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The profile of an effective manager


The manager


Managers work in an organization.  Therefore, before  we  can  identify  who
managers are, it is important to  clarify  the  term  organization.  Robbins
S.P. (1991) defines an organization as: “a systematic arrangement of  people
to accomplish some specific purpose”.  We can divide organizational  members
into  two  categories[1]:  operatives  or  managers.  Managers  differ  from
operatives, by the fact that they direct the activities of others.

There  are  two  big  classifications   of   managers[2]:   the   horizontal
classification only looks at the responsibilities. We  can  distinguish  the
functional manager and  the  general  manager.  The  functional  manager  is
responsible for a  whole  of  similar  activities,  for  example,  financial
director, commercial director… While the general manager is responsible  for
different functional  areas,  he  is  often  concentrated  on  one  business
activity and acts as a product  manager  or  a  division  manager.   In  the
vertical classification,  we  need  to  differentiate  first-line  managers,
middle managers, and  top  managers.  The  difference  between  these  three
groups is based on the statute of subordinates.

Furthermore, we should pay attention to the difference between a  successful
and an effective manager. As Luthans F. (1988) proved, a successful  manager
is not necessary an effective manager. The former  is  a  manager,  who  has
been promoted relatively quickly, while the latter has satisfied,  committed
subordinates and high performing units. In general, we  could  say  that  an
effective manager is one who attains the organizational goals.

   1. Manager’s job


It was Henry Fayol, in the early part of this century, who was the first  to
give a global view about the job  of  manager.  He  observed  that  managers
performed 5 management functions: they plan, organize,  command,  coordinate
and control. In the mid-1950s, these management functions  were  reduced  to
the basic four known as the management process.
Figure  1  shows  that  the  tasks  of  a  manager  consists  of   planning,
organizing, leading and controlling.

Figure 1: Management Functions
[pic]
Source: Management, By: Robbins, S.P., 1991, , Prentice-Hall, Inc, p. 4

The  planning  component  encompasses  defining  the   goals,   establishing
appropriate strategies, and developing different  plans  to  coordinate  the
activities.  Furthermore,  managers  are  responsible   for   designing   an
organization’s structure, which clarifies what must be done and by whom.  As
the job of manager implies  directing  activities  of  others,  the  leading
function  is  very  important.  It  consists  of  motivating   subordinates,
resolving  conflicts  and  selecting   effective   communication   channels.
Eventually, a manager has a controlling function. He has to ensure that  the
assumed goals will be achieved. Therefore the manager  has  to  monitor  the
different activities.  Also keep in mind that an effective manager  must  be
able to perform all four activities simultaneously.

Only recently has this classical view of managers been challenged  based  on
the observations of five CEO’s.  Mintzberg  H.  (1971)  concluded  that  the
manager’s job consisted of many brief and disjointed  episodes  with  people
inside and  outside  the  organization.   In  addition  to  these  insights,
Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for  defining  what  managers  do
based on actual managers on the job.  Mintzberg  shows  that  managers  play
different but highly interrelated roles[3].

Formal authority gives rise to the three  interpersonal  roles  (figurehead,
leader, and liaison), which in turn gives rise to  the  three  informational
roles (monitor, disseminator, spokesman). These two  sets  of  roles  enable
the manager to play the four decisional roles.  We should also mention  that
the importance of managerial roles varies depending on the  manager’s  level
in the organization.
Another best known modern view  of  managerial  work  is  provided  by  John
Kotter which is  based  on  his  observatory[4]  of  15  successful  general
managers. Kotter stated that managers spend most of their  time  interacting
with others and concluded that managers spent considerable time in  meetings
getting  and  giving  information.  By   obtaining   relevant   and   needed
information from his network, the effective manager  is  able  to  implement
his or her agenda.

   2. Critical skills related to managerial competence


In the ‘70s,  researcher  Robert  Katz  tried  to  find  an  answer  to  the
question: What are the  critical  skills  that  are  related  to  managerial
competence?  He  discovered  that  managers  should   possess   4   critical
management skills. Those skills can be categorized  in  two  big  groups[5]:
general skills and specific skills.  There seems  to  be  overall  agreement
that effective managers must be proficient in four general skills areas[6]:
    . Conceptual skills: the ability to analyse complex  situations  and  to
      provide the necessary knowledge to facilitate the decision-making.
    . Interpersonal skill: as a manager you should be able to direct others,
      so motivation, communication  and  delegation  skills  are  absolutely
      needed.
    . Technical skills:  the  ability  to  apply  specialized  knowledge  or
      expertise
    . Political skills: the ability to build the  right  relationships  with
      the right persons. Those  connections  result  in  higher  chances  of
      getting additional resources and power.

The proportions in which those skills are necessary vary with the  manager’s
level  in  the  organization.   Conceptual  skills  become  more  and   more
important as we grow in the hierarchy of the organization,  while  technical
skills become less important.  Interpersonal skills are necessary  on  every
level, because a manager always works with people.

Research has also identified six sets of specific skills  that  explain  50%
of manager effectiveness:
    . Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources
    . Organizing and coordinating
    . Handling information
    . Providing for growth and development
    . Motivating employees and handling conflicts
    . Strategic problem solving

In ‘The General Managers” (1983),  John  Kotter,  concluded  that  effective
managers  have  strong   specialised   interest,   skills,   knowledge   and
relationships. These specialised personal assets allow  them  to  behave  in
ways that fit the demands of their specific situations. Such  specialization
seems to have been central to their ability to  cope  with  the  often  huge
demands placed upon them by their jobs.

The  many  personal  characteristics  that   helped   contribute   to   good
performance were developed over the entire period of the manager’s life.  In
terms of basic personality we can observe[7]:
    . Needs/motives: like power, need for achievement, very ambitious
    . Temperament: emotionally stable and even, optimistic
    . Cognitive orientation: above average intelligence, moderately  strong
      analytically, strong intuitively
    .  Interpersonal  orientation:  personable  and  good   at   developing
      relationships with people, unusual set of interest that  allows  them
      to relate easily to a broad set of business specialist.
    . Information: very good knowledge about the business and organization
    . Relationships: cooperative  relationships  with  a  large  number  of
      people in the organization

Kotter concluded that in the stipulation for  being  an  effective  manager,
there should be a match between the demands of the job  and  the  individual
characteristics. So for organizations it is a challenge  to  put  the  right
man on the right place.  Depending on the role a manager has to play  in  an
organization,  we  need  an  individual  with  other  characteristics.   For
example, Kotter found  that  in  jobs  where  the  relationships  were  more
demanding and accomplishing things more difficult, the general  manager  was
someone with a strong personable style, skill at  developing  relationships,
a liking of power, an emotionally even temperament, an ability to relate  to
a diverse group of  business  specialist,  and  extensive  relationships  in
their organization and industry.

   1. The main characteristics of the effective manager
In the following part we will discuss some of the main manager’s
characteristics based on the theories which were discussed in the first
part of our paper. We have summarized different visions and found out that
all theories named the following important characteristics:
    . Decision making skills
    . Conflict Management skills
    . Flexibility and creativity
    . Developing of managerial knowledge and  manager’s teaching role
    . Motivation of employees
    . Communication skills
    . Developing trust inside the organization
We will give a description of each characteristic including some important
theories.

