Business battle fiercely, making an enormous variety of products to
meet different customersí needs. In many businesses, promotion is the key
to a new product success. Promotion is any technique designed to sell a
product to a customer. To sell a product, promotional techniques must
communicate the uses, features, & benefits of the product. Here we will
look at different reasons for & approaches to promotion, When & why
companies use particular tools & strategies, & the special promotional
problems & solutions of small business.
Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tolls
In developing a promotional plan, marketers must consider the
companyís basic promotional objectives. They must develop promotional
strategies to reach those objectives. Then, as a part of their strategies,
they must choose among various promotional tools that may be used alone or
You may think that the ultimate objective of any type of promotion is
to increase sales. Youíre right. After all, the goal of any business is to
make money, & companies make money by making sales. However, marketers also
use promotion to communicate information, position products, & control
Communication of Information.
A very basic objective of promotion is to communicate information
from one person or organization to another. Consumers cannot buy a product
unless they have been informed about it.
Information may advise customers about the availability of a product.
It may educate them on the latest technological advances. Or it may
announce the candidacy of someone running for a government office.
Information may be communicated in writing (newspapers & magazines)
It may be communicated verbally (in person or over the telephone) Or it may
be communicated visually (television, a match book cover, or a billboard).
Today, the communication of information regarding a companyís products or
services is so important that markets try to place it wherever consumers
Another objective of promotion, Product Positioning, is to establish
identifiable image of a product in the minds of consumers. For example, by
selling only in
department stores, Lauder products have positioned themselves as more
upscale than cosmetics sold in drugstores. Given all the brands &
trademarks in the marketplace, it is impossible for an individual to
remember each one. Therefore, marketers seek a unique position in buyerís
Positioning a product is difficult because the company is trying to
appeal to a specific segment of the market rather than to the market as a
whole. First, the company must identify which segments of a market could
would be likely purchasers of its product & who is competitors are. Only
then can it focus its promotional strategy on differentiating its product
from the competitionís, while appealing to its target audience.
Controlling Sales Volume.
Another objective of promotions is sales volume control. Many
companies such as Hallmark Cards, experience seasonal sales patterns. By
increasing its promotional activities in slow periods, the firm can achieve
a more stable sales volume throughout the year. As a result, it can keep
its production & distribution systems running evenly. Promotions can even
turn slow seasons into peak sales periods. For example, greeting card
companies & florists together have done much to create Grandparentsí
day.The result has been increased consumer desire to send cards & flowers
to older relatives in the middle of what was a dry for these industries.
Once a firmís promotional objectives are clear, it must develop a
promotional strategy to achieve these objectives. Promotional strategies
may be of the push or pull variety. A company with a Push strategy will
aggressively push its product through wholesalers & retailers, who persuade
customers to buy it. In contrast, a company with Pull strategy appeals
directly to customers who demand the product from retailers, who in turn
demand the product from wholesalers.
Makers from industrial products most often use a Push strategy And
makers of consumer products most often use a Pull strategy. Many large
firms use a combination of the two strategies. For example, General Foods
uses advertising to create consumer demand(pull) for its cereals. It also
pushes wholesalers & retailers to stoke these products. Once the
promotional strategy has been determined, it guides the companyís choice of
promotional objectives & the types of promotional communicational tools
that will be used.
Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix
Based on these strategies, the firm must select the right promotional
tools. There are four basis types of promotional tools: Advertising,
Personal selling, Sales promotions, & Publicity & Public relations.
The best combination of these tools-the best promotional mix -
depends on many
factors. The companyís product, the costs of different tools versus the
promotional budget, & characteristics in the target audience all play a
The product. The nature of the product being promoted affect the mix
greatly. For example, advertising can reach a large number of widely
dispersed consumers. Thus it is used by makers of products that might be
purchased by anyone, like sunglasses, radios & snack foods. Companies
introducing new products also favor advertising because it reaches a large
number of people very quickly & can repeat a message many times. Personal
selling, on the other hand, is important when the product appeals to a very
specific audience, such as piping or pressure gauges for industrial
Cost of the Tolls. The cost of communication tools is also important.
Because personal selling is an expensive communicational tool, it is most
appropriate in marketing high-priced goods like computers for industrial
customers & homes for consumers. In contrast, advertising reaches more
customers per dollar spent.
A promotional mix that is good for one company is not really good for
another. For example, Frito -Lay can afford to spend millions of dollars on
advertising & consumer promotions to promote Ruffles Cajun Spice potato
chips nationally. But Zapps Potato Chips of Gramercy, Louisiana, the
innovator in Cajun flavor potato chips, must rely on personal selling &
publicity to promote its Cajun Craw-taters locally.
