Museums


                                Introduction

    Art plays an important role in the life of a man and  sometimes  it  is
next to impossible to live without it. It is natural that  the  first  thing
that comes to my mind at the mention of the word   art  is museums.
    A museum is a stock of the worlds masterpieces, it is the place, where
you can enrich knowledge, you can look at the achievements of  mankind,  you
can satisfy your aesthetic taste. Museums give the possibility to be  always
in touch with the past and every time discover something new  for  yourself.
Besides, museums play an important role in the life of any nation. A  museum
is just the right place  to  find  out  lots  of  interesting  things  about
history, traditions and  habits  of  different  peoples.  One  may  find  in
museums papers, photos, books, scripts, works of  art,  personal  things  of
famous people etc.  All  this  helps  us  to  better  understand  historical
events,  scientific  discoveries,  character   and   deeds   of   well-known
personalities.
    I think museums  somehow  effect  the  formation  of  personality,  his
outlook. Every educated person is sure to understand the great  significance
of museums in our life, especially  nowadays,  when  after  the  humdrum  of
everyday life you may go to your favourite museum,  relax  there  with  your
body and soul and acquire inner harmony and balance.
    I am a regular museum-goer. In fact I visited no less than 20  museums.
Among them: the Louver, the  National  Gallery,  the  Shakespeare  House  in
Stratford-on Avon, the Oxford story exhibition,  Museum  of  Reading,  Madam
Tussauds Exhibition ,the Tretyakov Gallery  and others. We can hardly  find
a town in  our  country  without  its  Fine  Arts  Museum.  Ive  been  in
Voronezh, Kislovodsk, Essentuky and some other regional museums.
    Now I want to  write  about  the  Tretyakov  Gallery,  Windsor  Castle,
Westminster Abbey, Buckinngham Palace and  Hermitage,  about  their  history
and their collections.



                                The Hermitage


    The State Hermitage  in St. Petersburg ranks  among  the  worlds  most
outstanding art museums. It is the largest museum in  Russia:  nowadays  its
vast and varied collections take up four buildings; its rooms  if  stretched
in one line would measure many miles in total length, while  they  cover  an
area of 94240 square meters. Over 300 rooms  are  open  to  the  public  and
contain a rich selection  from  the  museums  collections  numbering  about
2500000 items.  The  earliest  exhibits  Date  from  500000-300000B.C.,  the
latest are modern works.
    The collections possessed by the museum are distributed among its seven
departments and form over forty permanent  exhibitions.  A  common  feature,
characterising these exhibitions is the arrangement of items  (all  of  them
originals) according to countries and schools in  a  strictly  chronological
order, with a view to illustrating almost every stage of human  culture  and
every great art epoch from the prehistoric times to the 20th century.
    Fabulous treasures are gathered in  the  Museum.  It  contains  a  rare
collection of specimens of  Soythian  culture  and  art;  objects  of  great
aesthetic and historical value found in the burial mounds of  the  Altai;  a
most complete representation of exhibits characterising Russian culture  and
art. The Oriental collections of the Museum, ranking among  the  richest  in
the world, give an idea of the culture and art of the  people  of  the  Near
and the Far East; India, China, Byzantium and Iran,  are  best  represented;
remarkable materials illustrative of the culture  and  art  of  the  peoples
inhabiting the Caucasus and Central Asia, also from part of the  collections
of the Department. The Museum  numbers  among  its  treasures  monuments  of
ancient Greece and Rome and those from the Greek settlements  on  the  North
coast of the Black Sea.
    World famous is the collection of West-European paintings,  covering  a
span of about seven hundred years, from the 13th to the  20th  century,  and
comprising  works  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Raphael,  Titian,   El   Greco,
Velazquez, Murillo; outstanding paintings by Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Rubens;  a
remarkable group of French eighteenth century  canvases,  and  Impressionist
and Post Impressionist paintings. The  collection  illustrates  the  art  of
Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, France, Britain,  Sweden,  Denmark,
Finland and some other  countries.  The  West  European  Department  of  the
Museum also includes a fine collection  of  European  sculpture,  containing
works by Michelangelo,  Canova,  Falkonet,  Houdon,  Rodin  and  many  other
eminent masters; a marvellous collection of prints and  drawings,  numbering
about 600 000 items; arms and armour; one  of  the  world  most  outstanding
collections of applied art, rich in tapestries,  furniture,  lace,  ivories,
porcelain metalwork, bronzes, silver, jewellery and  enamels.  An  important
part among the museum possessions is taken  by  the  numismatic  collection,
which numbers over 1 000 000 items and is regarded as one of the largest  in
the world. A permanent exhibition of coins, orders and  medals  is  open  on
the 2nd floor, rooms 398-400. There are auxiliary displays of coins  forming
part of exhibitions in other departments as well. A temporary exhibition  of
West-European medals is on view in the  Raphael  Loggias  (1st  floor,  room
227).
    The seven departments of the museum, i.e.  the  Department  of  Russian
Culture, Primitive culture, Culture and Art of the  peoples  of  the  Soviet
East, Culture and Art of the Foreign Countries of the East, Culture and  Art
of the Antique World, West-European  Art,  Numismatics,  together  with  the
Education Department, the Conservation Department and the Library  determine
the administrative and academic structure of the museum.
    Within the past few  decades  the  Hermitage  has  become  one  of  the
countrys most important centres of art  study  with  a  research  staff  of
about 200 historians  carrying  out  a  vast  program  of  research  on  art
problems, and responsible for the  preservation  of  the  museum  treasures,
their  conservation  and  restoration,   and   also   for   the   scientific
popularisation of art. The results of this varied work are published in  the
form of books, articles, periodicals, pamphlets, etc.
    Since  1949   a  post-graduate  school  has  been  functioning  at  the
Hermitage, specialists in art working here at their theses.
    An important aspect of the Museums research activities is the work  of
the annual archaeological  expeditions   organised  by  the   Museum  either
independently    or   in   co-operation   with   other   Soviet   scientific
institutions. The most notable among them are:  the  Kazmir-Blur  expedition
making excavations of the city of Taishebaini dating from  the  7th  century
B.C and situated on the Kazmir-Blur hill near Erevan;  the  Chersonese   and
Nymphaeum  expeditions working  on the sites  of the  ancient  Greek   towns
in the Crimea, the Tadjik,  Altai,  Pskov  and  some  other  expeditions.The
material discovered by them is of exceptional  value,  for not only does  it
throw  fresh light      on the problems of  the  history   of  the  art  and
culture, but it also serves  to enrich the Hermitage  collections.
    Most helpful in the Museums research work is   the  Hermitage  Library
which contains  about   400 000 books, pamphlets,  periodicals, and  is  one
of the largest   among the art libraries  in Russia. It was started  in  the
18th century and contains works  on all branches of fine and  applied  arts.
In addition  to the Central Library each Department  has   at  its  disposal
a subsidiary   library of special literature. Of these, the library  of  the
Hermitage exchanges  books    with  a  number  of  Russian    and    foreign
museums. It is open to every student of art.
    All these are but a few aspects  of the varied work carried out by  the
Museum and constantly  achieving  still  greater  scope  and  a  few  forms,
meeting  the growing cultural demands of the Russian people.



