Naval Museum

 [pic]Portrait. Peter I in armour

J. M. Notier type,

1720-th.  |The Collection of the Central  Naval  Museum  began  with  ships'
models collection of Tzar  Peter  the  Great  and  Model  Chamber  of  Saint
Petersburg Admiralty, which is mentioned  for  the  first  time  in  Peter's
letter of 24 January 1709. The main goal of the Model Chamber  creation  was
to keep transport ships and warships draughts  and  models,  constructed  at
 the Admiralty shipyards for the Baltic Fleet.  |[pic]Admiralty Dockyard in
                               St. Petersburg.

Engraver  A.  Rostovtsev,  1717   |  |Historical  valuable   materials   and
shipbuilding information were preserved in the Model Chamber.  Its  building
was rather small for such a big collection and in  1805  a  Maritime  Museum
was founded. Some years later engravings and pictures on  marine  themes  in
addition to draughts and ships models appeared in the Museum. But  in  spite
of this in 1827 the Museum was closed because of the lack of room. And  only
    in 1867 the Russian government  opened  the  Museum  again,  yielded  to
public opinion and efforts of naval officers. Its  collection  was  enriched
by many valuable objects. Among them were personal things of  emperor  Peter
I, the founder of Russian Navy, famous admirals and officers; paintings  and
engravings, specimens of cold steel and fire-arms. The  main  collection  of
warships  and  transport  ships  models  was  increased  too.  The  restored
Maritime Museum was located in the west wing of the Admiralty  building.  It
was very popular among visitors. In 1909 it was  renamed  as  Emperor  Peter
the Great's Maritime Museum.
    The Revolution of 1917 and the Civil war in  Russia  1918  -  1920  have
brought essential correctives the Museum's exhibition. The main goal for  it
became  to  demonstrate  the  leading  role  of  the  Communist   Party   in
restoration and development  of  the  Navy.  The  collection  enriched  with
materials concerning  the  work  of  seamen-communists,  Fleet's  Party  and
Comsomol organizations. The Museum has  received  items  from  the  museums,
closed to that time, for example, museums of Guards Naval  Depot  and  Naval
Cadet Corps. The subjects  of  a  naval  life,  paintings  wellknown  marine
painters as I. K. Aivazovskiy and A. N. Bogoliuboff, naval uniform,  Russian
awards and marks were obtained on auctions and the private persons.  But  at
the same time, in 1920-30th the large number  of  subjects  of  the  Romanov
emperor's family, nobiliary surnames were annihilated in  the  Museum  under
the pressure of new circumstances. This loss has become  irreplaceable.  And
only due to the true devotees of Museum it became possible to  preserve  the
less, that makes the pride of its collection today.
    In 1939-1940 the Museum was renamed as the Central Naval Museum and  was
transferred from its historical place - Admiralty - to a building of  former
Stock exchange at the spite of the Vasilyevskiy island.  This  building  was
constructed in 1805-1810  under  the  project  of  a  known  architect  Jean
Francoise Toma de Tomon. Since that  times  the  Central  Naval  Museum  has
become one of the most favourite and attended museums of the city.
    During the World War II a  part  of  the  collection  was  evacuated  to
Ulyanovsk city. But a number of the employees had being worked  in  blocaded
Leningrad, collecting the  unique  materials  concerning  the  defenders  of
Leningrad. Excursion&lecturer work was going on the ships and  in  units  of
Red Banner Baltic  Fleet,  at  the  enterprises  and  in  hospitals  of  the
besieged city The mobile exhibitions worked.
    The  post-war  period  is  characterized  by  active  museum  exhibition
activity.  The  employees  of  the  Museum  repeatedly  left   with   mobile
exhibitions  on  all  Fleets,  carrying   out   large   educational&cultural
activity. In the beginning  of  50-th  the  professional  Studio  of  marine
artists was created under the decision  of  the  Navy's  Govering  body  and
initiative of the Museums'  employees.  It  aimed  to  update  the  Museum's
collection by a materials illuminating those pages of a history, which  have
not found sufficient representation in an  exhibition.  Today  the  talented
artists are working in Studio, among them the  Deserved  artist  of  Russian
Federation  V. A. Pechatin,  Z. G. Abashvili,  M. A. Kuznetsov,   S. V. Pen,
V. P. Yarkin and others. The scientific employees of the Museum  work  under
the creation of the new museum  catalogues.  That  has  allowed  to  include
earlier unknown documents and materials in scientific use .
    The changes in Russia of the end  1980-th  -  beginning  of  90-th  have
allowed the Museum to turn to the Museum's reserved collections and to  show
to  public  the  subjects,   documents   and   materials   revealling   pre-
revolutionary history of the Russian Navy. The  Museum  has  developed  wide
exhibition  activity  as  in  Russia  and  abroad.  Peoples  of  the  cities
Nakhodka, Kaliningrad, Moscow, Archangelsk, Pskov,  Yalta,  Tyumen,  Vyborg,
Severodvinsk have got acquainted with  its  collections.  Museum's  assembly
have received a high estimation in Denmark, France, Germany, Great  Britain,
Holland, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain,  USA.  The  scientific  and  creative
connections with museums of Russia and foreign countries have extended.  The
increasing of CNM's popularity and scientific authority has stirred  up  the
first wave emigrants and their descendants. We were gifted  the  interesting
materials from France, Holland,  Japan,  Tunis,  USA.  Citizens  of  Russian
Federation do not leave us without attention too. ollection of  the  Museum
totals about 700'000 items today.
    The Central Naval Museum repeatedly participated  in  joint  exhibitions
with State Hermitage, State Tretyakov Gallery, State Russian  Museum,  State
museums-reserves   Moscow   Kremlin,   Petershoff,   Tsarskoye   Selo,
Pavlovsk, Gatchina, State Museum of history  of  St.  Petersburg,  State
Museum  of  Religions  history,  Museum  of  anthropology  and   ethnography
("Cabinet of curiosities"), A. A. Popov Central  Museum  of  communications,
State Memorial Museum of A. V. Suvorov, Central Museum of the  Armed  Forces
of Russian Federation, Military Historical Museum of Artillery,  Engineering
and Intercommunicational corps, Military Medicine Museum and others.
    For last years authority of the Museum has considerably  grown.  It  has
become  the  member  of  the  International  Council   of   Museums   (ICOM)
International Association of Military Museums &  Military  History  (IAMAM),
International Congress of Maritime Museums (ICMM),  Union  of  the  creative
museum workers of St. Petersburg and region.
    Large popularity and authority the CNM is  obliged  for  those  museum's
patriots who works in it for many  years.  The  proud  of  the  Museum  are:
L. I. Bereznitskaya,  A. K. Belik,   K. P. Krasnopol'skiy,   A. L. Larionov,
V. B. Morozova,      L. S. Petrova,      L. G. Shuster,      I. P. Sukhanov,
T. N. Topornina, A. A Tron'.
    Recently the Museum has celebrated its 290th anniversary. Its scientific
employees have the large creative  plans.  Highly  professional  collective,
its knowledge and purposefulness is the pledge, that the  Museum  will  keep
traditions of the oldest scientific-educational  institution  and  perfectly
will be the pride of Russian Navy and the  treasury  of  maritime  glory  of

