Ћитература

 урс лингвистики (Ёкзаменационные вопросы WinWord)


      є1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.

      Lang-e may be classified in different ways:  the  morphologically  and
genealogically.
When we classified the language morphologically we  mean  the  structure  of
the  word  of  a  living  language.  When   we   classified   the   language
genealogically we mean the origin of the language.  According  to  the  M.C.
the language are divided into languages having not affixes  and  the  lang-s
with  affixes.  The  words  of  the  lang-e,  which  has  not  affixes,  are
unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc).  Word
order is of a great important in lang-s with has no affixes. Languages  with
affixes are classified into agglutinative and inflected. Both  of  them  are
characterized by affixes but the connection between the root  or  the  steam
of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In inflected languages  the
suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To  the  inflected
languages we refer the language of Indo-European family  (such  as  Russian,
German, English, Latin, etc).  In  agglutinative  languages  the  suffix  is
characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian  lang.,  in  English  Ц  some
words  like  ox-oxenТs-бык).  Agglutinative  languages  are  divided   into:
Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According  to  the  G.C.  all  the
lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They  are:
Indo-European, Semitic and  Hermitic,  Altaic,  Iberian-Caucasian,  Chinese-
Tibet, Indonesian.


               є2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare.

      The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote  an
action (to write - писать), a  process  (to  work)  and  a  state  (to  sit,
stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate.  (ќна
пишет письма каждый день. She writes  letters  every  day.)  Morphologically
the verb in Russian is characterized by  the  following  categories:  tense,
aspect, mood, person,  number,  gender.  The  English  forms  has  the  same
categories but they has not the category of gender but they has  a  time  of
relations. The verbs may  be  classified  into:  subjective  and  objective.
Subjective verbs are connected with their subject.  In  English  practically
all the verbs are subjective. In  Russian  Ц  not  all.  They  may  be  used
without their subjects (“емнеет).  Objective  verbs  are  closely  connected
with two nouns or noun equivalents.  Objective  verbs  which  are  connected
with  their  objects  directly  are   transitive   verbs,   all   others   Ц
intransitive.
      As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance of stem-
building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-
, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is  limited
(-ify, -ate, -en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is  greater
(mis-, un-, be-, out-, etc).
      The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion.  It  is
not characteristic in Russian (because of  the  different  structures).   We
find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund  in
Russian. The Infinitive in English is characterized by  such  categories  as
voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the  verb  is  different  in
the two languages. In English all the tenses but  the  Past  Indefinite  and
Present Indefinite are analytical. In English  all  the  tenses  are  tense-
aspect forms but the indefinite group. In  Russian  practically  the  tenses
are synthetically. Only the Future  tense  may  be  both  synthetically  and
analytical.

        є3. The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.

      There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But there
is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because  the  two
lang-s are different in their morphological  structure.  The  Russian  lang.
has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.
      In English all grammatical tenses are divided  into  4  large  groups.
They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect  Continues.  The  specific
feature of the English language is that all the tenses  are  analytical  but
the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are  tense-aspect
forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are  tense-aspect
forms because they express both the time of an action and the  character  of
an action (He is reading a book now).
      The tense-system of the verb is different in  the  two  languages.  In
English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and  Present  Indefinite  are
analytical. In English  all  the  tenses  are  tense-aspect  forms  but  the
indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically.  Only
the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.

        є4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.

      Both in ER is characterized  by  the  category  of  aspect.  But  this
category of two languages is quite different. In  English  the  category  of
aspect shows the character of an action.  That  is  whether  the  action  is
shown as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete  reads
books everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English:  the  continues
and the non-continues common aspects. In Russian the  c.o.a.  expresses  the
completeness or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect.  Subject
is usually  form  in  MoR  with  the  help  of  prefixes  (внести,  вынести,
занестиЕ).  Different verbs combine with the different number  of  prefixes.
Usually the verb with  the  suffix  Цну-  express  instantanian  action.  In
English we used only one word (толкать, толкнуть Ц to push). There are  some
modern  verb  in  Russian  with  the  suffix  Цну-  which  do  not   express
instantanians actions. (в€нуть, в€знуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It  depends  upon
the lexical meaning. The imperfective  aspect.  The  words  of  imperfective
aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as Цыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-,  -€-
. (переписать Ц переписывать, забить Ц забивать). In English the  repetition
of an action is usually expressed with the help  of  the  prefix  Уre-У  (to
write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions  which
have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect in MoR  is
very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the word.