                        THE MAKING OF THE COLLECTION


          Although  visited  now  by  thousands   of   people   the   Museum
traditionally retains the old name of the Hermitage attached to  it  in  the
1760s and meaning a hermits dwelling, or a solitary  place.  The  name
is due to the fact that  the  Hermitage  was  founded  as  a  palace  museum
accessible only to the nearest of the near to the court.
A number of objects of which but a small part was later incorporated in  the
museums collections were acquired in different countries by Peter I.  These
were  antique statues Marine landscapes,  land  a  collection   of  Siberian
ancient  gold buckles. However,  the foundation of the Hermitage is  usually
dated to the year 1764 when a collection of  225  pictures   was  bought  by
Catherine II from the Prussian merchant Gotzkowsky.
A feature characteristic of the 18th century  accusations  was the  purchase
of large groups of paintings,    sometimes of   complete  galleries,  bought
en  blok   at  the  sales     in  Western  Europe.Count  Bruhls  collection
acquired  in Dresden in 1769, the Gallery of  Crozat,  bought  in  Paris  in
1772 and the gallery of  Lord  Walpole  acquired in London  in  1779    were
the most  prominent  among  the  acquisitions  made  in  the  18th  century.
Together with numerous purchases  of  individual  pictures,  they   supplied
the  museum   with  most  outstanding   canvases  of  the  European   school
,including  those by     Rembraandt,Rubens,Van   Dyck  and  other    eminent
artists, and made the Hermitage rank among  the  finest   art  galleries  of
Europe. Works , commissioned by  the Russian court  from European   painters
also enriched the    Picture  gallery.By  1785  the  Museum   numbered  2658
paintings. Prints and drawings,  cameos,  coins  and  medals  were  likewise
represented at the Hermitage.
       The acquisition of complete collections and of  individual  works  of
art   was continued  in the 19th century but on a  more  modest  scale  than
during  the previous period. Among the  most  notable  acquisitions  of  the
19th century were:  Mathew  Malmaison  Gallery  of  the  Empress   Josephine
bought  in 1814; the collection of the English  banker  Coesvelt  consisting
mainly of Spanish paintings, purchased in Amsterdam the same year;  as  well
as the paintings from the Barrbarigo Palace inVenice which gave  the  Museum
its best Titians.
       As to the individual  works  of  art,  the  acquisition  in  1865  of
Leonardo  da Vinces Madonna Littafromthe Duce  of  Litta  collection  and
the purchase  of Raphaels Virgin and Child  from the  Conestebite  family
in 1870, were important  landmarks in the growth of  the  treasures  of  the
Hermitage.
       In 1885 the Hermitage received an important   collection  of  objects
of applied art of the 12th  26th centuries,   gathered  by Basilevsky;    ,
together with  the  Armoury  transferred    from   Tsarskoe  Selo,   notably
enriched   the Museum   with a new type of material
       The first decade  of the 20th  century    witnessed  the  acquisition
of a magnificent collection     including 730  canvases  by  the  Dutch  and
Flemish artists, which had been in the possession  of  the  eminent  Russian
scientist    Semenov-Tienshansky. Another  most  important  acquisition  was
Leonardo da Vincis Madonna and Child purchased  in 1914 from  the  family
of the architect L.Benois.
       The Great October Revolution created   highly  favourable  conditions
for the further growth  of the  Museum  collections   and  their  systematic
study. Since October 1917, due to the care taken by  Soviet Government   for
the preservation of art treasures, the Museum was  enriched  with   a  great
number of first-class works of art. Among   these  were  the  best  pictures
chosen by the Hermitage   the nationalised   private  collections   such  as
those formerly owned  by the   Yussupovs,  the  Shuvalovs,  the  Stroganovs;
paintings transferred  from the  imperial palaces; art  treasures,  acquired
by exchange from other museums within the country.
       The policy of  planned  distribution  of  art  treasures   among  the
museums carried  out by the state, enabled  the Hermitage  not only to  fill
up many gaps and deficiencies    by adding to  its picture  gallery  Italian
paintings  of  the 13th-15th centuries, works of the Netherlandish   school,
and of the French school  of the 19th and  20th  centuries  but  to  form  a
museum  free from private taste ,  and  made  it  possible  to  arrange  the
collections systematically. The accumulation of materials   which   had  not
been represented  in the museum in the pre-Revolutionary period ,led to  the
formation of new departments:  the department of the history of culture  and
art of the primitive society, of the culture and  art of the peoples of  the
East, and that of the history of Russian culture.
      He immense growth  of the collections made  it   necessary  to  extend
      the exhibition
space This is why the building of  the  Winter  Palace  was  placed  at  the
disposal of the  Hermitage,  the  name   The  State  Hermitage  being  now
applied to the whole great  museum  thus formed.



                               BRITISH  SCHOOL


  The Hermitage is one of the very few on  the  Continent    which  contains
a special section  for English pictures.
   Portraiture,  landscape  painting   and  satire  art   in  which  England
excelled ,  are  represented    by a number  of  first-class  paintings  and
prints executed by the most outstanding artists of  British  School,  mainly
of the 18th century. A number of 17th-19th century works are  on  show  too.
There are also some notable specimens of applied art, among which is a  fine
group of objects  in silver and Wedgwood potteryware . English paintings  of
the  17th  century   are  extremely   rare  outside  England.The   Hermitage
possesses several  works of this period. These are: the Portrait  of  Oliver
Cromwell  by Robert Walker, two portraits   by  Peter  Lely,  of  which  the
Portrait of a Woman reveals   the  artists   sense  of  colour  to  great
advantage; also the Portrait of Grinling Gibbons  by Godfrey  Kneller,  to
name only the most outstanding  canvases.
       The collection has no paintings by William Hogarth, but some  of  his
prints selected   from a large  and representative collection possessed   by
the Museum are usually on show.
      Joshua Reynolds is represented  by four   canvases   all  painted   in
the  1780-s.
An interesting example of his late work is the Infant  Hercules  strangling
the Serpents, which is an allegory of the youthful Russia  vanquishing  her
enemies. The picture was commissioned from Reynolds  by  Catherine  II,  and
was brought to Russia
in 1789. In  1891 two other canvases were sent by Reynolds  to  Russia.  One
was the Continence of   Scepic   Africanus  ,  which  ,  as  well  as  the
Infant Hercules, reveals Reynoldss  conception  of  the  grand  style  in
art. The other  was   Venus   and  Cupid;  presumably  representing   Lady
Hamilton .This is one of the versions of the piture  entitled  The   Snake
in the Grass, owned by the National  Gallery, London
      Reynoldss Girl at a window is a  copy  with  slight  modifications,
from Rembrandts canvas bearing the same title, and  owned  by  the  Dulwich
Gallery. It may be regarded as an example of Reynoldss  study of  the  old
masters works.
      A fair idea of the British  artists  achievements  in  the  field  of
portrait painting can be gained from the canvases by  George  Romney  Thomas
Gainsborough, John Opie, Henry Rdeburn, John Hoppner and John  Russell,  all
marked by a vividness of expression and brilliance of execution  typical  of
the British School of portrait painting in  the days when it had achieved  a
national tradition. Highly important is Gainsboroughs superb  Portrait  of
the Duchess of Beaufort painted  in  a  loose  and  most  effective  manner
characteristic of his art in the late 1770s. For charm  of  expression  and
brilliance of execution, it ranks among the masterpieces of  the  Museum.The
Tron Forge by Joseph Wright of Derby is an interesting example  of  a  new
subject in English18th century art: the theme of labour and industry,  which
merged in the days of the Industrial Revolution.
     The few paintings of importance belonging to the British school of  the
19th century include a landscape ascribed to John Constable; the  Boats  at
a shore by Richard Parkers Bonington; the Portrait of  an  old  woman  by
David Wilki, three portraits by Thomas  Lawrence  and  portraits  by  George
Daive, of which the unfinished Portrait of the  Admiral  Shishkov  is  the
most impressive.
     The collection  was  largely  formed  at  the  beginning  of  the  20th
century,  a  great  part  of  it  deriving  from  the  Khitrovo   collection
bequeathed to the Museum in 1916.



                            THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY


    The Tretyakov Gallery  , founded by Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov (1832-
1989), a Moscow  merchant and art patron, is a national treasury of  Russian
pre-revolutionary  and Russian art.
    The Gallerys centenary was widely  celebrated   throughout  Russia  in
May 1956. Tretyakov spent his life collecting the works of Russian  painters
which reflected the spirit and ideas  of  all  progressive  intellectual  of
his  day.  He  began  his  collection   in  1856   with  the   purchase   of
Temptation  (1856)  by  N.Shilder  and   Finnish  Smugglers   (1853)  by
V.Khudyakov. These paintings  are on permanent exhibition.   In  order  that
his collection better reflect the centuries-old traditions  of  Russian  art
he acquired works of various epochs and also began a collection  of  antique
icons. Tretyakov was one of the few people of  his  time  who  realised  the
great intrinsic value of ancient Russian art.  He  was  on   friendly  terms
with many progressive  ,  democratic  Russian  painters,  frequenting  their
studious, taking an active interest in their work, often  suggesting  themes
for new  paintings, and  helping  them  financially.   His  collection  grew
rapidly;  by 1872 a special building was erected  to house it.
    Tretyakov was aware of the national importance of his  vast  collection
of Russian art and presented  it  to  the  city  of  Moscow  in  1892,  thus
establishing  the first  museum in Russia. An excerpt from his  will  reads:
  Desirous of facilitating the establishment in my beloved city  of  useful
institutions aimed at promoting the development  of art in  Russia,  and  in
order  to hand down to succeeding generations the collection I have  amassed
I hereby bequeath my entire picture gallery and the works of  art  contained
  therein, as well as my  half  of the house, to the Moscow  City  Duma.  By
special decree of the Soviet Government, Issued on June 3  1918  and  signed
by V.I. Lenin,  the  Gallery  was  designated  one  of  the  most  important
educational  establishments of the country. It was also  decreed   that  the
name of its founder be retained in honour of Tretyakovs great  services  to
Russian culture.
    The Galleries collection  has grown considerably in  the  years  since
the Revolution. In  1893 it consisted of 1805 works of art, but by 1956  the
number had increased   to 35276.The early Russian Art   department  and  the
collections of sculpture and drawings were  considerably  enlarged,  and  an
entirely  new department- Soviet Art- was created. By a Government  decision
of 1956, a new house is to be built for the  Gallery  within  the  next  few
years.
    At present,  the more interesting  and distinctive works,  tracing  the
development of Russian  art through nearly ten  centuries,  are  exhibit  in
the Gallerys  54 halls.



