Иностранные языки

Билеты и ответы на них по Английскому языку на 2002 год




                                Билеты по английскому языку



                                            Our Country
Britain, is .only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is
a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The
winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and
sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon.
Edinburgh, Scotland's capital, is very beautiful. The heart
of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for centuries.
Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August,
the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come
from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city. In the
evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are
full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle
is at its best in Festival tune.Every night there is a magnificent military
«Tattoo». Highland soldiers wearing «kilts» play the bagpipes and march to
the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history.
Since the fifteenth century, each Scottish family (or ‘clan') has worn its
own tartan as a kindof badge. It was a useful way of recognising people,
especially in times of war.
                                                                                                                                                           •
                                                                                                                                                           ч

Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old
patterns still exist. «Dress» tartans, worn on special occasions, have
light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown.
Wales is a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has
plenty of industry, too. There are.many factories and coal mines there. The
people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh
music and poetry called an «Eisteddfod».
          A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart
of the country. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to
look for Jobs in the new«high-tech» industries. The centre of England (the
«Midlands») is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge
cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of
car industry. The west of England is a rich farming country. It produces
milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples. Northern Island is beautiful too.
In the warm, wet climate n of the land is farming.
         Britain is an island and there is no place to be too far fronr sea.
Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and ro with small, sandy
beaches, and romantic harbours.

                                                        Vocabulary
Castle –  замок                                                        Deer
- олень
Edinburgh – Эдинбург                                            Bagpipe -
волынка
Tattoo – барабанная дробь                                    Tartan –
шотландский плед
Salmon – лосось
cathedral- собор
coal mines –  угольные шахты                               Beache – берег
Harbour – гавань
“high- tech” industries – отрасли высоких технологий
Eisteddfod –  айстедвод, состязаниек бардов
Problems of city and coutry life

The saga of discovery and settlement of the New Worid, begun by European's
in the late 15th century, lasted more than 200 years. Snccessive
transatlantic crossings, first into the Caribbean and then to the coast of
Canada and along the coast of South America, describe the general pattern
of exploration by the Spanish, Portuguese, falians, French, and English.
Several factors made the Age of Exploration possible. Medieval
cartographers placed Jerusalem at the center of the earth. But in the 15th
century. Western scholars rediscovered Ptolemy's «Geography», with its maps
of a semispheric earth that accurately located all distant places.
Improvements in
equipment enabled the construction of larger, more manoeuvrable ships.In-
the East Europeans were cut off from land routes to India and China. The
need for new avenues of trade with the Far East led to theseafaring
explorations of the Age of Discovery.
In 1492 the Italian Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in a Spanish-
backed attempt to find a new trading route to the Far East.  While that
objective went unfulfilled, subsequent voyages by explorers did much to
reveal both the complexities of transatlantic navigation and the nature of
the New World. Simultaneously, Portuguese seafarers led by Bartolomeu Dias
had pushed southward to the Cape of Good Hope, mapping the entire western
coast of Africa in the process and proving the existence of a sea route
between Europe and India. In 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian sea captain,
completed the first recorded transatlantic voyage by an English vessel,
while attempting to find a north-west passage to Asia. Cabot died during
the second attempt to find a direct route to Cathay in 1498. Althoughl
Sebastian Cabot continued his father's explorations in the Hudson Bay
region in 1508-1509, England's interest in the New World waned. However,
Cabot's voyages established England's belated claim to America, In 1520
Ferdinand Magellan discovered the strait, now bearing his name, that links
the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The discovery of Cape Horn at the
southernmost tip of South America was made in 1578 by the English navigator
Francis Drake; this provided a more suitable route for trading ships.
Colonisation followed exploration, and, as isolated outposts gave way to
larger protected settlements and military garrisons in the 17th and l8th
centuries, the tide of colonists to the New World and the exploitation of
natural resources from both land and sea increased. The explorers were
inspired by curiosity and the desire tc become wealthy. The Age of
Exploration enriched Europe.
                                                     Vocabulary

  saga - увлекательная история                               New World
  -Новый Свет

  successive – последующий                                    exploration
-исследование
   Ptolemy  - Птолемей
accurately  - точно
  Columbus  - Колумб'                                              trading
route - торговый путь
  subsequent – последующий                                   voyage  -
морское путешествие
  explorer  - исследователь                                       reveal  —
показать
   simultaneously  - одновременно                            vessel  -
судно
   wane  - уменьшиться                                              belated
 -запоздалый
   claim  - притязание
Ferdinand Magellan - Фернандо Магелан
   arrison  - гарнизон

