspring:  Margaret,  who  was
already the queen of Scotland; Henry, the future king of England; and  Mary,
a future queen of France. In 1509 Henry VII died  of  tuberculosis.  He  had
brought law and order to England after years of chaos, and made the  country
important in the eyes of the world.
KING HENRY VIII. 1). Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491.  His  father  and
mother, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, were loving parents, although  they
saw little of their children. Henry, their second son, was styled  the  Duke
of York. He had his own servants  and  minstrels,  and  a  fool  named  John
Goose. He even had a whipping boy who was punished when Henry did  something
wrong. Henry VII loved  entertainers,  and  the  court  attracted  acrobats,
jesters, magicians and musicians. Prince Henry enjoyed music and grew up  to
be an accomplished musician. 2).  He became a king, when  he  was  17  years
old. Although most people today think of Henry VIII as a fat tyrant, in  his
youth he was admired for his  intelligence,  good  looks,  good  nature  and
athletic ability. One of his contemporaries wrote that he was  "one  of  the
best men that lived in his time, in manners more than a man,  most  amiable,
courteous and benign in gesture unto all persons. "But of course,  Henry  is
remembered today for just one thing - well, six things.  Six  wives,  to  be
exact. He was married to Catherine of Aragon,  Anne  Boleyn,  Jane  Seymour,
Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard, and Katherine Parr.
KING EDWARD VI. 1). Henry VIII  died  in  1547  and  his  nine-year-old  son
became King Edward VI. A council  was  appointed  to  rule  during  Edward's
minority,  with  Edward's  uncle,  the  duke  of  Somerset  (Jane  Seymour's
brother), as Protector of the country  and  the  king.  Somerset's  brother,
Lord High Admiral Thomas Seymour, was jealous of  Somerset  and  schemed  to
put himself in power. Somerset himself later fell  from  the  king's  favour
and lost his role as Protector. The duke of Northumberland took  control  of
the king and  council,  and  eventually  Somerset,  like  his  brother,  was
arrested and charged  with  treason.  Under  pressure  from  Northumberland,
fourteen-year-old Edward  signed  Somerset's  death  warrant.  Somerset  was
executed in 1552. 2).  By this time Edward had completed his  education  and
was participating in council meetings. It was decided that  the  king  would
take charge of the country at age sixteen. This was bad news for his  sister
Mary an ardent Catholic who refused to  cooperate  with  Edward's  religious
reforms. However, Edward got along well with his other sister, Elizabeth,  a
moderate Protestant. Edward suffered bouts of measles and smallpox in  April
1552, and from  that  time  his  health  declined.  His  father's  will  had
specified that Mary should become queen if  Edward  died  without  children,
but Northumberland had different ideas. He  persuaded  Edward  to  name  the
Protestant Lady Jane Grey as his successor. Lady Jane was the  granddaughter
of Henry VIII's sister Mary; she was also Northumberland's  daughter-in-law,
and through her Northumberland hoped  to  rule  England.  On  July  6,  1553
Edward died. He was fifteen years old. He would be succeeded --  briefly  --
by the unfortunate Lady Jane.
LADY JANE GREY. 1). Lady Jane Grey was born in 1537, just  two  days  before
King Edward VI, and may have been his friend in childhood.  Her  father  was
Henry Grey, the marquis of Dorset (later the duke of  Suffolk).  Her  mother
was Frances Brandon, a niece of Henry VIII. At that  time,  Frances  Brandon
was third in the line of succession to the  throne.  Jane  had  two  younger
sisters, Katherine and Mary. Jane's parents were, in her words,  "sharp  and
severe" to her. She found refuge in her  studies.  Jane's  parents  had  big
dreams for their intellectual eldest daughter. They hoped  she  would  marry
her cousin Edward and thus become queen of England. When Jane was nine,  her
parents sent her to live  with  Henry  VIII's  widow,  Katherine  Parr,  and
Katherine's new husband, Thomas Seymour. Jane was happy with  the  Seymours,
but Katherine soon died and Thomas Seymour was  arrested,  forcing  Jane  to
return to her parents. By the time Jane was 15, her  parents  had  abandoned
their dream of marrying her to King Edward, but he  wanted  to  marry  Mary,
Queen of Scots, or some other foreign princess. Jane wanted to marry to  the
duke of Somerset's son, Lord Hertford. She  was  stunned  when  her  parents
informed her that she was instead to marry Guildford  Dudley,  the  youngest
son of the duke of Northumberland. Guildford was a handsome young  man,  one
year Jane's senior, but it seems Jane didn't like him very  much.  2).  Jane
married Guildford Dudley in May of 1553. Three days  later  the  king  died.
