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Принцесса Диана Уэльская

                                   РЕФЕРАТ

                                  на тему:
                         «Принцесса Уэльская Диана»



                           г. Георгиевск, 1998 год

                                    Death


The tragic death of Diana, Princess of Wales occurred on Sunday,  31  August
1997 following a car accident in Paris, France. The  vehicle  in  which  the
Princess was travelling was involved in a high-speed accident in  the  Place
de l'Alma underpass in central Paris shortly before  midnight  on  Saturday,
30 August. The Princess was taken to  the  La  Pitie  Salpetriere  Hospital,
where she underwent two hours of emergency  surgery  before  being  declared
dead at 0300 BST. The Princess's companion, Mr Dodi Fayed,  and  the  driver
of the vehicle died in  the  accident,  whilst  a  bodyguard  was  seriously
injured.
The Princess's body was subsequently repatriated to the  United  Kingdom  in
the evening of Sunday, 31  August  by  a  BAe  146  aircraft  of  the  Royal
Squadron. The Prince of Wales and the Princess's elder sisters,  Lady  Sarah
McCorquodale and Lady Jane Fellowes, accompanied the  Princess's  coffin  on
its return journey. Upon arrival at RAF Northolt, the coffin, draped with  a
Royal Standard, was removed from the aircraft and transferred to  a  waiting
hearse by a bearer party from The Queen's Colour Squadron of  the  RAF.  The
Prime Minister was among those in the reception party.
From RAF Northolt the coffin was taken to a private mortuary in  London,  so
that the necessary legal  formalities  could  be  completed.  Shortly  after
midnight, it was moved to the Chapel Royal in St James's  Palace,  where  it
lay privately until the funeral on Saturday,  6  September,  in  Westminster
Abbey. The Princess's family and friends visited the  Chapel  to  pay  their
respects.
Following the funeral service, the coffin then was  taken  by  road  to  the
family estate at Althorp for a private interment. The  Princess  was  buried
in sanctified ground on an island in the centre of an ornamental lake



                         Childhood and teenage years


Diana, Princess of Wales, formerly Lady Diana Frances Spencer, was  born  on
1 July 1961 at Park House near Sandringham, Norfolk. She  was  the  youngest
daughter of the then Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, now  the  late  (8th)
Earl Spencer and the Hon. Mrs Shand-Kydd, daughter of the 4th Baron  Fermoy.
Earl Spencer was Equerry to George VI from 1950 to 1952, and  to  The  Queen
from 1952 to 1954. Lady Diana's parents, who had married in 1954,  separated
in 1967 and the marriage was dissolved in 1969. Earl Spencer  later  married
Raine, Countess of Dartmouth in 1976.
Together with her two elder sisters Sarah (born 1955), Jane (born 1957)  and
her younger brother Charles (born 1964), Lady Diana continued to  live  with
her father at Park House, Sandringham, until the death of  her  grandfather,
the 7th Earl Spencer. In 1975, the family moved to the Spencer  family  seat
at Althorp (a stately house dating from 1508) in  Northamptonshire,  in  the
English Midlands.
Lady Diana was educated first at a preparatory school, Riddlesworth Hall  at
Diss, Norfolk, and then in 1974 went  as  a  boarder  to  West  Heath,  near
Sevenoaks, Kent. At school she showed a particular talent for music  (as  an
accomplished  pianist),  dancing  and  domestic  science,  and  gained   the
school's award for the girl giving  maximum  help  to  the  school  and  her
schoolfellows. She left West Heath in 1977 and went to finishing  school  at
the Institut Alpin Videmanette in Rougemont,  Switzerland,  which  she  left
after the Easter term of 1978. The following year she moved  to  a  flat  in
Coleherne Court, London. For a while  she  looked  after  the  child  of  an
American couple, and she worked as  a  kindergarten  teacher  at  the  Young
England School in Pimlico.


                             Marriage and family


On 24 February 1981 it was officially  announced  that  Lady  Diana  was  to
marry The Prince of Wales. As neighbours at Sandringham  until  1975,  their
families had known each other for many years, and Lady  Diana  and  the  The
Prince had met again when  he  was  invited  to  a  weekend  at  Althorp  in
November 1977.


They were married at St Paul's Cathedral in London on 29  July  1981,  in  a
ceremony which drew a global television  and  radio  audience  estimated  at
around 1,000 million people, and hundreds of thousands of people lining  the
route from Buckingham Palace to the Cathedral. The wedding reception was  at
Buckingham Palace


The marriage was solemnised by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  Dr  Runcie,
together with the Dean of St Paul's; clergy from  other  denominations  read
prayers. Music included the hymns 'Christ is made the sure  foundation',  'I
vow to thee my country', the anthem 'I was glad' (by Sir  Hubert  Parry),  a
specially  composed  anthem  'Let  the  people  praise  thee'  by  Professor
Mathias, and Handel's 'Let the bright seraphim' performed by  Dame  Kiri  te
Kanawa. The lesson was read by the Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons,  Mr
George Thomas (the late Lord Tonypandy).
The Princess was the first Englishwoman to marry an heir to the  throne  for
300 years (when Lady Anne Hyde married the future James  II  from  whom  the
Princess was descended). The bride wore a silk taffeta dress with a  25-foot
train designed by the Emanuels, her veil was held in place  by  the  Spencer
family diamond tiara, and she carried a bouquet of gardenias, lilies-of-the-
valley, white freesia, golden roses, white orchids and stephanotis. She  was
attended by five bridesmaids including  Princess  Margaret's  daughter  Lady
Sarah Armstrong-Jones (now Lady Sarah Chatto); Prince Andrew (now  The  Duke
of York) and Prince Edward were The Prince of Wales's  supporters  (a  Royal
custom instead of a best man).