Caribbean - карибскии, относящийся к Карибскому морю

Age of Discovery = Age of Exploration - эпоха Великих ографических открытий

Barrtolomeu Dias - Бартоломеу Диаш


                                             Education and future
profession
The seventeenth century was the time of the development of various branches
of science. The new mood had been established by Francis Bacon. Bacon was a
lawyer who entered Parliament early and became James I's Lord Chancellor.
Bacon bad a wide range of scholarly interests. He had the reputation of
being the most learned man of his time. Francis Bacon's goal was synthesis.
He wanted to organize 'all knowledge' in a united whole. He defined the
scientific method in a form that is still relevant and stimulates the
growth of science. Every scientific idea, he argued, must be tested by
experiment. With idea and experiment following one the other, the whole
natural world would be understood. In the rest of the century British
scientists put these ideas into practice.
Bacon made a great contribution to historical writing. He was a master
stylist - his scientific works can be read with pleasure, as literature. He
saw himself as an intellectual Columbus, revealing  new world of science to
his contemporaries, and bringing back hips freighted with useful knowledge.
In his «New Atlantis» Bacon described an island governed by an Academy of
Sciences, founded 'for the knowledge of causes, and secret motion of
things; and the enlarging the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of
all things possible'. This is the most accessible and exciting of his
writings on science.
In his essay «Of Study» Francis Bacon regards studies as they should be:
for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business. He considers the evils of
excess study: laziness, affectation, and preciosity. Bacon divides books
into three categories; those to be read in part, those to be read casually,
and those to be read with care. Studies should include reading, which gives
depth: speaking, which adds readiness of thought; and writing, which trains
in preciseness. The author ascribes certain virtues to individual fields of
study: wisdom to history, wit to poetry, subtlety to mathematics, and depth
to natural philosophy. This essay has intellectual appeal indeed.
Meanwhile, scientists, were demystifying the universe. Nobody knows for
sure who invented the telescope, but Galileo Galilei had built one of his
own. With it he was able to confirm the heretical speculations of
Copernicus, Kepler and Tyeho Brahe that the sun, not the earth, was the
center of our universe. The specific origins of the microscope are equally
obscure. In the 17th century. Robe Hooke used it to describe accurately the
anatomy of a flea and the design of a feather; Antonie de Leeuwenhoek
discovered a world of wriggling organisms in a drop of water. The invention
of logarithms and calculus led to more accurate clocks and optical
instruments.
  By 1700 Galileo, Rene Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton  and  other  scientists
had clarified the principles by  which  machines  work.  Henceforth  Western
civilization's technological  supremacy  was  beyond  challenge.  Mechanical
invention led inevitably to  another  step  in  the  West's  commercial  and
political hegemony over the world: the Industrial Revolution.

                                 Vocabulary

science  - наука                                               branches of
science - области науки
establish – создать                                          define  -
давать (точное) определение
make a contribution to - внести вклад в         contemporary - современник
freight - грузить, фрахтовать                        Academy of Sciences -
Академия Наук
«New Atlantis» - Новая Атлантида              accessible  - доступная
exciting – увлекательный                             confirm  -
подтверждать
demystify – раскрывать                                heretical  -
еретический
speculation  - размышление                         microscope  - микроскоп
obscure – неясный                                        henceforth  - с
этого времени, впредь
technological supremacy - техническое превосходство     calculus  -
исчисление

Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

   In 1605 the first Europeans came to Manhattan island from Holland. In
1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America
known as New Amsterdam bought the island from the Native Americans for a
few glass necklaces, valued about twenty-four dollars today. In 1609 Henry
Hudson entered the River of the Mountains. In 1613 the Dutch-built: only
four small houses  on Manhattan’s a fur trading station. It was not until
1623, ten years more, that they started a real settlement, town of New
Amsterdam in honour of the capital of their country in Europe. In 1644
when the English acquired the island, the village New Amsterdam was renamed
New York. Today Manhattan is the heart of America's business and culture.
It is the most important banking re in the world. Fewer than two million of
the city's eight million people live on the island.
In 1789 on the steps of Federal Hall George Washington took the oath of
office when he became the first president of the United States of America.
During the years 1785 to 1790 New York was the capital of the United
States. Due to its natural advantages as a our, and the rising tide of
immigration from all parts of the world the role of New York as the leading
city accelerated. Villages grew throughout the entire area.
For the visitor New York means skyscrapers, tremendous traffic, dazzling
neon advertisements. Manhattan is full of parallel rows of buildings, those
running from north to south are called  avenues while those running from
east to west are called streets. avenues and streets have only numbers
instead of names. Wall Street from its very beginning became the market
place of money. It was here that a walled stockade was erected to repulse
the Indians its name. As the city expanded the stockade was dismantled as
of no further use, but the market place for the purchase of bonds and
securities remained.
Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic can be
terrible, and it is usually quicker to go by subway. It goes to almost
every comer of Manhattan. New York is an international city, the place to
try something new. It may be an experience you will never forget.
                                                           Vocabulary