                             BUCKINGHAM  PALACE


    Buckingham palace is the official  London residence of Her Majesty  The
Queen and as such is one of the best known and most potent  symbols  of  the
British monarchy. Yet it has been a royal residence  for only just over  two
hundred and thirty years and a palace for much less;  and  its  name,  known
the world over, is owed not to a monarch but to an English Duke.
    Buckingham House was built for John, first Duke of Buckingham,  between
1702 and 1705. It was sold to the Crown in 1762. Surprisingly, since it  was
a large house in a commanding position, it was  never  intended  to  be  the
principal residence  of the monarch.
    Although King George III modernised and enlarged the house considerably
in the 1760s and 17770s, the transformations  that  give  the  building  its
present palatial character were carried out for King George IY  by  Nash  in
the 1820s,  by Edward Blore  for King  William IY and   Queen  Victoria   in
the 1830s and 40s, and by James Pennethoooorne in the 1850s.
    In the reign of King Edward YII, much of the  present  white  and  gold
decoration was substituted for the richly coloured 19th century  schemes  of
Nash and Blore; and in the 1920s, Queen Mary used  the firm of  White  Allom
to redecorate a number of rooms.
    The  rooms  open  to  visitors  are  used  principally   for   official
entertainment .These include  Receptions and State Banquets, and  it  is  on
such occasions, when  the rooms are filled with  flowers and  thronged  with
formally dressed  guests and liveried  servants,  that the  Palace  is  seen
at its most splendid  and imposing. But of course the Palace  is  also   far
more than just the London home of the Royal Family and  a  place  of  lavish
entertainment. It has become  the  administrative  centre  of  the  monarchy
where,  among a multitude of   engagements,  Her  Majesty  receives  foreign
Heads of  State, Commonwealth leaders and representatives of the  Diplomatic
Corps and  conducts   Investitures, and where  the  majority  of  the  Royal
Houshold, consisting of six main Departments and  a  staff  of  about  three
hundred people, have  their offices.



                              THE QUEENS HOUSE


    The Duke of  Buckinghams house,  which George III purchased  in  1762,
was designed by the architect  William  Winde, possibly  with the advice  of
John Talman, in 1702.
    The new house, a handsome  brick   and  stone  mansion   crowned   with
statuary   and  joined by colonnades  to  outlying  wings,  looked  eastward
down the Mall and  westwards over the splendid canal  and   formal  gardens,
laid out for the Duke by  Henry Wise   partly  on  the  site  of  the  royal
Mulberry  Garden. This garden had been  part  of  an  ill-fated  attempt  by
James I to introduce a silk industry to rival that  of  France  by  planting
thousands of mulberry trees.
    The building and its setting were well suited to  the  dignity  of  the
Duke, a former  Lord Chamberlain  and suitor of Princess Anne,  and  of  his
wife, an illegitimate   daughter   of  James  II,  whose   eccentricity  and
delusions of grandeur earned her the nickname of Princess Buckingham.
    The principal rooms, then as now, were on the first  floor.  They  were
reached by a magnificent   staircase  with  ironwork  by  Jean   Tijou   and
walls  painted  by  Louis  Laguerre  with the story of Dido and Aeneas.
    Under the architectural direction of Sir William   Chambers   and  over
the following  twelve years  The Queens House  was   gradually   modernised
and enlarged to provide  accommodation   for the King and Queen   and  their
children, as well as  their  growing  collection  of  books,  pictures   and
works  of art.



                           QUEEN VICTORIAS PALACE


    At the age of eighteen, Queen Victoria became the  first  Sovereign  to
live at Buckingham Palace.
    John Nash   had rightly  predicted that  the  Palace  would  prove  too
small, but this was a fault  capable of remedy. The absence of a chapel  was
made good after the Queens marriage to Prince Albert  of  Saxe-Coburg   and
Gotha, when the south  conservatory was converted in 1843.
    In 1847 the architect Edward Blore added the new East Front. Along  the
first floor  Blore placed  the Principal  Corridor, a gallery 240 feet  long
overlooking the Quadrangle and  divided  into  three   sections  by  folding
doors of mirror glass. It links the Royal Corridor on the south,  and  opens
into suites of semi-state rooms facing the Mall and St Jamess  Park.  Blore
introduced into the  East Front some of the  finest   fittings  from  George
IYs Royal Pavilion at Brighton, which Queen Victoria ceased  to  use  after
the purchase of Osborn House in 1845.
    The new building rendered  the  Marble  Arch  both   functionally   and
ornamentally   dispensable, and  it was removed in 1850 to its present  site
at the north-east corner of Hyde Park.


                               THE STATE ROOMS


    Most of the principal State Rooms  are located on  to  first  floor  of
Bughingham Palace. They are approached   from Nashs Grand  Hall  which   in
its unusual low proportions echoes the original hall  of  Bughingham  House.
The coupled columns which surround the Hall are each composed  of  a  single
block of veined Carrara marble enriched with  Corinthian  capitals  of  gilt
bronze made by Samuel Parker.
    The Grand Staircase, built by Nash on  site of  the  original   stairs,
divides theatrically into three  flights  at the first landing, two  flights
 curving  upwards to the Guard room.  The  gilded  balustrade  was  made  by
Samuel Parker in 1828-30. The walls  are  set  with  full-length   portraits
which include George III  and  Queen  Charlotte  by  Beechey,William  IY  by
Lawrence and Queen Adelaide by Archer Shee. The sculptured wall panels  were
designed by Thomas  Stothard   and  the  etched  glass   dome  was  made  by
Wainwright and Brothers.



                                   GALLERY


    The picture Gallery, the largest room  in the  Palace,  was  formed  by
Nash in the   area of Queen  Charlottes  old  apartments.  Nashs  ceiling,
modified by Blore in the 1830s, was altered by Sir Aston Webb in 1914.
    As there are many loans to exhibitions, the arrangement is  subject  to
periodic change. However the Gallery normally contains works  by  Van  Dyck,
Rubens, Cuyp and Rembrandt among others. The chimneypieces are  carved  with
heads of artists and the marble group at the end,  by  Chantrey,  represents
Mrs Jordan, mistress of William.
    From the Suilk Tapestry Room the route  leads  via  the  East  Gallery,
Cross and West  Galleries  to the State Dining Room. This room is  used   on
formal occasions and is  hung  with  portraits  of  GeorgeIY,  his  parents,
grandparents  and great-grandparents.



                             THE  PALACE AT WORK


    BUCKINNGHAM Palace is certainly one of the  most  famous  buildings  in
the world, known to millions as  Queens   home.  Yet  it  is  very  much  a
working building and centre of the large  office complex  that  is  required
for the administration of the modern monarchy.
    Although foreign ambassadors are officially accredited to the Court  of
St Jamess
    and some ceremonies, such as the Proclamation of a new Sovereign, still
take place at St Jamess Palace,   all  official  business  now  effectively
takes place at Buckingham Palace.
    In some ways the Palace resembles a small town. For the 300 people  who
work  there, there is a Post  office and a  police station,  staff  canteens
and dinning rooms. There is a special three-man security team equipped  with
a fluoroscope, which examines every  piece  of  mail  that  arrives  at  the
Palace.
    There is also a soldier who is responsible for making  sure  the  Royal
Standard is flying whenever The Queen is in residence, and to make  sure  it
is taken down  when she leaves. It is his job to watch for the  moment  when
the Royal limousine turns into the Palace gates - at  the  very  second  The
Queen enters her Palace, the Royal Standard is hoisted.
    Buckingham Palace is not only the name of the Royal Family but also the
workplace of an army  of  secretaries,  clerks  and  typists,  telephonists,
carpenters and plumbers etc.
    The business of monarchy never stops and the  light  is  often  shining
from the window of the Queens study late at  night  as  she  works  on  the
famous boxes, the red and blue  leather cases in which are  delivered  the
State papers, official letters and reports which  follow  her  whenever  she
is in the world.
    There can hardly be a single one of 600 or so rooms in the Palace  that
is not in more or less constant  use.
    The  senior member of the  Royal Household is the Lord Chamberlain.  In
addition to the role of overseeing all the departments of the Household,  he
has a wide variety of responsibilities,   including  all  ceremonial  duties
relating to the Sovereign, apart from the wedding, coronation   and  funeral
of the monarch. .These remain the responsibility of the  Earl  Marshal,  the
Duke of Norfolk. The Lord Chamberlains Office has the greatest  variety  of
responsibilities. It looks after all incoming visits by  overseas  Heads  of
State and the administration of the Chapels Royal. It  also  supervises  the
appointment of Pages of Honour , the Sergeants of Arms, the Marshal  of  the
Diplomatic Corps, the Master of the Queens  Music, and the  Keeper  of  the
Queens Swans.
    The director of the Royal Collection is  responsible  for  one  of  the
finest collections of works of art in the  world. The Royal Collection is  a
vast assemblage of works  of  art  of  all  kinds,  comprising  some  10,000
pictures, enamels and miniatures,  20,000  drawings,  10,000    watercolours
and 500,000 prints, and many thousands of pieces  of  furniture,  sculpture,
glass, porcelain, arms and armour, textiles, silver, gold and jewellery.
    It has largely been formed  by  succeeding  sovereigns,  consorts   and
other members  of the Royal Family in the three  hundred  years   since  the
Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
    The Collection is presently housed in twelve principal  locations  open
to the public, which include Buckingham Palace, Kensington  Palace,  Hampton
Court Palace, Windsor  Castle,  The  Palace  of  Holyroodhouse  and  Osborne
House.
    In addition a substantial number of objects are on indefinite  loan  to
the British Museum,  National  Gallery,  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum   and
Museum of London.
    Additional access to the Royal  Collection  is  provided  by  means  of
exhibitions, notably at The Queens Gallery, Buckingham  Palace,  opened  in
1962.


