Great Britain and Kazakhstan

            Kazak State University of International Relationship

                             and World Languages

                                Great Britain


                                            made: Shashkin Pavel Group  207

                                 Almaty 1999


I Great Britain

1. London
2. Birmingham
3. Liverpool
4. Manchester

II Sights of London

1. Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament
2. Buckingham Palace
3. Saint James`s Palace
4. National Gallery
5. Hyde Park

III Kazakhstan

1. The new capital
2. The Commercial capital
3. Nuclear zone
4. Space center
5. Caviar capital
6. Jewel of the Caspian Sea
7. The heart of Kazakhstan

I Great Britain
1. London
London is the capital of Great Britain, SE England, on  both  sides  of  the
Thames River. Greater London (1991 pop. 6,378,600), c.620 sq  mi  (1,610  sq
km), consists of the Corporation of the City of London and the following  32
boroughs:  Westminster,   Camden,   Islington,   Hackney,   Tower   Hamlets,
Greenwich,  Lewisham,  Southwark,  Lambeth,  Wandsworth,   Hammersmith   and
Fulham,  Kensington  and  Chelsea  (the  inner  boroughs);  Waltham  Forest,
Redbridge,  Havering,  Barking  and  Dagenham,  Newham,   Bexley,   Bromley,
Croydon,  Sutton,  Merton,  Kingston  upon  Thames,  Richmond  upon  Thames,
Hounslow, Hillingdon, Ealing, Brent, Harrow, Barnet, Haringey,  and  Enfield
(the outer boroughs). Greater London includes the area of the former  county
of London, most of the former county  of  Middlesex,  and  areas  that  were
formerly in Surrey, Kent, Essex, and Hertfordshire. Each of the boroughs  of
Greater London elects a council. The Corporation  of  the  City  (1991  pop.
4,000),  1  sq  mi  (2.6  sq  km),  the  core  of  London  historically  and
commercially, elects a lord mayor, aldermen, and councilmen.
London is one of the world's foremost financial, commercial, industrial,
and cultural centers. The Bank of England, Lloyd's, and numerous banks and
investment companies have their headquarters there, primarily in the City.
It is a center for international finance, especially for large investment
houses looking for a strong foothold in the European Community. London is
one of the world's greatest ports. It exports manufactured goods and
imports petroleum, tea, wool, raw sugar, timber, butter, metals, and meat.
London is also a great manufacturing city. Many London area workers are
employed in manufacturing. Clothing, furniture, precision instruments,
jewelry, cement, chemicals, and stationery are produced. Engineering and
scientific research are also important. London is rich in artistic and
cultural activity with numerous theaters, cinemas, museums, galleries, and
opera and concert halls. London also has an ethnically and culturally
diverse population, with large groups of immigrants from Commonwealth
Points of Interest
The best-known streets of London are Fleet Street, the  Strand,  Piccadilly,
Whitehall, Pall Mall, Downing Street, Lombard Street, and  Bond  and  Regent
streets  (noted  for  their  shops).  Municipal  parks  include  Hyde  Park,
Kensington Gardens, and Regent's Park. Besides the British Museum,  the  art
galleries and museums of London include the Victoria and Albert Museum,  the
National Gallery, and the Tate Gallery. The Univ. of London is  the  largest
in Great Britain. The new Lloyd's building was opened  in  1986.  Among  the
more recent developments is the Canary Wharf office complex, which  is  only
partially completed.
Little is known of London prior to A.D. 61, when,  according  to  the  Roman
historian Tacitus, the followers of Queen Boadicea rebelled and  slaughtered
the inhabitants of the  Roman  fort  Londinium.  Roman  authority  was  soon
restored, and the first city walls  were  built,  remnants  of  which  still
exist. After the final withdrawal of the Roman legions  in  the  5th  cent.,
London was lost  in  obscurity.  Celts,  Saxons,  and  Danes  contested  the
