урс лингвистики (Ёкзаменационные вопросы WinWord)
є1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.
Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the morphologically and
When we classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of
the word of a living language. When we classified the language
genealogically we mean the origin of the language. According to the M.C.
the language are divided into languages having not affixes and the lang-s
with affixes. The words of the lang-e, which has not affixes, are
unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc). Word
order is of a great important in lang-s with has no affixes. Languages with
affixes are classified into agglutinative and inflected. Both of them are
characterized by affixes but the connection between the root or the steam
of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In inflected languages the
suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected
languages we refer the language of Indo-European family (such as Russian,
German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinative languages the suffix is
characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang., in English Ц some
words like ox-oxenТs-бык). Agglutinative languages are divided into:
Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to the G.C. all the
lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They are:
Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian, Chinese-
є2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare.
The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote an
action (to write - писать), a process (to work) and a state (to sit,
stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate. (ќна
пишет письма каждый день. She writes letters every day.) Morphologically
the verb in Russian is characterized by the following categories: tense,
aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has the same
categories but they has not the category of gender but they has a time of
relations. The verbs may be classified into: subjective and objective.
Subjective verbs are connected with their subject. In English practically
all the verbs are subjective. In Russian Ц not all. They may be used
without their subjects (“емнеет). Objective verbs are closely connected
with two nouns or noun equivalents. Objective verbs which are connected
with their objects directly are transitive verbs, all others Ц
As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance of stem-
building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-
, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited
(-ify, -ate, -en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is greater
(mis-, un-, be-, out-, etc).
The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion. It is
not characteristic in Russian (because of the different structures). We
find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund in
Russian. The Infinitive in English is characterized by such categories as
voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is different in
the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and
Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-
aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses
are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and
є3. The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.
There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But there
is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because the two
lang-s are different in their morphological structure. The Russian lang.
has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.
In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4 large groups.
They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The specific
feature of the English language is that all the tenses are analytical but
the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect
forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect
forms because they express both the time of an action and the character of
an action (He is reading a book now).
The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In
English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are
analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the
indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only
the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.
є4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.
Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect. But this
category of two languages is quite different. In English the category of
aspect shows the character of an action. That is whether the action is
shown as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads
books everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues
and the non-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the
completeness or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject
is usually form in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести,
занестиЕ). Different verbs combine with the different number of prefixes.
Usually the verb with the suffix Цну- express instantanian action. In
English we used only one word (толкать, толкнуть Ц to push). There are some
modern verb in Russian with the suffix Цну- which do not express
instantanians actions. (в€нуть, в€знуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon
the lexical meaning. The imperfective aspect. The words of imperfective
aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as Цыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-, -€-
. (переписать Ц переписывать, забить Ц забивать). In English the repetition
of an action is usually expressed with the help of the prefix Уre-У (to
write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions which
have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect in MoR is
very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the word.
є5. The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.
There are different points of view concerning the number of voices
both in ER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active,
middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices in
English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read by the
boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in the
passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action. There are some
group of verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice: 1) all the
intransitive verbs without the suffix ЂЦс€ї (идти, ехать, ходить), 2)
reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнутьс€, улыбнутьс€), 3)
some verbs with the suffix ЂЦс€ї having a special meaning (слушать-
The specific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice
may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave me a
book. I was given a book by her. Ц adv.modifier.) Let us compare the number
of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian have
two: пишет - пишетс€. In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The
forms of the Future Continues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect
Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive Voice. The
category of voice is closely connected with the text (брать€
переписываютс€, бумаги переписываютс€ секретарем). The instrumental case in
Russian corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particle
expresses a state Ц Active voice, when it expresses the action Ц Passive
voice. The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier and
sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually emphasize
an action (the door has been shut Ц s.v.pr.).
є7. The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.
We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the
relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 oТclock Ц reality,
If we were at home at 6 oТclock Ц unreality). The relation of an action to
reality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно,
об€зательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation
of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time.
Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be
phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of
the most complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak
about three moods in Russian. (»зъ€вительное, повелительное и
сослагательное). The number of moods in MoE is greater. The best
classification of moods was introduced by —мирнитский. He finds six moods,
which must be divided into direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect
(Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional) moods.
є8. The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.