Northumberland kept the death secret for several days  to  prevent  Edward's
sister Mary from claiming the  crown.  But  on  July  9  Mary,  who  was  in
Norfolk, heard the news and proclaimed herself queen. On the same  day  Jane
was taken to Northumberland's house and led to a throne. Everyone  bowed  or
curtsied to  her.  Realizing  what  was  happening,  Jane  began  to  shake.
Northumberland made a speech announcing that Jane  was  the  new  queen,  at
which Jane fell on the floor in a brief faint. The next day  Jane  made  her
state entry into London. Most people felt that Mary was  the  rightful  heir
to the throne, and very few cheers greeted Jane. She was taken to the  Tower
of London, as was traditional. For a few days  Northumberland  stayed  close
to Jane, bringing her documents to sign and generally telling  her  what  to
do. Despite  Jane's  objection  to  making  Guildford  king,  Northumberland
announced that both she and her husband would be crowned in two weeks.  Then
Northumberland left with an army to capture Mary, who  was  marching  toward
London with an army of her own. While he was gone the nervous royal  council
decided to proclaim Mary the rightful queen. The proclamation  was  made  on
July 19. The people of London were jubilant.  Determined  to  save  himself,
Jane's father signed the proclamation making Mary queen, then  went  to  his
daughter's apartments and tore down her canopy of estate,  telling  her  she
was no longer  queen.  3).  Jane  remained  in  the  Tower,  where  she  and
Guildford soon became prisoners. Her father  and  Northumberland  were  also
arrested and brought back to the tower. Henry Grey was released after a  few
days. He and Frances did not  write  to  Jane  or  try  to  save  her  life.
Although Northumberland hastily converted to Catholicism and  spoke  of  his
desire to live and kiss Mary's feet, he was executed in August. On  November
13 Jane and Guildford  were  tried  and  sentenced  to  death.  Jane  wasn't
worried, however, because she had been told  that  the  queen  would  pardon
her. Then, in February of 1554, Sir Thomas Wyatt  raised  a  revolt  against
Mary. He was quickly arrested,  but  his  rebellion  hardened  Mary's  heart
against her enemies. She signed Jane and Guildford's  death  warrants.  When
Jane heard the news she said, "I am ready and glad to end my  woeful  days."
The queen offered to reprieve Jane if she  would  convert  to  the  Catholic
faith, but Jane refused. Jane's father had supported the rebels, and he  too
was sentenced to death.  They were executed on February, 11.