                 Museum's main building in Saint Petersburg

                                 Photo, 1996

|Kinds from a roof of a building of the Central Naval Museum                   |
|Photo 2001                                                                    |
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                                                              Shalimova Jane
                                                                       9 G

The Museum of Tbilisi's History, a treasury of material and spiritual
values of Georgian people was founded in 1910. That time it was named
"Municipal Museum", because it was established by the Municipality.
During 90 years more than 50 thousand items have been collected. This
collection was enabling the Museum to expose the complete hi story of the
town. The life and culture beginning from the IV millennium B.C., since the
first inhabitants were settled here. This enabled the museum to present the
incessant course of urban development through its important stages. Up to
the XIX century Tbilisi was a typical oriental town with its Caravanserais
and bazaars, houses with verandahs and balconies, with narrow lanes. The
contact with Russian and European cultures gave European imprint to the
life fashion of Tbilisi and to its external appearance. In the XIX century
in the old part of the town, in the vicinity of Sioni Cathedral, where
there were remnants of a Caravanserai built by the King Rostom in XVII
century, a new Caravanserai was built. In 1912 the facade of the building
was decorated. After restoration of 1980 this historical building became
the residence for The Museum of Tbilisi's History.
Unique archaeological, ethnographical, documentary material, many
masterpieces of folk and applied arts (carpets, kilims, etc.) are kept
here. The Museum holds the richest photograph-collection which perfectly
shows the views of the town, its life and its inhabitants. The Museum keeps
many paintings, printings and graphical works of Georgian and foreign
artists, depicting Tbilisi and its citizens in their rather colorful
spectra. Alongside with the material depicting the past, The Museum of
Tbilisi's History represents modern art too.
The modern Art department was founded in 1986 and is on the third floor of
the building. The modern Art department of Tbilisi history museum exhibits
the state of modern Georgian Art. Back in the former soviet time rather
bold, nowadays Historical exhibitions were arranged, namely Georgian
Neoexpressionism, Transavangard, Free Figuration, Installation, Video-Art,
Performance and other trends and directions.