general area, and it was not until 886  that  London  again  emerged  as  an
important town under the firm  control  of  King  Alfred,  who  rebuilt  the
defenses against the Danes and gave the city a government.
London put up some resistance to William I  in  1066,  but  he  subsequently
treated the city well. During his reign the White Tower, the nucleus of  the
Tower of London, was built just east of the city  wall.  Under  the  Normans
and Plantagenets  (see  Great  Britain),  the  city  grew  commercially  and
politically and during the reign of Richard I (118999) obtained a  form  of
municipal government from which the modern City  Corporation  developed.  In
1215, King John granted the city the right to elect a mayor annually.
The guilds of the Middle Ages gained  control  of  civic  affairs  and  grew
sufficiently strong to restrict trade to freemen of  the  city.  The  guilds
survive today in 80 livery companies, of which members were once the  voters
in London's municipal elections. Medieval London saw the foundation  of  the
Inns of Court and the construction of Westminster Abbey. By the  14th  cent.
London had become the political capital of  England.  It  played  no  active
role in the Wars of the Roses (15th cent.).
In the 16th cent. many monastical buildings were destroyed or  converted  to
other uses by Henry VIII, who founded several grammar schools for the  poor.
The reign of Elizabeth I brought London to a level of great  wealth,  power,
and influence as the undisputed center  of  England's  Renaissance  culture.
This was the time of Shakespeare and  the  beginnings  of  overseas  trading
companies such as the  Muscovy  Company.  With  the  advent  (1603)  of  the
Stuarts to the throne, the city became involved in struggles with the  crown
on behalf of its democratic privileges, culminating  in  the  English  Civil
In 1665 the great plague took some 75,000 lives.  A  great  fire  in  Sept.,
1666, lasted five days and virtually destroyed  the  city.  Sir  Christopher
Wren played a large role in rebuilding the city. He designed  more  than  51
churches, notably the rebuilt Saint Paul's Cathedral. Much of  the  business
as  well  as  literary  and   political   discussion   was   transacted   in
coffeehouses, forerunners of the modern club. Until 1750,  when  Westminster
Bridge was opened, London Bridge, first built in the  10th  cent.,  was  the
only bridge to span the Thames. Since the 18th cent. several  other  bridges
have been constructed.
In the 19th cent. London began a period of extraordinary  growth.  The  area
of present-day Greater London had about 1.1 million people in 1801; by  1851
the population had increased to 2.7 million, and by  1901  to  6.6  million.
During the Victorian era London acquired tremendous prestige as the  capital
of the British Empire and as a cultural and intellectual  center.  Britain's
free political institutions and intellectual atmosphere  continued  to  make
London a haven for persons  unsafe  in  their  own  countries.  The  Italian
Giuseppe Mazzini, the Russian Alexander Herzen, and  the  German  Karl  Marx
were among  many  politically  controversial  figures  who  lived  for  long
periods in London.
Many buildings of central London  were  completely  destroyed  or  partially
damaged in air raids during  World  War  II.  These  include  the  Guildhall
(scene of the lord mayor's banquets and  other  public  functions);  No.  10
Downing Street, the British Prime Minister's residence; the Inns  of  Court;
Westminster Hall and the Houses of Parliament; St. George's  Cathedral;  and
many of the great halls of the ancient livery  companies.  Today  there  are
numerous  blocks  of  new  office  buildings  and  districts  of   apartment
dwellings constructed by the government authorities. The  growth  of  London
in the 20th cent. has been extensively  planned.  One  notable  feature  has
been the concept of a Green Belt to  save  certain  areas  from  intensive
urban development.