QUEEN MARY I. 1). Bloody Mary" Tudor was born on February 18, 1516. She  was
the only surviving child of King  Henry  VIII's  first  wife,  Catherine  of
Aragon. Henry doted on Princess Mary when she was little,  she  received  an
excellent education. The year 1527 started off well for Princess  Mary.  But
Henry VIII's attitude toward Mary and her mother had started to  change.  He
had decided that God disapproved of his marriage to Catherine; why else  had
the queen failed to produce healthy male children? And he was in  love  with
the woman who was to become his second wife: Anne Boleyn. Soon Mary  learned
that Henry wanted to annul his marriage to her mother. For  this,  the  king
needed the pope's permission. Henry grew increasingly angry  with  Catherine
for resisting his attempt to end their marriage. Finally, in 1531,  he  sent
Catherine away from court. After being shuffled between various castles  and
palaces,  the  queen  ended  up  a  prisoner  at  Kimbolton   Castle,   near
Huntingdon. Mary was now officially a bastard, called "the lady Mary,"  but,
like her mother, she refused to accept  her  change  in  status.  Henry  was
infuriated by his daughter's defiance and threatened to  have  her  executed
if she did not stop referring to herself as a princess. Catherine  and  Mary
were not permitted to visit each other, and Catherine died in  1536  without
seeing her daughter again. Now Mary was  alone.  .  With  Anne  gone,  Henry
treated his eldest daughter somewhat more kindly. At  first  she  got  along
well with the king's other children. After Henry's  death  in  1547,  Mary's
nine-year-old half-brother became King Edward VI, then for 9 days(Lady  Jane
Grey. After a lifetime of sorrow and danger, the 37-year-old Mary Tudor  was
now the most powerful person in England. 2). Soon after her accession,  Mary
began considering the possibility of marrying Prince Philip  of  Spain,  the
son of her former fianc, Emperor Charles V. It worried her that Philip  was
11 years her junior. With difficulty the emperor's envoy convinced her  that
Philip was a stable, mature adult who would help protect her kingdom.
Mary's subjects were alarmed to learn  of  her  engagement  to  the  Spanish
prince, fearing  that  England  would  become  part  of  Spain.  The  queen,
however, had no intention of turning the country over to Philip. He  arrived
in England on July 20, 1554, and met Mary for the first  time  on  July  23.
Mary liked Philip from the start, and he treated  her  kindly,  although  he
probably found her unattractive. The wedding took place two days later.  Two
months later, Mary's doctors told her that she was pregnant.
In December a law was passed that allowed bishops of the Church  of  England
to convict heretics and sentence  them  to  death  by  burning.  Almost  300
people were burned alive during Mary's  reign  with  Mary's  full  approval,
earning her the nickname "Bloody Mary."
By the summer of 1555 it became obvious that Mary was  no  longer  pregnant,
if she had ever been. Mary was bitterly disappointed.  Philip  left  England
that August, promising Mary that he  would  soon  return.  Mary  missed  him
desperately. Philip didn't return to England until  March  of  1557.  During
his absence he had become the king of Spain. After a few months  in  England
he left to go to war; Mary never saw him again.  She  became  depressed  and
paranoid. Tortured by loneliness and unhappiness, Queen Mary fell  ill.  She
died on November 17, 1558  and  was  succeeded  by  her  half-sister,  Queen
Elizabeth I.
QUEEN ELISABETH I.  1). Elizabeth  I  was  born  on  September  7,  1533  at
Greenwich Palace near London. Elizabeth had an older half-sister, Mary,  who
was the daughter of the king's first wife, Catherine of Aragon.
King Henry had moved heaven  and  earth  to  marry  Anne  Boleyn.  Anne  was
executed, and two weeks later the king married Jane Seymour. In  1537  Queen
Jane  died  after  giving  birth  to  a  son,  Edward.  Elizabeth  and  Mary
participated  in  his  christening  ceremony.  When  Elizabeth   was   four,
Katherine Champernowne became her  governess.  Elizabeth  was  an  excellent
student. In 1540 Elizabeth's father married Anne of Cleves. Queen  Katherine
was beheaded  in  1542,  when  Elizabeth  was  seven  years  old.  Katherine
Howard's violent death seems to have had a lasting impact on Elizabeth.  2).
