SCOTLAND



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                                                        By: Alexey Kapitskiy
                                                               School  1264
                                                                GRADE 10 C
                                                                      Moscow

                                                                   2003, May



Table of Contents:
   1. Geographical Situation
   2. The Land And Resources
   3. Physiographic Regions
   4. Rivers and Lakes
   5. Climate
   6. Plant and Animal Life
   7. Natural Resources
   8. Population
   9. Population Characteristics
  10. Principal Cities
  11. Religion and Language
  12. Education
  13. Elementary and Secondary Schools
  14. Universities and Collages
  15. Government
  16. Central Government
  17. Legislature
  18. Judiciary
  19. Local Government and Political Parties
  20. Economy
  21. Agriculture
  22. Forestry and Fishing
  23. Mining and Manufacturing
  24. Transportation and Communications



|Scotland, administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain,         |
|occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is   |
|bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea;  |
|on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth, which partly    |
|separates it from England, and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by North  |
|Channel, which separates it from Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean. As a  |
|geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands, a majority of    |
|which are contained in three groupsnamely, the Hebrides, also known as the|
|Western Islands, situated off the western coast; the Orkney Islands,       |
|situated off the northeastern coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated    |
|northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest of the other islands is the   |
|Island of Arran. The area, including the islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414  |
|sq mi). Edinburgh (population, 1991, 421,213) is the capital of Scotland as|
|well as a major industrial area and seaport.                               |
|[pic]                                                                      |
|The Land and Resources                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|Scotland has a very irregular coastline. The western coast in particular is|
|deeply penetrated by numerous arms of the sea, most of which are narrow    |
|submerged valleys, known locally as sea lochs, and by a number of broad    |
|indentations, generally called firths. The principal firths are the Firth  |
|of Lorne, the Firth of Clyde, and Solway Firth. The major indentations on  |
|the eastern coast are Dornoch Firth, Moray Firth, the Firth of Tay, and the|
|Firth of Forth. Measured around the various firths and lochs, the coastline|
|of Scotland is about 3700 km (about 2300 mi) long.                         |
|                                                                           |
|Physiographic Regions                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|The terrain of Scotland is predominantly mountainous but may be divided    |
|into three distinct regions, from north to south: the Highlands, the       |
|Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands. More than one-half of the      |
|surfaces of Scotland are occupied by the Highlands, the most rugged region |
|on the island of Great Britain. Consisting of parallel mountain chains with|
|a general northeastern-southwestern trend and broken by deep ravines and   |
|valleys, the Highlands are noted for their scenic grandeur. Precipitous    |
|cliffs, moorland plateaus, mountain lakes, sea lochs, swift-flowing        |
|streams, and dense thickets are common to the Highlands, the most sparsely |
|inhabited section of Scotland. The region is divided in two by a           |
|depression, known as the Glen More, or Great Glen, which extends from Moray|
|Firth to Loch Linnhe. To the northwest of this lie heavily eroded peaks    |
|with fairly uniform elevations ranging from 610 to 915 m (about 2000 to    |
|3000 ft). In the Highlands southeast of the Great Glen the topography is   |
|highly diversified. This region is traversed by the Grampian Mountains, the|
|principal mountain system of Scotland. The highest peak of the Grampians is|
|Ben Nevis (1343 m/4406 ft), the highest summit in Great Britain. To the    |
|south of the Highlands lies the Central Lowlands, a narrow belt comprising |
|only about one-tenth of the area of Scotland, but containing the majority  |
|of the country's population. The Central Lowlands are traversed by several |
|chains of hills, including the Ochil and Sidlaw hills, and by several      |
|important rivers, notably the Clyde, Forth, and Tay. The terrain of the    |
|Southern Uplands, a region much less elevated and rugged than the          |
|Highlands, consists largely of a moorland plateau traversed by rolling     |
|valleys and broken by mountainous outcroppings. Only a few summits in the  |
|Southern Uplands exceed 762 m (2500 ft) in elevation, the highest being    |
|Merrick (843 m/2765 ft) in the southwest. Adjoining the Southern Uplands   |
|region along the boundary with England are the Cheviot Hills.              |
|                                                                           |
|Rivers and Lakes                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|Scotland is characterized by an abundance of streams and lakes (lochs).    |
|Notable among the lakes, which are especially numerous in the central and  |
|northern regions, are Loch Lomond (the largest), Loch Ness, Loch Tay, and  |
|Loch Katrine. Many of the rivers of Scotland, in particular the rivers in  |
|the west, are short, torrential streams, generally of little commercial    |
|importance. The longest river of Scotland is the Tay; the Clyde, however,  |
|is the principal navigational stream, site of the port of Glasgow. Other   |
|chief rivers include the Forth, Tweed, Dee, and Spay.                      |
|                                                                           |