2. Birmingham

Birmingham is the  city  and  county  district  (1991  pop.  934,900),  West
Midlands, central England. The city is equidistant from Bristol,  Liverpool,
Manchester, and London, England's main ports, and  near  the  Black  Country
iron and coal deposits; it is connected to the Staffordshire  mines  by  the
Birmingham Canal, built in the 18th cent. Birmingham  is  Britain's  second-
largest city (in both area and population)  and  is  the  center  of  water,
road, and rail transportation in the Midlands. The chief industries are  the
manufacture  of  automobiles  and  bicycles   and   their   components   and
accessories. Other products include electrical equipment, paint,  guns,  and
a wide variety of metal products.  By  the  15th  cent.,  Birmingham  was  a
market town with a large leather and wool trade; by the 16th  cent.  it  was
also known for its many metalworks. In the English Civil War  the  town  was
captured  by  the  royalists.  Birmingham's   industrial   development   and
population growth accelerated in the 17th and 18th cent.  In  1762,  Matthew
Boulton and James Watt founded the Soho metalworks, where they designed  and
built steam engines. Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen,  lived  for
a time in Birmingham. In 1791 a mob, incensed at his radical  religious  and
political views, burned his home. The town was enfranchised  by  the  Reform
Bill of 1832 and was incorporated in 1838. John  Bright  represented  it  in
Parliament from 1857 to 1889. During the  1870s,  while  Joseph  Chamberlain
was mayor, Birmingham underwent a large program of  municipal  improvements,
including slum clearance  and  the  development  of  gas  and  water  works.
Birmingham was among the first English localities to have a municipal  bank,
a comprehensive water-supply system, and development planning. The  area  of
the city  was  enlarged  in  1891  and  again  in  1911  under  the  Greater
Birmingham  scheme.  Birmingham  was  severely  damaged  in  World  War  II.
Subsequent rebuilding has resulted in modernization, especially of the  city
center. Notable buildings include the town  hall,  built  in  1834,  modeled
after the temple of Castor and Pollux in  Rome;  the  18th-century  baroque-
style Cathedral of St. Philip; and the 19th-century Cathedral of  St.  Chad,
the first Roman  Catholic  cathedral  to  be  built  in  England  after  the
Reformation. Bull Ring, in the center of Birmingham,  is  the  site  of  the
city's oldest market. The city library  includes  an  excellent  Shakespeare
collection. There is a museum and art gallery (noted for its  pre-Raphaelite
collection) and a museum of science and  industry.  Annual  music  festivals
date from 1768. In the suburb of Edgbaston are the Univ. of  Birmingham  and
the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, a Roman Catholic shrine  that  was  formerly
the parish house of John Henry Cardinal Newman. In the center  of  the  city
is the Univ. of Aston.

3. Liverpool
Liverpool  is the  county  district  (1991  pop.  448,300),  Merseyside,  NW
England, on the Mersey River near its mouth. It is one of Britain's  largest
cities. A large center for food processing  (especially  flour  and  sugar),
Liverpool  has  a  variety  of  industries,  including  the  manufacture  of
electrical  equipment,  chemicals,  and  rubber.  Its  first  wet  dock  was
completed by 1715; today, Liverpool's docks are more than  7  mi  (11.3  km)
long. Once Britain's greatest  port,  Liverpool  suffered  extreme  setbacks
with the advent of container ships, which  it  could  not  handle,  and  the
shift in Great Britain's trade focus from the United States to the  European
Community. The city is  connected  by  tunnel  with  Birkenhead  across  the
Mersey. Liverpool was once famous for its pottery, and its textile  industry
was also prosperous; however, since World  War  II  its  cotton  market  has
declined considerably. In the mid-1980s, unemployment rose  to  21%  in  the
metropolitan area, 28% in the city, and close to 60% among people under  the
age of 27. In 1207, King John granted Liverpool its first charter. In  1644,
during the English Civil War, Liverpool surrendered to the  royalists  under
Prince Rupert after several sieges. Air raids during  World  War  II  caused
heavy damage and casualties. Liverpool Cathedral,  designed  by  Sir  George
Gilbert Scott, was begun in 1904 and completed in  1978.  A  Roman  Catholic
cathedral was  consecrated  in  1967.  St.  George's  Hall  is  an  imposing
building in a group that includes libraries and art  galleries.  The  Walker
Gallery has a fine collection of Italian and Flemish paintings, as  well  as
more modern works. The Univ. of Liverpool was incorporated  in  1903.  There
is a separate school of tropical medicine. The statesman William  Gladstone,
the artist George Stubbs, and the members of the musical group  the  Beatles
were born in Liverpool.