   1. Decision Making Skills
Mangers are at the same time the decisions makers. It is easy to make
decisions, but making the right one is difficult. What criteria should an
effective manager have upon the decision-making aspect?  Let’s start with a
simple review of the decision making process.
Decision-making is formally defined as the process of identifying and
solving problems. The process containing 2 major stages: problem
identification and problem solution. According to the rational approach,
there are 8 steps for each stage:[8]



Figure 2:  Decision-making process
[pic]
The point of rational approach is that manager should try to use systematic
procedures to arrive at good decisions.  Actually in practice, there are
many uncertainties when applying this model to make decisions due to the
following type of information constraints imposed up people:[9]
    . Limited attention
    . Limited memory
    . Limited comprehension
    . Limits to communication
These, plus other factors, have given rise to the notion that rational
process indecision is bounded. Herbert Simon, in this regard, has proposed
that, “within bounded rationality, individuals and groups often base their
decisions on satisfying the search for what is good enough in the
circumstances, rather than optimizing.”[10]Often, managers have to face
vast number of information and required to make a decision in a short time,
it is impossible for him to analysis each problem and weigh each
alternatives from the limited mental capacity. [11] Therefore there is a
limit to how rational a manager can be.
Many models are built upon the uncertainty of the solution searching steps,
while in all actuality managers are not making the decision in a vacuum.
They can use formulas or models to aid their decision making process.
Therefore, it is important for an effective manager to pay attention to the
following points when making the decisions:
The intuitive decision-making process always plays an important role in
combination with the rational process.  Managers build up long experience
with organizational issues, which provides them with a gut feeling or hunch
about the correct response. The large organizational decisions are not only
complex, but also ambiguous.  In such a situation; previous experience and
judgment are needed to incorporate intangible elements. Most of the time,
without solid proof that problems exist, the intuition will tell the
managers that there is or could be a problem that requires him to act
before he is able to sit down and analyze  the problem.
An effective manager knows how to cooperate with the internal and external
resources. Of course, as decision-makers, the manager should not become an
“autocrat”. Voice from internal will be listened, and sharing the opinions
and having joint discussions to reach the interpretation of the goals and
problems accordingly the agreement will be easier to reach and find
solutions to the problem.   External comments or reactions have great
impact on decisions makers. On one hand, managers are easily misled by the
hypothesis given from the external environment and can forget to look
broader and further.   On the other hand, proactively utilizing the
external resource can help managers to see better and further; therefore,
objective evaluation of those opinions will be helpful to generate wide
range of the problem solving approach.
Creativity is vital to search for more alternatives during the crisis
moment. When there are few possibilities to solve the problem, people can
easily stick to the first seeming possible solution and start to convince
themselves that there is no other better ones. Therefore they are stuck in
the corner and forget to look for the other alternative. Dynamic thinking
and radioactive mentality will help the manager to look the situation from
a different view, there fore create the new approach.
An effective manager will not only look to the short-term profit.  He sees
further.  He must be able to judge where the future business will be lead
to from the decision made today. Those decisions, which bring profits today
but will undermine business tomorrow, will be dropped.
The difficult decisions are always accompanied by the ethical issues. The
best solution for the company’s profit might not be the right ones
according to the laws or regulations. On making decisions, the ethical
dilemmas cannot be neglected, and the outcomes of unethical behavior can
affect reputations, trust and career path. Results have been as severe as
loss of employment, physical harm to individuals, corporate bankruptcy and
even impacts to the economy.

The scandals of 2002, including Enron and WorldCom,  resulted in
regulations having created a cultural shift particularly in financial
fields that has renewed emphasis on ethical business behavior.  What
distinguishes mediocre level managers from the truly effective managerial
leader is an ethical dimension. There exists different moral stages that
guide people in their everyday decision-making. Those people in the
“principled level…make a clear effort to define moral principles apart from
the authority of the groups to which they belong or society in general”[12]
Learn from the formal fail experience is very important.  Managers are apt
to stumble down the same failure-prone path over and over again without
learning.  Learning is thwarted when leaders do not tolerate mistakes. In
such an environment, people conceal bad out comes. Consequently, people in
the same company, or the same person in different period will repeat the
similar mistake. A good manager will see the mistakes as an education and
correct himself constantly according to the new situations.  Generally
speaking, to be an effective decision maker, managers need to work closely
with their team and “integrate their faith, values and business practices”.
[13]  In the presentation we will use the case from “Nestle Company” to
show why bad decisions had been made and what the consequences are. [14]
   2. Conflict Management Skills

According to Jean Miller from TIG (Taking It Global) “Conflict is the
source of all growth and is an absolute necessity if one is to be
alive.”[15]  An effective manager must be able to manage conflict and also
learn from it to help the organization to grow and be challenged.  Conflict
is not always negative but can prove to have some positive outcomes as
well.  The effective manager can balance this delicate relationship and
works hard to handle conflict with care.

As further stated in the article, conflict can be viewed as something to
manage or something to resolve.  John Burton, one of the world’s leading
scholars in the field of conflict resolution commented “…resolution means
terminating conflict by methods that are analytical and that get to the
root of the problem.”  Miller explains that “conflict management is a multi-
disciplinary, analytical, problem-solving approach to conflict that seeks
to enable participants to work collaborately towards its management.”[16]

Conflict is not easily avoided in any organization; therefore, an effective
manager is prepared by knowing how he will approach certain issues before
they happen.  There are many books and articles written that address this
topic in great detail.  An effective manager will consult these items and
use his or her own judgment in taking the advice of these publications.

According to James Cribbin, there are three basic kinds of conflict as
follows:  Approach-Approach, Avoidance-Avoidance, and Approach-
Avoidance.[17]  Approach-Approach would seem to be the most straight
forward type of conflict as there are two alternatives that are equally
feasible.  If an employee is not being productive in the company this
affects how the manager’s boss views that department.  The manager wants to
please his boss but also stay on good terms with his employee.  In each
case the manager needs to approach the other person with open communication
and deal with the situation.

Avoidance-Avoidance is very difficult because whatever decision is made to
have negative consequences.  If a manager knows that his boss is cheating
the company financially, he must make a decision.  Tell on his boss and
suffer the wrath, or stay quiet and sacrifice his ethics.  He would like to
avoid the conflict on either side, but staying quiet may not be an option.

The last type of conflict according to Cribbin is Approach-Avoidance.  He
gives a clear example of a manager put in a situation in which he must make
a decision that will affect himself and his family.  He wants to approach
the situation but also avoid it completely.  He is given a great promotion
in the company but must move his family from his nice comfortable town to a
large metropolis city.  Cribbin has outlined the options he has and
portrays what a difficult situation this could really be:
   1. Accept the position and move
   2. Accept the position, leave the family in the small town and visit them
      on the weekends.
   3. Bribe the family to make the move.
   4. Ask the family to try to the new city for a year and then assess the
      situation.
   5. He can refuse the promotion.
   6. He can try to stall in making the decision and hope that something
      different will turn up.
   7. He can try to convince his superiors that he can take the promotion
      and contribute more from where he already is.
   8. He can get another job.[18]
While this is a personal conflict for this manager, the skills a manager
uses to deal with personal conflict must be transferable to the workplace
environment involving other employees as well as superiors.  If a manager
knows that there are always several options in dealing with a situation, he
will be more open to choosing one that will work for that unique conflict.