|Climate                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scotland is subject |
|to the moderating influences of the surrounding seas. As a result of these |
|influences, extreme seasonal variations are rare, and temperate winters and|
|cool summers are the outstanding climatic features. Low temperatures,      |
|however, are common during the winter season in the mountainous districts  |
|of the interior. In the western coastal region, which is subject to the    |
|moderating effects of the Gulf Stream, conditions are somewhat milder than |
|in the east. The average January temperature of the eastern coastal region |
|is 3.9 C (39 F), and the average January temperature of the western coastal|
|region is 3. C (37.5 F); corresponding July averages are 13.8 C (56.8 F)  |
|and 15 C (59 F). The average January and July temperatures for the city of |
|Edinburgh are 3.5 C (38 F) and 14.5 C (58 F), respectively. Precipitation, |
|which is marked by regional variations, ranges from about 3810 mm (about   |
|150 in) annually in the western Highlands to about 635 mm (about 25 in)    |
|annually in certain eastern areas.                                         |
|                                                                           |
|Plant and Animal Life                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and        |
|coniferschiefly fir, pine, and larch. Large forested areas, however, are  |
|rare, and the only important woodlands are in the southern and eastern     |
|Highlands. Except in these wooded areas, vegetation in the elevated regions|
|consists largely of heather, ferns, mosses, and grasses. Saxifrage,        |
|mountain willow, and other types of alpine and arctic flora occur at       |
|elevations above 610 m (2000 ft). Practically all of the cultivated plants |
|of Scotland were imported from America and the European continent. The only|
|large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. Both the red deer and the |
|roe deer are found, but the red deer, whose habitat is the Highlands, is by|
|far the more abundant of the two species. Other indigenous mammals are the |
|hare, rabbit, otter, ermine, pine marten, and wildcat. Game birds include  |
|grouse, blackcock, ptarmigan, and waterfowl. The few predatory birds       |
|include the kite, osprey, and golden eagle. Scotland is famous for the     |
|salmon and trout that abound in its streams and lakes. Many species of     |
|fish, including cod, haddock, herring, and various types of shellfish, are |
|found in the coastal waters.                                               |
|                                                                           |
|Natural Resources                                                          |
|                                                                           |
|Scotland, like the rest of the island of Great Britain, has significant    |
|reserves of coal. It also possesses large deposits of zinc, chiefly in the |
|south. The soil is generally rocky and infertile, except for that of the   |
|Central Lowlands. Northern Scotland has great hydroelectric power potential|
|and contains Great Britain's largest hydroelectric generating stations.    |
|Beginning in the late 1970s, offshore oil deposits in the North Sea became |
|an important part of the Scottish economy.                                 |
|                                                                           |
|Population                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|The people of Scotland, like those of Great Britain in general, are        |
|descendants of various racial stocks, including the Picts, Celts,          |
|Scandinavians, and Romans. Scotland is a mixed rural-industrial society.   |
|Scots divide themselves into Highlanders, who consider themselves of purer |
|Celtic blood and retain a stronger feeling of the clan, and Lowlanders, who|
|are largely of Teutonic blood.                                             |
|                                                                           |
|Population Characteristics                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|The population of Scotland was (1991 preliminary) 4,957,289. The population|
|density was about 64 persons per sq km (167 per sq mi). The highest density|
|is in the Central Lowlands, where nearly three-quarters of the Scots live, |
|and the lowest is in the Highlands. About two-thirds of the populations are|
|urban dwellers.                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|Principal Cities                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|The most populous city in Scotland (654,542) is Glasgow. The conurbation of|
|Clydeside, which includes the cities of Glasgow and Clydebank, is the      |
|largest shipbuilding and marine engineering center in Great Britain. Other |
|important industrial cities are Dundee (165,548) and Aberdeen (201,099).   |
|                                                                           |
|Religion and Language                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|The Church of Scotland, a Presbyterian denomination, is the official state |
|church. The Roman Catholic church is second in importance. Other leading   |
|denominations are the Episcopal Church in Scotland, Congregationalist,     |
|Baptist, Methodist, and Unitarian. Jews are a small minority. English is   |
|generally spoken; fewer than 100,000 Scots (mainly inhabitants of the      |
|Highlands and island groups) also speak the Scottish form of Gaelic.       |
|                                                                           |
|Education                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|Schools in Scotland are administered by the Scottish Education Department  |
|and by local education authorities.                                        |
|                                                                           |
|Elementary and Secondary Schools                                           |
|                                                                           |
|In the mid-1980s some 879,000 pupils were attending publicly maintained    |
|schools and about 31,900 were in private schools. The transfer from        |