        є5. The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.

      There are different points of view concerning  the  number  of  voices
both in ER. There is an opinion that there are  3  voices  in  MoR:  active,
middle reflexive and  passive.  Grammatically  we  have  only  2  voices  in
English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is  read  by  the
boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in  the
passive voice the subject is not the doer  of  an  action.  There  are  some
group of verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice:  1)  all  the
intransitive verbs without  the  suffix  ЂЦс€ї  (идти,  ехать,  ходить),  2)
reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнутьс€,  улыбнутьс€),  3)
some verbs  with  the  suffix  ЂЦс€ї  having  a  special  meaning  (слушать-
слушатьс€, нести-нестись).
      The specific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice
may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave  me  a
book. I was given a book by her. Ц adv.modifier.) Let us compare the  number
of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see  that  Russian  have
two: пишет - пишетс€. In English we have 10 active-passive  opposition.  The
forms of the Future  Continues,  Present  Perfect  Continues,  Past  Perfect
Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive  Voice.  The
category  of  voice   is   closely   connected   with   the   text   (брать€
переписываютс€, бумаги переписываютс€ секретарем). The instrumental case  in
Russian corresponds to the by-phrase in  English.  When  the  Past  Particle
expresses a state Ц Active voice, when it expresses  the  action  Ц  Passive
voice. The action is emphasized  by  the  by-phrase,  the  adv.modifier  and
sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually  emphasize
an action (the door has been shut Ц s.v.pr.).

         є7. The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.

      We find 3 moods both  in  ER.  The  category  of  mood  expresses  the
relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 oТclock  Ц  reality,
If we were at home at 6 oТclock Ц unreality). The relation of an  action  to
reality may be expressed  lexically.  Then  we  use  modal  verbs:  конечно,
об€зательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home  now).  The  relation
of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same  time.
Then we use modal  verbs  (He  can  do  it.  He  may  do  it.).  It  may  be
phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of  mood  is  one  of
the most complicated categories especially  in  English.  Usually  we  speak
about   three   moods   in   Russian.   (»зъ€вительное,   повелительное    и
сослагательное).  The  number  of  moods  in  MoE  is  greater.   The   best
classification of moods was introduced by —мирнитский. He finds  six  moods,
which must be divided into  direct  (Indicative,  imperative)  and  indirect
(Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional) moods.

         є8. The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.

      In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible,
imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you Ц  если  бы  у
мен€ было врем€,  €  бы  посетил  теб€.)  There  are  many  opinions  exists
concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky  finds  4  subjunctive
moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is  an
opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as  the  conditional,
the  optative,  the  suppositional,  the  conditional   optative   and   the
subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods.  The  suppositional
and  subjunctive  I  are  grammatical  synonyms.  They   express   probable,
possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in  their  forms.
Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the  mood.  It  has  only  one  form.
Which coincides with infinitive  without  УtoФ.  (I  write,  he  write,  she
write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with  the
help of a mood auxiliary Уshould +InfinitiveФ. (I should  write,  He  should
write). The SI is used both in simple  and  in  complex  sentences.  (It  is
necessary  that  all  the  students  be  present  at  the  classroom).   The
suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is  necessary  that
all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form  and  it  is  often
replaced by the suppositional mood.  The SII and the  conditional  mood  are
also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact  actions.
SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the  action
is referred to the present or to the future itТs  form  coincides  with  the
past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb Уto beФ  is  used  to  be
УwereФ. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with  the
Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know  it.)  It  is  usually
used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence.  The  conditional  mood
is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a  mood  auxiliary  (УShould
or WouldФ). (I should  read,  You  would  read).  The  conditional  mood  is
usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If  I  were  you  I
should do it. Ц SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past Ц  If  I  had
been you I should have done it).
      The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past tense form  adding
the particle УбыФ. It possesses the category of gender and number.

              є9. The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.