As mentioned earlier, consistency is an important part of an effective
manager and can be applied to conflict as well.    A good manager is
consistent in executing rules and regulations with his employees.  He will
not let close relationships with employees cloud his judgment and rationale
for making a decision.  When conflict arises, the employees will know that
each person will receive the same treatment regardless of who they are.

According to Robbins, “Consistency can relate to an individual’s
reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations.
Inconsistencies between words and actions decrease trust.  Nothing is
noticed more quickly… than a discrepancy between what executives preach and
what they expect their associates to practice.”  People want to be able to
“predict what you are going to do.”[19]

In order for a manager to improve their effectiveness in a conflict
situation they can also use “The Five A’s of Improving Your Personal
Effectiveness” Model from Kerns.  The A’s are assess, analyze, action plan,
act, and adjust – then repeat.[20]  A good manager will always assess the
situation in order to gather all of the details.  Once he has all of the
information, he will analyze it and develop an action plan.  After
implementation of the plan, he will be able to be flexible with that plan
if something needs to be adjusted.  Effective managers use the Five A’s
constantly without even realizing it. This helps a manager approach
conflict with confidence knowing there is a steady process he can rely
upon.

   3. Flexibility and Creativity
                                        “Managers exist in a state of steady
                                    uncertainly and their success rests upon
                                  constant exploration of uncharted waters.”
                                                               Barry Munitz,
                                  President of Federated Development Company
                                                              Houston, Texas
Today changes in the business environment become more rapid and more
complex and of course each manager must solve more problems in a limited
period of time. As Dr. Abraham Zaleznik of Harvard University mentioned:
"No matter how much you plan, when you get to the work place there are
unanticipated problems: And the added constant challenge is that most of
these problems cannot be solved effectively in old, familiar, or
straightforward manners. Hence the quality most necessary for business and
career success these days, and increasingly so in the future, is
flexibility.”[21] But our group consider also creativity to be important
today. These two aspects help manager not to be lost and not to lose in the
modern business world and of course to be effective.

According to the dictionary flexibility is “the ability to change or to be
changed easily to suit a different situation”[22]. What factors made this
aspect so important? Thirst of all the growing volumes of information a
manager should deal with. Second, environment and technologies which
changed quicker and quicker every year and the third point will be
internationalization. According to these three situations we can determine
the following characteristics of the flexible manager:
   1. A flexible manager is able “to stay loose and to choose and explore a
      wide variety of approaches to problems, without losing sight of the
      overall goal or purpose”[23]
   2. Shows a resourcefulness in their ability to adapt himself quickly and
      easily to developing situation and changing environment
   3. He "does not see the environment as something to which they should
      passively respond, but as something they should actively shape."[24]
Some authors also associated flexibility with personal openness of the
manager[25]. They pointed out that if managers are open then they can be
influenced by what is happening around them and as a result they react more
flexible to all the changes around them. The one thing is obvious that
flexibility is a key feature of personal growth and an indispensable
condition for being an effective manager.

Let’s now go back to the second aspect – creativity, and let’s see what it
means: “Creativity – producing or using new and effective ideas, results,
etc”[26]. When we think about creativity, we imagine people who are gifted,
talented, and different from others, whose ideas, decisions, and actions
are situated out of the every day’s life borders.  In culture, creativity
is associated with such a people like Bach, Van Gogh, and Einstein; in
business with Steve Jobs (co-founder of Apple Computers), Jack Welch
(General Electric), and Anita Rodick (The Body Shop).[27]  Today creativity
is a way of thinking, the way to integrate you visions and ideas into
relationships and business. This process can be presented as following:
   Figure 3: Critical thinking



                         Brainstorming processes
                               Free association, etc.


Source: Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel
P. Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003

The use of creativity in the decision making process or in problem solving
allows manager to increase the effectiveness and encourage creative
thinking among employees.  An effective manager will use creativity as a
tool of motivation. When employees are encouraged to use creativity in
their problem solving and in everyday work, they are more likely to feel
unique, valued and important for their organization[28]. In this way a
manager can not only develop effectiveness but also create a group of like-
minded employees.

For an effective manager of the future creativity or creative thinking
should become the natural way to think. But to reach this ideal situation
each manager should avoid the following barriers:
   1. “A negative value of fantasy and reflection as a waste of time, a sign
      of laziness, or even a bit crazy”[29]
   2. the ideas that only children may play and fantasise but adults must be
      serious
   3. the idea that problem solving is a very serious an responsible process
      and you must forget about creativity and humour
   4. a negative image of feeling and intuition, which are regarded as
      illogical an impractical
   Although it is very difficult sometimes to change the society’s cultural
   barriers and to change the image of creativity, each manager should try
   to overcome pragmatic influences and think individually.

   4. Developing of managerial knowledge and  manager’s teaching role

   Every manager must be sure that he or she will develop the competence and
   knowledge of those they supervise. Every employee has a potential for
   personal and professional development, and a good manager should discover
   and develop this potential. We will start with the idea that each person
   wants to know more. When a young employee comes to the company he has a
   lot of theoretical knowledge, personal ideas and visions.  He has read a
   lot of books and articles, but he is still asking himself a lot of
   different questions. In that moment he needs someone to teach him how to
   become successful.
When you are a small child your parents teach you how to walk, and when you
make your first steps in your career you also need a “parent” to  teach, to
give support, to empower and whatever else necessary. The effective manager
is always ready to become such a “parent”. He is always open to his
employees and colleagues, he shares his knowledge, and he inspires others
with his own experience and example.  During the process of teaching he
always remains patient and supports everyone in every step of the way. And
of course leaders take the time to thank employees for a job well done.
But teaching doesn’t mean only sharing manager’s knowledge with someone; it
also means that the manager takes a role of mentor. The term "mentor" has
been used quite often in recent years.  Jacqueline D. Heads, academic
advisor for the Rutgers University College of Pharmacy in New Jersey
defines this term as the following  “A true mentor motivates you and impels
you to move to the next level, mobilizes you by advising you on how to get
there, and finally, like a guide, a mentor informally monitors your
progress to make sure you are moving in the right direction,"[30]
But why should we pay so much attention to teaching role of manager or his
mentoring role? The answer is obvious: teaching is a core competency the
effective manger should have. The idea of effectiveness changed the vision
of teaching and today more authors speak not only about teaching or
mentoring but about a developmental manager.[31]  That means that instead
of taskmasters and evaluators, managers are most effective as coaches,
motivators, symphony conductors and employee developers”[32]  We will pay
more attention to this idea.
Developing happened not at home but mostly at the work place during the
work itself or during the special classes. That is why it will be useful
for each manager to create and to follow a development plan to avoid
pointless talks and wasting of time. The idea of “A+ employees takes A+
managers”[33] seems to our group to be a very interesting and future
oriented idea of cooperation between manager and employees. According to
this idea you should follow these rules while developing people:
    . Appreciate uniqueness of the people
    . Assess capability of their team members
    . Anticipate the future  (leads others in the future)
    . Align aspirations (create win/win partnerships built on trust and
      loyalty)
    . Accelerate learning
But in practice the theory is always confronted with reality. One of the
main problems of teaching or developing people is that a lot of managers
are afraid of teaching other people. The main reason for such an attitude
is idea, that if you as a manager will teach someone everything you know
and after that he may become better and smarter then you, and take your
place. Of course it can happen. But then manager should turn back to his
main values and decide what is most important to him: his own career or his
company’s success.
At the same time, if you are going to share your knowledge with someone,  to
teach, to develop  and  to  become  a  mentor  you  must  broaden  your  own
knowledge. The individual becomes a manager because he  was  chosen  to  get
results and to use his knowledge, not because he won a  popularity  contest.
Employees are not going to listen to a person who has no knowledge  in  what
he is talking about or gives out false information. People need  to  believe
that a manager has the proper skills and abilities  to  carry  out  what  he
claims to be experienced in. Only then a manager will  earn  a  respect  and
employees will become his like-minded team. How  will  you  be  able  to  do
this?