|elementary to secondary schools generally takes place at the age of 12. For|
|a discussion on specialized schools.                                       |
|                                                                           |
|Universities and Colleges                                                  |
|[pic]                                                                      |
|Scotland has about 66 institutions providing programs of study beyond the  |
|secondary level for those students who do not go on to the universities.   |
|These include colleges of agriculture, art, commerce, and science, and in  |
|the mid-1980s the total enrollment was more than 81,000. Teacher-training  |
|colleges numbered seven, with approximately 3000 students. Of the eight    |
|universities in Scotland, the oldest (University of Aberdeen, University of|
|Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, and University of St. Andrews) were      |
|founded in the 15th and 16th centuries. Four universities have received    |
|their charters since 1960. Total university enrollment was about 43,100 in |
|the early 1980s.                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|Culture                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|Clans, the traditional keystone of Scottish society, are no longer         |
|powerful. Originally, the clan, a grouping of an entire family with one    |
|head, or laird, was also important as a fighting unit. The solidarity      |
|associated with clan membership has been expanded into a strong national   |
|pride. The Puritan zeal of Scottish Presbyterianism, which is traceable to |
|John Knox, the 16th-century religious reformer and statesman, is also      |
|strong. Popular sports of Scottish origin include curling and golf.        |
|Bagpipes, usually associated with Scottish music, were probably introduced |
|by the Romans, who acquired them in the Middle East. Scottish music is     |
|noted for the wide use of a five-tone, or pentatonic, scale. Folk tunes are|
|not standardized, and a single song may have hundreds of variations in     |
|lyrics and music.             [pic]                                        |
|[pic]                                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|Government                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|Scotland is governed as an integral part of Great Britain. It is           |
|represented by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scottish peers |
|in the House of Lords.                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|Central Government                                                         |
|                                                                           |
|Scottish affairs are administered by a British cabinet ministry, headed by |
|the secretary of state for Scotland. The statutory functions of the        |
|secretary of state are discharged by five main departments of equal status:|
|the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, the Scottish     |
|Development Department, the Scottish Education Department, the Scottish    |
|Home and Health Department, and the Industry Department for Scotland. Each |
|is administered by a secretary who is responsible to the secretary of      |
|state. The routine administration of the departments proceeds from        |
|Edinburgh, but each department has representatives in London, where they   |
|perform liaison and parliamentary duties.                                  |
|                                                                           |
|Legislature                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|Before the union of Scotland and England in 1707, Scotland had developed   |
|its own system of law, which continued after the union. The Scottish law   |
|system is based on civil law, which is derived from ancient Roman law,     |
|whereas the other parts of Great Britain follow the common law, which      |
|originated in England with the evolution of case law and precedents.       |
|Because of the different systems of law, separate statutes or statutory    |
|provisions often are enacted by Parliament for application in Scotland. Any|
|statute must state expressly or imply that it is applicable to Scotland in |
|order to become enforceable.                                               |
|                                                                           |
|Judiciary                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|The Scottish judiciary is organized separately from that of the rest of    |
|Great Britain. The two higher courts of Scotland are the High Court of     |
|Justiciary (criminal) and the Court of Session (civil). A panel of 21      |
|judges is provided for both courts together. Major criminal trials are held|
|before 1 or 2 judges of the High Court of Justiciary and a 15-member jury; |
|criminal appeals may be heard by a bench of at least 3 judges. The Court of|
|Session is divided into an Outer House, which holds all divorce trials and |
|the more important civil trials, and an Inner House, which functions       |
|chiefly as an appellate court in civil cases. Appeals to the British House |
|of Lords may be made from the Court of Session; appellate judgments of the |
|High Court of Justiciary are final. Each of the six sheriff domes, into    |
|which Scotland is divided, has a sheriff court for less important civil and|
|criminal cases. Petty cases are tried by police courts and justices of the |
|peace.                                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|Local Government and Political Parties                                     |
|                                                                           |
|The Scottish Development Department is responsible for general policy in   |
|regard to local government. A reorganization of local government in        |
|Scotland was made effective in 1975, when the counties and burghs were     |
|abolished and replaced by nine regions and three island areas. The regions |
|(but not the island areas) are divided into districts. Each of these units |
|is administered by a council, whose members are elected to 4-year terms.   |