In 1543 Elizabeth gained yet  another  stepmother  when  Henry  married  his
sixth and final wife, Katherine Parr. If Mary died without heirs,  Elizabeth
would become queen. Soon after Henry's death, Elizabeth received a  marriage
proposal from handsome Thomas Seymour, who was England's  Lord  Admiral  and
the brother of the late Queen Jane. Thomas  Seymour  still  had  designs  on
pretty red-haired Elizabeth. Concerned, the queen questioned Elizabeth,  who
cried and insisted it wasn't true. Understandably upset, Katherine  banished
Elizabeth from the Old Manor House. A few months later Katherine died  after
childbirth and Seymour resumed plotting to marry Elizabeth. In 1549  Seymour
was arrested on charges of conspiring to marry Elizabeth and take  over  the
government. Kat Ashley was also arrested, along with another of  Elizabeth's
employees, and Elizabeth herself was  closely  interrogated.  3).  Elizabeth
continued to get along well with her  brother,  King  Edward,  but  in  1553
Edward died. Meanwhile, Henry VIII's daughter Mary was proclaimed  queen  by
her supporters. Elizabeth obediently attended one Mass, but  complained  the
whole time of feeling ill. Because this and Elizabeth's popularity with  the
English people, Mary grew wary of her half sister.  When  Sir  Thomas  Wyatt
led an uprising  against  Mary,  the  queen  suspected  that  Elizabeth  was
involved. Elizabeth was taken to London and confined  at  Whitehall  Palace.
Mary refused to see her, but Mary's new husband Philip  of  Spain  met  with
Elizabeth and fell under  her  spell.  At  his  encouragement  Mary  finally
reconciled with Elizabeth. Finally, on November  17,  1558,  Mary  died  and
Elizabeth's years of peril came  to  an  end.  She  was  now  the  queen  of
England.4). Elizabeth's advisors urged the  twenty-five-year  old  queen  to
quickly marry some foreign prince and  produce  heirs  so  that  the  throne
would not pass to Henry  VIII's  great-niece,  Mary  Stuart,  the  queen  of
Scotland. Elizabeth stood by her early decision never  to  marry.  With  the
help of fine clothes, jewels and cosmetics,  the  vain  queen  maintained  a
glamorous image despite her advancing age. In her mid-fifties  she  fell  in
love with Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, son of Lettice Knollys. Essex  was
in his early twenties, good-looking, and  extremely  arrogant.  Although  he
reigned as the queen's favourite for many years,  he  did  not  always  show
Elizabeth the deference she  demanded.  Once,  when  Elizabeth  slapped  him
during an argument, Essex threatened to draw his  sword  on  her.  Elizabeth
sent him to Ireland to quell a rebellion; while  there,  Essex  ignored  the
queen's orders and pursued his own agenda. When he defied her  by  returning
to England without permission, Elizabeth  placed  him  under  house  arrest.
After his release Essex attempted to lead an  uprising  against  the  queen,
and the heartbroken Elizabeth had no choice but to sentence  him  to  death.
Essex was executed in 1601. Two  years  later  Elizabeth  became  very  ill.
Perhaps she did not want to live without Essex;  when  her  doctors  offered
her medicine, she refused to take it. She died on March 24, 1603 at the  age
of 69.  Elizabeth was glorified  by  poets  and  artists  as  Gloriana,  the
Virgin Queen.
CONCLUSION. During this period from 1485 to  1603,  England  developed  into
one of the leading European colonial powers, with men  such  as  Sir  Walter
Raleigh taking part in the conquest  of  the  New  World.  Nearer  to  home,
campaigns in Ireland brought  the  country  under  strict  English  control.
Culturally and socially, the Tudor period saw many changes. The Tudor  court
played a prominent part in the cultural Renaissance taking place in  Europe,
nurturing all-round individuals such as William Shakespeare, Edmund  Spenser
and Cardinal Wolsey. The  Tudor  period  also  saw  the  turbulence  of  two
changes of official religion, resulting in the martyrdom  of  many  innocent
believers of both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism.  The  fear  of  Roman
Catholicism induced by the Reformation was to  last  for  several  centuries
and to play an influential role in the history of the Succession.


" (essay the house of Tudor) "