 Some authors[34] say that as a  manager  and  especially  as  an  executive
manager you are responsible for all fields of business in your company:  for
marketing and sales,  for  finance,  for  information  technology  etc.  You
should understand how things works (the IKEA-case  and  Kamprad’s  attention
to all details can illustrate this statement) and also  how  employees  work
whose knowledge in one particular field are deeper  then  yours.  These  are
two main corner stones of success. How to reach them? The best solution  can
be continuous replacing inside organization. As a  result  manager  receives
variety of  experiences  and  knowledge  in  different  functions,  business
units, companies,  and  even  countries.  The  positive  effect  of  such  a
“moving” results in understanding, how the whole business operates;  of  the
impact of managerial decisions on the rest  of  the  organization.  Managers
can also transfer best practices to new areas while moving;  he  learns  how
to lead in a variety of situations and he develops  strong  networks  inside
and outside the organization[35].

Some other authors[36], especially from the business world,  used  to  think
that an effective manager must not be satisfied with  his  education  degree
and  training,  but  must  always  be  ready  to  catch  advanced  education
opportunities. The  advanced  degree  is  MBA-program;  if  this  level  was
reached then never avoid additional  seminars,  courses  and  workshops.  In
contrast to the thirst group of authors who are  speaking  about  continuous
replacement, these theories accept the idea of receiving deep  knowledge  in
one particular area.

These two approaches and also  all  theories  about  teaching  show  us  how
important is for  every  manager  to  develop  himself  and  his  employees.
Continuous self-development, learning and teaching  are  the  best  ways  to
success and effectiveness.

1 Motivation of employees



Like the previous characteristics, the ability to  motivate  your  employees
to work is also an indispensable one if  you  want  to  be  effective  as  a
manager. The psychology of motivation is tremendously complex, and what  has
been unravelled so far with any degree of assurance is very  small.  What  I
will do here is (1) give a  definition  of  what  motivation  is,  (2)  very
briefly going across the major theories, classical  and  contemporary  ones,
and (3) address some possibilities how an affective  manager  can  implement
the ideas the theories offered in reality, which is of most importance.  But
first some theory.



Stephen P. Robbins gives us the following definition of  motivation  in  his
book Organizational Behavior (2001, p. 155)[37]:  “[…]  the  processes  that
account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of  effort
toward attaining a goal”. Thus intensity (1) is concerned with “how  hard  a
person  tries”,  with  direction  (2)  we   mean   “toward   attaining   the
organizational goals“and persistence  refers  to  “how  long  a  person  can
maintain his or her effort”.



In the past, especially in the 50’s,  a  lot  has  been  written  about  how
managers can motivate their employees. We can classify these theories  in  5
categories.[38] These are:


1. Need theories:

        -    Hierarchy of  Needs  Theory  (A.  Maslow)  /  ERG  Theory  (C.
   Alderfer)

         - Two Factor Theory (F. Herzberg)
         - Theory X and Theory Y (D. McGregor)

These theories all depart from the thought that to motivate your  employees,
you have to satisfy certain needs. Maslow’s hierarchical model, a  classical
one,  says that you first have to satisfy physiological needs (i.e.  hunger,
thirst, …), then you have to offer them safety (from physical and  emotional
harm), consequently you must satisfy them socially  (affection,  acceptance,
…), after that you can motivate them by satisfying  their  esteem  (internal
as well as external), and  only  then,  when  all  the  previous  needs  are
satisfied, you  can  motivate  them  by  letting  your  employees  actualize
themselves through their work (i.e. self-fulfilment).  So  if  you  want  to
motivate someone, according to Maslow, you need to understand what level  of
hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on  satisfying  those  needs
at or above that level.

Maslow’s theory has received wide recognition,  but  unfortunately  research
does not validate the theory. A theory  that  contests  Maslow’s  theory  is
Alderfer’s ERG Theory, where E stands for existence (cfr. the  physiological
and safety needs),  R  for  relatedness  (cfr.  the  social  needs  and  the
external component of the esteem need) and G  for  growth  needs  (cfr.  the
internal esteem component and  the  self-actualization  need).  This  theory
differs from Maslow’s in that (1) more than one need  may  be  operative  at
the same time and (2), if the  gratification  of  a  higher  level  need  is
stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. In opposite  to
Maslow’s theory, several studies do have supported  this  theory.  It  takes
into account that in different cultures the  categories  can  be  ranked  in
another way, for example Japan, where the social needs are placed under  the
physiological ones.

Another classical need theory is the  Theory  X  and  Theory  Y  of  Douglas
McGregor. These two theories represent two distinct views of  human  beings:
Theory X makes  the  assumption  that  employees  dislike  work,  are  lazy,
dislike responsibility, and must be  coerced  to  perform,  where  Theory  Y
stipulates that employees like work, are creative, seek  responsibility  and
can exercise self-direction. Research suggests that these  theories  may  be
applicable but only in particular situations.

Maybe the most important contribution to the motivation question comes  from
the psychologist Frederick Herzberg with his Two-Factor Theory. The  insight
Herzberg brought to the matter meant a u-turn  in  previously  thinking.  He
stated as first that the opposite of satisfaction  is  not  dissatisfaction,
as was traditionally believed, but that  both  are  distinct  and  separate.
Intrinsic factors such as the work itself, responsibility,  and  achievement
seem to be related with satisfaction (motivators), while  extrinsic  factors
such as supervision,  pay,  company  policies  and  working  conditions  are
associated with dissatisfaction (hygiene factors). This  theory  has  had  a
major impact on management in the last 30 years and the fact  that  managers
nowadays allow workers greater responsibility in  planning  and  controlling
their work can probably be attributed largely  to  Herzberg’s  findings  and
recommendations

2. Goal-Setting Theory (E. Locke):

The primary idea of this theory is that specific and difficult  goals,  with
goal/ feedback, lead to a higher performance. This means that, for  example,
to motivate someone, you  don’t  say  “Just  do  your  best”,  but  you  say
specific what has to be obtained, for example  “You  should  strive  for  85
percent or higher on all your  work  in  English”.  Research  supports  this
theory in that this do can lead to a higher  performance,  although  it  may
not lead to job satisfaction (cfr. supra).