Promotion & the Buyer Decision Process. Another consideration in
establishing the promotional mix is the stage of the buyer decision process
that customers are in. Customers must first recognize the need to make a
purchase. At these stage marketers need to make sure the buyer is aware
that their products exist. Thus, advertising & publicity, which can reach a
large number of people very quickly, are very important.
At the next stage, customers want to learn more about possible
products. Advertising & personal selling are important because they both
can be used to educate the customer about the product.
During the third stage, customers will evaluate & compare competing
products. Personal selling is vital at this point because sales
representatives can demonstrate their productís quality & performance in
direct relation to the competitionís product.
Next, customers decide ton a specific product & purchase it. Sales
promotion is effective at these stage because it can give consumers an
incentive to buy. Personal selling can also help by bringing the product to
convenient location for the consumer.
Finally, consumers evaluate the product after buying it. Advertising,
or even personal selling, is sometimes used after the sale to remind
consumers that they made wise & prudent purchases.
Advertising strategies most often depend on which stage of the
product life cycle their product is in. During the introduction stage,
Informative Advertising can help develop an awareness of the company & its
product among buyers & can establish a primary demand for the product. For
example, when a new textbook is being published, instructors receive direct-
mail advertisements notifying them of the bookís contents & availability.
As products become established, advertising stages must change.
During the growth stage, Persuasive Advertising can influence customers to
buy the companyís products, not those of its rivals. For example, during
its growth stage, Advil used this approach to attract buyers of Tylenol &
other pain relievers. Persuasive advertising is also important during the
maturity stage to maintain the productís level of sales. In addition,
Comparative Advertising may help to steal sales away from the competition.
After proclaiming that ęmost people in Ford country drive Chevy pickupsĽ,
the ad then discusses specific features of the two brands, in a classic
example of the comparison approach.
Finally, during the latter part of the maturity stage and all of the
decline stage, Reminder Advertising keeps the productís name on the tip of
the consumerís lips. And so Atari continues to advertise its home video
games, even though attention has shifted over to a newer competitor,
Whatever the productís life cycle stage, advertising strategies must
consider timing. Should the organization advertise throughout the year on a
continual basis, or seasonally? Companies such as commercial banks space
ads evenly throughout a year.
In developing advertising strategies, marketers must also consider
Advertising Medium for their message. IBM, for example, uses
television ads to keep its name fresh in consumersí minds. But it uses
newspaper & magazine ads to educate consumers on the productís abilities &
trade publication to introduce new software. Each advertising medium has
its own advantages & disadvantages.
Newspapers. Newspapers are the most widely used advertising medium,
accounting for about 27 % of all advertising expenditures. Newspapers offer
excellent coverage, since each local market has at least the daily
newspaper & many people read the paper ever day(Like you are).This medium
offers flexible, rapid coverage, since ads can change from day to day. It
also offers believable coverage, since ads are presented side-by-side with
news. However, newspapers are generally thrown out after one day, often
cannot print in color, & have poor reproduction quality. Moreover
newspapers donít usually allow advertisers to target their audience very
Television. Television accounts for about 22% of all advertising
expenditures. In addition to the major networks, cable television is
becoming a major advertising medium. Cable ad revenues have increased from
$58million in1980 to $1.4billion in1988, & are projected to be over
Television allows advertisers to combine sight, sound, & motion, thus
appealing to almost all the viewerís senses. National advertising is done
on television because it reaches more people than any other medium.
One disadvantage of television is that there are too many
commercials, causing viewers to confuse products. Most people for example,
canít recall whether a tire commercial was for Firestone, or Goodrich.
Viewers of VCR tapes of shows often fast-forward past the ads. Another
disadvantage, is that the normal ęCommercial spotĽ lasts only a short
time(usually 30sec), & then its gone. If the viewer is not paying
attention, the impact of the commercial is lost. Brevity also makes
television a poor medium in which to educate viewers about complex
products. Finally television is the most expensive medium. A 30sec
commercial during the Super Bowl costs about $750.000!
Direct Mail. Direct Mail advertisements account for 17% of all
advertising expenditures. As the name implies, direct mail often involves
fliers mailed directly to consumersí homes or places of business. Direct
Mail allows the company to select its audience & personalize the message.
