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full name State of Idaho
POSTAL ABBREVIATION ID
inhabitant Idahoan
ADMITTED TO THE UNION July 3, 1890.
Rank 43rd

capital city Boise, the largest city in the  state,  located  on  the  Boise
River in southwestern Idaho; population 125,738. Originally  an  army  camp,
it was founded as a settlement in 1863 and was incorporated as  a  city  the
following year, when it also became the territorial capital.

state name and nicknames The name  "Idaho"  is  an  artificial  Indian  word
invented by George M. Willing. Also known as the Gem State and  the  Gem  of
the Mountains (the putative meaning of "Idaho").

state seal In the center is a shield showing a  landscape,  with  the  Snake
River, mountains, a fir tree, and a farmer at the plow. Above the shield  is
an elk's head and the
state motto on a scroll; below it is a sheaf of wheat; to  the  right  is  a
miner; to the left a woman holding symbols of  justice  and  liberty.  Along
the bottom are agricultural symbols, including two  cornucopias,  the  state
flower, and ripened wheat. The yellow border reads "Great Seal of the  State
of Idaho."
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The western state of Idaho belongs to the Mountain states.  It  is  bordered
on the north by Canada, on the east by Montana and Wyoming, on the south  by
Nevada and Utah, and on the  west  by  Oregon,  Washington,  and  the  Snake
River. It ranks 42nd in population and 14th in area among the states.


motto Esto Perpetua (It Is Forever)

song "Here We Have Idaho," lyrics by McKinley Helm and Albert  J.  Tompkins,
music by Sallie Hume Douglas.

SYMBOLS
Flower syringa Tree white pine Bird mountain bluebird Gem star garnet  Horse
Appaloosa flag A blue field with the state seal in the center and  below  it
a red band bearing the legend "State of Idaho."

As a Rocky Mountain state, Idaho is dominated by mountain terrain, with  the
Continental Divide forming Idaho's eastern border. The state  contains  some
of the largest stretches of unspoiled wilderness in  the  continental  U.S.,
with a wide diversity of flora and game. Idaho also boasts more  than  2,000
lakes and ten major rivers.  Heavily  irrigated  farmland  lines  the  Snake
River valley, the state's major drainage; Hell's Canyon, along  the  western
Snake River, is the deepest gorgeabout one mile in depthin North America.
elevations Highest point-. Borah Peak, Cus-
ter County, 12,662 feet. Lowest point. Snake River, Nez Perce County, 710
feet. Mean elevation: 5,000 feet
major rivers Snake, Salmon, Clearwater

major lakes Pend Oreille,  Coeur  d'Alene,  Priest,  Bear,  American  Falls,
Cascade, and Dworshak

temperatures (1990) The highest recorded temperature was 118F on July 28,
1934, at Orotino. The lowest was 60F on January 18, 1943, at Island Park
Dam.



                              IDAHO IN HISTORY

1805      A U.S. expedition  led  by  Meriwether  Lewis  and  William  Clark
        crosses what is now the Idaho panhandle  en  route  to  the  Pacific
        coast.
1809      David Thompson of the North West  Company  establishes  a  trading
        post on the eastern shore

                      of Lake Pend Oreille.
1810      Andrew Henry of the Missouri Fur Company  establishes  a  camp  on
        the fork of the Snake River but abandons it the following year.
1818      The United States and Great Britain agree on  joint  occupancy  of
        the Pacific Northwest, including what is now Idaho.
1834      Fort Hall and Fort Boise  are  constructed  to  aid  fur  traders;
        these posts become stops on the Oregon Trail, which  by  1845  is  a
        well-traveled road.
1836      Henry Spalding establishes a mission to the Nez Perce  Indians  at
        Lapwai.
1846      June 15. A treaty  with  Great  Britain  establishes  the  Pacific
        Northwest below the 49th parallel as U.S. territory.
1848      August 14. Oregon  Territory  is  created,  including  present-day
        Idaho.
1855      A treaty with the Koutenai, Pend  Oreille,  and  Flathead  Indians
        creates reservations for them in what is now Idaho  and  Montana.  A
        treaty with the Nez Perce establishes for them a reserve in what  is
        now Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
I860      June 15. First permanent settlement  in  Idaho,  at  Franklin,  by
        Mormons from Utah. In 1911 this day is proclaimed Pioneer Day.
1862      The Golden Age is Idaho's first  newspaper  and  is  published  in
        Lewiston.
1863      March 4. Creation of Idaho Territory.
Some Nez Perce  accept  a  smaller  reservation  replacing  the  1855  area,
        overrun by

                     gold prospectors. Chinese violence  in  1866-1867  that
        leaves over a hundred dead. 1874       The  Utah  Northern  Railroad
        reaches Franklin from Ogden, Utah.
1877       Nontreaty  Nez  Perce  led  by  Chief   Joseph,   expelled   from
        northeastern Oregon, are pursued