settlement – колония
                  necklace - ожерелье value  - стоимость
                                                        governor
-губернатор      skyscrapers  - небоскребы
                              market place – рынок
                                 stockade  - укрепление, форт
                                           dismantl  - разобрать

purchase  - покупка
                 bonds - облигации
securities  - ценные бумаги
            subway  - метро
traffic jams  - дорожные пробки
dazzling neon advertisements - сверкающие неоновые рекламы



Sport and healthy life style

Аs Revolutionary America had produced two commanding figures who became
world-wide known, Washington and Franklin, so the  youthful republic raised
into fame two brilliantly able men whose reputations spread beyond the seas
- Alexander Hamilton and  Thomas Jefferson. They represented two powerful
though different tendencies in American life, Hamilton the tendency toward
closer union and a stronger national government, Jefferson the tendency
toward a broader, freer democracy.
Hamilton had been born in Nevis, a little island of the Lesser lies, to a
Scottish father and a Huguenot mother. He grew up ambitious, generous,
devoted, proud, quick to take offences and inexhaustible energy. His
achievements all arose from his combination of brilliancy, self-confident
ambition, and industry. His father had no money to scud him to college. But
a terrible hurricane-swept the Antilles, and he wrote a description of it
which attract; so roach attention that his aunts sent him to the American
mail land. He entered King's College in New York, and threw himself into
contact with the radicals of the town who were leading the n volt against
royal authority. When at twenty-two he became
captain of an artillery company, he took his books to camp and studied far
into the night.
Besides brilliancy and ambition, Hamilton had other quality which served
him well. He possessed great personal attractiveness With reddish-brown
hair, bright brown eyes, fine forehead, and firm mouth and chin, he was
very handsome, his face animated an pleasant when he talked, severe and
thoughtful when he was , work. He liked a lively dinner party and shone in
any circle which offered intellectual companions, and witty talk. As leader
of New York patriots, he was brought to Washington's notice an made him the
general's principal aide, it enabled him to lead dramatic assault at the
siege of Yorktown, it rendered him the principal figure in Washington's
administration, and it gave him command of a great party. He had remarkable
talents as an executive and organizer. He wrote and spoke much. Yet he also
showed striking defects. He was quick-tempered. He Quarreled with
Washington near the end of the war and rejected the advances the Washington
made to heal the breach. His arrogance of spin brought him into
unnecessarily conflicts - with Jefferson, with the Washington
administration, and with Aaron Burr, ending in his own death in a duel.

                                 Vocabulary

  Antilles  - Антильские острова                   possess  - владеть
  attractiveness  - привлекательность          animate  - оживлять
   sever  - суровый                                             thoughtful
- задумчивый
   executive - исполнительный                       arrogance  -
высокомерие

   hot-tempered  - вспыльчивый, горячий
  attract the attention — привлечь внимание



Travaling

The uniqueness of the British as a people has long been taken granted by
foreign observers and native commentators alike. Visitors from overseas,;
fromVenetian ambassadors in the late fifteenth century, through
intellectuals like Voltaire, to American journalists of the twentieth
century, have all been convinced of the special quality of British society.
This has been equally asumed by modern native chroniclers of the British
scene. But the nature or essence of the Britishness of the British is far
easier to proclaim than to explain. Some English characteristics upon which
both natives and visitors have tended to agree have to do with national
psychology: egoism, self-confidence, intolerance of outsiders, deep
suspieiousness towards their compatriots, ostentatious wealth,
independence, social mobility, love of comfort and a strong belief in
private property. Moderation, the avoidance of extremes, the choice of a
middle way, are among the essential qualities of Englishness. The two
features of English life which from the 15th century onwards struck almost
every observer were the country's wealth and its strong sense of
individualism.
  The features that have shaped the British distinctiveness were determined
by the country's geographical isolation from the European continent, with
the consistent centrality of sea power and a broad social fluidity in which
the early collapse of feudalism helped generate a new industry and
commercial enterprise. The long centuries during which the land was free
from invaders meant that there could be a flowing culture continuity from
the time of Chaucer onwards impossible on the war-torn Continent. A
political and legal evolution is expressed in the English Parliament which
has survived in recognisable form till today, without those interruptions
and periods of absolute monarchy that have marked the history of its
neighbours, and the rule of law. There have been other significant features
in the development of England which mark it as a country to some degree
separate from Europe. One of the most important is the language. English is
a language of unparalleled richness, subtlety and variety, which unlocks'
the treasures of a literature second to none in the werid. It is the
easiest language to leam.
     As for British history, it is not one of harmonious continuity,
broadening from epoch to epoch. It is a dramatic, colourful, often violent
story of an ancient, society and culture torn apart by the political,
economic, and intellectual turmoil of human experience. Britain in many
ways has been the cockpit of mankind.
                                                         Vocabulary
Ambassador – посол                                 assume – допускать
Proclaim – провозглашать                       psychology – психология
Self – confidence – самоуверенность      intolerance – нетерпимость
Ostentatious – показной                          Uniqueness – уникальность
                    social fluidity – соц. Подвижность        Avoidance –
уклонение                            extreme – крайность
           Isolation – изоляция                                  invader –
захватчик                                 Continuity – непрерывность
             proceed – продолжать                             Turmoil –
беспорядок
private property – частная собственность