Consumers are also exposed to far less direct mail than to other
advertising media. Moreover, although direct mail incurs the largest
advance costs of any advertising technique, it also appears to have the
highest cost effectiveness. These features have helped to make direct mail
a fast-growing advertising medium.
Radio. About 7% of all advertising expenditures are for radio time. A
tremendous number of people listen to the radio each day, and radio ads are
very inexpensive. In addition, since most radio is programmed locally, this
medium gives advertisers a high degree of customer selectivity. For
example, radio stations are already segmented into listening categories
such as rock & roll, country & western, jazz, talk shows, news & religious
Like television however, radio ads are over quickly. And radio
permits only an audio presentation. Also people tend to use the radio as a
background while theyíre
doing their things, paying little attention to the advertisements.
Magazines. Magazine advertising accounts for roughly 5% of all
advertising. The many different magazines on the market provide a high
level on consumer selectivity. Magazine advertising also allows for
excellent reproduction of photographs & artwork that not only grabs buyerís
attention, but may also convince them on the productís value. And magazines
allow advertisers plenty of space for detailed product information Another
advantage of magazines is that they have a long life & tend to be passed
from person to person, thus doubling & tripling the number of exposures.
The problem with magazine advertising is that ads must be submitted
well in advance to be included in a certain issue. Often there is no
guarantee of where within a magazine in ad will appear. Naturally, a
company would prefer to have its advertisement appear near the front of the
magazine or within a feature article.
Outdoor. Outdoor advertising - billboards, signs, & advertising
buses, taxis, & subways - makes up a little more than 1 % of all
advertising. These advertisements are relatively inexpensive, they face
little competition for customersí attention, & they are subject to high
repeat exposure. Unfortunately, companies have little control over who will
see their advertisement.
Types of Advertising
Regardless of the media used, advertisements fall into one of several
categories. Brand Advertising promotes a specific brand, such as Kodak126
film, Head & shoulders shampoo, & Nike Air Jordan basketball shoes.
Advocacy Advertising promotes a particular candidate or viewpoint, as in
ads for political candidates at electon time and antidrug commercials.
Institutional Advertising promotes a firís long-term image, as when AT&T
assures customers that it is ``the right choice.
Advertising to Specific Marketsí
Advertisements also differ in to whom they are directed. That is,
advertisement depend on the companyís target market. In consumer markets,
local stores usually sponsor retail advertising to encourage consumers to
visit the store & buy its products & services. Larger retailers use retail
advertising on both a local & national level. Often retail advertising is
actually cooperative advertising, with the cost of the advertising shared
by the retailer & the manufacturer.
In industrial markets, to communicate with companies that distribute
its products, some firms use trade advertising publications. And to reach
the professional purchasing agent & managers at firm buying raw material or
components, companies use industrial advertising.
Regulation of Advertising
Advertising affects nearly every American. Because it can be used to
deceive as well as inform buyers, advertising has increasingly come under
regulation. The first regulation of advertising activities came in1914.
This act created the Federal Trade Commission to protect competition from
unfair trade practices.
Members of the advertising industry also regulate themselves to some
degree. Advertising media, including television networks & local stations
magazines, & newspapers, decline ads they believe to be false or in poor
test. And the National Advertising Review Board investigates complaints
against national advertisers. If it finds in favor of the advertiser,
chargers are dropped. If it finds in favor of the complaining party, then
the advertiser must modify or withdraw its claim.
Personal Selling Promotions
Virtually everyone has engaged in some sort of sales activity.
Perhaps you had a lemonade stand or sold candy for the drama club. Or you
may have gone on a job interview - selling your abilities & service as an
employee to the interviewers company.
Personal selling - the oldest form of selling - is a vital cog in
many companiesí promotional efforts. It provides the personal link between
seller & buyer. It adds to a firmís creditability because it provides
buyers with someone to interact with & to answer their questions.
Because it involves personal interaction, however, personal selling
requires a level of trust between the buyer & the seller. When a buyer
fells cheated by the seller, that
trust has been broken & negative attitude towards salespeople in
general develops. To counteract this reputation, many companies are
emphasizing customer satisfaction & generally striving to improve the
effectiveness of whatever personal selling they undertake.
Personal selling is also most expensive form of promotion per contact
because presentations are generally made to one or two individuals at time.
Personal selling expenses include salespeopleís compensation & their
overhead, usually travel, food & lodging. The average cost of sales call
has been estimated an approximately $240 & has been increasing rapidly in
The high cost of personal sales have prompted many companies to set up
Telemarketing departments. Telemarketing is the use of the telephone to
carry out many of the activities involved in marketing a companyís
products. Telemarketing can be used to handle any stage of the personal
selling process or to set up appointments for outside sales people.