                      through Idaho by federal troops before surrendering in
        Montana
1878      Forty whites and 78 Indians die in  an  uprising  by  Paiutes  and
        Bannocks. Indian
warfare in Idaho ends the following year. 1880      Silver is found  in  the
        Wood River region. 1882      The  Northern  Pacific  Railroad  links
        northern Idaho to the east and the Pacific
Northwest seaports.                                  .
1884      Completion of the Oregon Short Line Railroad from Wyoming  through
        southern
Idaho to Oregon.
1885      Noah S. Kellogg finds silver in the  Coeur  d  Alene  area.  1  he
        Bunker Hill and Sullivan mines become the biggest in the chief lead-
        silver district in the U.S., which has  yielded  about  $2  billion.
                                      . . Test Oath Act  bars  Mormons  from
        voting, holding office, or  serving  on  Juries  These  disabilities
        become part of the state constitution and remain in force until 1890
        when Mormons renounce polygamy as an act of faith.
1892      Martial law is declared in northern Idaho mining towns, where  the
        dispatch ot federal troops helps break a miners' strike.  More  than
        600 union leaders and sympathizers are arrested.
1896-1902 Democrats, allied with Populists,  control  state  politics.  They
        also receive support from dissident Republicans who join in  seeking
        the remonetization of silver.
1899       Dynamiting  of  Bunker   Hill   concentrator   results   in   the
        reimposition of martial law and dispatch of U.S. troops. The Western
        Federation of Miners is  suppressed,  and  hundreds  of  miners  are
        imprisoned for six months.
1905      Women receive the right to vote.
December W. Former governor Frank Steunenberg is assassinated.
1907      Clarence Darrow successfully defends "Big Bill"  Haywood  and  two
        other Western Federation of Miners officials  found  not  guilty  of
        conspiracy in Steunenberg s murder. William Borah,  the  prosecutor,
        is elected to the U.S. Senate; he servesuntil  his  death  in  1940.
                                      .   establishing    the    initiative,
        referendum and recall.
1912      Voters adopt constitutional amendments
1914      Moses Alexander is  elected  the  first  Jewish  governor  of  any
        state.
1915      Arrowrock Dam, completed on the Boise River, is, at 354 feet,  the
        highest dam in
the  world.                                                                .
        1922      Farmers are receiving less than one-third of  1919  prices
        for crops and livestock. 1927      The American Falls  Dam,  on  the
        Snake River near Pocatello, provides irrigation
water for one million acres. Completion of U.S. Highway 95,  the  only  land
        connection between northern and
southern Idaho.
1931      Adoption of  a  state  income  tax  and  a  tax  on  private-power
        combines.
1932      As a result of  the  the  Great  Depression,  average  income  has
        fallen 49 percent since 1929. Cash income of farmers has  fallen  by
        almost two-thirds.
1934      Idaho  is  first  among  states  in  silver  and  second  in  lead
        production. Shoshone County has the  nation's  largest  silver  mine
        (the Sunshine Mine) and the three largest lead producers. The  state
        also ranks third in hay and fifth in wool.
1936      The Union Pacific Railroad creates Sun Valley as a ski resort.
1939      Per capita income has risen to $452 from $287 in 1933.
1942      Nearly 10,000 persons of Japanese ancestry are sent from the  West
        Coast to an
internment camp at Hunt.
1951      The Atomic Energy Commission's National Reactor  Testing  Station,
        near Arco, successfully uses atomic energy to  produce  electricity.
        Opening, at Lewiston, of Idaho's first pulp and paper plant.
1959      Completion of the Brownlee Dam on the  Hell's  Canyon  stretch  of
        the Snake River.
Idaho  is  fourth  among  states  in  irrigated   acres2,330,000comprising
        54 percent of the state's farmland.
1965      A state sales tax of three percent is adopted.
1972      May 2. A fire in the Sunshine Mine kills 91 miners.
1973      Completion of the Dworshak Dam on the Clearwater River.
1975      Lewiston becomes a seaport with the dedication of  a  $344-million
        deep-channel waterway linking the Snake and Columbia rivers  to  the
        Pacific Ocean.
1976      June 5. The Teton Dam on the Snake  River  collapses,  killing  11
        persons and causing at least $400 million in property damage.
1980      Creation of the 2.2-million-acre River of  No  Return  Wilderness,
        the largest wilderness preserve in  the  United  States  outside  of
        Alaska.
1982      The Sunshine Mine and Bunker Hill  mine  and  smelter  are  closed
        because of low silver prices.
1985      Idaho accounts for 48 percent of national  silver  production.  It
        also produces all the  nation's  antimony  and  ranks  second  among
        states in lead and vanadium production and third in  phosphate  rock
        and  molybdenum.  Record  potato  production  of  over  102  million
        hundredweight comprises one-fourth of all U.S. potatoes.
1986       Idaho  voters  adopt  a  right-to-work  constitutional  amendment
        prohibiting the payment of union dues as a condition for employment.
1992      Overcoming objections from state officials  and  tribal  councils,
        the federal government ships nuclear waste to an Idaho Falls storage
        center for the first time  in  three  years.Angus!.  Governor  Cecil
        Andrus declares a state of  emergency  as  fires  rage  through  the
        state.
SOME INFORMATION: The Idaho potato remains the state's most  important  cash
crop, followed by wheat, sugar beets, alfalfa, beans, truck vegetables, and
peas. Cattle are the main livestock. Total farm  receipts  were  over  $2.7
billion in 1989. Manufacturing in the state is centered around  potato  and
beet-sugar processing, lumber products, and chemicals.  Silver,  lead,  and
zinc, sand, gravel, basalt, pumice, garnet, and phosphate are the principle
mining products. As in many Western states, tourism is one of  the  fastest
growing industries, as visitors flock to see Idaho's  spectacular  national
and state parks.
Among states, Idaho ranks high in the generation of  energy  from  renewable
resources mainly hydropower and woodburning. The Columbia and  Snake  River
system, which passes through the state, is one of  the  most  endangered  in
the nation, in part due  to  Idaho's  heavy  use  of  irrigation.  In  fact,
Idahoans use more water per capita than the inhabitants of any other  state.
Among the species threatened  by  declining  river  levels  is  the  sockeye
salmon, which is nearly extinct in Idaho.

NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES
Idaho was formerly home to the Kalispel, Nehelem, Northern Paiute,  Palouse,
and Spokane tribes. Groups that continue to live there include the  Bannock,
Coeur  d'Alene,  Kootenay,  Nez  Perce,  Northern  Shoshoni,   and   Western
Shoshoni. Native Americans were 1.4 percent of the population in 1990.

RELIGIONS, ETHNICITIES, AND LANGUAGES
More than half of Idaho's population was born in Idaho; the  rest  is  drawn
mainly from the western and north central states.  There  is  also  a  large
community of Basques, originally from Spain, who  continue  their  tradition
of  sheep-herding.  Among  churchgoers,  Mormons  are  the  biggest   group,
followed  by  Catholics  and  Methodists.  In  1990,  2.9  percent  of   the
population was foreign-born, with the majority  of  immigrants  coming  from
Mexico and Canada; 6.4 percent of the population spoke languages other  than
English at home, of which the ten most common were Spanish, German,  French,
Japanese,  Shoshoni,  Chinese,  Basque,  Thai  (Laotian),  Portuguese,   and
Italian. Catholics and Methodists. In 1990, 2.9 percent  of  the  population
was foreign-born, with the majority of immigrants  coming  from  Mexico  and
Canada; 6.4 percent of the population spoke languages other than English  at
home, of which the ten most common were Spanish, German,  French,  Japanese,
Shoshoni, Chinese, Basque, Thai (Laotian), Portuguese, and Italian.


MAJOR MUSEUMS AND LIBRARIES
Boise Gallery of Art Idaho State Historical Museum, Boise

MAJOR ARTS ORGANIZATIONS
Boise Opera Boise Philharmonic Association

 Idaho has the only state seal designed by a womanEmma Sarah  Edwards.  The
 seal was officially adopted on March 14, 1891.

 Democrat Moses Alexander,  Idaho  governor  from  1915  to  1919,  was  the
 nation's first full-term Jewish governor.

 Idaho's Craters of the Moon National Monument, a region of volcanic craters
 and ash-strewn low hills, was used by NASA as a training ground for  Apollo
 astronauts.

 The state's  hydroelectric  power  plants,  with  1  million-plus  kilowatt
 capacity, use less than ten percent of Idaho's hydroelectric potential.

Idaho's stretch of U.S. Highway 12 runs along the route taken by  the  Lewis
and Clark expedition in 1805. Only one major  highway  runs  north-south  in
the state; when that is blocked in  winter,  vehicular  travel  between  the
upper and lower parts of the state is nearly impossible.


MAJOR MUSEUMS AND LIBRARIES

Boise Gallery of Art Idaho State Historical Museum, Boise


MAJOR ARTS ORGANIZATIONS Boise Opera Boise Philharmonic Association.

SHORT: Throughout the 1860s,  Idaho  experienced  a  gold  rush  that  drew
scores of prospectors but left  a  lot  of  ghost  towns.  These  relics  of
instant communities are found in many parts of the state.  Mining?  However?
Is still important. Idaho ranks first internationally in the  production  of
silver? Lead? Zinc? Copper and cobalt.

The famed Sunshine Mince, a long and largest lode producer of silver in  the
United States? Is there. In May 1972. A fire in  the  Sunshine  sent  lethal
carbon monoxide and smoke wafting through 100 miles of workings.  The  death
toll of miners was a staggering 91 people.

Of all commercial activities in the  state,  Idaho  leans  most  heavily  on
agriculture for its economic well-being. It is the  tenth  largest  producer
of wheat in the nation and the leader in potatoes.

The Idaho potato, like the Georgia peach, remains something of  an  American
institution. But it is the cattle  industry  that  is  responsible  for  the
largest single share in annual farm-marketing cash  receipts.  Tourism,  now
the third-ranked industry, is one the rise,  with  an  estimated  6  million
yearly visitors.

There are more than 25  established  ski  areas  in  Idaho,  including  that
dowager of winter resorts, Sun Valley.

Celebrated in song and film, Sun Valley has worn its fame well down  through
the years.





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