The Prince and Princess of Wales  spent  part  of  their  honeymoon  at  the
Mountbatten  family  home  at  Broadlands,  Hampshire,  before   flying   to
Gibraltar to join the Royal Yacht HMY BRITANNIA for a 12-day cruise  through
the Mediterranean to Egypt. They finished their honeymoon  with  a  stay  at
Balmoral.
The Prince and Princess made their principal home at  Highgrove  House  near
Tetbury, Gloucestershire, and shared an apartment in Kensington Palace


The Princess of Wales had two sons. Prince William Arthur Philip  Louis  was
born on 21 June 1982 and Prince Henry (Harry) Charles  Albert  David  on  15
September 1984, both at St Mary's Hospital, Paddington, in London.
The Princess had seventeen godchildren


In December 1992 it was announced that The Prince and Princess of Wales  had
agreed to separate. The Princess based  her  household  and  her  office  at
Kensington Palace, while The Prince was  based  at  St  James's  Palace  and
continued to live at Highgrove.
In November 1995, the Princess gave a television interview during which  she
spoke of her unhappiness in her personal  life  and  the  pressures  of  her
public role. The Prince and Princess were divorced on 28 August 1996.


The Prince and Princess continued to  share  equal  responsibility  for  the
upbringing of their children. The Princess, as the mother of Prince  William
(second in line to the throne), continued to be regarded as a member of  the
Royal family. The Queen, The Prince and The Princess of  Wales  agreed  that
the Princess was to be known after the divorce as Diana, Princess of  Wales,
without the style of 'Her Royal Highness' (as the  Princess  was  given  the
style 'HRH' on marriage she would therefore be expected to  give  it  up  on
divorce).
The Princess continued to live at Kensington Palace, with her  office  based
there.



After her marriage, The Princess of Wales quickly  became  involved  in  the
official duties of the Royal family. Her first tour with The  Prince  was  a
three-day visit to Wales in  October  1981.  In  1983  she  accompanied  The
Prince on a tour of Australia and New Zealand,  and  they  took  the  infant
Prince William with them. Prince William, with Prince  Harry,  again  joined
The Prince and Princess at the end of their tour to  Italy  in  1985.  Other
official overseas visits undertaken with The Prince included Australia  (for
the bicentenary celebrations  in  1988),  Brazil,  India,  Canada,  Nigeria,
Cameroon, Indonesia, Spain, Italy,  France,  Portugal  and  Japan  (for  the
enthronement of Emperor Akihito). Their last joint  overseas  visit  was  to
South Korea in 1992.


The Princess's first official visit overseas on her  own  was  in  September
1982, when she represented The Queen at the state funeral of Princess  Grace
of Monaco. The Princess's first solo overseas  tour  was  in  February  1984
when she travelled to Norway to  attend  a  performance  of  Carmen  by  the
London City Ballet, of which  she  was  patron.  The  Princess  subsequently
visited many countries  including  Germany,  the  United  States,  Pakistan,
Switzerland, Hungary, Egypt, Belgium, France,  South  Africa,  Zimbabwe  and
Nepal.


Although the Princess was renowned for her style and was closely  associated
with the fashion world, patronising  and  raising  the  profile  of  younger
British designers, she was best known for her charitable work.


During her marriage, the Princess  was  president  or  patron  of  over  100
charities. The Princess did much to publicise work  on  behalf  of  homeless
and also disabled people, children and people  with  HIV/Aids.  In  December
1993, the Princess announced that she would be reducing the  extent  of  her
public life in order to combine  'a  meaningful  public  role  with  a  more
private life'.
After her separation from The Prince, the Princess continued to appear  with
the Royal family on major national occasions, such as the commemorations  of
the 50th anniversary of VE (Victory in Europe) and VJ (Victory  over  Japan)
Days in 1995.


Following her divorce, the Princess resigned most of her charity  and  other
patronages, and relinquished all  her  Service  appointments  with  military
units. The Princess remained as patron of  Centrepoint  (homeless  charity),
English National Ballet, Leprosy Mission and National  Aids  Trust,  and  as
President of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street and of  the
Royal Marsden Hospital. In June 1997, the Princess  attended  receptions  in
London and New York as previews of the sale  of  a  number  of  dresses  and
suits worn by her on  official  engagements,  with  the  proceeds  going  to
charity.
The Princess spent her 36th and last birthday on 1 July 1997  attending  the
Tate Gallery's 100th Anniversary celebrations. Her last official  engagement
in Britain was on 21 July, when she visited Northwick Park Hospital,  London
(children's accident and emergency unit).


In the year before her death, the Princess was an active  campaigner  for  a
ban on the manufacture and use of land mines. In January 1997,  she  visited
Angola as part  of  her  campaign.  in  June,  the  Princess  spoke  at  the
landmines conference at the Royal Geographical Society in London,  and  this
was followed by a visit to Washington DC in the United States on 17/18  June
to promote the American Red Cross landmines campaign (separately,  she  also
met Mother Teresa in The Bronx).
The Princess's last public engagements were during her visit to Bosnia  from
7 to 10 August, when she visited landmine projects in Travnic, Sarajevo  and
Zenezica.
It was in recognition of  her  charity  work  that  representatives  of  the
charities with which she worked during her life were invited to walk  behind
her coffin with her family from St James's Palace to  Westminster  Abbey  on
the day of her funeral.

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