      The meaning of the noun in both languages is the  same.  It  expresses
УthingnessФ. Syntactically  the  noun  both  in  ER  is  used  in  the  same
functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going  to  school.  My
father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.)  A  peculiarity  of
Russian is the  abundance  of  suffixes  of  subjective  appraisal  (братец,
билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix У-letФ (booklet,  leaflet).
In both languages we find the grammatical category of number and  case.  But
they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in  English
we find only 2 cases (the common and the possessive).  The  common  case  in
English isnТt marked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf:  a
table Цстол, a window Ц  окно).  The  formation  of  the  plural  number  is
standard in English  and  non-standard  in  Russian.  Number  and  case  are
sometimes expressed by separate  morphemes  in  English  (oxen-oxenТs).  The
case-morpheme Ц УТsФ may be used sometimes not with a noun (The  man  I  saw
yesterdayТs son). Though the meaning  of  case  in  both  languages  is  the
relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence.  The  possessive  case  is
used only with nouns (PeterТs  book  -  книга  ѕети).  The  common  case  in
English is very widely used. It may function as any part of the  sentence  Ц
subject,  object,  predicative,   attributive,   and   adverbial   modifier.
Prepositions  are  of  great  importance  in  English.  The   of-phrase   is
practically used with all the nouns. The difference between  the  possessive
case and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of  gender  in  the
two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in  English
it is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix  in  English  to  express
this category morphologically Ц У-essФ. In both languages nouns are  divided
into countable and uncountable. Uncountable include  singularia  tantum  and
pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always the  correlation  between
the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает,  семь€
ждет, сани едут). In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is,  the
family is/are). The number of Russian nouns  having  no  case-forms  is  not
large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо).
      In both languages the functions of different cases are  different.  In
Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an  accusative  case
may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental  case  is  used
as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically  as  an
attribute.

                 є10. The category of state in E&R compare.

      In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike,  хорошо,  душно.
This words expressed different states.  By  many  Russian  grammarians  this
words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives,  predicative
adverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that  these  words  form
an independent part of speech and it was called the category  of  state.  In
English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called  them  stative,  ’аймович
called them add-link, and some others called them the words of the  category
of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class:  1)
words beginning with Уa-У  - which is a  prefix  (alive,  asleep,  etc),  2)
words beginning with Уa-У  - which is not a prefix  (afraid,  awake,  aloof,
etc), 3) words consisting of one root which  developed  from  adjectives  or
adverbs and now they denote a state  (ill,  glad,  sorry,  well,  etc).  The
question  is  rather  complicated  because   different   grammarians   refer
different words of this class. ∆игайло, »ванова, …офик refer to  this  class
only the words beginning with Уa-У. There is an opinion that this  class  is
very rich in words expressing a state. (Ћейкина refers to  this  class  such
words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. whatТs up?). Different  opinion  exist:
1) the words of the category of state form an independent  part  of  speech.
It may be characterized:  semantically,  morphologically  and  semantically.
Professor   Ilyish   said   that   semantically   they   denote   a   state,
morphologically  they  are  characterized   by   the   element   Уa-У,   and
syntactically  they  are  used  as  a   predicative.   (He   is   asleep   Ц
comp.nom.pred.)  2)  The  words  of  the  type  УasleepФ  do  not  from   an
independent part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point  of
view was put forward by professor Ѕархударов.  3)  The  words  of  the  type
УaliveФ do not form a grammatical category, they form a lexically  category.
This is because a state may be expressed by different parts  of  speech:  1)
by noun (itТs time to have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy)  and
3) by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point  of  view  was  put
forward by professor ¬илюман.

           є11. The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.

      Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. It
expresses the quality or the characteristics  of  an  action.  The  adj.  is
characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical  functions.  They
are  attribute  and  the  predicative.  (An  interesting  book.  A  book  is
interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-
e is more changeable. ItТs characterized by  such  morphological  categories
as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the  degrees  of
comparison. (интересна€ книга Ц интересные книги, €ркое  солнце,  интересный
собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category Ц the  category  of
the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest,  good-better-the  best).
There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages  the  positive
degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in  English
is not marked (red, beautiful) while in  Russian  it  is  marked  (красивый,
красива€,  красивое).  In  English  adj-s  are   monosemantic,   they   have
practically  one  grammatical  meaning,  while  in  Russian  the  adj-e   is
polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs  as  masculine  gender,  singular
number,  nominative  case,  the  positive   degree).   But   the   synthetic
comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее  is  monosemantic  in  Russian  as
well. In Russian most qualitative adjectives have  short  forms,  which  are
usually used  as  predicative.  The  combinability  of  adjectives  is  also
different in the 2 lang-s. In English we usually  speak  about  lexical  and
lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russian the grammatical  combinability
is  of  great  importance  (широкое  окно,  коричневый  стол).  The  English
adjective may have its right-hand connection with  the  prop-word  УoneФ  (a
good one, a nice one). There are some adj-ves  in  Russian  the  syntactical
function of which changes the  meaning  (present,  ill,  glad;  the  present
situation (not equal)  the  student  is  present).  Russian  adjectives  are
characterized  by   the   so-called   suffixes   of   subjective   appraisal
(длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is  divided
into two groups: qualitative, relative. The  number  of  relative  adj-s  is
much greater in Russian. Russian relative adj-s are  usually  rendered  into
English by a noun in the common case (настольна€  лампа  Ц  a  table  lamp).
Among the relative adj-s  in  the  Russian  lan-ge.  There  is  a  group  of
possessive adj-s (ќльгин, мамин, отцов).