                               WINDSOR  CASTLE


    Windsor Castle is the  oldest  royal  residence  to  have  remained  in
continuous use by  the   monarchs   of  Britain  and  is  in  many  ways  an
architectural epitome   of  the  history  of  the  nation.  Its  skyline  of
battlements, turrets and the  great  Round  Tower  is  instantly  recognised
throughout the world. The Castle covers an area of  nearly   thirteen  acres
and contains, as well as a royal palace, a  magnificent  collegiate   church
and the homes or workplaces of a  large  number  of  people  ,including  the
Constable and  Governor of the Castle, the Military Knights of  Windsor  and
their families, etc.
    The Castle was founded by  William  the  Conqueror   c.  1080  and  was
conceived as one of a chain of fortifications  built  as  a  defensive  ring
round London.
    Norman castles  were built to  a  standard  plan   with  an  artificial
earthen   mound supporting a tower  or  keep,  the  entrance  to  which  was
protected by an outer  fenced  courtyard  or  baily.  Windsor  is  the  most
notable example of a particularly distinctive version  of  this  basic  plan
developed   for use  on a ridge site. It comprises a central  mote  with   a
large bialy to either side of it rather than just on  one side as  was  more
than usual.
    As first built, the Castle  was  entirely   defensive,  constructed  of
earth and timber, but easy access from  London  and  the  proximity  of  the
Castle to the old royal hunting forest   to the south  soon  recommended  it
as a royal residence. Henry I is known to have  had domestic  quarterswithin
the castle as early as 1110  and Henry converted the Castle into  a  palace.
He built two  separate   sets  of  royal  apartments  within  the  fortified
enclosure: a public or official state residence in the Lower Ward,   with  a
hall   where  he  could  entertain  his  court   and  the  barons  on  great
occasions, and a smaller private residence on the North side  of  the  Upper
Ward for the exclusive occupation of himself and his family.
    Henry II was a great builder  at   all  his  residences.  He  began  to
replace the old timber outer walls  of the Upper  Ward  with  a  hard  heath
stone found ten miles south of Windsor. The basic  curtain  wall  round  the
Upper Ward, much modified by later alterations and improvements, dates  from
Henry IIs time, as does the old part of the stone keep, known as the  Round
Tower , on top of Williams the Conquerors mote. The reconstruction of  the
curtain wall round the Lower Ward was completed over the next  sixty  years.
The well-preserved section visible from the High street with its three half-
round towers was built by   Henry III in the 1220s.He took a  keen  personal
interest in all his projects  and carried out extensive  works  at  Windsor.
In his  time  it  became  one  of  the  three  principal     royal   palaces
alongside those at Westminster   and  Winchester.   He  rebuilt  Henry  IIs
apartments in the Lower Ward   and added there   a  large  new  chapel,  all
forming  a   coherently  planned   layout  round   a   courtyard    with   a
cloister; parts survive embedded in later structures in the Lower  Ward.  He
also   further improved the royal private apartments in the Upper Ward.
    The outstanding  medieval  expansion of Windsor, however,   took  place
in the reign of Edward III.  His huge building project  at  the  Castle  was
probably the most  ambitious single   architectural   scheme  in  the  whole
history of the English royal        residences,  and  cost  the  astonishing
total of 50,772 pounds. Rebuilt with the proceeds  of  the  Kings  military
triumphs, the Castle  was  converted   by   Edward  III  into  a   fortified
palace redolent of chivalry The stone  base was and military glory,  as  the
centre of his court and the seat of his newly founded Order  of  the  Garter
.Even today, the massive Gothic architecture  of  Windsor  reflects   Edward
IIIs  medieval ideal of Christian, chivalric monarchy as clearly  as  Louis
XIYs Versailles represents baroque absolutism.
    The Lower  Ward  was  reconstructed,  the  old   royal  lodgings  being
transformed into the College of St George, and a new cloister,  which  still
survives, built with traceeried  windows.  In  addition  there  were  to  be
twenty-six  Poor Knights. Henry IIIs  chapel was made over for  their  use,
rebuilt and renamed   St Georges Chapel.
    The reconstruction of the Upper Ward  was begun in 1357  with new royal
lodgings built of stone under the direction of William  of  Wykeham,  Bishop
of Winchester. An inner gatehouse with cylindrical towers was built  at  the
entrance to the Upper Ward.Stone-vaulted undercrofts   supported   extensive
royal  apartments on the first floor  with separate sets of  rooms  for  the
King  and  the  Queen  (  as  was  the  tradition  of  the   English   royal
palaces),arranged round   two inner courtyards later known  as  Brick  Court
and Horn Court .Along the south side, facing the quadrangle, were the  Great
Hall and Royal Chapel end to end. Edward IY  built  the  present  larger  St
Georges Chapel to the west of Henry  IIIs.Henry  YII  remodelled  the  old
chapel ( now the Albert Memorial  Chapel) at its  east end;  he  also  added
a new range to the west of the State Apartments which Elizabeth  I  extended
by a long gallery .
    During the  English Civil War  in  the  mid-seventeenth  century,   the
Castle was seized by Parliamentary forces  who  ill-treated   the  buildings
and used part  of them as a prison for  Royalists.
    At the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 Charles II was determined to
reinstate     the old glories of  the  Crown   after  the  interval  of  the
Commonwealth. Windsor was his favourite  non-metropolitan    palace  and  it
was the only one which could be effectively garrisoned.
    The architect Hugh May was appointed in 1673 to supervise the work  and
over the next eleven  years   the  Upper  Ward  and  State  Apartments  were
reconstructed. The result was both ingenious  and  magnificent,  making  the
Upper Ward the most unusual palace in baroque Europe.
    The interior  was a rich contrast to the austerity of the exterior  and
formed the first and  grandest  sequence  of  baroque  State  Apartments  in
England.The ceilings were painted by  Antonio   Verrio,  an  Italian  artist
brought   from Paris by the Duke of Montagu,  Charles  IIs   ambassador  to
Louis XIY. The walls were wainscoted in oak and   festooned  with  brilliant
virtuoso carvings  by  Grinling  Gibbons  and  Henry   Phillips  of   fruit,
flowers, fish  and birds The climax of  Charles  IIs   reconstruction   was
St Georges Hall and  the Kings  Chapel  with  murals  by  Verrio.  In  the
former there were historical scenes of Edward III and the Black  Prince,  as
well as Charles II in Grater robes enthroned in glory, and   in  the  latter
Christs miracles and the Last Supper. All were destroyed by  Wyatville  inn
1829.  The source of inspiration  for the new rooms  at  Windsor  was    the
France of Louis XIY, but the use of  wood   rather  than   coloured  marbles
gave Windsor a different character and established  a  fashion   which   was
copied in many English country houses.
    William III and the early Hanoverian kings spent more time  at  Hampton
Court than at Windsor. Windsor, however, came  back  into  its  own  in  the
reign of George III, who disliked Hampton Court, which had unhappy  memories
for him
    From 1777 George III reconstructed the Queens Lodge to  the  south  of
the Castle. He also restored St Georges Chapel  in the  1780s.At  the  same
time  a new state entrance and Gothic staircase   were constructed  for  the
State Apartments.
    As well as his work in the Castle, George III modernised   Frogmore  in
the Home Park  as a retreat for his wife,  Queen  Charlotte,  and  reclaimed
some of the  Great Park    for agriculture. The  King  designed   a  special
Windsor uniform  of blue cloth with red  and  gold  facings,  a  version  of
which is still   worn on occasions today. The King   loved  the  Castle  and
its romantic associations. In 1805  he  revived  the  formal  ceremonies  of
installation of Knights of the Garter at Windsor.
    When George   IY  inherited   the  throne,  he   shared  his   fathers
romantic architectural enthusiasm  for Windsor  and  determined to  continue
the Gothic transformation and the creation of  convenient, comfortable   and
splendid new royal apartments.
    In  many ways Windsor  Castle enjoyed  its   apogee  in  the  reign  of
Queen Victoria.. She spent the largest portion of every  year   at  Windsor,
and in her reign it enjoyed the position of principal palace of the  British
monarchy  and the focus of the British Empire as well as  nearly  the  whole
of royal Europe. The Castle was visited by heads of state from all over  the
world and was the scene of a series  of  splendid  state  visits.  On  these
occasions the state rooms were  used for their  original  purpose  by  royal
guests. The visits of King Louis Philippe in 1844 and  the Emperor  Napoleon
III inn 1855 were especially successful. They were invested at Windsor  with
the Order of the Garter in formal  ceremonies, as on  other  occasions  were
King Victor Emanuel I  of Italy  and   the Emperor  William  I  of  Germany.
For the most of the twentieth century Windsor Castle survived as it  was  in
the nineteenth century. The Queen  and  her  family   spend  most  of  their
private weekends at the Castle.
    A distinctive  feature  of  hospitality  at  Windsor  Castle   are  the
invitations  to dine and sleep which go  back  to  Queen  Victorias  time
and  encompass people prominent in  many   walks  of  life  including    The
Queens ministers.   On  such  occasions,  The  Queen  shows  her  guests  a
specially chosen exhibition of treasures from the Royal Collection.