4. Manchester
Its saw mills and paper mills date from before the  Revolutionary  War.  The
city was also known for its production  of  grandfather  clocks.  Among  its
more contemporary manufactures are automobile parts, soap, tools, and  dairy
and paper products. Hartford's  Bradley  International  Airport  is  located
nearby. 2 City (1990 pop. 99,567), Hillsboro co., S N.H., on both  sides  of
the Merrimack River; settled 1722, inc. as a city 1846. It  is  the  largest
city in New Hampshire. Among its various manufactures are  textiles,  shoes,
and electrical and electronic products. The Amoskeag Falls on the  Merrimack
provided power for the  first  textile  mills.  In  1838  textile  interests
founded the city  and  established  a  huge  textile-manufacturing  company.
Until the depression of the 1930s and the moving  of  much  of  the  textile
industry to the south, Manchester was heavily dependent  on  this  industry.
The city is the seat of St. Anselm's College  and  the  Currier  Gallery  of
Art. John Stark lived and is buried  in  Manchester.  A  state  park  and  a
number of ski areas are in the vicinity.

II Sight of London
1. Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament
Westminster Palace or Houses of Parliament is in  Westminster,  London.  The
present enormous structure, of Neo-Gothic design,  was  built  (184060)  by
Sir Charles Barry to replace an  aggregation  of  ancient  buildings  almost
completely destroyed by fire in 1834. The complex served as  a  royal  abode
until the 16th cent., when it was adopted as  the  assembly  place  for  the
House of Commons and the House  of  Lords.  The  Great  Hall  was  built  by
William II at the end of the 11th cent.  The  superbly  constructed  hammer-
beam roof spanning its width of 68  ft.  (20.7  m),  part  of  a  subsequent
rebuilding of the hall by Richard II,  was  the  finest  extant  example  of
medieval open-timber work; it  was  burned  by  incendiary  bombs  in  1941.
Westminster Hall was the only portion of the palace to survive  intact  from
the fire of 1834 and now serves as the entrance of the building. In  it  the
House of Lords, sitting as  the  highest  English  court  of  law,  met  for
centuries. Among the numerous events of historic renown enacted  there  were
the deposition of Richard II, the sentencing of Charles I,  and  the  trials
of Sir Thomas More and Warren Hastings. Damage inflicted  during  air  raids
during World War II has since been completely repaired.

2. Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace is  th  e  residence  of  British  sovereigns  from  1837,
Westminster metropolitan borough, London, England, adjacent to  St.  James's
Park. Built (1703) by the duke of Buckingham, it  was  purchased  (1761)  by
George III and was remodeled (1825) by John Nash;  the  eastern  facade  was
added in 1847. The great ballroom was added in 1856, and in 1913  Sir  Aston
Webb designed a new front. The palace has nearly 600 rooms  and  contains  a
collection of paintings, including many royal portraits, by noted artists.

3. Saint James's Palace
Saint James's Palace is in Westminster,  London,  England,  on  St.  James's
Street  and  fronting  on  Pall  Mall.  Henry  VIII  built  the  palace  and
established the park around it. It was the London royal residence after  the
burning of Whitehall in 1697 until the time of Queen Victoria. Although  the
palace is now seldom used except for certain ceremonials, the British  court
is still designated as the Court of St. James.

4. National Gallery
London, one of the permanent national art collections of Great Britain.  Its
building, in Greek style, stands in Trafalgar Square. It  was  designed  and
erected (183238) by William Wilkins and was shared for 30  years  with  the
Royal Academy of Arts. In 1876 a new wing  was  added,  designed  by  E.  M.
Barry. The nucleus of the collection was formed in  1824  with  38  pictures
from  J.  J.  Angerstein's  collection.  The  gallery  is  rich  in  Italian
paintings of the 15th and 16th cent. and has  fine  collections  of  French,
Flemish, and Dutch masters. The National Portrait Gallery, whose  collection
dates from 1858, has adjoined the National Gallery  since  1896.  Originally
controlled by the National  Gallery,  the  Tate  Gallery  attained  complete
independence in 1955 by an act  of  Parliament.  An  extension  designed  by
Robert Venturi was completed in the early 1990s.