3. Reinforcement Theory:

This theory states that reinforcement  conditions  behaviour.  Behaviour  is
thereby environmentally caused. What controls behaviour  are  reinforcers  –
any consequence that , when immediately following a response, increases  the
probability that the behaviour will be  repeated.  The  theory  ignores  the
inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens  to  a
person when he or she takes some action. Because it does  not  concern  with
what initiates  behaviour,  it  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  a  theory  of
motivation. But it does provide  a  powerful  means  of  analysing  of  what
controls behaviour,  and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  it  is  typically
considered in discussions on motivation.

4. Equity Theory (J. S. Adams):

This theory poses that individuals compare their job  inputs  (i.e.  effort,
experience …) and outcomes  (i.e.  salary,  recognition  …)  with  those  of
others and then respond so as to eliminate any  inequities.  For  example  a
person who does the same job as another employee but gets paid less will  be
motivated to perform better in order to eliminate the existing inequities.

5. Expectancy Theory (V. Vroom):

This is currently one of the most accepted explanations of motivation.  Most
of the research evidence  is  supportive  of  this  theory.  Concrete,  this
theory says that an employee will be motivated to  exert  a  high  level  of
effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a  good  performance
appraisal; that a good performance appraisal  will  lead  to  organizational
rewards such as a bonus, a salary increase, or a  promotion;  and  that  the
rewards will satisfy the employee’s goals.

The major theories briefly presented, we can now look at how  in  reality  a
manager can implement these. Robbins mentions 6 applications. These are:

1. Management by objectives (MBO) (cfr. Goal-Setting Theory):

This means in realty, as a manager, you make sure  that  the  organization’s
overall  objectives  are  translated  into  specific  objectives  for   each
succeeding  level  (divisional,  departmental,  and   individual)   in   the
organization.  You  develop  a  program  that  encompasses  specific  goals,
participatively set with the employees, for an explicit  time  period,  with
feedback on goal progress. MBO programs are used in  many  business,  health
care, educational, government and non-profit organizations.

2. Employee Recognition Programs (cfr. Reinforcement Theory)

Consistent  with  reinforcement   theory,   rewarding   a   behaviour   with
recognition immediately following that behaviour is likely to encourage  its
repetition. For example: personally congratulating an employee,  or  sending
a letter or an e-mail, having a celebration because of good achievement,  or
publicly recognizing, such as organizing  a  prize  “Best  Employee  of  the
Month” (he/she then gets a plaque on the wall). These  programs  are  widely
used because it costs no money and according to research bears effective.
3. Employee Involvement Programs (cfr. Theory X  and  Theory  Y,  Two-Factor
Theory, Hierarchy of Needs Theory & ERG Theory):

The idea here is that by involving workers in those  decisions  that  affect
them and by increasing their autonomy and control  over  their  work  lives,
employees will become more motivated, more committed  to  the  organization,
more productive, and more satisfied with their jobs. Examples:
         -  participative  management:  subordinates  share  a  significant
           degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors.
         - representative participation: rather than  participate  directly
           in decisions, workers  are  represented  by  a  small  group  of
           employees who actually participate
         - quality  circles:  a  work  group  of  8  to  10  employees  and
           supervisors meet regularly to discuss  their  quality  problems,
           investigate causes, recommend  solutions,  and  take  corrective
           actions.
         - employee stock  ownership  plans  (ESOPs):  these  are  company-
           established benefit plans in which employees  acquire  stock  as
           part of their benefits.

4. Variable Pay Programs (cfr. Expectancy Theory):

Here a portion of an employee’s pay  is  based  on  some  individual  and/or
organizational measure of performance. Examples:
         - Piece-rate pay plans: you are paid a fixed sum for each unit  of
           production completed.
         - Bonuses: extra payment because of certain achievement.
         - Profit-sharing plans: compensations based  on  some  established
           formula designed around a company’s profitability  (direct  cash
           outlays or stock options).
         - gainsharing: an incentive plan in which  improvements  in  group
           productivity  determine  the  total  amount  of  money  that  is
           allocated.

5. Skill Based Pay Plans (cfr.  ERG  Theory,  Reinforcement  Theory,  Equity
Theory):

These plans set pay levels on the basis of how many  skills  employees  have
or how many jobs they can do. For example, if you are a machine operator  in
a certain company, you earn 14$/hour, but because of  the  skill  based  pay
plan, you can earn up to a 10 percent premium if you broaden your skills  to
for example material accounting. Several studies have confirmed  that  skill
based pay generally leads to  higher  performance  and  satisfaction.  These
plans are expanding and already widely used with success.

6. Flexible Benefits (cfr. Expectancy Theory):

These allow employees to pick and  choose  from  among  a  menu  of  benefit
options that exceeds the traditional benefit  programs.  The  options  might
include hearing, dental and eye coverage; life insurance; extended  vacation
time; …. This way the different needs of the  employees  can  be  met.   The
major theories and their applications were provided;  we  want  to  conclude
here with some general guidelines:
                 Recognize Individual Differences
                 Use Goals and Feedback
                 Allow Employees to Participate  in  Decisions  that  Affect
                 Them
                 Link Rewards to Performance
                 Check the System for Equity


The conclusion then is that íf you have the skill as  a  manager  to  tailor
the perfect motivation method for each of your employees, you will  be  more
effective.


2 Communication skills



With Rees (1991, p. 159), we can say that this  characteristic  is  probably
the most important of all the characteristics an effective manager needs  to
possess. Everything a manager does involves communication,  his  verbal  and
nonverbal  behaviour.  Communication  between  managers  and  employees   is
important in the sense that it provides the  information  necessary  to  get
work  done   effectively   and   efficient   in   organizations.   Effective
communication is the critical factor that moves a team toward  a  resolution
or consensus (“How to be an effective manager”, 2000, p. 14).

Robbins & Coulter provide us with the  following  communication  model  (see
attachment 1). As we can notice by looking at this model,  there  are  seven
factors  involved  in  communication:  (1)  the  communication  source,  (2)
encoding, (3) the message, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6)  the  receiver
and (7) feedback. The definition of communication is then “the transfer  and
understanding of meaning” (Robbins & Coulter,  2002,  p.  282).  This  means
that (1) the message has to reach the receiver ( for example a  speaker  who
isn’t heard does not communicate) and (2), more important, the  message  has
also to be understood in the way it was meant by the sender. Interesting  to
note is that communication can be affected by noise, by which  we  mean  any
disturbance that interferes with the transmission, receipt or feedback of  a
message, for example a phone ringing in the background.