                        THE GALLERY,THE CHINA MUSEUM


    The central vaulted undercroft, originally created by James  Wyatt  and
extended in the same style by Jeffry Wyatville to  serve  as  the  principal
entrance hall to the State Apartments, was cut off when the Grand  Staircase
was reoriented in  the  reign  of  Queen  Victoria.  It  has  recently  been
redesigned and now houses a changing exhibition of works of art  from    the
Royal Collection, which include Old Master drawings  from  the  world-famous
Print Room in the Royal Library.
    The carved Ionic capitals  of  the  columns  survive  from  Hugh  Mays
alterations for Charles   II.  In  cases  round  the  walls   are  displayed
magnificent china services  from  leading  English  and  European  porcelain
manufacturers:  Serves,   Meiden,   Copenhagen,   Naples,   Rockingham   and
Worchester.  These are still used for royal  banquets  and  other  important
occasions.
    There are some famous paintings in Windsor Castle:  Van Dykes  Triple
Portrait of Charles I painted to send to Bernie in Italy to enable  him  to
sculpture a bust of the King; Colonel John St.Leger, a friend of the  Prince
Regent, by Gainsborough;Vermeers portrait of a lady at the virginals;   The
five eldest  children of Charles I by Van Dyke; John Singleton  Copley,  the
American artist, painted the three youngest  daughters  of  George  III  and
Queen Charlotte:Princesses Mary,  Sophia  and  Amelia,  none  of  whom  left
legitimate descendants and  The Campo SS. Giovanniie Paolo Canaletto etc.



                             ST GEORGES CHAPEL


    St Georges Chapel is the spiritual home of the Prodder of the  Garter,
Britains senior Order  of Chivalry, founded by King Edward III in 1348.  St
George is the patron saint of the Order.
    The architecture of the Chapel  ranks  among  the  finest  examples  of
Perpendicular Gothic, the  late  medieval  style  of  English  architecture.
Unlike most of the  other  great  churches  ,St  Georges   Chapel  has  its
principal or show front on the south  , facing the  Henry  YIII  gate  and
running almost the length of the Lower Ward.
    As Sovereign of the Order of the Garter, The Queen attends a service in
the Chapel in June each year, together with the Knights  and Ladies  of  the
Order. Today  thirteen Military Knights of Windsor represent the Knights  of
the Garter in ST Georges Chapel at regular  services.  Ten  sovereigns  are
buried in the Chapel, as are buried in the Chapel,  as   are  other  members
of the royal family, many represented by magnificent tombs.

    The Albert Memorial Chapel
    The richly decorated interior is a Victorian  masterpiece,  created  by
Sir George Gilbert Scott for Queen Victoria in 1863-73  to  commemorate  her
husband Albert.
    The vaulted ceiling is decorated in gold mosaic  by  Antonio  Salviati.
The figures  in the false west  window  represent  sovereigns,  clerics  and
others associated with St Georges Chapel. The inlaid  marble panels  around
 the lower walls depict scenes     from  Scripture.
    This was the site of one of the  Castles earliest  chapels,  built  in
1240 by King Henry III and adapted by    King Edward III in the  1350s    as
the first chapel of the College  of  St  George   and    the  Order  of  the
Garter. When the existing St Georges Chapel was built in 11475-15528,  this
  small chapel fell into disuse. Subsequent plans  to turn it into  a  royal
 mausoleum came to nothing.
    In   1863  Queen  Victoria  ordered   its  complete   restoration   and
redecoration as a temporary resting place for Prince Albert.
    The Chapel is now dominated by Alfred Gilberts  tomb  of the  Duke  of
Clarence and Avandale  who died  in 1892.

    The Great Park
    The Great Park of Windsor, covering about 4,800 acres,  has evolved out
of the Saxon and medieval hunting forest. It is connected to the Castle   by
an avenue of nearly   3 miles, known as the   Long  Walk,  planted  by  King
Charles II in 1685   and replanted  in 1945. The  Valley  Gardens  are  open
all year round



                             WESTMINSTER  ABBEY


    Westminster Abbey is one of  the  most   famous,  historic  and  widely
visited churches not only in Britain  but  in  the  whole  Christian  world.
There are other reasons for its fame apart from its  beauty  and  its  vital
role as a centre  of  the  Christian  faith  in  one  of  the  worlds  most
important    capital cities.    These include  the  facts  that  since  1066
every sovereign apart from Edward Y and Edward YIII  has been  crowned  here
and that for many centuries it was also the burial place  of  kings,  queens
and princes.
    The royal connections began even earlier than the present Abbey,    for
it was Edward the Confessor,  sometimes  called  the  last  of  the  English
kings(1042-66) and canonised in 1163, who  established an earlier church  on
this site. His great Norman  Abbey   was  built   close  to  his  palace  on
Thorney Island. It was completed in 1065 and stood surrounded  by  the  many
ancillary buildings  needed by the  community  of  Benedictine  monks    who
passed their lives of prayer   here. Edwards death near  the  time  of  his
Abbeys consecration made it natural for his burial   place  to  be  by  the
High Altar.
    Only 200 years later, the Norman east end of the Abbey  was  demolished
and rebuilt on the orders of Henry III, who had a great devotion  to  Edward
the Confessor and wanted to honour him. The central focus of the  new  Abbey
was a magnificent shrine to house St Edwards body ;  the  remains  of  this
shrine,  dismantled at the Reformation but later  reerected   in  rather   a
clumsy and piecemeal way, can still be seen behind the High Altar today.
    The new Abbey remained incomplete until 1376, when  the  rebuilding  of
the Nave began; it was not finished until 150 years later,  but  the  master
masons carried on a similar   thirteenth-century  Gothic,  French-influenced
design, as that of Henry IIIs initial work, over that  period,  giving  the
whole a beautiful harmony of style.
    In the early sixteenth century the Lady  Chapel  was  rebuilt   as  the
magnificent Henry YII Chapel; with its superb  fan-vaulting  it  is  one  of
Westminsters great treasures.
    In the mid-eighteenth century  the  last  malor  additions  -  the  two
western towers designed by Hawksmoor - were made to the main fabric  of  the
Abbey.

    THE  NAVE was begun by Abbot Litlington  who  financed  the work   with
money left by Cardinal Simon Langham, his predecessor, for the  use  of  the
monastery. The master mason in charge of the work was almost  certainly  the
great Henry Yevele. His design depended on the extra  strength given to  the
structure by massive flying buttresses.  These enabled    the  roof   to  be
raised   to a height of 102 feet. The stonework of  the  vaulting  has  been
cleaned  and the bosses gilded in recent years.
    At the west end of the  Nave  is  a  magnificent   window  filled  with
stained glass of 1735, probably  designed  by  Sir  James  Thornhill  (1676-
1734).(He also painted the interior of the dome in St Pauls Cathedral}  The
design  shows  Abraham,  Isaac  and  Jacob,  with  fourteen  prophets,   and
underneath are  the arms  of  King Sebert,  Elizabeth  I,  George  II,  Dean
Wilcocks and the Collegiate Church of St Peter in Westminster.
    Also at the west end of the Nave is the grave of the  Unknown  Warrior.
The idea for such   a memorial  is  said   to  have  come   from  a  British
chaplain  who noticed, in a back garden at Armeentieeres, a grave  with  the
simple inscription: An unknown  British  soldier.  In  1920  the  body  of
another unknown soldier  was  brought  back  from  the  battlefields  to  be
reburied in the Abbey on 11 November. George Y  and  Queen  Mary   and  many
other members of the royal family attended the service, 100 holders  of  the
Victoria Cross lining the Nave as a Guard of  Honour.  On  a  nearby  pillar
hangs the Congressional Medal, the highest  award which can be conferred  by
the United St ates.
    From the Nave  roof  hang   chandeliers,  both  giving  light   and  in
daylight reflecting it from their  hundreds of pedant crystals.   They  were
a gift to mark   the 900th anniversary of the Abbey  and  are  of  Waterford
glass.
    At the east end of the Nave is  the   screen  separating  it  from  the
Choir. Designed by  the then  Surveyor, Edward Blore, in  1834,  it  is  the
fourth screen to be placed here; the  wrought-iron  gates,  however,  remain
from a previous screen. Within recent years the  screen   has  been  painted
and glided.