Environmental protection

The 20th century began slowly, to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the
stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science, industry and moral
philosophy, mankind's steps had at last been guided up the right path. The
century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and
electricity. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, only 41 years old in
1900, proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual
but inevitable, determined by natural law.
And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small
steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. Inventions like the
railroad or the telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on
with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. No one could have
guessed then that, in the century just beginning, new ideas would burst
upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately
march of progress into a long distance, free-for-all sprint. Thrust into
this race, the children of the 20th century would witness more change in
their daily existence and environment than anyone else who had ever walked
the planet.
This high-velocity attack of new ideas and technologies seemed to ratify
older dreams of a perfectible life on earth, of an existence in which the
shocks of nature had been tamed. But the unleashing of unparalleled
progress was also accompanied by something quite different: a massive
regression toward savagery. If technology endowed humans with Promethean
aspirations and powers, it also gave them the means to exterminate one
another. Assassinations in Sarajevo in 1914 lit a spark that set off an
unprecedented explosion of destruction and death. The Great War did more
than devastate a generation of Europeans. It set the tone - the political,
moral and intellectual temper - for much that followed.
Before long the Great War received a new name - World War I. The roaring
1920s and the Depression years of the 1930s proved to be merely a prelude
to World War II. Largely hidden during that war was an awful truth that
called into question progress and the notion of human nature itself.
But civilization was not crushed by the two great wars, and the ruins
provided the stimulus to build a way of life again. To a degree previously
unheard of and perhaps unimaginable, the citizens of the 20th century felt
free to reinvent themselves. In that task  They were assisted by two
profound developments–psychoanalysis and the Bomb.

                                                         Vocabulary

    stately  - величественный, величавый
  thrust  - толчок
  high-velocity - большая скорость
  savagery - варварство
  aspiration  - стремление
  exterminate  - уничтожать
    assassination - убийство политического или общественного деятеля spark
- искра
    explosion - взрыв
   destruction - разрушение, уничтожение
   devastate  - опустошить
   roaring - бурный
   Depression - кризис 1929-32 гг.



                             Outstanding people
Edward VI took the English throne in 1461. When he unexpectedly died in
1483, his brother Richard was one of the most powerful men in the kingdom.
Edward IV left two little sons, Edward, Prince of Wales, age twelve, and
Richard, Duke of York, age nine. Their uncle Richard made a conspiracy to
seize the Princes. He brought them to London and locked away in the Tower,
and started to move toward usurpation. He alleged that the marriage of his
dead brother, Edward IV, was invalid because Edward had previously promised
to marry another woman. As a result, the little princes were declared
bastards, and young Edward V had no right to the throne of England. To
assure his own security, Richard is believed to have ordered to murder the
little princes in the Tower. He became King Richard III.
Richard had the most obvious reasons for wanting the young princes dead. He
lived through a civil war that taught him that powerful men were always
ready to rally around a standard revolt. If such a flag could be raised for
a prince of the royal blood to restore him to a rightful throne, noblemen
with great lands, great debts, and empty wallets might readily take arms,
looking for the main chance in the change of kings. Richard never felt
secure on his throne; his swift, lawless, and lethal moves against those
who threatened him showed that he was capable of murder if by murder he
could rid himself of the mortal danger. And as long as the little princes
remained alive the danger was always present. In the summer of 1483, the
little princes disappeared forever; that much is certain.
Richard III was killed in the battle on 22 August 1485. Henry Tudor, earl
of Richmond, now King Henry VII by right of conquest and some other
hereditary claims, felt he needed to justify his own actions at the battle
of Bosworth. He issued a royal proclamation, dated the day before the
battle, declaring himself the rightful king of England and condemning
Richard as the rebellious subject.
In 1674 two small skeletons were found in a wooden box buried ten feet
under a small staircase that workmen were removing from the White Tower.
They were thought to be the bones of the little princes. King Charles II
had his own reasons for being offended at the murder of kings, so he placed
these bones in the chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey.