|The island areas, numbering some 700 islands and islets to the north and   |
|west, the regions, and the former counties, all of which are described in  |
|separate articles, are listed in the accompanying table. Two leading       |
|British parties, the Conservative Party and the Labor Party, have shared   |
|Scottish seats in Parliament about equally since the 1920s. The Scottish   |
|Nationalist Party, which was founded in 1927 in order to press for complete|
|self-government, has played a minor role in the politics of the country.   |
|                                                                           |
|Economy                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|Many aspects of the economy of Scotland are covered in the article on Great|
|Britain. The currency of Great Britain is the legal tender of Scotland.    |
|Both agriculture and industry are important in the economy of Scotland. The|
|chief exports are petroleum and natural gas and manufactured goods,        |
|especially burlap, clothing, machinery, textiles, and whiskey. The chief   |
|imports are food and iron. The center of Scottish trade unionism is the    |
|Scottish Trades Union Congress, with an affiliated membership of more than |
|980,000.                                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|Agriculture                                                                |
|                                                                           |
|More than three-fourths of the land is used for agriculture; approximately |
|equal areas are devoted to farming and grazing. The most important crops   |
|are wheat, oats, and potatoes. Other crops include barley, turnips, and    |
|fruit. Livestock and livestock products are also of major importance. Sheep|
|are raised in both the Highlands and island groups and the Southern        |
|Uplands. Scotland is also known for its beef and dairy cattle and for its  |
|dairy products.                                                            |
|                                                                           |
|Forestry and Fishing                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|About 607,000 hectares (about 1.5 million acres) of Scotland is forested,  |
|60 percent of which is publicly owned. In Scotland fishing is more         |
|important than forestry. The principal fishing ports are Aberdeen,         |
|Peterhead, Fraserburgh, and Lerwick. The catch consists mainly of          |
|whitefish, herring, crabs, and lobsters.                                   |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|Mining and Manufacturing                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|Coal is the chief mineral wealth, and the industry is nationalized. Nearly |
|all the major coal deposits are found in the Central Lowlands. Limestone,  |
|clay, and silica are also mined. Iron ores and other metals have been      |
|virtually exhausted. North Sea petroleum and natural gas are sent by       |
|pipeline to points in the Orkney and Shetland islands and to the mainland. |
|Major oil refineries are located at Grangemouth and Dundee. About 36       |
|percent of the labor force is employed in manufacturing. Shipbuilding,     |
|steelmaking, and the manufacture of electronic items are major industries  |
|and are concentrated in the region surrounding Glasgow. Other important    |
|manufactures include woolen textiles and yarn, chemicals, machinery of many|
|varieties, vehicles, and whiskey.                                          |
|                                                                           |
|Transportation and Communications                                          |
|                                                                           |
|About 48,000 km (about 30,000 mi) of highways and about 6400 km (about 4000|
|mi) of railroads serve Scotland. Public buses provide transportation       |
|throughout most of the country, and many transatlantic flights use         |
|Prestwick Airport near Glasgow. Most radio and television programs         |
|originate in England. About 17 daily newspapers and 120 weeklies are       |
|published in the country.                                                  |
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|Questions to the text:                                                     |
|What are the three groups of Scottish islands?                             |
|What are the principal firths of Scotland?                                 |
|How long is Scottish coastline?                                            |
|Into what regions Scotland may be divided?                                 |
|What is the highest peak in Scotland and what is its height?               |
|What river is considered the main navigation stream in Scotland?           |
|What is average July temperature of the West Coastal region?               |
|What are the most common species of conifers in Scotland?                  |
|Where in Scotland the soil is more fertile then anywhere else (in          |
|Scotland)?                                                                 |
|What population groups Scots divide themselves into?                       |
|What is the population of the Scotlands most populous city?               |
|In what century Scotlands oldest universities where built and what are    |
|they?                                                                      |
|How many tones are used in Scottish music?                                 |
|What and how many departments exist in Scottish government?                |
|Before whom major criminal trials are held?                                |
|In what year Scottish political parties began having equal number of seats |
|in Scottish Government, and what are they?                                 |
|What are the chief exports and imports of Scotland?                        |
|Name the approximate percent of the Scottish land devoted to agriculture?  |
|Name the principal fishing ports of Scotland?                              |
|Where are located Scotlands main oil refineries?                          |
|                                                                           |





"SCOTLAND"