    THE CHOIR was originally the part of  the  Abbey  in  which  the  monks
worshipped, but there is  now  no trace  of the pre-  Reformation  fittings,
for in the late eighteenth century Kneene,  the then Surveyor,  removed  the
thirteenth-century stalls and designed a smaller Choir.  This  was  in  turn
destroyed in the mid-nineteenth century by Edward  Blore,  who  created  the
present Choir in Victoria Gothic  style  and removed  the  partitions  which
until then had blocked off the transepts
    It is here that the choir of about twenty-two boys   and  twelve    Lay
Vicars  sings the daily services. The boys are educated at the Choir  School
attached to the Abbey ;mention of such a school   is made  in the  fifteenth
century and it may be even older  in  origin.  For  some  centuries  it  was
linked  with  Westminster  School,  but  became  independent  in  the   mid-
nineteenth century.
    The  Organ  was  originally  built  by   Shrider  in  1730.  Successive
rebuildings  in 1849,1884,1909,,and 1937  and extensive work  in  1983  have
resulted  in the present instrument.

    THE SANCTUARY is the heart of the Abbey, where the  High  Altar  stands
The altar and the reredos behind it, with a mosaic of the Last Supper,  were
designed by Sir Gilbert Scott in  1867.  Standing  on  the  altar   are  two
candlesticks,  bought  with  money  bequeathed  by  a  serving-maid,   Sarah
Hughes, in the seventeenth century. In front of the altar, but protected  by
carpeting, is another of the Abbeys treasures - a  now-very-worn   pavement
dating from the  thirteenth century. The method of its decoration  is  known
as Cosmati work, after the Italian family who  developed  the  technique  of
inlaying intricate designs made up of  small pieces of coloured marble  into
a plain  marble ground.

    THE NORTH TRANSEPT, to the left of the Sanctuary, has a beautiful  rose
window designed by  Sir  James   Thornhill,  showing  eleven  Apostles.  The
Transept  once led to Solomons Porch and  now  leads   to  the  nineteenth-
century North Front.

    THE HENRY YII CHAPEL, beyond the  apse, was begun in 1503 as  a  burial
place  for Henry YI, on the orders  of  Henry  YII,  but  it  was  Henry.YII
himself who was finally buried  here,  in  an  elaborate  tomb.  The  master
mason, who designed the chapel    was  probably  Robert Vertue  his  brother
William constructed the vault at St Georges Chapel, Windsor,  in  1505  and
this experience may have helped in the creation of the magnificent  vaulting
erected here  a few years later.
    The chapel has an apse and side aisles which are fan-vaulted, and   the
central section  is  roofed  with  extraordinarily   intricate  and  finely-
detailed circular vaulting ,embellished with  more  Tudor  badges  and  with
carved pendants, which is literally breath-taking in the perfection  of  its
beauty and artistry.
    Beneath the windows, once filled with glass painted by  Bernard  Flower
of which  only fragments now remain, are ninety-four  of  the  original  107
statues of saints, placed in richly embellished niches.  Beneath  these,  in
turn, hang the banners of the living Knights Grand  Cross of  the  Order  of
the Bath, whose chapel this is. When the Order was founded  in  1725,  extra
stalls and seats  were added to those originally  provided.  To  the  stalls
are attached plates recording the names and arms  of  past  Knights  of  the
Order, while under the seats can be seen finely carved misericords.
    The  altar, a copy of the sixteenth-century   altar  incorporates   two
of the original pillars and under  its  canopy   hangs  a  fifteenth-century
Madonna and Child by Vivarini.
    In the centre of the apse, behind the altar, stand the  tomb  of  Henry
YII and Elizabeth of York, protected by a bronze screen.  The tomb  was  the
work of Torrigiani and the  effigies  of  the  king  and  queen  are  finely
executed in gilt bronze.
    In later years many more royal burials took place in the  chapel.  Mary
I,  her half-sister Elizabeth I and half-brother Edward YI all lie here  The
Latin inscription on thetomb - on which only Elizabeth Ist  effigy  rests  -
reads: Consorts both in throne and   grave,  here  rest   we  two  sisters,
Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one Resurrection.
    In the south asle lies Mary Queen of Scots, mother of James Yi  and  I,
who brought her body from  Peterborough  and  gave  her  a  tomb  even  more
magnificent than that which he had erected for his cousin Elizabeth.I.
    In the same aisle  lies Henry YIIs mother, Margaret Beaufort, Countess
of Richmond. Her effigy, a bronze   by Torrigiani, shows  her  in  old  age.
She was known for her charitable works and for her intellect -  she  founded
Christs  and St Johns Colleges at Cambridge -  and these  activities   are
recorded in the inscription composed by Erasmus. Also   in  this  aisle   is
the  tomb of Margaret, Countess of Lennox.

    THE CHAPEL OF ST EDWARD THE CONFESSOR,  containing  his  shrine,   lies
east of the Sanctuary at the heart of the Abbey. It is closed off  from  the
west   by a stone screen, probably of fifteenth-century  date,  carved  with
scenes from the life of Edward the Confessor;  it  is  approached  from  the
east via a bridge from the Henry YII Chapel.
    The shrine seen today within the chapel is only a ghost of  its  former
self.  It originally had three parts: a stone base  decorated  with  Cosmati
work, a gold feretory containing the saints coffin, a  canopy  above  which
could be raised to reveal the feretory or  lowered  to  protect  it.  Votive
offerings of gold and jewels were given to  enrich  the  feretory  over  the
centuries. To this shrine came many pilgrims, and the sick  were  frequently
left beside it overnight in the hope of a  cure.  All  this  ceased  at  the
Reformation The shrine was dismantled  and stored  by the  monks;  the  gold
feretory was taken away from them, but  they  were  allowed  to  rebury  the
saint  elsewhere in the Abbey.
    It was during the reign of Mary I that a  partial  restoration  of  the
shrine took place. The stone base was re-assembled, the coffin  was  placed,
in the absence of  a  feretory, in the top part  of the stone base  and  the
canopy positioned on top. The Chapel   has a Cosmati floor, similar to  that
before the High  Altar, and a blank  space   in the design shows  where  the
shrine once stood; it also indicates that   the  shrine      was  originally
raised   up on a platform, making the canopy visible beyond     the  western
screen. The canopy of the shrine has recently been restored,  and  hopefully
      one day    the rest of the shrine will also be restored.
    And within the chapel can be seen the Coronation Chair  and  the  tombs
of five  kings and four queens. At the eastern end is the tomb and   Chantey
 Chapel of Henry  Y, embellished    with  carvings  including     scenes  of
Henry Ys coronation.  The effigy of the king once had  a  silver  head  and
silver regalia, and was covered  in  silver  regalia,  and  was  covered  in
silver gilt, but this precious metal was stolen in  1546.
         Eleanor of  Castle, first   wife  of  Edward  I,  lies  beside  the
Chapel. Her body was carried  to  Westminster    from  Lincoln,  a  memorial
cross being erected at each place where the funeral procession rested.
         Beside her lies Henry III, responsible for the  rebuilding  of  the
Abbey, in a tomb of Purbeck  marble. Next to his tomb is  that of Edward  I.
Richard II  and Anne of Bohemia, Edward III and Philippa of  Hainnault,  and
Catherine de Valois, Henry Ys Queen, also lie in this chapel.

       THE  SOUTH  TRANSEPT is lit by a large rose window, with glass dating
from 1902. Beneath it, in the angles above the right and  left  arches,  are
two of the finest carvings  in  the  Abbey,  depicting  sensing  angels.  In
addition   to the many monuments there are two  fine  late  thirteen-century
wall-paintings, uncovered in 1936, to be seen by the door  leading  into  St
Faiths Chapel. They depict Christ  showing  his wounds to Doubting  Thomas,
and St Christopher. Beside the south wall  rises the dormer staircase,  once
used by the monks going  from  their   dormitory  to  the  Choir  for  their
night offices.
                               POETS  CORNER