                                                               Vocabulary

  usurpation - узурпация, незаконный  захват
   allege  - утверждать, заявлять (голословно)
   invalid  - не имеющий законной силы
   bastard - внебрачный ребенок
   security - безопасность
   rally – сплотиться
   standard - знамя, флаг
   murder  - убийство
   disappear  - исчезнуть
   it-rightful - законный
     condemn  - осуждать



Youth and unemployment

In the year 1000, Western Europe was just emerging from the long depression
commonly known as the Dark Ages. Shortly before the beginning of the
millennium, the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III moved his capital and court
back to the Eternal City. But what little grandeur Rome still possessed
paled by comparison with the splendors of 'the new Rome, Constantinople,
the capital of the Byzantine empire. Byzantium was one of three centers of
wealth and power in the known world of the 11th century, India and China
were the others. There were sophisticated cultures elsewhere, notably the
Mayans of Mexico, but they were virtually out of touch with other
civilizations — thus lacking an essential condition for being considered
part of world history.
Little of Europe's coming dynamism was apparent in the year JOOO, although
there were signs that the Continent was getting richer. Wider use of plows
had made farming more efficient. The planting of new crops, notably beans
and peas, added variety to Europe's diet Windmills and watermills provided
fresh sources of power. Villages that were to become towns and eventually
cities grew up around trading markets. Yet the modern nation-state, with
its centralized bureaucracies and armies under unified command came into
being in the 15th century. For most of the Middle Ages, Roman Catholicism
was Europe's unifying force. Benedictine abbeys had preserved what
fragments of ancient learning the Continent possessed. Cistercian monks had
cleared the land and pioneered in agricultural experimentation. Ambitious
popes competed with equally ambitious kings to determine whether the
spiritual realm would hold power over the tea or vice versa. Symbolic of
the church's power were great Gothic cathedrals of Europe: construction of
Reims began 13th century, and Charters—the most glorious of all such
edifices—was consecrated in 1260.
By the 20th century the ingenuity, coupled with an aggressive wanderlust,
brought Europeans and their culture to the ends earth. By the year 1914,
eighty four per cent of the world' surface, apart from the polar regions,
was under the influence European civilization. The hegemony of European
civilization was based on the successful application of new knowledge to a
problems and conquering nature, and much of that success based on
circumstance and ingenuity.


                                               Vocabulary

emerge  - выходить
millennium  – тысячелетие

asceticism  - аскетизм
sophisticated  - сложный
bureaucracies  - чиновники                                       apparent -
явный
watermill  - водяная мельница                                  ambitious  -
честолюбивый
ingenuity  - изобретательность                                 wanderlust
- страсть к путешествиям
surface  - поверхность
conquer  - завоевать
assertion  - утверждение
accomplishment  - достижение
grandeur  - великолепие, пышность, грозность



Mass media

The problem between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland started a
long time ago. It is more political than religious. For centuries the
English had tried to gain control of Ireland. Until the 16-th century,
England controlled only a small area of Ireland around Dublin. English
rulers, including King Henry VIII (1491-1547), Queen Elizabeth I (153-1603)
and Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) gradually conquered the whole of Ireland.
The last area to resist the province in Ulster, in the north of Ireland,
but in the Irish were defeated.
In 1910 the British Government offered Ireland a mild form of Home Rule –
full self-government in regard to purely Irish affairs. Opposition was
basked by the generals of the British Army’s troops in Ireland. The Irish
patriots formed their own military organizations of the Irish Volunteers,
drilling troops for the fight. The Labour Party in Ireland established the
Irish Army. The Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army jointly started
preparation for an insurrection. The set date was Monday of Easter Week,
1916. Although the uprising was a failure, it laid the foundation for
another stage of the fight for freedom. In 1921, an independent Irish state
was set up, that is the Republic of Ireland. In the north of Ireland six
countries were dominated and controlled by Protestants, who refused to join
the new Irish state. These six countries stayed part of the UK and are now
called Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland is a very beautiful place. It is a land of mountains,
rivers and lakes. It has a rugged coastline and one is never more than half
an hour away from the coast by car. The people of Ireland have always been
known for the stories and myths. They say that giants used to live on the
Antrim coast, north of Belfast. One giant, Finn McCool, the commander of
the king of Ireland’s army, fell in love with the woman giant in Scotland.
He wanted her to come to Ulster so he started to build a bridge, the
Giant’s Causeway, so that she could walk across the sea.