Robbins and Coulter (2002, pp. 288-291) distinguish 7 different barriers  to
effective communication. These are (Robbins & Coulter, 2002, pp. 288-291):

     1. Filtering: this is the deliberate manipulation  of  information  to
        make it appear more favorable to the receiver. For example  when  a
        manager tells his boss what his boss wants to hear.
     2. Selective perception: when people selectively interpret  what  they
        see or hear on the basis of their interests, background, experience
        and attitudes. For example an employment interviewer who expects  a
        female job applicant to put her  family  ahead  of  her  career  is
        likely to see that in female applicants,  regardless  of  the  fact
        that it is true or not.
     3.  Emotions:  how  a  receiver  feels  when  a  message  is  received
        influences how he or she interprets it.
     4. Information overload: when the information we  have  to  work  with
        exceeds our processing capacity. For example tons of  e-mails.  You
        are bound to select and this way information gets lost.
     5. Defensiveness: when  individuals  interpret  another’s  message  as
        threatening, they often  respond  in  ways  that  hinder  effective
        communication.
     6. Language: words mean different things  to  different  people.  Age,
        education and cultural background are three  of  the  more  obvious
        variables that  influence  the  language  a  person  uses  and  the
        definitions he or  she  gives  to  words.  The  use  of  jargon,  a
        specialized terminology or technical language  that  members  of  a
        group use to communicate among themselves,  can  be  a  barrier  to
        effective communication.
     7. National culture: cultural differences and  consequently  different
        values (cfr. the problems of intercultural communication).[39]

To these we can also add gender  differences[40],  status  differences  (for
example boss vs. subordinate) and interference  of  nonverbal  communication
factors (for example smell as a personal physical characteristic).

Now what can a manager do to overcome these and as such be effective in  his
communication? If we know that an average manager spends 80% of his  or  her
time communicating in one form or another (10%  writing,  15%  reading,  25%
listening and 30% speaking), communication is affecting a company  in  every
possible way (“How to be an effective  manager”,  2000,  p.  14).  Therefore
effective communication is of extreme importance.

Robbins (2001, pp. 302-304) mentions 8 rules by which the  barriers  can  be
bridged:

     1. Use feedback: question the receiver to know if  he  understood  the
        message in the way it was intended.
     2. Simplify language: choose words and structure your messages in ways
        that will make those  messages  clear  and  understandable  to  the
        receiver.
     3. Listen actively: this  means  an  active  search  for  meaning,  in
        opposite to passively hearing
     4.  Contrain  emotions:   when   emotionally   upset,   refrain   from
        communication until u have regained composure.
     5. Watch nonverbal cues: to  ensure  that  the  receiver  conveys  the
        desired message.
     6. Empathize with others: put yourself in the shoes of your listeners.
        This way you’re more likely to see things from  their  perspective.
        Then you can choose the proper  channel  and  the  right  words  to
        transfer your message (cfr. infra).
     7. Use multiple  channels:  this  increases  clarity  because  (1)  it
        stimulates different senses and (2)  it  takes  into  account  that
        people have different abilities to absorb communication.
     8. Match your words and actions: actions speak louder than words. When
        nonverbal messages contradict  official  messages  as  conveyed  in
        formal communications, people  become  confused  and  the  official
        message loses its focus.
     9. Tailor the  message  to  the  audience:  different  people  in  the
        organization  have  different  information  needs.  Individuals  in
        organizations vary in the type of information they  need  to  know,
        their preferred channel for receiving the  information,  and  their
        understanding of language, so you should take this into account and
        tailor your message to your audience.
    10. Remember the value of face-to-face communication when dealing  with
        change: as we shall see immediately, some channels  are  more  rich
        than others. Especially in times of uncertainty, it is  appropriate
        to use a rich channel to convey ambiguous and nonroutine messages.
    11. Channels: understand that some channels have different  effects  on
        different audiences.

To conclude, I want to give some additional information to these  last  two.
As a manager in the 21st century, you can make use  of  a  wide  variety  of
communication  methods  thanks  to  the  rapid  progression  in  information
technology. These include:  face-to-face, telephone, group meetings,  formal
presentations, memos,  traditional  mail,  employee  publications,  bulletin
boards,  audio  and  videotapes,  hot  lines,  electronic   mail,   computer
conferencing,  voice-mail,  teleconferences,  and  videoconferences.  As   a
manager, it is  of  crucial  importance  that  you  select  the  appropriate
method/channel to communicate a specific message. Recent research has  found
that channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are  rich
in that they have the ability to (1) handle  multiple  cues  simultaneously,
(2) facilitate rapid feedback, and (3) be very personal. Attachment 2  shows
us the hierarchy of channel richness. The rule to choose one  channel  above
another depends then on the fact  of  whether  the  message  is  routine  or
nonroutine. For example firing a person by sending him/her an  e-mail  isn’t
quite effective. Instead, sending an e-mail to let him  know  that  he/she’s
invited for a personnel party this Saturday do is so.

As a conclusion we can  say  that  effective  communication  is  of  extreme
importance if you want to be an effective  manager.  However,  this  doesn’t
mean that good communication skills alone make succesfull  managers.  We  do
can say that íf the suggestions  made  here  to  communicate  effective  are
applied in a correct manner, then a lot of problems for  a  manager  can  be
avoided and surely the company as a whole will benefit from this.

   5. Decveloping Trust inside the organization

Ethics and values have always been an important part of business, but they
are now looked at more closely as there have been many instances where they
were not adequately defined.  According to Szwajkowksi in “The Myths and
Realities of Research on Organizational Misconduct”, managerial ethics are
“principles that guide the decisions and behaviors of managers with regard
to whether they are right or wrong in a moral sense.”[41]  Because not
every manager and individual follows the same principles, ethical dilemmas
occur.  It is crucial for a manager to first develop a list of core values
for himself in order to be consistent in his business practices.  As a
manager handles each situation with these values, trust is built.

It is difficult to decide which values a manager should pay more attention
to.  According to Stephen Robbins’s in “The Essentials of Organizational
Behavior” trust is defined as a “positive expectation that another will not
– through words, actions or decision -- act opportunistically”.[42]  He
goes on to present that trust is multi-dimensional and therefore
encompasses a vast range of values within it.  The Five Dimensions of trust
that he mentions are as follows:
    . Integrity: honesty and truthfulness
    . Competence:  Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills
    . Consistency:  Reliability, predictability, and good judgement
    . Loyalty;  Willingness to protect and save face for a person
    . Openness: Willingness to share ideas and information freely[43]
By developing each of these qualities, a manager will encourage a
trustworthy environment in his relationships with his employees as well as
his superiors.

As Robbins suggests, trust is something that we expect as the  outcome  from
a person through our experiences with them.  Over time, we get  a  sense  of
how that person behaves and acts accordingly to our behavior.   Trust  is  a
rather sensitive issue  to  most  people  and  requires  that  managers  act
appropriately  to  gain  the  trust  needed  to  lead  effectively.   It  is
dangerous to lose trust  of  an  employee  as  they  may  not  respect  your
judgment without it.

Managers  who  want  to  engage  in  trustworthy  relationships  with  their
workers, according to Robbins’s guidelines, must  follow  certain  practices
that show integrity, competence and consistency.[44]   Without  these  three
characteristics, all aspect of trust becomes meaningless.   The  normal  day
to day actions of a manager affect the level of  trust  that  each  employee
will have in him/her.