Types of Personal Selling Situations
Managers of both telemarketing & traditional personal sales people
must always consider how personal service are affected by the difference
between consumer products & industrial products. Retail selling involves
selling a consumer product for the buyerís own personal or household use.
Industrial selling deals with selling products to other businesses, either
for manufacturing other products or for resale.
Each of this selling groups situations has its own distinct
characteristics. In retail selling the buyer usually comes to the seller.
The industrial salesperson almost always goes to the prospectís place of
business. The industrial decision process also may take longer than a
retail decision because more money, decision makers, & weighting of
alternatives are involved. And industrial buyers are professional
purchasing agents who are accustomed to dealing with salespeople. Consumers
in retail stores, on the other hand, may be intimidated by salespeople.
Personal Selling Tasks
Improving sales efficiency also requires marketers to consider
salespeopleís tasks. Three basic tasks are generally associated with
selling: Order processing, creative selling, & missionary selling. Sales
jobs usually require salespeople to perform all three tasks to some degree,
depending on the product & the company. As you will see, this tasks differ
in the skills required, the methods used, & the reasons for using them.
Order Processing. At the most basic level, Order Processing, a
salesperson receives an order & sees to the handling & delivery of that
order. Route salespeople are often order processors. They call on regular
customers to check the customerís supply of bread, milk, snack foods, or
soft drinks. Then, with a customerís consent, they determine the size of
the reorder, fill the order form their trucks, & stack the customerís
Creative Selling. When the benefits of the product are not clear,
creative selling may persuade buyers. Most industrial products involves
creative selling because the buyer has not used the product before or may
not be familiar with the features & uses of
a specific brand. Personal selling is also crucial for high priced consumer
products, such as homes, where buyers comparison shop. Any new product can
benefit from creative selling that differentiates it from other products.
Finally, creative selling can help to create a need.
Missionary Selling. A company may also use missionary selling to
promote itself & its products. The goal of missionary selling is to promote
the companyís long-term image than to make a quick sale.
The Personal Selling Process
Although all three sales tasks are important to an organization using
personal selling, perhaps the most complicated is creative selling. It is
the creative salesperson who is responsible for most of the steps in the
personal selling process described here.
Prospecting & Qualifying. In order to sell, a sales person must first
have a potential customer, or prospect. Prospecting is the process of
identifying this potential customers. Salespeople find prospects through
past company records, customers , friends, relatives, company personnel, &
business associates. Prospects must then be qualified to determine whether
or not they have the authority to buy & the ability to pay.
Approaching. The first few minutes that a salesperson has contact
with a qualified prospect are called the approach. The success of later
stages depends on the prospectís first impression of the salesperson, since
this impression affects the salespersonís creditability. Thus, salespeople
need to present a neat, professional appearance & to greet prospects in a
strong, confident manner.
Presenting & Demonstrating. Next, the salesperson must present the
promotional message to the prospect. A presentation is the full explanation
product, its features, & its uses. It links the productís benefits to
the prospectís needs. A presentation may or may not include a demonstration
of the product.
Handling Objections. No matter what the products, prospects will have
some objections. At the very least, prospects will object to a productís
price, hoping to get a discount. Objections show the salesperson that the
buyer is interested in the presentation & which parts of the presentation
the buyer is insure of or has a problem with. They tell the salesperson
what customers feel is important &, essentially, how to sell them.
Closing. The most critical part of the selling process is the close,
in which the
sales person asks the prospective customer to buy the product. Successful
salespeople, recognize the signs that a customer is ready to buy.
Salespeople can ask directly for the sale or they can indirectly imply a
close. Questions such as ę Could you take delivery Tuesday?Ľ & ę Why donít
we start you off with an initial order of ten cases?Ľ are implied closes.
Such indirect closes place the burden of rejecting the sale on the
prospect, who often will find it hard to say no.
Following Up. The sales process doesnít end with the close of the
sale. Most companies wants customers to come back again. Sales follow-up
activities include fast processing of the customerís orders & on-time
delivery. Training in the proper care & usage of the product & speedy
service if repairs are needed may also be part of the fallow-up.
Sales promotions ( motivators) are a very important factor in the
promotional mix because they increase the chances that consumers will try a
product. They also enhance recognition for the products. And they can
increase the purchase size & amount.