In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible,
imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you Ц если бы у
мен€ было врем€, € бы посетил теб€.) There are many opinions exists
concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive
moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an
opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional,
the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the
subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional
and subjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable,
possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in their forms.
Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form.
Which coincides with infinitive without УtoФ. (I write, he write, she
write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the
help of a mood auxiliary Уshould +InfinitiveФ. (I should write, He should
write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is
necessary that all the students be present at the classroom). The
suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is necessary that
all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form and it is often
replaced by the suppositional mood. The SII and the conditional mood are
also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact actions.
SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action
is referred to the present or to the future itТs form coincides with the
past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb Уto beФ is used to be
УwereФ. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the
Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually
used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood
is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (УShould
or WouldФ). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is
usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I
should do it. Ц SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past Ц If I had
been you I should have done it).
The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past tense form adding
the particle УбыФ. It possesses the category of gender and number.
є9. The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same. It expresses
УthingnessФ. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same
functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My
father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of
Russian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец,
билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix У-letФ (booklet, leaflet).
In both languages we find the grammatical category of number and case. But
they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in English
we find only 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The common case in
English isnТt marked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a
table Цстол, a window Ц окно). The formation of the plural number is
standard in English and non-standard in Russian. Number and case are
sometimes expressed by separate morphemes in English (oxen-oxenТs). The
case-morpheme Ц УТsФ may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man I saw
yesterdayТs son). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the
relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is
used only with nouns (PeterТs book - книга ѕети). The common case in
English is very widely used. It may function as any part of the sentence Ц
subject, object, predicative, attributive, and adverbial modifier.
Prepositions are of great importance in English. The of-phrase is
practically used with all the nouns. The difference between the possessive
case and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of gender in the
two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in English
it is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to express
this category morphologically Ц У-essФ. In both languages nouns are divided
into countable and uncountable. Uncountable include singularia tantum and
pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always the correlation between
the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семь€
ждет, сани едут). In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics is, the
family is/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not
large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо).
In both languages the functions of different cases are different. In
Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an accusative case
may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental case is used
as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically as an
є10. The category of state in E&R compare.
In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно.
This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammarians this
words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicative
adverbs or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form
an independent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In
English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, ’аймович
called them add-link, and some others called them the words of the category
of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class: 1)
words beginning with Уa-У - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2)
words beginning with Уa-У - which is not a prefix (afraid, awake, aloof,
etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives or
adverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The
question is rather complicated because different grammarians refer
different words of this class. ∆игайло, »ванова, …офик refer to this class
only the words beginning with Уa-У. There is an opinion that this class is
very rich in words expressing a state. (Ћейкина refers to this class such
words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. whatТs up?). Different opinion exist:
1) the words of the category of state form an independent part of speech.
It may be characterized: semantically, morphologically and semantically.
Professor Ilyish said that semantically they denote a state,
morphologically they are characterized by the element Уa-У, and
syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep Ц
comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type УasleepФ do not from an
independent part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of
view was put forward by professor Ѕархударов. 3) The words of the type
УaliveФ do not form a grammatical category, they form a lexically category.
This is because a state may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1)
by noun (itТs time to have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and
3) by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put
forward by professor ¬илюман.
є11. The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare.
Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. It
expresses the quality or the characteristics of an action. The adj. is
characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical functions. They
are attribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book is
interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian adj-
e is more changeable. ItТs characterized by such morphological categories
as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of
comparison. (интересна€ книга Ц интересные книги, €ркое солнце, интересный
собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category Ц the category of
the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best).
There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positive
degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in English
is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый,
красива€, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have
practically one grammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is
polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular
number, nominative case, the positive degree). But the synthetic
comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as
well. In Russian most qualitative adjectives have short forms, which are
usually used as predicative. The combinability of adjectives is also
different in the 2 lang-s. In English we usually speak about lexical and
lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russian the grammatical combinability
is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол). The English
adjective may have its right-hand connection with the prop-word УoneФ (a
good one, a nice one). There are some adj-ves in Russian the syntactical
function of which changes the meaning (present, ill, glad; the present
situation (not equal) the student is present). Russian adjectives are
characterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective appraisal
(длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided
into two groups: qualitative, relative. The number of relative adj-s is
much greater in Russian. Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into
English by a noun in the common case (настольна€ лампа Ц a table lamp).
Among the relative adj-s in the Russian lan-ge. There is a group of
possessive adj-s (ќльгин, мамин, отцов).