        One of the  most  well-known  parts  of  Westminster  Abbey,  Poets
Corner can be found in the south Transept. It was not originally  designated
as the burial place of writers, playwrights and poets; the first poet to  be
buried here, Geoffrey  Chaucer,  was  laid  to  rest  in  Westminster  Abbey
because he had been Clerk  of  Works  to  the  Palace  of  Westminster,  not
because he had written the Canterbury Tales. However, the  inscription  over
his grave, placed there by William Caxton - the famous printer  whose  press
was just beyond the transept wall - mentioned that he was a poet.
         Over    150  years   later,  during  the  flowering    of   English
literature in the sixteenth century,   a more magnificent tomb  was  erected
to Chaucer by Nicholas Brigham and in 1599 Edmund Spencer was laid  to  rest
nearby. These two tombs began a tradition which  developed  over  succeeding
centuries.
         Burial or commemoration in the abbey did not always  occur  at   or
soon after the time of death - many of those whose monuments now stand  here
had to wait a number of years for recognition;  Byron,  for  example,  whose
lifestyle caused a   scandal although his poetry  was much admired, died  in
1824  but was finally given a  memorial  only  in  1969.  Even  Shakespeare,
buried at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1616, had  to  wait  until  1740  before  a
monument, designed by William Kent, appeared in Poets Corner.  Other  poets
and writers, well-known in their own day, have now vanished into  obscurity,
with only their monuments to show that they were once famous.
        Conversely, many whose writings are  still  appreciated  today  have
never been memorialised in  Poets  Corner,  although  the  reason  may  not
always be clear. Therefore a resting place  or  memorial  in  Poets  Corner
should perhaps not be seen as a final statement  of  a  writer  or    poets
literary worth, but more as a reflection of their  public  standing  at  the
time of death - or as an indication of the fickleness of Fate.
        Some of the most famous to lie here, in addition to those   detailed
on  the  next  two  pages  include  BenJonson,  John  Dryden,  Alfred,  Lord
Tennyson, Robert Browning and John Masefield, among the poets,  and  William
Camden, Dr Samuel Johnson, Charles  Dickens,  William  Makepeace  Thackeray,
Richard Brinsley Sheridan,  Rudyard  Kipling  and  Thomas  Hardy  among  the
writers.
        Charles Dickenss grave attracts particular interest.  As  a  writer
who drew attention to the hardships born by the socially deprived   and  who
advocated the abolition of the slave trade,   he won  enduring  fame     and
gratitude and today, more than 110 years later, a wreath is  still  laid  on
his tomb on the anniversary of his death each year.
        Those  who have memorials here, although they are buried  elsewhere,
include among the poets John Milton, William Wordworth,  Thomas  Gray,  John
Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Robert  Burns, William Blake,  T.S.  Eliot  and
among  the writers Samuel Butler, Jane Austen, Oliver Goldsmith, Sir  Walter
Scott, John Ruskin, Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte and Henry James.
     By no  means  all those buried in  the  South  Transept  are  poets  or
writers, however.  Several  of  Westminsters   former  Deans,  Archdeacons,
Prebendaries  and Canons lie here, as do John  Keble,  the  historian   Lord
Macaulay, actors David Garrick, Sir  Henry Irving and Mrs Hannah  Pritchard,
and, among many others, Thomas Parr, who was said to be  152  years  of  age
when he died in 1635, having seen  ten sovereigns on the throne  during  his
long life.



                      CORONATIONS IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY


     Coronation have taken place at Westminster since at  least  1066,  when
William the Conqueror arrived in London  after his victory at the battle  of
Hastings. Whether or not  Harold,  his  predecessor  as  monarch,  had  been
crowned in Edward the Confessors Abbey  is uncertain - coronations  do  not
seem to have had a fixed location  before  1066,  though   several  monarchs
were crowned  at Kingston-upon-Thames, where the Kings Stone  still  exists
- but William was determined to reinforce his victory, which  gave  him  the
right to rule by conquest, with the  sacred  hallowing  of  his  sovereignty
which    the coronation  ceremony would give him. He was crowned in the  old
Abbey - then recently  completed  and housing Edward the  Confessors  body-
on Christmas Day 1066.
      The service to-day  has  four  parts:  first  comes  the  Introduction
,consisting of: the entry of  the  Sovereign  into  the  Abbey;  the  formal
recognition of the  right of the Sovereign to rule -  when   the  Archbishop
presents the Sovereign  to the congregation and asks them if they agree   to
the  service proceeding, and they respond with an   assent; the  oath,  when
the Sovereign promises to respect and govern in accordance   with  the  lows
of his or her subjects and to  uphold  the  Protestant  reformed  Church  of
England  and Scotland; and the presentation of the Bible to  the  Sovereign,
to be relied on  as  the  source  of  all  wisdom  and  low.  Secondly,  the
Sovereign is anointed  with  holy  oil,  seated  on  the  Coronation  Chair.
Thirdly, the Sovereign is invested with the royal robes and  insignia,  then
crowned  with  St Edwards   crown.  The  final  ceremony  consists  of  the
enthronement of the Sovereign on a  throne  placed  on  a  raised  platform,
bringing him or her into full view of the assembled company  for  the  first
time, and there  he or she receives  the homage of the Lords Spiritual,  the
 Lords Temporal and the congregation, representing the people of the realm.
     The service has changed little - English replaced  Latin  as  the  main
language used during the ceremony following Elizabeth  Ist  coronation,  and
from 1689 onwards the coronation ceremony has been set within a  service  of
Holy Communion  although indeed this was a return to ancient  custom  rather
than the creation of a new precedent).
      Coronations  have not always followed  an  identical  pattern.  Edward
YI,  for  example,  was  crowned  no  less  than  three  times,  with  three
different crowns placed  in  turn  upon  his  head;  while  at  Charles  Is
coronation there was a misunderstanding and, instead of  the  congregational
assent  following the Recognition Question,  there  was  dead  silence,  the
congregation  having finally to be told to respond - an  ill  omen  for  the
future, as  it  turned  out.  Charles  IIs  coronation,  following  on  the
greyness of the puritan Commonwealth, was a scene of  brilliant  colour  and
great splendour. As the old regalia  had been destroyed,  replacements  were
made for the ceremony, and the clergy were robed in rich  red  copes  -  the
same copes are still used in the Abbey
       George  IY  saw  his  coronation  as  an  opportunity   for  a  great
theatrical spectacle and spent vast sums of money on it. He wore  an  auburn
 wig with ringlets, with a huge plumed hat on  top,  and  designed  his  own
robes for the procession into  the  Abbey.  After  the  coronation,  because
Queen Caroline had been forcibly excluded from the ceremony, the  crowds  in
the streets were extremely hostile to him and he had to  return  to  Carlton
House by an alternative route.
      In complete contrast, William IY  took a lot of persuading  before  he
would agree to have  a coronation   at all, and the  least  possible  amount
of money was spent no it -  giving  it  the  name  the  penny  coronation.
Despite his dislike of extravagant show and ceremony,  he  still  brought  a
slightly theatrical touch to the scene by living up to his nickname  of  the
sailor king and appearing , when disrobed for the Anointing, in the  full-
dress uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet.
       The last three  coronations  have  demonstrated   continuing  respect
for the religious significance  of  the  ceremony  and  recognition  of  the
importance of such a public declaration by Sovereign of his or her  personal
dedication to the service of the people.
       At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 , for the first  time
the service was televised and millions of her subjects could  see  and  hear
the ceremony taking place. It is possible that few  watching  realised  just
how far back into history the roots of that historic ceremony starched,  and
how little fundamental change had occurred over the centuries.



                               LIST  OF WORDS

mention                                      
stock                                              
masterpiece                                  
mankind                                      
satisfy                                      
aesthetic                                    
to be in touch with                                  
script                                       
humdrum                                      
acquire                                      



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

rank among                                 
tke up                                      
stretch                                      
 arrangement                            
fabulous                                     
span                                         , 
applied art                                   
 enamel                                      
lace                                               
ivory                                         
excavation                                   
scope                                        



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

accessible                                   
merchant                                     
purchase                                     
favourable                                   
due to the care                               
fill up                                            
 gap                                               
deficiencies                                       
 accumulation                                
at smbs disposal                             - 



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

portraiture                                              

landscape                                          
potteryware                              
possess                                            
vanquish                                           
 presumably                                        
gain                                                     
vividness                                          
merge                                                    
ascribe                                            



                                WORD OF LIST
reflect                                            
spirit                                                      
permanent                                    
rapidly                                               
intrinsic                                         
amass                                              
hereby                                           
distinctive                                       



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

intend                                             
palatial                                    
carry out                                    
substitute                                        
scheme                                             
throng                                               
lavish                                                
wing                                              
lay out                                       
ill-fated                                          
attempt                                                  
mulberry tree                                      
dignity                                                  
suitor                                                        
eccentrisity                                             
remedy                                                   



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

chain of fortification                              
access                                                   
proximity                                                
timber                                                    
alteration                                               ,

improvement                                        
reddent of chivalry                                
non-metropolitan                                   
austerity                                               
sequence                                              
wainscot                                               
inspiration                                            
marble                                                  
association                                            
inherit                                                   
apogee                                                  



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

  reorient                                               
legitimate                                         
descendant                                         

spiritual                                          
inlaid                                                   
depict                                                   ,

disuse                                  
                       subsequent                        



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

monk                              
consecration                            
burial                                  
demolish                          
shrine                                  
reerect                           
clumsy                            
fan-vaulting                             
predecessor                       
buttress                          
underneath                        
grave                             
chaplain                          
confer                                      
bequeath                          
intricate                         
embelish                          
 effigy                                     
regalia                           
depict                                  
dormitory                         



                               LIST  OF  WORDS

commemoration                     
occur at                            
vanished                          
obsqurity                         
deprive                           
abolition                         
reinforce                         
conquest                          
sovereignty                       
accordance                        
insignia                                      
congregation                                
realm                             



                                  EXERCISES
I.    Choose the correct definition to the following:
1. take up                                         a) careful study or
investigation, esp.in order to
                                  discover nnew facts or information
2. due to sth or sb                    b)to become or make sth completely
  full
2. fill up                        c)to fill or occupy an amount of space or
  time
3. research on                    d)caused by sth,sb; because of sth,sb.
4. carry out                           e)to do sth,as required or
  specified; to fulfil sth.