5. Hyde Park
This is 615 acres (249 hectares) in Westminster  borough,  London,  England.
Once the manor of Hyde, a part of the old  Westminster  Abbey  property,  it
became a deer park under Henry VIII. Races  were  held  there  in  the  17th
cent. In 1730, Queen Caroline  had  the  artificial  lake,  the  Serpentine,
constructed. It curves diagonally through Hyde Park; in  Kensington  Gardens
the lake is called the Long Water. Distinctive  features  of  the  park  are
Hyde Park Corner (near the  Marble  Arch),  the  meeting  place  of  soapbox
orators, and Rotten Row, a famous bridle path.

III Kazakhstan
1. Astana - The new capital
Other names for Astana include Akmola, Aqmola,  Tselinograd  and  Akmolinsk.
This city was originally founded as a fortress in 1824 and named  Akmolinsk.
It was renamed Tselinograd (Russian for Virgin  City)  during  the  rule  of
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The main reason for this name  change  was
to promote more permanent  agriculture  in  Northern  Kazakstan  during  the
Virgin Lands Program. The cities name was again changed in 1991  to  Aqmola,
when Kazakstan gained it's freedom. Because  the  name  Aqmola  sounded  too
much like "White Grave", Nazerbayev changed the name  to  Astana  (literally
"Capital") in 1998. Astana has been an important rail junction  in  Northern
Kazakstan.  It  is  located  along  the  Ishim  River   and   they   produce
agricultural machinery, chemicals and has meat-packing plants. Due  to  it's
location  in  Northern  Kazakstan,  there  is  speculation,  that  has  been
officially denied, that the reason for the move of the capital to the  north
is  to  exert  a  more  Kazak  influence  on  the  more  russified  Northern

2. Almaty - The City of apples
The City of Apples, Kazakhstans capital of  Almaty  --  a.k.a.  Alma-Ata,
from 1922-1991 -- is a thoroughly Russian city, from its foundation back  in
1854, as an imperial frontier outpost,  to  its  decidedly  orderly  Soviet-
style architecture and street plan.
Situated near the Kyrgyzstan border at the  foot  of  the  Tian  Shan  ("the
mountains of heaven"), a magnificent range  connected  with  the  Himalayas,
Almaty is a popular destination for  skiers,  climbers  and  other  mountain
sports enthusiasts.
Almaty is also renowned for its orchards, and it is indeed a city of  trees,
with wide boulevards lined with leafy guardians. Its a big city,  sprawling
out  over  some  12.5  miles.  Populated  by  about  1.5  million  residents
(Kazakhstans total population is around 16 million),  most  of  whom  speak
Russian, Almatys growth has been exponential in  this  century,  especially
after the Turk-Sib Railway was completed in 1930. That event catapulted  the
population from 46,000 in 1926 to more than 220,000 in 1939.
Unlike many cities in Central Asia, Almaty  itself  does  not  have  a  long
history. It has the look of a new city, at least in part thanks  to  a  pair
of earthquakes which twice leveled it -- first in 1887 and  again  in  1911,
leaving little standing. The city was originally known as Verny, though  its
name was changed to Alma-Ata in 1921, then shortened  to  Almaty  after  the
dissolution of the Soviet Union.
But the citys site has a smoother history --  an  early  Silk  Road  oasis,
Almatu, destroyed by the Mongols, once stood in the area  where  Almaty  was
founded. Todays Almaty reflects some of its  trading  roots.  As  a  modern
city seen as a crossroads between East and West,  it  bustles  with  trading
consortiums and businesses seeking to bridge the continental gap.  The  city
also boasts several important museums, including the  State  Museum  of  the
Arts, which showcases Kazak  artworks,  and  the  Museum  of  Kazak  Musical
Instruments, featuring harmoniously exhibited displays of traditional music-
makers such as bagpipes, the three-stringed "kobiz," and wooden harps.