      Vocabulary
Area-пространство
Defeat - наносить поражение
Home Rule – Гом Руль
Back - поддержать
Troops - войска
Volunteers - «Добровольцы»
Drill - строевая подготовка
Insurrection – восстание
Uprising – восстание
Failure – неудача, провал
Independent - независимый
County – округ, графство
Giant – великан



                                                     Leisure time

  Until 1800 the United States of America had five  «capitals»  or  meeting
places of the  Congress  -  Princeton,  Annapolis,  Trenton,  New  York  and
Philadelphia. For various reasons, none of these  cities  offered  an  ideal
seat of government for the new nation. Southern states protested  that  they
were  all  too  far  north.  After  the  Constitution   was   adopted,   the
establishment of a new city was considered. President Washington  pinpointed
the exact location, and Congress passed  a  bill  for  a  federal  city  and
capital on July 17, 1790. The  city  of  Washington  was  called  just  «The
Federal City». It didn't gain its name until  after  the  first  president's
death. When Congress  and  the  rest  of  the  small  government's  agencies
arrived from Philadelphia  in,  the  new  capital  looked  very  unpromising
indeed. Only a fragment of the Capitol was completed,  and  a  part  of  the
White House. Other government departments were scattered about,  and  a  few
houses had been built. Up until the time of the Civil War,  Washington  grew
quite slowly. It really was just another  sleepy  southern  town,  enlivened
only when the Congress was in session, and not much  even  then.  After  the
Civil War it became the real capital of the United States.
      The best known building in Washington is  the  White  House,  home  of
American  Presidents  since  1800.  The  site  was  selected  by   president
Washington, the architect was James Hoban. The first residents of the  White
House were President and Mrs. John Adams. The cornerstone of  the  Executive
Mansion, as it was originally known, dates from October 13, 1792, 300  years
after the landing of Columbus. The president's home is the earliest  of  all
government buildings in the District of Columbia. The British  troops  which
arrived in Washington in 1814  were  indirectly  responsible  for  the  name
«White House»: the building was fired by them. Later the fire marks  on  the
walls were concealed by painting the whole building white. The  term  «White
House» became official at the end of the 19th century. The  President  works
here in the «Oval Office», but the  White  House  is  also  a  family  home.
President Truman had a piano  next  to  his  desk  and  President  Kennedy's
children used to play under his office windows.
      Washington is a cultural centre. It is proud of its art  galleries,  a
zoo, natural history collections, and the Museum of History and Technology.

                                                     Vocabulary
      Nation - государство
      Pinpoint - указать
      Exact location – точное расположение
      Pass a bill – одобрить законопроект
      Cornerstone – краеугольный камень
      Government buildings – правительственные здания
      To be indirectly responsible for – быть косвенно ответственным за
      Civil War – гражданская война
      Enliven – оживлять
      Be in session - заседать
      Delay - задержать
      Completion - завершение
      Accessible – доступный (открытый)
      Magnificent view – великолепный взгляд



