Òîïèêè ïî Àíãë. ÿçûêó
Educational System in Russia.
I think that education is a key to a good future.
Russia has always shown a great concern for education. The right to
education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is
ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and higher
education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of
extramural and evening courses.
Russian children begin to go to school when they are 7. Education is
compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school
wishes to go on Higher education, he or she must stay at school for two
more years. Every school has a number of general subjects such as Russian,
Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Some
private schools, Lyceums and gymnasiums offer special programs giving a
profound knowledge in some fields of study.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which
offers a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a
gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take
competitive examinations. Higher education establishments, which are
institutes or universities, offer 5-year programme of academic subjects for
undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one
finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a
candidate’s or a doctoral degree.
The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a
transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize
the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give
more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools,
institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state.
Now there is a number of private fee-paying schools and some universities
have fee-paying departments.
Today Russian education is one of the best in the world. But I think that
if our educational system wouldn’t be changed in the nearest future we will
lose this place.
Higher Education in the U.K.
I think that education is a key to a good future. And universities are the
main step on the education-way.
There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. The leading universities
are Cambridge, Oxford and London. English universities differ from each
other in traditions, general organization, internal government, etc.
British universities are comparatively small; there are about 7 thousands
of students. And most universities have fewer than 3000 of students. London
and Oxford universities are international, because people from many parts
of the world come to study at one of their colleges. A number of well-known
scientists and writers, such as Newton, Darwin, Byron and others were
educated in Cambridge.
A university consists of a number of departments: art, law, music, economy,
education, medicine, engineering, etc. After three years of study a student
may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Master and
Besides universities there are about 300 of technical colleges, providing
part-time and full-time education.
The organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differs from other
universities and colleges. The teachers are usually called Dons. Teaching
is carried out by tutorial system. Each student goes to his tutor's room
once a week to read and discuss an essay which the student has prepared.
Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is
There are many societies and clubs at Cambridge and Oxford. The most
celebrating at Cambridge is the Debating Society at which students discuss
political and other questions with famous politicians and writers.
It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-class
families are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very
high. And there are special fees taken for books, for laboratory works,
exams and so on.
Recycling is the urgent problem of Novosibirsk.
That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one
for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the
greater the ecological problems are becoming.
The problem of recycling attracts the great attention of society.
It’s very actually today. Only in Novosibirsk we have more than 1.5 million
cubic meters of trash in a year.
Today we only have one glass-recycling plant. And we haven’t any trash-
recycling plants in Novosibirsk. It isn’t good of course. Streets are dirty
and there are many waste places in our city. Unrecycled trash is burnt by
people. It makes smog that is very bad for ecology.
As the government says a trash-recycling plant is going to be built in
Novosibirsk in the nearest two years. It will be invested by the private
Well, I think it’s strange that local powers aren’t able to do this for our
city and people have to do it themselves. But at the same time it’s good.
We see that Novosibirsk is a city with very bad ecology. And we shouldn’t
think that our government will improve this situation for us. Everybody
must do everything he can to protect our environment. All society as a
whole must fight against pollution.
We must get more knowledge about environment. We must learn how to make new
products from old things. There are some charitable funds where you can
invest your money if you want to do something.
Novosibirsk State Technical University
Novosibirsk State technical University, founded in 1953, gained its status
of a technical University in 1992. It is one of the top ten technical
universities in Russia, and a large scientific and educational centre of
NSTU trains specialists and offers additional training in 35 areas and 10
faculties: Automation and Computer Engineering; Applied Mathematics and
Informatics; Automated Electromechanical Systems; Automated Machine
Building; Aircraft; Business; Power Engineering; and Humanities.
The period of study is 4-6 years depending on the qualification as follows:
Bachelor of Science 4 years; Engineer 5 years; Master of Science 6 years.
Students are awarded M.Sc. degree in Engineering after defending their
Master’s theses in the corresponding fields of study. Postgraduate students
are offered a 3 year program of study and research leading to candidate of
Science degree in Engineering.
The number of students at NSTU is about 10000. The number of academic staff
is about 1000. They work and study at 61 departments.
The students actively participate in all types of scientific research. The
University publishes the journals, scientific works, textbooks, monographs,
and teaching manuals.
The university participates in some international programs. It has
relations with 12 Universities in Europe, Asia and America.
The University has 8 teaching blocks. Its research laboratories are
equipped with modern facilities. The campus includes 7 students’ hostels, a
sport centre with a swimming pool and sky centre. The University has sports
camps in the picturesque Altai Mountains and in suburbs of Novosibirsk.
The rector of the University is Professor Anatoly S. Vostricov. He took
office in 1990. He continues the tradition began by Professor Georgi P.
Lyshchinsky, to keep the University on the leading edge, a place where
students and academic staff are justifiably proud to work and learn.
Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering.
The Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering is one of the largest
NSTU faculties. The faculty was set up in 1963. It comprised three
departments at that time. These were the Department of Automation and
Teleautomaties; Electric Metering Technology; and Mathematical and
Calculating Machine and Devices.
Since 1994 the Faculty has been located in the seventh teaching block,
being the only faculty occupying separate building.
At present the faculty comprises six major departments awarding degrees.
These are the following ones: Department of Automation; Department of
Automated Control System; Department of Computer Engineering and others.