Did you ever here a promotional slogan ę buy three & get one free.Ľ
To succeed, however, sales promotions must be convenient & accessible
when the decision to purchase occurs.
Types of Sales Promotions
Sales promotions can take a variety of forms. The best known are
coupons, point of purchase displays, free samples, trading stamps,
premiums, trade shows, trade promotions, & contests & sweepstakes.
Coupons. Any certificate that entitles the bearer to a stated savings
off a productís regular price is a coupon. Coupons may be used to encourage
customers to try new products, to attract customers away from competitors
or to include current customers to buy more of a product. They appear in
newspapers & magazines & are often sent through direct mail.
Point-of-Purchase Displays. To grab customerís attention as they walk
through the store, some companies use Point of Purchase Displays. Displays
located at the end of the aisles or near the checkout in supermarkets are
POP displays. POP displays are always coincide with a sale or the item
being displayed. They also make it easier for customers to find a product &
easier for manufacturers to eliminate competitors from
consideration. The cost of shelf & display space, however, is becoming more
& more expensive.
Free Samples, Trading Stamps, & Premiums. Purchasing incentives such
as free samples, trading stamps, & Premiums are used by many manufacturers
& retailers. Premiums are gifts, such as pens, pencils, calendars, & coffee
mugs, that are given away to consumers in return for buying a specified
product. Retailers & wholesalers also receive premiums for carrying some
Trade Shows. Periodically, industries sponsor Trade Shows for their
members & customers. Trade shows allow companies to rent booths to display
& demonstrate their products to customers who have a special interest in
the products or who are ready to buy. Trade shows are relatively
inexpensive & are very effective, since the buyer comes to the seller
already interested in a given type of product.
Contests & Sweepstakes. Customers, distributors, & sales
representatives may all be persuaded to increase sales of a product through
the use of contest. For example, distributors & sales agents may win a trip
to Hawaii for selling the most pillows in the month of March. Although
sweepstakes canít require consumers to buy a product to enter, they may
increase sales by stimulating buyersí interest in a product.
Publicity & Public Relations Promotions
Much to the delight of marketing managers with tight budgets,
Publicity Is FREE. Moreover, consumers see publicity as objective & highly
believable. Thus, it is a very important part of the promotional mix.
However marketers often have a little control over publicity.
Public relations is company-influenced publicity. It attempts to
establish a sense of goodwill between the company & its customers through
public service announcements that enhance the companyís image. From this
topic, so far, you may think that only large companies can afford to
seriously promote their goods & services. Although small businesses have
fewer resources, cost-effective promotions can improve sales & enable small
firms to complete with a much larger firms.
Small Business Advertising
The type of advertising chosen by a small business depends on the
firm is trying to reach: Local, National, International.
Local Markets. Advertising is non prime-time slots on local
television offers great impact at a cost many small firms can afford. More
commonly though, small businesses with a local market use newspaper & radio
advertising &, increasingly, direct mail.
National Markets. Many businesses have grown from small to large
operations by using direct mail & particularly catalogues. By purchasing
mailing lists of other companiesí customers, a small firm can target its
mailing, reducing costs. The ability to target an audience also makes
specialized magazines attractive to small businesses.
International Markets. Television, radio, & newspapers are seldom
viable promotional options in reaching international markets because of
both their costs and their limited availability. Most small firms find
direct mail & magazine advertising the most effective promotional tools.
Small Business Personal Selling
Like advertising, personal selling strategies used by small
businesses depend on their intended market.
Local Markets. Some small firms maintain a sales force to promote &
sell their products locally. Other contract with a sales agency - a company
that handles the products of several companies - to act on their behalf.
Insurance agents who sell insurance for several different companies are
National Markets. Because of a high costs of operating a national
many companies have established telemarketing staffs. By combining
telemarketing with a catalog or other educational product literature, small
companies can sell their products nationally & compete against much larger
International Markets. Small companies canít afford to establish
international offices in order to conduct businesses. Even sending sales
representatives overseas is expensive. Thus, many small companies have
combined telemarketing with direct mail in order to expand internationally.
Small businesses often depend on an interesting or unusual sign to attract
Small Business Sales Promotions
Small companies use the same sales promotion incentives that larger
companies use. The difference is that larger firms tend to use more
coupons, POP displays, & sales contests. Smaller firms rely on premiums &
special sales, since coupons & sales contests are more expensive &
difficult to manage.
Small Business Publicity
Publicity is very important to small businesses with local markets.