                    International organizations and international co-
operation

Russian literature in the last half of the nineteenth century provided an
artistic medium for the discussion of political and social issues that
could not be addressed directly because of government restrictions. The
writers of this period shared important qualities: great attention to
realistic, detailed descriptions of everyday Russian life; the lifting of
the taboo on describing the unattractive side of life; and a satirical
attitude toward routines. Although varying widely in style, subject matter,
and viewpoint, these writers stimulated government bureaucrats, nobles, and
intellectuals to think about important social issues. This period of
literature, which became known as the Age of Realism, lasted from about mid-
century to 1905. The literature of the Age of Realism owed a great debt to
three authors and to a literary critic of the preceding half-century
Aleksandr Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolai Gogol, and Vissarion
Belinsky. These figures set a pattern for language, subject matter, and
narrative techniques, which before 1830 had been very poorly developed. The
critic Belinsky became the patron saint of the radical intelligentsia
throughout the century.
      Ivan Turgenev was successful at integrating social concerns with  true
literary art. His «Hunter's  Sketches»  and  «Fathers  and  Sons»  portrayed
Russia's problems with great realism and with  enough  artistry  that  these
works have survived as classics. Many writers of the period did not aim  for
social commentary, but the realism of  their  portrayals  nevertheless  drew
comment from radical  critics.  Such  writers  included  the  novelist  Ivan
Goncharov, whose «Oblomov» is a very negative portrayal  of  the  provincial
gentry,  and  the  dramatist  Aleksandr  Ostrovsky,  whose  plays  uniformly
condemned the bourgeoisie.
      Above  all  the  other  writers  stand  two:  Lev  Tolstoy  and  Fedor
Dostoevsky,  the  greatest  talents  of  the  age.  Their  realistic   style
transcended immediate social issues and explored universal  issues  such  as
morality and the nature of life itself. Although  Dostoevsky  was  sometimes
drawn into polemical satire, both writers kept the |main body of their  work
above the dominant social and political I     preoccupations  of  the  1860s
and 1870s. Tolstoy's «War and Peace» and «Anna  Karenina»  and  Dostoevsky's
«Crime and Punishment» and «The Brothers Karamazov» have endured as  genuine
classics because they drew the best  from  the  Russian  realistic  heritage
while focusing on broad  human  questions.  Although  Tolstoy  continued  to
write into% the twentieth century, he rejected his earlier style  and  never
again reached the level of his greatest works.
      The literary careers of Tolstoy,  Dostoevsky,  and  Turgenev  had  all
ended by 1881. Anton Chekhov, the major literary figure in the last  decades
of the nineteenth century, contributed in  two  genres:  short  stories  and
drama. Chekhov, a realist who examined  not  society  as  a  whole  but  the
defects of  individuals,  produced  a  large  volume  of  sometimes  tragic,
sometimes comic, short stories  and  several  outstanding  plays,  including
«The Cherry Orchard», a dramatic chronicling  of  the  decay  of  a  Russian
aristocratic family.

       Vocabulary
      Artistic medium – художественное средство
      Government restrictions – правительственные ограничения
      Subject matter - тема
      Government bureaucrats – государственные чиновники
      Owe – быть обязанным
      Preceding – предшествующий
      Patron saint – покровитель
      Negative portrayal – отрицательное изображение
      Provincial gentry – провинциальное дворянство

                                                   Human rights

In November 1960 the American people elected Senator John F. Kennedy to the
Presidency. Kennedy defeated by a narrow margin his Republican opponent,
Vice President Richard Nixon. The two youthful presidential candidates
highlighted their campaigns by appearing on television in a serious of
debates - Nixon emphasized the experience he had gained during his eight
years in the administration and reminding voters of the «peace and
prosperity» achieved under Republican leadership, and Kennedy calling for
new, forward-looking leadership and more effective use of the country's
human and economic resources.
      Almost everything about the new President caught  the  imagination  of
the people, and his Inauguration was no exception. In his. eloquent  address
the President set the tone of youthful energy and dedication  that  was  the
mark of his administration. Kennedy said: «Let the word go forth  from  this
time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been  passed  to
a new generation of Americans,  born  in  this  century,  tempered  by  war,
disciplined" by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient  heritage  and
unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of  those  human  rights  to
which this nation has always been committed... Let every  nation  know  that
we shall pay any price, bear any burden,  meet  any  hardship,  support  any
friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.»  But
the address was not merely a call to battle but an invitation  to  peace  as
well. «Let us never negotiate out of fear,» said the President, «but let  us
never fear to negotiate. Co-operation is better than conflict; let  us  then
substitute co-operation for conflict. Let both sides explore  what  problems
unite us... Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead  of
its terrors. Together  let  us  explore  the  stars,  conquer  the  deserts,
eradicate disease.»
      The first President to be born  in  the  twentieth  century,  and  the
youngest ever to  be  elected  to  the  presidency,  Kennedy  was  not  only
spokesman for a new generation, but  symbol  as  well.  He  brought  to  the
presidency an  alert  intelligence,  immense  personal  charm,  a  warm  and
generous humanitarianism,  but  also  a  lively  awareness  of  the  immense
potentialities of presidential  leadership.  Indeed,  his  Cabinet  and  his
White House advisers made up the youngest group of  top-level  officials  in
the country's history -a group notable for its openness  to  new  ideas  and
its readiness to take vigour actions.