Managers of different levels  and  cultures  prioritize  trust  differently.
This is evident when evaluating how managerial  decisions  can  build  trust
through the Managerial Linkage System.  In “Managerial Leadership at  Twelve
O’Clock” Charles Kerns, describes that on one end of  the  managerial  scale
is an untrustworthy  manager  who  accomplishes  his  goals  with  lies  and
deception to obtain the numbers.  On  the  other  end  of  the  scale  is  a
manager who uses the trust of his workers to accomplish  the  same  numbers.
It is clear that the untrusting manager is taking  a  shortcut  through  the
managerial system from 12-9 and the trusting manager has taken the time  and
effort to move along from 12-3-6-9 as shown in the figure below.[45]

                                    [pic]
The untrusting manager’s shortcut disregards the concerns of the workers
and in turn ignores the quality of output to the customers. This will
effect worker retention times and create poor customer satisfaction.
Though this manager may achieve sales targets the first time around it will
not last. The second time through the cycle the results will begin to drop
off due to poor management and a lack of trust.  Conversely, the trusting
manager gains the trust of the workers and forms a great relationship with
them.  Worker retention is much longer and they tend to do a much better
job caring for the customers.  With happier customers will come the
increased sales.  The second time around the cycle, the trustworthy manager
will have an easier time achieving the same or improved sales.  The
Managerial Linkage System demonstrates that having employee trust will
cause business performance to increase.

   2. Can we learn how to become an effective manager?


Last decades, many visions thought that we could  learn  how  to  become  an
effective manager. We could refer to the success of many institutions  where
MBA programs are offered. Many  young  high  intelligent  business  men  are
taught how to become successful. Nevertheless the success of these  business
schools, there is a lack of correlation between scholastic standing and  the
success in business. Clearly, what a  student  learns  about  management  in
graduate school, does  not  equip  him  to  build  a  successful  career  in
business.

For Livingstone S. (1971) the reason for this failure could be found in  the
fact that[46]:”they don’t learn from their formal education what  they  need
to know to perform their job  effectively.  The  tasks  that  are  the  most
important in getting results usually are left to  be  learned  on  the  job,
where few managers ever master them  simply  because  no  one  teaches  them
how.”

Formal management education programs typically emphasize the development  of
skills which enables the future  manager  to  solve  problems  and  to  make
decisions (‘respondent behaviour). But little  attention  is  given  to  the
development of skills required to find the problems that need to  be  solved
(‘operant behaviour’). Furthermore, the problem solving in the classroom  is
seen as an entirely rational process, while in reality human  emotions  make
it hard to deal with the problems objectively.

As the  research  of  Norman  H.  Mackworth  revealed[47],  the  distinction
between the problem-solver and the  problem-finder  s  vital.  He  concluded
that managers  not  only  should  be  able  to  analyze  data  of  financial
statements or other written reports, but even more important they should  be
able to scan the  business  environment  for  less  concrete  clues  that  a
problem exist. These perceptual skills are extremely  difficult  to  develop
in the classroom and must be developed on the job.

We should ask our  self  the  question:  Are  there  people  who  have  more
managerial skills than others, because they are able  to  learn  from  their
experience what they need to  know  to  manage  effectively.  Livingstone  S
(1971)  found  three  characteristics  of  men   who   learned   to   manage
effectively.
    . Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you  should  have  a
      strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others.
      Many of those who aspires high- level  positions  are  driven  by  the
      expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to
      get effective results through others. Those managers don’t  learn  how
      to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack  of
      willingness to manage. They are not able to  devote  enough  time  and
      energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to  manage  is  a
      crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in
      practice what is necessary to get effective results on  the  job.  For
      example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but  with
      a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely
      advance far up the  organizational  hierarchy  because  they  will  be
      blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.
    . Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with  directing
      and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by  a  high
      need for power. We could refer to the above chapter  about  leadership
      and power.
    . Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is ”the ability to cope
      with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur  when  people  work
      together in an organization” (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers  who  are
      perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are  able
      to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because  their
      affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive.  They  are
      emotionally blind. They are not capable to  deal  with  the  emotional
      reactions that are crucial  in  gaining  the  willing  cooperation  of
      subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how  to  cope  with
      human emotions.

So  we  could  conclude  that  there  should  be  a  combination  of  inborn
characteristics  and  acquired  knowledge  and  experience  to   become   an
effective manager. There are people wit a  higher  needs  for  managing  and
power and having a bigger  capacity  for  empathy  than  others.  But  these
features are  no  guarantee  for  success.  They  should  be  combined  with
technical and conceptual skills acquired  during  management  education  and
job experience.
But the effective manger is one, who  is  able  to  adapt  his  personality,
skills, knowledge and relationships in such a way that it fits  the  demands
of their specific situation.

3. Can we learn how to become an effective manager?

Last decades, many visions thought that we could  learn  how  to  become  an
effective manager. We could refer to the success of many institutions  where
MBA programs are offered. Many  young  high  intelligent  business  men  are
taught how to become successful. Nevertheless the success of these  business
schools, there is a lack of correlation between scholastic standing and  the
success in business. Clearly, what a  student  learns  about  management  in
graduate school, does  not  equip  him  to  build  a  successful  career  in
business.

For Livingstone S. (1971) the reason for this failure could be found in  the
fact that[48]:”they don’t learn from their formal education what  they  need
to know to perform their job  effectively.  The  tasks  that  are  the  most
important in getting results usually are left to  be  learned  on  the  job,
where few managers ever master them  simply  because  no  one  teaches  them
how.”

Formal management education programs typically emphasize the development  of
skills which enables the future  manager  to  solve  problems  and  to  make
decisions (‘respondent behaviour). But little  attention  is  given  to  the
development of skills required to find the problems that need to  be  solved
(‘operant behaviour’). Furthermore, the problem solving in the classroom  is
seen as an entirely rational process, while in reality human  emotions  make
it hard to deal with the problems objectively.

As the  research  of  Norman  H.  Mackworth  revealed[49],  the  distinction
between the problem-solver and the  problem-finder  s  vital.  He  concluded
that managers  not  only  should  be  able  to  analyze  data  of  financial
statements or other written reports, but even more important they should  be
able to scan the  business  environment  for  less  concrete  clues  that  a
problem exist. These perceptual skills are extremely  difficult  to  develop
in the classroom and must be developed on the job.

We should ask our  self  the  question:  Are  there  people  who  have  more
managerial skills than others, because they are able  to  learn  from  their
experience what they need to  know  to  manage  effectively.  Livingstone  S
(1971)  found  three  characteristics  of  men   who   learned   to   manage
effectively.
    . Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you  should  have  a
      strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others.
      Many of those who aspires high- level  positions  are  driven  by  the
      expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to
      get effective results through others. Those managers don’t  learn  how
      to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack  of
      willingness to manage. They are not able to  devote  enough  time  and
      energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to  manage  is  a
      crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in
      practice what is necessary to get effective results on  the  job.  For
      example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but  with
      a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely
      advance far up the  organizational  hierarchy  because  they  will  be
      blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.
    . Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with  directing
      and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by  a  high
      need for power. We could refer to the above chapter  about  leadership
      and power.
    . Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is ”the ability to cope
      with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur  when  people  work
      together in an organization” (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers  who  are
      perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are  able
      to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because  their
      affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive.  They  are
      emotionally blind. They are not capable to  deal  with  the  emotional
      reactions that are crucial  in  gaining  the  willing  cooperation  of
      subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how  to  cope  with
      human emotions.