                    є12. Parts of speech in E&R compare.

      Both in RE the vocabulary is classified  into  parts  of  speech.  The
words  are  classified  into  parts  of  speech  according  to  three   main
principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to  the  Indo-
European family of the languages. They have much in common. There  are  many
words which both  in  languages  having  the  same  root  morpheme:  sister,
brother, mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech  in  both
languages. But there is not article in Russian. Words  having  one  and  the
same meaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий,  тихо;
to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only  is  not
enough to  classify  the  vocabulary  into  parts  of  speech.  The  Russian
language is syntactical, while the English is  analytical.  In  Russian  the
morphological principle is a great importance when we  classify  words  into
parts of speech. The English morphology is poor  and  also  the  syntactical
principle and the combinability of words are of great importance.  (a  black
stone, a stone wall). The parts of speech  in  both  languages  are  divided
into: notional words and form-words order and empty  words.  Such  parts  of
speech as the noun, the verb, the adjective, the pronoun,  and  the  stative
are notional parts of speech. But  the  conjunction,  the  preposition,  the
particle, the article are formal parts  of  speech.  So  in  both  languages
there are some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech.

             є13. The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.

      The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER.  Therefore  it  is
characterized lexically,  morphologically  and  syntactically.  The  lexical
meaning. The adverb in  both  languages  denotes  some  circumstances  under
which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics  of  an
action or of a quality. (He has come late. ќн пришел поздно. He is here.  ќн
здесь). These adverbs express  some  circumstances  under  which  an  action
takes place. The syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same  both
in ER. It performs the syntactical function that of an  adverbial  modifier.
(He is here. ќн здесь. Ц the adverbial modifier of  place).  The  adverb  in
the 2 languages may perform the  syntactical  functions  of  different  adv.
Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so  on.  (He  will
come tomorrow. He speaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of  the
adverb to words of other classes, it is  characterized  by  being  connected
with the verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. Ц verb;  He  is  very
clever. Ц adj; He acts very cleverly. - adverb).  The  adverb  may  be  also
connected with the noun, but this is not a  characteristic  feature  of  the
adverb. (My  friend  lives  in  the  room  opposite.  -  noun).  As  to  the
morphological characteristics a part of adverbs in both  languages  has  the
degrees  of  comparison.  (slowly-more  slowly-the  most  slowly).  All  the
adverbs in both languages  are  divided  into  2  large  groups.  They  are:
Circumstantial, Qualitative.  They  are  different  both  in  their  lexical
meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial  adverbs  are
those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which  an  action  takes
place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the  qualitative
adverbs  do  not  express  any  external  circumstances.  They  express  the
characteristics of an  action  or  a  quality.  (slowly,  fluently,  badly).
Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of  an  adverbial  modifier  of
manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantial adverbs perform  the  function
of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there. He  will  come  tomorrow.)
The circumstantial adverbs are always connected  with  the  verb,  they  are
unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs  may  be  connected  with  verb,  adj,
adverb.

     є14. Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.



