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Grammatical difference between British and American English

                                   Content

American English…………………………………………………2

Lexical difference…………………………………………………4

Grammatical difference…………………………………………..6

Bibliography……………………………………………….8



        Grammatical difference between British and American English.


      American English.

       In the early part of the seventeenth century English  settlers  began
to bring their language to America, and another series of changes  began  to
take place. The settlers borrowed  words  from  Indian  languages  for  such
strange trees as the hickory  and  persimmon,  such  unfamiliar  animals  as
raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers  from
other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from  the  French,  scow
and sleigh from the Dutch. They made  new  combinations  of  English  words,
such as backwoods and bullfrog, or  gave  old  English  words  entirely  new
meanings, such as  lumber ( which in  British  English  means  approximately
junk ) and corn ( which in British means  any  grain,  especially  wheat  ).
Some  of the new terms were needed, because there were  new  and  un-English
things to talk about. Others can be explained only  on  the  general  theory
that languages are always changing, and American English is no exception.
       Aside from the  new  vocabulary,  differences  in  pronunciation,  in
grammatical construction, and especially in  intonation  developed.  If  the
colonization had taken place a few centuries earlier,  American  might  have
become as different  from  English  as  French  is  from  Italian.  But  the
settlement occurred after the invention of printing, and  continued  through
a period when the idea of educating everybody  was  making  rapid  progress.
For a long time most of the books read in America came from England,  and  a
surprising number of Americans read  those  books,  in  or  out  of  school.
Moreover, most of the colonists seem to have felt strong ties with  England.
In this they were unlike their Anglo-Saxon ancestors, who apparently made  a
clean break with their continental homes.
       A good many Englishmen and  some  Americans  used  to  condemn  every
difference that did develop, and as recently as a generation ago it was  not
unusual to hear all “Americanisms” condemned, even in  America.  It  is  now
generally recognized in this country that we are not bound  to  the  Queen’s
English, but have a full right to work out our own habits. Even a good  many
of the English now concede this, though some of them object strongly to  the
fact that Americanisms are now having an influence on British usage.
       There are thousands of differences  in  detail  between  British  and
American English, and occasionally they crowd together enough to  make  some
difficulty. If you read that a man, having trouble with his lorry,  got  out
his spanner and lifted the bonnet to see what was the matter, you might  not
realize that the driver of the truck had taken out  his  wrench  and  lifted
the hood. It is amusing to play with such differences, but the  theory  that
the American language is now essentially different  from  English  does  not
hold up. It is often very difficult to decide whether a book was written  by
an American or an English man. Even in speech it  would  be  hard  to  prove
that national differences are greater than some local differences in  either
country. On the whole, it now seems probable that  the  language  habits  of
the two countries will grow more, rather than  less,  alike,  although  some
differences will undoubtedly remain and others may develop.
       It also seems probable that there will be narrow-minded and  snobbish
people in both countries for some time  to  come.  But  generally  speaking,
anybody who learnsto speak  and  write  the  standard  English  of  his  own
country, and to regard that of the other country  as  a  legitimate  variety
with certain interesting differences, will have little trouble  wherever  he
goes.



      Lexical difference.

      Lexical differences  of  american  variant  highly  extensive  on  the
strength of multiple borrowing from spanish and indian languages,  what  was
not in british english.


   American variant                                                  British
variant

    Subway             «метро»         underground
    the movies              «кинотеатр»      the cinema
    shop                    «магазин»        store
    sidewalk                «тротуар»        pavement
    line                    «очередь»        queue
    soccer                  «футбол»         football
    mailman                 «почтальон»      postman
    vacation                «каникулы»       holiday
    corn                    «кукуруза»       maize
    fall                    «осень»          autumn



    Also claim attention differences in writing some words in american  and
british variants of language.
    For instance, following:


      American variant                          British variant

            honor                         honour
            traveler                           traveller
                plow                           plough
               defense                            defence
               jail                                            gaol
              center                          centre
              apologize                            apologise



      Grammatical difference.

    Grammatical differences of american variant consist in following:

    1. In that events, when Britainians use Present Perfect, in Staffs  can
       be used and Present Perfect, and Past Simple.

    2. Take a shower/a bath instead of have a shower/a bath.

    3. Shall is not used. In all persons is used by will.

    4. Needn't (do) usually is not used. Accustomed  form  -don't  need  to
       (do).

    5. After demand, insist, require etc should  usually  is  NOT  used.  I
       demanded that he apologize (instead of I  demanded  that  he  should
       apologise in british variant).

    6. to/in THE hospital instead of to/in hospital in BrE.

    7. on the weekend/on weekend instead of at the weekend/at weekend.

    8. on a street instead of in a street.

    9. Different from or than instead of different to/from

    10. Write is used with to or without the pretext.

    11. Past participle of "got" is "gotten"

    12. To burn, to spoil and other verbs, which can be regular or
          irregular in the british variant, in the american variant ALWAYS
          regular.

    13. Past Perfect, as a rule, is not used completely.



                                Bibliography



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