є12. Parts of speech in E&R compare.
Both in RE the vocabulary is classified into parts of speech. The
words are classified into parts of speech according to three main
principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-
European family of the languages. They have much in common. There are many
words which both in languages having the same root morpheme: sister,
brother, mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both
languages. But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the
same meaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо;
to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not
enough to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian
language is syntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the
morphological principle is a great importance when we classify words into
parts of speech. The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical
principle and the combinability of words are of great importance. (a black
stone, a stone wall). The parts of speech in both languages are divided
into: notional words and form-words order and empty words. Such parts of
speech as the noun, the verb, the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative
are notional parts of speech. But the conjunction, the preposition, the
particle, the article are formal parts of speech. So in both languages
there are some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech.
є13. The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER. Therefore it is
characterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The lexical
meaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances under
which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of an
action or of a quality. (He has come late. ќн пришел поздно. He is here. ќн
здесь). These adverbs express some circumstances under which an action
takes place. The syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same both
in ER. It performs the syntactical function that of an adverbial modifier.
(He is here. ќн здесь. Ц the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in
the 2 languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv.
Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will
come tomorrow. He speaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the
adverb to words of other classes, it is characterized by being connected
with the verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. Ц verb; He is very
clever. Ц adj; He acts very cleverly. - adverb). The adverb may be also
connected with the noun, but this is not a characteristic feature of the
adverb. (My friend lives in the room opposite. - noun). As to the
morphological characteristics a part of adverbs in both languages has the
degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-the most slowly). All the
adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 large groups. They are:
Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in their lexical
meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs are
those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an action takes
place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative
adverbs do not express any external circumstances. They express the
characteristics of an action or a quality. (slowly, fluently, badly).
Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of an adverbial modifier of
manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantial adverbs perform the function
of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there. He will come tomorrow.)
The circumstantial adverbs are always connected with the verb, they are
unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected with verb, adj,
є14. Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification.
The word-combination both in ER is characterized by the following
features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more notional
words (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may
include two or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks
that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one
word only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The word-
combination has practically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination
is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication. If
we say Уa black tableФ we are not quite sure what tense is meant here.
Therefore the w-c has no predicative relations, such as the relation of
person, tense, modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that
expresses a predication. The w-c are usually build on the basis of one
notional word. This notional word is usually called the pivotal word of the
main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordance with their pivotal
words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c (a red rose, красна€
роза); 2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4)
adverbial (quite near, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified
into: - free syntactical comb-s, phraseological units. Free syntactical
combinations are such combinations the part of which may be freely replaced
(a large table Ц a large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood
as a whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-
струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning). A w-c may
also classified according to their relations between the words in them.
When we may have: attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table),
objective (to read a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал сто€/сид€). W-
c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional
words (a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consist usually of more
than 2 words (to travel to a big city, a big red rose). W-c may be
subordinative (include pivotal words, or the pivotive words) and
coordinative w-c (all the element or words of they are equal Ц ножи и
вилка, a boy and a girl).
є15. Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely used in MoR.
Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form of the
pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-
he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories as
gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree
with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широка€
река, широкое озеро Ц gender; широкий залив Ц широкого залива Ц case;
широкий залив Ц широкие заливы Ц number). In plural no agreement in gender
is observed (широкие заливы Ц no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do
not agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number (город красив,
площадь красива Ц gender; город красив Ц города красивы Ц number). In
Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals in case (п€ти домов,
п€тью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and
person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).
є16. Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
Government is a variety of syntactical connection in accordance with
which the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the grammatical meaning
of the pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In English government is
used to join together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually is used in the
Possessive Case. (A boyТs book Ц boysТ books, A dayТs holiday, an hourТs
absence). Government is used in verbal combinations where the object is
expressed by a personal pronoun (Believe me, help him). Prepositional
government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him, to depend upon
him). The verb governments through the preposition. In MoR governing words
may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by a noun (крыло птицы);
2) by an adjective (склонный к шуткам); 3) by a numeral (двадцать
деревьев); 4) by a pronoun (кто-то из братьев); 5) by an Infinitive
(поливать улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от солнца). A noun or a noun-
equivalent usually expresses governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение к
старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing word belongs
to, government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здани€ Ц gen.
case), adjectival (интересный дл€ зрител€ Ц gen. case with a prep.),
adverbial (делать весело, ему при€тно), verbal (осматривать здание Ц
accusative case, доверить врагу Ц dative case).