      The word-combination both in ER  is  characterized  by  the  following
features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or  more  notional
words (a brown table). There is  an  opinion  that  a  word-combination  may
include two or more any words (a table, a  book).  Some  grammarians  thinks
that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be  expressed  by  one
word only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation.  The  word-
combination has practically no intonation.  Therefore  the  word-combination
is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication.  If
we say Уa black tableФ we are not quite  sure  what  tense  is  meant  here.
Therefore the w-c has no predicative relations,  such  as  the  relation  of
person, tense, modality. While the main feature  of  the  sentence  is  that
expresses a predication. The w-c are usually  build  on  the  basis  of  one
notional word. This notional word is usually called the pivotal word of  the
main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordance with  their  pivotal
words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial  w-c  (a  red  rose,  красна€
роза); 2) adjectival; 3)  verbal  (to  give  lessons,  to  read  books);  4)
adverbial (quite near, совсем близко). W-cs both in  ER  may  be  classified
into: - free syntactical  comb-s,  phraseological  units.  Free  syntactical
combinations are such combinations the part of which may be freely  replaced
(a large table Ц a large brown table). A phraseological unit  is  understood
as a whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-
струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning).  A  w-c  may
also classified according to their relations  between  the  words  in  them.
When we may have: attributive combinations (a young  man,  a  brown  table),
objective (to read a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал сто€/сид€). W-
c may be simple and complex. Simplex  w-c  usually  consist  of  2  notional
words (a red rose, a good student). Complex  w-c  consist  usually  of  more
than 2 words (to travel to  a  big  city,  a  big  red  rose).  W-c  may  be
subordinative  (include  pivotal  words,  or   the   pivotive   words)   and
coordinative w-c (all the element or words  of  they  are  equal  Ц  ножи  и
вилка, a boy and a girl).

  є15. Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
                                 ER compare.

      Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is  widely  used  in  MoR.
Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to  the  form  of  the
pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-
he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories  as
gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in  MoR  agree
with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив,  широка€
река, широкое озеро Ц gender;  широкий  залив  Ц  широкого  залива  Ц  case;
широкий залив Ц широкие заливы Ц number). In plural no agreement  in  gender
is observed (широкие заливы Ц no gender). 2) Short  forms  of  adjective  do
not agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number  (город  красив,
площадь красива Ц gender; город  красив  Ц  города  красивы  Ц  number).  In
Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals  in  case  (п€ти  домов,
п€тью домами). Verbs in Future  and  Present  Tenses  agree  in  number  and
person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).

 є16. Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
                                 ER compare.

      Government is a variety of syntactical connection in  accordance  with
which the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the grammatical  meaning
of the pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In English  government  is
used to join together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually  is  used  in  the
Possessive Case. (A boyТs book Ц boysТ books, A  dayТs  holiday,  an  hourТs
absence). Government is used in verbal  combinations  where  the  object  is
expressed by a  personal  pronoun  (Believe  me,  help  him).  Prepositional
government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him,  to  depend  upon
him). The verb governments through the preposition. In MoR  governing  words
may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by a noun  (крыло  птицы);
2)  by  an  adjective  (склонный  к  шуткам);  3)  by  a  numeral  (двадцать
деревьев); 4) by  a  pronoun  (кто-то  из  братьев);  5)  by  an  Infinitive
(поливать улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от  солнца).  A  noun  or  a  noun-
equivalent usually expresses governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение  к
старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing  word  belongs
to, government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здани€ Ц  gen.
case), adjectival (интересный  дл€  зрител€  Ц  gen.  case  with  a  prep.),
adverbial  (делать  весело,  ему  при€тно),  verbal  (осматривать  здание  Ц
accusative case, доверить врагу Ц dative case).

  є17. Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
                                 ER compare.

      Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when  the  dependence
of one word upon another is expressed not morphologically  but  semantically
(My room-my rooms, a small room-small  rooms).  In  MoR  the  mostly  spread
adjoining is when an adverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be  expressed
by different parts of speech:
     1) by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан),
     2) by a stative (вполне возможно),
     3) by an adjective (почти черный),
     4) by an adverb (очень слабо),
     5) by a noun (езда шагом).
      The Infinitive as well may be  subordinated  (пошел  заниматьс€,  жаль
расставатьс€). Sometimes  деепричастие  may  be  subordinated  (разговарива€
смотрел на собеседника).


     є18. The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of word
                         connection in the sentence.

      Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is an  independent
part of grammar.  It  studies  word-combinations  and  sentences.  The  main
features of a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete  thought  while
w-c does not. (Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence  has
a definite intonation and that is why may consist only of  one  word,  while
the w-c consists of two or more words; 3) the  sentence  has  a  verb  in  a
finite form (Cf: the weather is nice, the nice  weather);  4)  the  sentence
expresses predication that is the relation between what is said to  reality.