                          ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MUSEUM
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The Museum of the Armenian Genocide opened in 1995 in time to commemorate
the eightieth anniversary of the Genocide. The Museum structure is of
unique and original design. (architects: S. Kalashian and L. Mkrtchian).
This two-story building is located at and in the side of a hill so as not
to detract from the imposing presence of the Genocide Monument nearby. The
roof of the building is flat and covered by concrete tiles. It serves as a
scenic view point overlooking the Ararat valley and Mount Ararat.
The first floor of the Museum is below grade and houses administrative,
engineering and technical maintenance offices and spaces, a 170-seat hall
(Komitas Hall), storage rooms for museum and scientific objects, a library
and a reading hall. The Museum exhibit is mounted in the second floor in a
space which is over 1000 square meters. It occupies three indoor halls and
one outdoor hall and its hallway. An eight meters long and three meters
wide basalt stone lies on the floor of the outdoor hall and the hallway.
The outdoor hall symbolizes the eternal memory of the victims of the 1915
Genocide and the unity of the Armenian people spread throughout the world.
It also expresses the struggle between good and evil, light and darkness.
The western wall of the Museum's first exhibit hall has a map engraved in
stone which shows the historical Armenian Plateau and neighboring
countries. It is bounded by the Black Sea in the north, the Caspian Sea in
the east, the Iranian Plateau in the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to
the southwest. The map shows the Armenian settlements on the territory of
Western Armenia and Ottoman Turkey which existed until the massacres of the
Armenians and the massive death marches which began in 1915. The map is
nine meters wide and five meters high.
The Introductory Hall exhibits photographs and ethnographic tables with
information about the Armenian settlements and Armenian population figures
in 1914 in Ottoman Turkey. They also contain information on the number of
Armenian churches and schools which were functioning in the region at that
time. A composite of the tables there and in the third hall provide a
visitor with the following data, including the population figures in 1914
before the Genocide (See the following charts).
|Name of Armenian|Number of      |Number of    |Number of    |1914     |
|Region and      |Armenian       |Armenian     |Armenian     |Populatio|
|settlement      |settlements    |Churches     |Schools      |n        |
|(1914)          |(1914)         |(1914)       |(1914)       |         |
|Erzerum         |425            |482          |322          |215,000  |
|Van             |450            |537          |192          |197,000  |
|Diarbekir       |249            |158          |122          |124,000  |
|Kharput         |279            |307          |204          |204,000  |
|Bitlis          |618            |671          |207          |220,000  |
|Sivas           |241            |219          |204          |225,000  |
|Trebizond       |118            |109          |190          |73,390   |
|Western Anatolia|237            |281          |300          |371,800  |
|Cilicia &       |187            |537          |176          |309,000  |
|Northern Syria  |               |             |             |         |
|European Turkey |58             |67           |79           |194,000  |
|TOTAL           |2,925          |3,368        |1,996        |2,133,190|

The second exhibit hall (700 square meters) presents eyewitness reports and
documents about the massacres and atrocities perpetrated against the
Armenians. The exhibit has many large photographs taken during 1915-1917,
archival documents, portraits of prominent Armenians, victims of the
atrocities, friends of the Armenian people, and documentary films.
A special part of the exhibit is reserved for the original documents issued
by international organizations and parliaments of foreign countries
condemning the Genocide.
Numerous different publications about the Armenian genocide written in many
languages are also exhibited.
This hall also shows tables with data on the number of Armenians living in
different countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia after
the Genocide. In the same hall a granite pedestal supports crystal vases
which hold earth from historic Armenian regions: Erzerum, Van, Baghesh
(Bitlis), Sebastia (Sivas), Kharpert, and Tigranakert (Diarbekir). It also
holds the skull and bones of a young Armenian killed in the Der Zor desert.
In the same hall, a granite tree with spreading branches symbolizes the
eternity and rebirth of the Armenian people.
 The tables displayed in the third hall show the Armenian population figures
                     in 1914 and 1922 (See chart below).
|Name of the    |Population in |Deported or  |Population  |
|Region         |1914          |Killed       |in 1922     |
|Erzerum        |215,000       |213,500      |1,500       |
|Van            |197,000       |196,000      |500         |
|Diarbekir      |124,000       |121,000      |3,000       |
|Kharput        |204,000       |169,000      |35,000      |
|Bitlis         |220,000       |164,000      |56,000      |
|Sivas          |225,000       |208,200      |16,800      |
|Trebizond      |73,390        |58,390       |5,000       |
|Western        |371,800       |344,800      |27,000      |
|Anatolia       |              |             |            |
|Cilicia &      |309,000       |239,000      |70,000      |
|Northern Syria |              |             |            |
|European Turkey|194,000       |31,000       |163,000     |
|TOTAL          |2,133,190     |1,745,390    |387,800     |

The last hall of the Museum is essentially an outdoor patio, a traditional
feature in old Armenian structures. A semicircular basalt wall is divided
into twelve equal segments. Each of the segments contains a sentence
condemning the Armenian Genocide by prominent foreign politicians,
diplomats, scientists, and writers of that period. The hall looks like a
courtroom where eyewitnesses present their condemning evidence. The last
word belongs to the visitor, who can make a judgement based on the
materials presented.

"Naval Museum "