3. Semy - Nuclear zone
Another  name  for  Semy  has  been  Semipalatinsk.  Semey  was   originally
established as a fortress in 1718  in  a  location  close  by  it's  current
location. In 1778 it was moved to it's current  location  along  the  Irtysh
River. Semey is perhaps best known for the nuclear  testing  that  was  done
nearby. This was the major nuclear testing sight for the Soviet Union.  Much
of the testing was done  above  ground,  causing  the  spread  of  radiation
throughout the area. Reservoirs were even made using a nuclear explosion  to
provide water for the residents. Over 470 nuclear bombs were  exploded  here
between 1949 and 1989. Semey is only 93 miles (150 km) from  where  most  of
the testing occurred. Because of the lack of  environmental  concerns,  many
of the citizens of Semey suffer some form of radiation poisoning.

4. Baykonur - Space center
Other ways Baykonur is known is Baikonur,  Leninsk,  or  Tyuratam.  Baykonur
has long been known as a place upon where  the  Soviets'  heroes  left  this
earth and became the first in space. It is  from  this  launching  point  in
central Kazakstan that Sputnik was launched in October 4, 1957. It  is  also
from here that the first person to orbit the earth,  Yuri  Gagarin,  started
the "Space Race" with the United States.Baykonur has been the foundation  of
the Soviet space  program.  While  there  were  two  other  launching  pads,
Plesetsk (Northern Russia) and Kasputin (Central  Russia)  ,  this  was  the
primary launching point for manned missions. Currently,  Russia  has  agreed
to lease Baykonur from the independent country of Kazakstan for 20 years  at
$115 million in annual rent.

5. Atyrai - Caviar capital
Other names for Atyrai include Atyra and Guryev. This city was  founded  as
a Russian military base on the east bank of the Ural River in 1645.  It  has
grown to expand on both sides of the river, leaving  half  of  the  city  in
Europe and the other half  in  Russia.  Today,  it  is  known  for  its  oil
refineries (from  the  rich  oil  deposits  in  the  Caspian  Sea)  and  for
providing much of the caviar for the former Soviet Union.

6. Aqtau - Jewel of the Caspian Sea
Another name for Aqtau was Shevkenko. Aqtau did  not  begin  it's  existence
until 1963. I was originally built as a "Soviet Model" of how cities  should
be built. It has wide, straight streets and sandy  beaches.  It  was  called
Shevkenko for awhile because of a poet who was exiled there as  a  political
prisoner. Aqtau means "white mountain" in Kazak, so named  after  the  vast,
flat steppes surrounding the city! It  has  become  somewhat  of  a  tourist
location because of it's location along the Caspian Sea. Just don't plan  on
taking a bath while you are there as the water comes out of the  tap  brown.
Currently, there is very little industry still in Aqtau. The  main  industry
is oil. A few foreign oil companies have established  offices  in  Aqtau  as
they extract oil from the steppe of Mangistau Oblast. It  is  far  from  any
other cities with few ways to travel to them. Most of  the  cities  supplies
are freighted in by air.

7. Kyzl Orda - The heart of Kazakhstan
Other names for Kyzl Orda include Qyzylorda,  Ak-Mechet  and  Perovsk.  Kyzl
Orda is a truly Kazakstan  city.  It  was  originally  founded  as  the  far
western fortress Ak-Mechet for the Kokand khanate (state). In 1853,  Russian
forces took it over and renamed it Perovsk. From 1925 until 1929, Kyzl  Orda
was the capital of the Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR).
Today, Kyzl Orda is the capital of the Kyzl Orda Oblast (or state).  Located
along the Syrdariya River, it is a fertile rice growing  area.  Unlike  many
of the other areas along the Syrdariya,  they  are  unable  to  grow  cotton
because of their northern latitude. The climate of Kyzl Orda has also  under
gone a change since the Soviets took  power.  Talking  to  Kazaks  who  have
lived there for many years, they have noticed that the  winters  are  colder
and the summers hotter. Much of this may be attributable  to  the  shrinking
of the Aral Sea.
Of the cities in Kazakstan, Kyzl Orda is one of the most Kazak cities.  Over
90% of the population speaks Kazak as the mother tongue and  it  is  one  of
the few large cities in Kazakstan that one can  get  around  in  using  only

"Great Britain and Kazakhstan"