Students are given an opportunity not only to obtain the most up-to-date
knowledge in the area chosen, but also to carry out research and
participate in engineering developments. The Faculty has about 40
instructional and research laboratories and computer classrooms.
The Faculty offers multi-level system of training awarding Bachelor’s,
Master’s and Engineer’s degrees. The Bachelor degree is awarded after 4
years of study, Engineer’s degree after 5.5 years, and Master’s degree
after six years of study.
Some departments give training in additional area expanding the student’s
More than a 1000 students study at the Faculty. The number of teaching
staff is about 100 of teachers and professors.
Students acquire fundamental knowledge and practical training in various
fields of science and engineering. They actively participate in all types
of work. There are a journal and some teaching manuals, published by the
faculty. The dean of the faculty is Professor V.V. Gubarev.
As conclusion, I can say that I study at this faculty, and I’m really proud
In the past, computers were used only in the workplace. They were commonly
used for mathematical explorations and innovations. The earliest computer
was Babbage’s Analytic Engine. Charles Babbage designed his Difference
Engine in the nineteenth-century because people were making many errors in
First computers were really huge. They occupied whole rooms. And many
people were needed to work with them.
Modern computers are able to do great number of things, not only to
calculate. In today's society, computers are necessary. They are used in
all kinds of jobs. They are used in Science, Math, Medicine, mechanics and
We can’t imagine our life without computers. They have a respected place in
the modern world. New generations are using them for everything: to learn,
to communicate, to do research, etc. And old generations have become to
accept them as well.
As a student of NSTU, I use computers every day both in my studying and in
my personal life. They help me to relax when my stress is maximum. I can
also find a lot of interesting and useful things by using the internet. By
using e-mail to communicate with my friends I save a lot of money because I
don't need to make long distance calls.
Computers help me to make my life easier.
But on the other hand computers are dangerous for people. They are very bad
for our eyes and nervous system. But in spite of this millions of people
use computers in their ordinary life. They can spend hours and hours in
front one of them.
I think my future profession will be connected with computers. At real I
think that all professions in the nearest future will be connected with
Alexander Bell never planned to be an inventor; he wanted to be a musician
or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied at school
included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include
German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander’s mother was a
painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.
When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy’s school in
Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher
of deaf people as his father.
At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human
voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils invested money
for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an
electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to
build a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long
distances. One day, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander
spilled some acid on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room,
heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire on the table. It was
The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. Then a telephone
lines were opened in the United States. First telephones were big. And the
distance of talking wasn’t very long.
Now there are such great inventions as mobile and video telephones. And you
can speak with your friend from any part of the world.
Who knows, may be in the future telephones will transmit smells and
Today, Novosibirsk is the 4th large city in Russia by population and the
third large by area. The city is divided into 10 districts, 2 of which are
situated on the left and 8 – on the right bank of the Ob River.
Novosibirsk was born in the point of intersection of the mighty Siberian
River Ob and Trans-Siberian Railway in 1893. It was called Novonikolaevsk
those days. The god-father of Novosibirsk was famous Russian engineer Garin-
Mikhaylovsky, who selected a place for the construction of the railway
bridge across the Ob River.
The city was developing at a super fast rate of growth. In the twenties it
became the centre of new administrative formation – the vast Siberian
Today, Novosibirsk is an important industrial, cultural and educational
The city’s rich cultural life includes the world-class Opera and Ballet
theatre, the Conservatoire of Music, more than a 100 libraries, museums and
so on. Novosibirsk Picture Gallery is one of the finest and valuable in
The city is also home to The State and Public and Scientific and Technical
Library that celebrated its 80th anniversary in 1998.
Novosibirsk is also a scientific centre. Academgorodok, the township of the
Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences is famous throughout the
world. It was founded by the Academy in the 1950’s in a picturesque place
near the Ob Sea. Today a number of research institutes, laboratories,
schools and Novosibirsk State University are situated there.
The 2nd half of the 1980s is a very remarkable time period in the history
of Novosibirsk. That is when a metro was built in the city. Today its
passenger turnover is the 3d in Russia.
As conclusion, I can say that I live in Novosibirsk. I love my city. And
I’m very proud of it.
Attributes of a Good Employee
Sadly, most people don't realize how valuable and rare a good employee is,
nor how good it is to be one themselves, until they own their own business
or are in charge of their own employees.
First, it is important to have a fundamental information about the product
of your company or group. You have to use the product yourself.
Second, you need a real interest in discussion with customers about how
they use your product, what they like or don’t like in order to know where
your company’s product could be better.
Third, once you understand your customer’s needs, you have to enjoy
thinking through how this product can make work more interesting.
These first three points are related. Success comes from understanding and
caring deeply about your products, your technology and your customers’
Fourth, you as an individual employee should develop your own skills and
those of the people you work with. If maximizing your next bonus or salary
increase is all that motivates you, you will lose out.
Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge or skills. Big companies, in
particular, need employees who can learn specialties quickly, so a
willingness to learn is critical.
Sixth, a good employee will want to learn the economics of the business.
And a company, in turn, should educate its employees in the fundamental
financial realities of its industry.
Seventh, you must focus on competitors, you must think about what is going
on in the marketplace.
Finally, being a good employee means being a good person. You should be
patient, attentive, courteous and reliable. Good companies know that those
values cannot be learned in any college, or on the job training. They must
be within you before you work for them and not only are they the most
valued characteristics to find in an employee, they are also the most rare.