є17. Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in
Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when the dependence
of one word upon another is expressed not morphologically but semantically
(My room-my rooms, a small room-small rooms). In MoR the mostly spread
adjoining is when an adverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be expressed
by different parts of speech:
1) by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан),
2) by a stative (вполне возможно),
3) by an adjective (почти черный),
4) by an adverb (очень слабо),
5) by a noun (езда шагом).
The Infinitive as well may be subordinated (пошел заниматьс€, жаль
расставатьс€). Sometimes деепричастие may be subordinated (разговарива€
смотрел на собеседника).
є18. The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of word
connection in the sentence.
Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is an independent
part of grammar. It studies word-combinations and sentences. The main
features of a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete thought while
w-c does not. (Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has
a definite intonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while
the w-c consists of two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in a
finite form (Cf: the weather is nice, the nice weather); 4) the sentence
expresses predication that is the relation between what is said to reality.
The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable and so on. The
action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future. The w-c
in a sentence may be connected in 3 ways: - the lexical way, the
grammatical and the phonetical way.
The lexical way is the connection of words according to their lexical
meaning (мальчик читать книга Ц boy read book). Of course, the lexical way
is not enough. The given sentences are understandable but they are not
expressed grammatically. We donТt know the time of an action; we donТt know
the type of the sentence. So, words in a sentence must be connected
grammatically. There are 3 main grammatical ways of word connection in a
sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-words and 3) the word order.
1.The forms of words are not typical of the English language, because
the morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical of the Russian
language. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, я читаю, ты читаешьЕ).
2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It is also wider
spread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into: 1) the determinative
form-words (we refer: in English Ц articles and particles while in Russian
Ц only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer prepositions and
3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In MoR the word-
order in the sentence is rather free. While in English the first place is
usually occupied by the subject, the second place is occupied by the
Predicate, the third place Ц by the object, the fourth place Ц by the
adverbial modifier. (Ann sees John - јн€ видит ƒжона. John sees Ann (not
equal) ƒжона видит јн€).
є19. Classification sentences according to the type of communication in ER
Both in English and in Russian sentences may be classified according
to: 1) types of communication and 2) structure.
According to the types of communication sentence in both languages are
divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3) imperative.
A Declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negative
form. There is a great difference between English and Russian negative
sentences. An English sentence may have only one negation while the Russian
sentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. - Ќикто не опоздал.)
An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are four winds
of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive. (Do you
wantЕ?, Where do you wantЕ?, Do you want ЕorЕ?, You wantЕ, donТt you?).
Russian interrogative sentence may be divided into 2 groups: 1)
Interrogative sentence having no interrogative words, sometimes they may
contain such particles as ведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли, and etc. In
such cases they differ from declarative sentence in intonation. (»нженер
поехал в ћоскву? ≈го здесь нет? –азве он вам писал? Ќеужели он ушел?); 2)
Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что, куда,
откуда, почему ( то пришел? „то вы читаете?). Special attention must be
paid to the indirect questions the rules of sequence of tenses must be
Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to do something. They
express a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand, a call and
so on. Declarative, interrogative and imperative sentences may be
exclamatory when they express a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger,
etc). (What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!) (ћосква как много в этом
є20. Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare.
According to the structure sentences are divided into: two-member and
one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two members: the subject
and the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may be:
complete and incomplete 2 member sentences. The complete has both the
subject and the predicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of the
principle parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood
from the sentence. Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are you
going? Ц To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually met in colloquial
speech and dialogues. A one-member sentence is a sentence, which has only
one member, which is neither the subject nor the predicate. One member
makes the sentence complete. One-member sentences are generally used in
description and in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member
sentence is expressed by a noun and the sentence is called nominal. (Dusk-
of the summer night. «има, кресть€нин торжествует). A simple sentence may
be extended (has both the principle parts of the sentence and the secondary
parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) and unextended (has only the subject
and the predicate). Sentences in both languages may be composite. Composite
sentences are divided into: compound and complex. A compound is a sentence
which consist of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. (The
darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighting. ѕрозрачны
лес один чернеетЕ). A complex sentence consist of a principal clause and
one or more subordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set out from the
hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I am
going is unknown), object, predicative (with link-verb), attributive,