So  we  could  conclude  that  there  should  be  a  combination  of  inborn
characteristics  and  acquired  knowledge  and  experience  to   become   an
effective manager. There are people wit a  higher  needs  for  managing  and
power and having a bigger  capacity  for  empathy  than  others.  But  these
features are  no  guarantee  for  success.  They  should  be  combined  with
technical and conceptual skills acquired  during  management  education  and
job experience.
But the effective manger is one, who  is  able  to  adapt  his  personality,
skills, knowledge and relationships in such a way that it fits  the  demands
of their specific situation.



Attachment 1 [50]



Message                                                               Medium
                                    Receiver

   Encoding                                              Decoding

Sender                                                                 Noise
                                          Message


                            Feedback


1. Message: a purpose to be conveyed

2. Encoding: converting a message into symbols

3. Channel: the medium a message travels along

4. Decoding: retranslating a sender’s message. Difficulties may occur  here,
especially in intercultural communication.

5. Feedback: returns the message to the  sender  and  provides  a  check  on
whether understanding has been achieved.


Noise: any disturbance that interferes with  the  transmission,  receipt  or
feedback of a message



Attachment 2 [51]



                        HIERARCHY OF CHANNEL RICHNESS


Channel          Type of message             Information medium
Richness

Richest                Nonroutine, ambiguous


                                             Face-to-face talk
                                            Telephone
                                            Electronic mail
                                            Memos, letters
                                            Flyers, bulletins, general
                                       reports


Leanest          Routine, clear



-----------------------
[1] Management, By: Robbins, S.P., 1991, , Prentice-Hall, Inc, p. 4.
[2] Begrippen van Management, By: Jegers M., Moenaert R., Verbeke A., 1994,
, VUB-press, p.17.
[3] The nature of Managerial work By: Mintzberg H., 1973, , New York,
Harper&Row, p. 93-94.
[4] The General Managers, By: Kotter J.P.,1982, , New York Free Press.
[5] Skills of an effective administrator, By: Katz R.L., 1974, , Harvard
Business Reiew 52.
[6] Management, By: Robbins, S.P., 1991, , Prentice-Hall, Inc, p. 4.
[7] The General Managers, By: Kotter J.P.,1982, , New York Free Press, p.
36.
[8] Organization Theory and Design, By Richard L. Daft, 2nd Edition,1983
[9] Actionable learning, By Terrence Morrison, Asia Development Bank
Institute
[10] Human Problem Solving By: Herbert Simon and R. Newel,NY:NORTON,1990
[11] Extract from” The Next big Idea” By Carol Kennedy, Random House
Business Books, www.cec.globalcources.com
[12] Essentials of Organizational Behavior.  By,  Robbins, Stephen P.  New
Jesrsey: Prentice Hall, 2002
[13] Putting Spirituality to Work.  By, Professor Kerns
[14] Why Decisions Fail By: Paul C. Nutt, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.,
San Francisco, CA,2002
[15] Grant, Quacy.  Conflict and Conflict Management.  Taking It Global -
http://www.takingitglobal.org/express/article.html?cid=1227
[16] Grant, Quacy.  Conflict and Conflict Management.  Taking It Global -
http://www.takingitglobal.org/express/article.html?cid=1227
[17] Cribbin, James J.  Effective Managerial Leadership.  American
Management Association, Inc.  USA: 1972

[18] Cribbin, James J.  Effective Managerial Leadership.  American
Management Association, Inc.  USA: 1972
[19] Robbins, Stephen P.  Essentials of Organizational Behavior.   New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
[20] Kerns, Dr. Charles.  “The Five A’s of Improving Your Personal
Effectiveness”.  Graziadio Business Report.  September 2002.

[21] Are you flexible enough to succeed? ,  By: Raudsepp, Eugene, Manage,
Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4
[22] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,pearson Education
Limited,1978,2001
[23] Are you flexible enough to succeed? ,  By: Raudsepp, Eugene, Manage,
Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4
[24] George T. Geis, research coordinator at UCLA's Center of Human
Resource Management at Are you flexible enough to succeed? ,  By: Raudsepp,
Eugene, Manage,  Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4
[25] The Unblocked Manager, By: Mike Woodcock,Dave Francis,England,GB,1983
[26] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,pearson Education
Limited,1978,2001
[27] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.
Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003
[28] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.
Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003
[29] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.
Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003
[30] Mentors Are Guides to Success ,  By: Wilson, Cheryl F., Black
Collegian, Apr2002, Vol. 32, Issue 3
[31] Do your managers have the right stuff? ,  By: Simonsen, Piggy,
Workforce,  Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8
[32] Do your managers have the right stuff? ,  By: Simonsen, Piggy,
Workforce, Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8
[33] Do your managers have the right stuff?,  By: Simonsen, Piggy,
Workforce, Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8
[34] Ellen D. Rothberg, Greg Blencoe
[35] Adaptive  Skills ,  By: Yelverton, Jerry, Vital Speeches of the Day,
0042742X, 09/15/97, Vol. 63, Issue 23
[36] Pankoff Sr., J. A
[37] I will use this book as a lead to construct the rest of this section:
Robbins, Stephen P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice
Hall, pp. 154-216
[38] This classification is subjective and doesn’t claim at all to be
exhaustive.
[39] A remarkable effort to explain these problems was provided by
Hofstede, who placed cultures on a continuum of high-context vs. low-
context cultures. In the former, the context is of extreme importance; what
not is said may be more significant than what is said (for example Japan).
In the latter, words are more important to transfer meaning than the
context in which communication takes place (for example North America). It
is then your task as a manager to take these in consideration.
[40] Here I would like to refer to the interesting theories Deborah Tannen
developed in the ‘90’s. One of her conclusions was that men use talk to
emphasize status, whereas women use it to create connection. She even
states that the two sexes belong to two different cultures and speak as
such different genderlects (Tannen, 1991, p. 37). As such, intergender
communication can be a barrier to effective communication. It is then your
task as a manager to take these in consideration.

[41] Szwajkowski, Eugene W.  “The Myths and Realities of Research on
Organizational
[42] Robbins, Stephen P.  Essentials of Organizational Behavior.   New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
[43] Robbins, Stephen P.  Essentials of Organizational Behavior.   New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002
[44] Robbins, Stephen P.  Essentials of Organizational Behavior.   New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002
[45] Kerns, Charles D. PhD, MBA.  “Managerial Leadership at 12 o’clock.”
Graziadio Business Report.      Summer 2002.

[46] Myth of the well-educated manager, By:Livingstone S;, 1971,, Harvard
Business Review p.82.
[47] Originality, By: Mackworth N.H., 1969, , in The Discovery of Talent
p.242.
[48] Myth of the well-educated manager, By:Livingstone S;, 1971,, Harvard
Business Review p.82.
[49] Originality, By: Mackworth N.H., 1969, , in The Discovery of Talent
p.242.
[50] Robbins, S. & Coulter, M. “Managerial Communication and information
technology” p. 283
[51] Robbins, Stephen P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, p. 295


-----------------------

                       Generate numerous possibilities


                     Begin with one problem or question

managers

                                  planning

                                 organizing

                                   leading

                                 controlling

                        Organization’s stated purpose




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