                        Vocabulary

      Narrow margin – небольшое преимущество
      Highlight – освещать
      Inauguration - инаугурация
      Eloquent - красноречивый
      Heritage - наследие
      Burden - бремя
      Hardship – неприятности
      Substitute - заменить
      Awareness – осведомленность, информированность
      Immense – огромный
      Vigour - решительные
      Take actions – принимать действия



                                                Culture of the youth

      The foundation of the great schools which were named Universities  was
everywhere throughout  Europe  a  special  mark  of  the  new  impulse  that
Christendom had got from the Crusades. A new desire for study sprang  up  in
the West from its contact with the more cultured East. Oxford and  Cambridge
are the oldest universities in England. Both of these universities are  very
beautiful. They have some of the finest architecture  in  Britain.  Some  of
their colleges, chapels and libraries are three, four and even five  hundred
years old, and are full of valuable books and  precious  paintings.  Of  the
early history of Cambridge little is known, but enough remains to enable  us
to trace the early steps by which Oxford gained its intellectual glory.  The
history of Cambridge is believed to  begin  in  1209  when  several  hundred
students and scholars arrived at the little town of Cambridge  after  having
walked 60 miles from Oxford According to the custom they  joined  themselves
into “Universities” or a society of  people  with  common  employment.  Only
later they came to be associated with scholarship. '
      Cambridge won independence from the Town rule in 1500.  Students  were
of different ages and came  from  everywhere.  Gradually  the  idea  of  the
College  developed  and  in  1284  Peter  house,  the  oldest  College   was
established. In 1440  King  Henry  VI  founded  King’s  College,  and  other
colleges followed. The first college of Oxford  University  was  founded  in
1249. At hat time with the revival of classic studies many  teachers  became
enemies of parliament, and the Church. The  lectures  of  Vicarious  on  the
Civil Law at Oxford were prohibited by the English king. Now the  university
of Oxford has thirty-five colleges and  about  thirteen  thousand  students.
There were no woman students at Oxford until 1878, when  the  first  women’s
college, Lady Margaret Hall, was up. Now, most colleges are open to man  and
women. Oxford is famous  for  its  first-class  education  as  well  as  its
beautiful buildings. Many students want to study there. It is  not  so  easy
to get a place at Oxford University to study for a degree. But  outside  the
university there  are  many  smaller  private  colleges,  which  offer  less
difficult courses and where it is easy to enrol.


       Vocabulary
      Architecture - архитектура
      Valuable - ценный
      Precious - дорогой
      Christendom – Христианский мир
      Crusade – крестовый поход
      Spring up - возникать
      Revival of classic studies – возрождение классических наук
      Prohibit - запрещать
      Degree – ученая степень
      Enrol – зачислять



                                                            Arts


      American literature is dated from Mark Twain. Much of his writing  was
autobiographical. «Life on the Mississippi» was a story of  his  experiences
as a pilot learning the great river and the country  that  it  crossed,  and
the society that lived on its boats or along its banks.  In  1884  came  the
greatest of  his  achievements«Huckleberry  Finn».  'All  modern  literature
comes from «Huckleberry Finn»', said Ernest Hemingway, and the  aphorism  is
really true. Mark Twain was considered by his contemporaries the Lincoln  of
American literature. The «valley  of  democracy»  that  created  Mark  Twain
produced his friend W.D. Howells. In  his  writing  Howells  gave  the  most
comprehensive picture of middle-class American society to be  found  in  the
whole of American literature. Probably no other novelist except Balzac  ever
made so elaborate a report on his society  as  did  W.D.  Howells.  He  drew
genre pictures of the New England countryside, the best of all portraits  of
the «self-made» businessman, the extravagant life of the Ohio frontier,  the
rough life and work in New York City, and the clash of cultures in  European
resorts. Howells was not  only  one  of  the  most  representative  American
novelists; but  he  was,  too,  at  the  same  time,  the  leading  American
Literature literary critic. He  edited  the  great  «Atlantic  Monthly».  He
introduced Ibsen, Zola, and Turgenev to American audiences,  discovered  and
sponsored younger writers like Stephen Crane and Frank Norris.
      The third of the major novelists who  emerged  during  the  1870s  and
reached maturity in the transition years was Henry James. Henry  James  took
middle-class America for his theme. His best  novels  -«The  Portrait  of  a
Lady», «The American», «The Ambassadors», «The Wings of the Dove» -  explore
the themes of manners and morals. Very often they are cast  into  a  pattern
of New World innocence and Old World corruption. Of all  American  novelists
between Hawthorne and Faulkner, James was most completely  preoccupied  with
moral problems. Because James wrote of characters and subjects alien to  the
average American, and in a style intricate and  sophisticated,  he  achieved
little popularity in his own lifetime.

       Vocabulary
      Pilot - лоцман
      Comprehensive – исчерпывающий, полный
      Frontier - граница
      Contemporary - современник
      Genre pictures – жанровые сцены
      Transition years – переходный период
      Preoccupy – занимать, поглощать внимание
      Character - персонаж
      Subject - тема
      Alien - чужой
      Intricate - замысловатый
      Average - средний
      Maturity - зрелость
      Defiant - вызывающий
      Literary currents – литературные направления
Novel - роман


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