Small firms often have an easier time getting local publicity than do
national firms. Readers of local papers like to read about local companies,
so local papers like to write about such businesses. But fierce competition
for coverage in national & international publications limits the access
small businesses have to those markets.
Distributing Goods & Services
In selecting a distribution mix for getting its products to
customers, a firm may use any or all of six distribution channels. The
first four are aimed at consumers & the last two at industrial customers.
Channel 1 involves a direct sale to the consumer. Channel 2 includes a
retailer. Channel 3 also includes one wholesaler, while Channel 4 includes
an agent or broker before the wholesaler. Distribution strategies include
intensive, exclusive, & selective distribution.
Wholesalers act as distribution intermediaries, extending credit &
storing, repackaging, & delivering the product to other members of the
distribution channel. Full-service, & limited-service, merchant wholesalers
differ in the number of distribution functions they offer. Agents & brokers
never take legal possession of the product.
Retailing involves direct interaction with the final consumer. The
major types of retail stores are department, specialty, bargain,
convenience, supermarkets, & hypermarkets. (Like in Moscow.) They differ in
terms of size, services, & product type they offer, & product pricing. Some
retailing also takes place without stores, through the use of catalogs,
vending machines, & video marketing. According to the wheel of retailing,
conventional retailers are periodically Displaced by low-priced innovative
retailers, who then become more conventional & subject to displacement.
Distribution ultimately depends on physically getting the product to
the buyer. Physical distribution includes customer-service operations such
as order processing. It also includes warehousing & transportation of
products. Warehouses may be public or private & may be used for long-term
storage or serve as distribution centers. Costs of warehousing include
inventory control & materials handling.
Truck, plane, railroad, water, & pipeline transportation differ in
cost, availability, reliability of delivery, & speed. Air is the fastest
but most expensive. Water carriers are the slowest, but least expensive.
Most products are moved by truck at some point. Transportation in any form
may be supplied by common carriers, freight forwarders, contract carriers,
or private carriers.
Developing & Pricing Products
Products are a firmís reason for being, their features offer benefits
to buyers, whose purchases are the source of business profits. In
developing products, marketers must take into account whether their market
is individual consumers or other firms. Marketers must also recognize that
buyers will pay less for & worry less about the exact nature of convenience
goods than about shopping & specialty goods. In industrial markets,
expensive items are generally less expensive & more rapidly consumed than
are capital items.
The seven stages of product development are development the ideas,
screening, concept testing, business analysis, prototype development, test
marketing, & commercialization. Very few ideas for new products survive to
the commercialization stage.
When new products are launched, they have a life cycle that begins
with their introduction & progresses through stages of growth, maturity, &
decline Revenues rise through the early growth period; sales rise through
the late maturity period. In terms of the growth -share matrix, this
progression appears as a product moves from questions mark to star to cash
cow to dog.
Each product is given a visible identity by its brand & the way it is
packaged & labeled. National, licensed & private brands are developed to
create brand loyalty. Packaging provides an attractive container &
advertises the product. The label informs the consumer of the package
contents. The pricing of the product will determine its business success,
depending on the business objectives that are being sought. Profit
maximization, market share, & other business objectives may be relevant to
the pricing decision. Economic theory, cost-oriented pricing, & break-even
analysis are tan used as tools in determine prices.
Pricing also involves choices of a basic pricing strategy can be used
for new products. Existing products may be priced at, above, or below
prevailing prices for similar products, depending on the other elements in
the marketing mix. Within a firmís pricing strategies, managers set prices
using tactics such as price lining, psychological pricing, & discounting.
1. Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tools
. Promotional Objectives
. Promotional Strategies
. Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix
5. Advertising Promotions
. Advertising Strategies
. Advertising Media
. Types Advertising
. Advertising to Specific Markets
. Regulation of Advertising
11. Personal Selling Promotions
. Types of Personal Selling Situations
. Personal Selling Tasks
. The Personal Selling Process
15. Sales Promotions
. Types of Sales Promotions
17. Publicity & Public Relations Promotions
. Small-Business Advertising
. Small-Business Personal Selling
. Small-Business Sales Promotions
. Small-Business Publicity
22. Distributing Goods & Services
23. Developing & Pricing Products
(Promoting Goods & Services)
To Dr. Zavadovskiy
by Goubanova Galina
Principles of Marketing Philip Kotler
2.The practice of Marketing Kenneth E. Runyon
Business Ricky W. Griffin
Marketing Patrick E. Murphy
Ben M. Enis
Marketing Management ( A Strategic Approach)
Harper W. Boyd, Jr
Orville C. Walker,Jr