      The action may be real, unreal, possible,  probable  and  so  on.  The
action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future.  The  w-c
in a  sentence  may  be  connected  in  3  ways:  -  the  lexical  way,  the
grammatical and the phonetical way.
      The lexical way is the connection of words according to their  lexical
meaning (мальчик читать книга Ц boy read book). Of course, the  lexical  way
is not enough. The given sentences  are  understandable  but  they  are  not
expressed grammatically. We donТt know the time of an action; we donТt  know
the type of the  sentence.  So,  words  in  a  sentence  must  be  connected
grammatically. There are 3 main grammatical ways of  word  connection  in  a
sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-words and 3) the word order.
      1.The forms of words are not typical of the English language,  because
the morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical of  the  Russian
language. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, я читаю, ты читаешьЕ).
      2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It  is  also  wider
spread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into:  1)  the  determinative
form-words (we refer: in English Ц articles and particles while  in  Russian
Ц only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer  prepositions  and
conjunctions).
      3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In  MoR  the  word-
order in the sentence is rather free. While in English the  first  place  is
usually occupied by the  subject,  the  second  place  is  occupied  by  the
Predicate, the third place Ц by the  object,  the  fourth  place  Ц  by  the
adverbial modifier. (Ann sees John - јн€ видит ƒжона.  John  sees  Ann  (not
equal) ƒжона видит јн€).

 є19. Classification sentences according to the type of communication in ER
                                  compare.

      Both in English and in Russian sentences may be  classified  according
to: 1) types of communication and 2) structure.
      According to the types of communication sentence in both languages are
divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3) imperative.
      A Declarative sentence states a fact in the  affirmative  or  negative
form. There is a great  difference  between  English  and  Russian  negative
sentences. An English sentence may have only one negation while the  Russian
sentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. - Ќикто не  опоздал.)
An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are  four  winds
of  questions:  general,  special,  alternative  and  disjunctive.  (Do  you
wantЕ?, Where do you wantЕ?, Do you want  ЕorЕ?,  You  wantЕ,  donТt  you?).
Russian  interrogative  sentence  may  be  divided   into   2   groups:   1)
Interrogative sentence having no interrogative  words,  sometimes  they  may
contain such particles as ведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли,  and  etc.  In
such cases they differ from declarative  sentence  in  intonation.  (»нженер
поехал в ћоскву? ≈го здесь нет? –азве он вам писал? Ќеужели  он  ушел?);  2)
Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что,  куда,
откуда, почему ( то пришел? „то вы читаете?).   Special  attention  must  be
paid to the indirect questions the rules  of  sequence  of  tenses  must  be
observed.
      Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to  do  something.  They
express a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand,  a  call  and
so  on.  Declarative,  interrogative  and  imperative   sentences   may   be
exclamatory when they express a strong emotion (happiness,  delight,  anger,
etc). (What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!) (ћосква  как  много  в  этом
звукеЕ).


   є20. Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare.

      According to the structure sentences are divided into: two-member  and
one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has  two  members:  the  subject
and the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may  be:
complete and incomplete 2  member  sentences.  The  complete  has  both  the
subject and the predicate. The incomplete is a  sentence  then  one  of  the
principle parts or both of them are missing, but can  be  easily  understood
from the sentence. Such sentences are  called  elliptical.  (Where  are  you
going? Ц To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually met in  colloquial
speech and dialogues. A one-member sentence is a sentence,  which  has  only
one member, which is neither the  subject  nor  the  predicate.  One  member
makes the sentence complete. One-member  sentences  are  generally  used  in
description and in emotional speech.  If  the  main  part  of  a  one-member
sentence is expressed by a noun and the sentence is called  nominal.  (Dusk-
of the summer night. «има, кресть€нин торжествует). A  simple  sentence  may
be extended (has both the principle parts of the sentence and the  secondary
parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) and unextended (has only the  subject
and the predicate). Sentences in both languages may be composite.  Composite
sentences are divided into: compound and complex. A compound is  a  sentence
which consist of two or more  clauses  coordinated  with  each  other.  (The
darkness was thinning, but the street was still  dimly  lighting.  ѕрозрачны
лес один чернеетЕ). A complex sentence consist of  a  principal  clause  and
one or more subordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set  out  from  the
hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I  am
going  is  unknown),  object,  predicative  (with  link-verb),  attributive,
adverbial.


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