  Exercise II.  Make all the changes necessary to  produce  five sentences:

I. /The collections/ are distributed/ and/ possessed/ by/ among/
  departments/ over forty/ exhibition/ the museum/ its/ permanent/ seven/.
2. /An important/ the museum/ part/ is taken by/ collection/ among/ the
numismatic/ possessions/.
3./The aquisitionn of complete/of individual works/ in the 19th/ the
previous/ century/ period/  was continued/ but/ collections/ of art/ and/
on a more modest scale/ during/ than/.
4. /The Hermitage/ section/ of the very/ on the Continent/ contains/ for /
  pictures/ is/ which/ a special/ few/ English/ one/.
4. /Joshua Reynolds/  all/ in/ by/ is/ 1780s/ represented/ the/ canvases/
  painted/ four/.


Exercise III.Fill in the blanks with the following pronouns:
in     of    from    on    by

1. The collection has no paintings __  William Hogarth, but some __  his
  prints selected ___ a large and representative collection possessed __
  the Museum are usually ___  show.
2. The State Hermitage __ St Petersburg ranks among the worlds most
  outstanding  art museums.
3. The Museum numbers among its treasures monuments __ ancient Greece and
  Rome and those__ the Greek settlements __ the North coast __ the Black
  Sea.
4. Most helpful __ the Museums research work is the Hermitage Library.
5. It is open to every student __ art.
6. A number __ 17th   -18th century works are __ show too.



                                  EXERCISES
Exercise I. Choose the correct sentence:

1. a/ The Tretiakov Gallery was founded by a Russian painter - Tretiakov.
    b/The Tretiakov Gallery was founded by a Moscow merchant    and art
patron - Tretiakov.
2. a/The Gallerys centenary was widely celebrated throughout Russia in
  June 1956.
    b/The Gallerys centenary was widely celebrated throughout Russia in
May 1856.
3. a/The Gallerys collection has grown considerably in the years since the
  Revolution.
    b/The Gallerys collection has not grown since the Revolution.
4. a/The early Russian Art department  and the collections of sculpture and
  drawings were constant.
    b/The early Rassian Art department and the collections of scylpture and
drawings were enlarged.
5. a/Tretiakov spent his life collecting the works of Russian painters.
    b/Tretiakov spent 10 years collecting the works of Russiann painters.

Exercise II. Read the informatuion about the Tretiakov Gallery and answer
the following questions:
I. Is the Tretiakov Gallery one of  the best-known picture galleries of the
  world? Why?
2.What do you know about the history of the Tretiakov Gallery?
3.Who was it founded by?
4.When and how did Tretiakov begin his collection?
5.Did he collect antique icons?
6.He was on friendly terms with many progressive, democratic Russian
painters, wasnt he?
7.Why did his collection grow rapidly?
8.What pictures do you know from the Tretiakov Gallery?
9.What do you know about the Tretiakov Gallerys collection of
Peredvizniki?
10.What were the first pictures of Tretiakovs collection?



                                  EXERCISES
Exercise I.  Choose the correct word to complete the sentence:
1. Buckingham Palace is the official /residence,home/ of the Her Majesty
  The Queen.
2. The Queens House was gradually /ruined, modernised/.
3. John Nash had rightly /predicted,promised/ that the Palace would prove
  too small, but this was a fault capable of remedy.
4. In 1847 the architect Edward Blore /added, took away/ the East front.
5. It /isnt, is/ the centre of a large office complex.
6. The business of monarchy /sometimes, never/ stops.
7. Buckingham Palace became the /administrative, juriditial/ centre of the
  monarchy.
8. Buckingham Palace /is, was/ built for Jihn, first Duke of Buckingham,
  between  1702 and 1705.
9. The director of the Royal Collection is /responsible, look after/  for
  one of the finest collections of works of art in the world.
10. The Royal collection is a vast assemblage of works of art of all
  /sizes, kinds/

Exercise  II. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and
expressions and use them in your own sentences:

1.potent symbols       2.carry out     3.suitor    4.predict
5.coronation

6.ill-fated    7.dignity    8.eccentricity    9.accredit    10.require



                                  EXERCISES
Exercise  I.   True or false?

1. Windsor Castle  is the youngest royal residence.
2. The Castle covers  an area of nearly 30 acres.
3. The Castle was founded by William the Conqueror in 1080.
4. Norman castles  were built to a special plan.
5. Queen Victoria spent the smallest part of a year at Windsor.
6. St Georges Chapel  is the spiritual home of of the Prodder of the
  Garter,Britains senior Order of Chivalry.
7. Windsor is only the place of beauty without  any functions.
8. St George is the patron saint  of the Order.
9. The Valley Gardens are open only in summer.
10. The vaulted ceiling of  the Albert Memorial Chapel is decorated in gold
  mosaic by Antonio Salviati.

Exercise  II.   Fill in the blanks with the correct tense forms of the
verbs in brackets:

    In many ways Windsor Castle ____(enjoy) its apogee in the reign of
Queen Victoria. She ____ (spend) the largest portion of every year at
Windsor, and in her reign it ____(enjoy) the position of principal palace
of the British monarchy and the focus of the British Empire as well as
nearly the whole of the royal Europe. The Castle____(visit) by heads of
state from all over the world and ___(be) the scene of a series of splendid
state ____ (use) for their original purpose by royal guests.

Exercise  III.
     Retell the text about St Georges Chapel  using  the following:
spiritual home; founded by; medieval style; to bury; represented by.



                                  EXERCISES

Exercise  I.    Give  Russian  equivalents  to  the  following   words   and
expressions from
the text about Westminster Abbey and use them in sentences of your own:

1.reerect 2. clumsy 3.grave 4. intricate 5.the domer staircase 6.
Commemoration 7.
abolition 8. conquest 9.  congregation 10. an auburn wig

Exercise II. Fill in the blanks with the following prepositions:
       of    on    from    for   by
1.Westminster Abbey is one __ the most famous, historic   and widely
visited  churches not only ___ Britain but ___   the whole Christian world.
2.___ 1920 the body ___ another unknown soldier was brought back ___ the
battlefields to be reburied ___ the Abbey ___ 11 November.
3.The Henry YII Chapel, beyond the apse, was begun ___ 1503 as a bural
place ___ Henry YII, ___ the orders ___ Henry YII, but it was Henry   YII
himself  who was finally buried here, ___ an elaborate tomb.
4.At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II ___1953 ,___ the first time
the service was televised and millions ___ her subjects could see and hear
the ceremony taking place.
5.The last three coronations have demonstrated continuing respect ___ the
religious significance ___ ceremony and recognition ___ the importance ___
such a public declaration ___ sovereign ___ his or her personal dedication
to the service ___ the people.

Exercise III.  Answer the following questions:

1.Why is Westminster Abbey so popular not only in Britain but in the whole
world?
2.When was the Lady Chapel rebuilt as the magnificent Henry YII Chapel?
3.The Nave was begun by Abbot Litlington, wasnt it?
4.What was originally the part of the Abbey where the monks worshiped?
5.Where does the High Altar stand?
6.Who was the first poet buried in the Abbey?
7.What do you know about processes of coronation today?
8.Have coronations always followed an identical pattern?
9.Who was crowened no less than three times?
10.What was special in the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II?



                              WORLDS  PAINTERS
Leonardo da Vinci                       1452-1519, an Italian painter
Manet                        1832-1883,a French painter
Michelangelo                      1475-1564,an Italian
sculptor,painter,poet
Millet                                  1814-1875,a French painter
Monet                        1840-1926,a French painter
Murillo                           1617-1682,a Spanish painter
Phidias                           5th cent.BC,a Greek sculptor
Pissaro                           1830-1903, a French painter
Potter                                  1625-1654,a Dutch painter
Raphael                           1483-1520,an Italian painter
Rembrandt                         1606-1669,a Dutch painter
Reynolds                          1841-1919,an English painter
Roerich                           1874-1947,a Russian painter
Rubens                            1577-1640,a Flemish painter
Sargent                           1856-1925,an American painter
Scott,Gilbert                     1811-1878,an English architect
Show, Norman                      1831-1912,an English architect
Titan                             1477-1576,an Italian painter
Turner                            1775-1881,an English landscape painter
Van Der Helst                     1613-1676,aDutch portrait painter
Van Gogh                          1853-1890,a Dutch painter
Vasari                            1511-1571,an Italian painter and art
historian
Velasques                         1599-1660,a Spanish painter
Whistler                          1834-1903,an American painter
Zurbaran                          1598-1662,a Spanish painter



                                   6
                            


                                   
                                    :
                             WORLDS  MUSEUMS



                                                   :
                                                    11- 
                                                    ..

                                                   :
                                                    ..



                                      
                                    1999


"Museums"