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                            [pic]



               : . 372 .

                                   ..

                             :  ..



                                1999


                          

                              
                                

                  .
        ,  
 3  1882  ,        
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  I. .
  II. .
  III. .
  IV. .
  V.  .
  VI. .
  VII.      :  ,
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  VIII.    .
  IX.     .
     :
  X.               
:
   1-  -  .
   2- -  .
   3-  -  .
   4-   .
   5-  -  .
   6- -  .
   7-  -  .
   8- -  .
   9-  -  .    -  
.
  XI.   ,      -
:
   1-  -  .
   2-  -  .
   3-  -  .
  XII.             
   :          
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   3-  -  .
   4-  -   .      -
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  XIII.       :
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   3-  -   .
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  XIV.    - :
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11  1857      II. 
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    ...

                 III   I
          
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1725).        .
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 1917             
    .  
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     ,    19-21  
1991           
.            
 ,        
 . . .
  22.08.1991             
  -- . 30    1993
    .  .        
     .  
    
        ,  
  .       
           
  ,      
  .
            
     .  
          
    .      ,
  ,    .
                   CMBOKA: ME EOOE  PEKAMO

                                                 muu auu nopeyau
                                                    oo ynpam u.
                                              anoeo o ypeeo opee
                                                          oeoo eoa.

  oeca coa  eoeea  ac  o
ooe    cax  c  e   eoo      acoc.
Paccope  o  npoea    cao  oe   ae
peoaae yoee  caoro  o  "co".  Oe
ec p  oe 6 ooa. apep, A..oce
aca ooo 60 opeee coa.  caoo  ocea
"co ea, opaa  eo-opaa cpyypa,
coepa  cee yaa a e   e,  oe  o
ee pee,    oopx  oa  ec  ooee  
epaepy ao". B copeeo ococo  coape
oeac,  o  "co    epoaao  ae  
aoc oaa aeeo epeo ooe ooy
epea, oopy p paccaa oca  p  cee,  a
pyy oca apepy. Ceoaeo,  cc  coa
no peecoy  opeee    paeee  eoo  
eee oceoc. Ta o oeco    ocoeo
"aeco"    epooec,    coepa    coa
ooopa  opo aoa  cxoacec  cop  o
opeee  oa,  (ae  oeca  oe   c
oco coa,  .,  oec.)
  Co oo paccapa   a,  a  cooyoc
coo "ooro poa" -  a  aoy  ccey.  Oey
ae,  eeec (o rpeo) oe  coa  o
cao  c  eae  eo  ooc      ooy
oc  oeceo-oec,  opay  oooc
coa   coceo    oeco    co    a
cooyoc     paex     cpec,     pax
oeco ,  oecoy   ec,  pa
opa aepaa o  ocoeo  ,
oepy, 6o, , cp cc.
  Hecop a eccopy aoc ye  oeco
co,      ae   cpae   o    oooecoe
apaee o e paaec;  o  oycoo,  a
e  aec,   peoaae      oeeceo   aye
yoapaex   "paoacecx" cceocx
oe,  oopx  xapaepa  a    ooaoy
ocp c "cye  a  ooaae  ".
Coec e oxo  eae  oe  eca  po,
o "ppaoa" oe.  -a  oro,  c  
pe   ceoe   peco   coao   ay,
oece   c      oac    oeceo
pey, a ceoaeo, e  oy    "epe"  
ooy poco "e  aeac"  paoao-pec
cceoa.
  oop o coax, e  e  yoy  .Kaccpepa,
oop ca, o eoe -   ooe  "coecoe
ooe", ceoaeo, c cp eoeeca  oo
paccapa    co  py  c,  c   noo
oopo  yopoa opya x xaoc; , ,
pe, cycco  aya  cy  "coece  op".
ooy  Kaccpep  oac  c  exa  ac
epe  exy  copeex   ey   necx   o,
opac  co: "B pecx cya  eoe
cera opaaec  oa cpeca. Ha cee
oec  a pa   c  a  oa
cpeca - a pay e opaae  ax  oa,
o  cea  ocaec    aece  ultima  atio   ac
cpxececoo  cecoro", Aa  oecx
o    co  a  aoo  Kaccpcp  poo   
ocoo  o  aepay  epa  oce  epo  poo
o.  cpa,  epaeo  axoxc    coco
oeceo-       xaoca,       cceoe
ecx o e eee ayao. Kpoe oo, ae 
cooe peea   cax cpaax   pooa
ecoa.  Ka  pao,   oeco   caa
cococy o-a , o oee  yopoee
 epapxec cpoee.
  Co  coea    cee   a   eaoe,   a   
aepaoe  e  ca  cococy   -  o  eoopo,
payeec, cee - papee  eoo  copa  ey
    coae.  o  ex   op,   o   ye
pac aepaa   yxoa  yypa  oeca,
yy    co,  a    ae  epye
a coy, ee eo cpe x yyp. B cepe
o    coec    "ce"    eaoo     
aepaoo poec,  a  eco,    coee
eaoo  o  ac  c  po   peax   ee,
coaae   eoeo.   p   o   co   ypoae
eeyae   oepa   c   poc      co
oec o,  o    o  e  pe  opae
npocop ceoo cey a x ox.
  Kacca  oeco   co   oe   
npecaea cey o6pao :
  l. Haoao-ocyapcea oeca  coa
( ceo a, ep, ;   e  op  co
coyc e oo ocyapca, o  paoopa
opaa oo opa);
  2. Apxeyp oec (a, coopye   p.-
e o  Baroe,  Kaca    epca  ce,
ococ Kpe  ..);
  3.  Cyype  a   oec   ee,
eopa, ocee copec co;
  4.  a  o,  oco6e  pea  y   cx   
ocyapca, opa oe, opea, ea, a  p.;
  5. eee a (a x epeo aece e  e
co, ee ooee  ao cpae), poe  oo,
x ooee cpe  pyx  a  oe  copoa
ooec  oec cayc ocyapca;
  6. oeca ooa  (aa  y,  opoo,
cpa  ..);
  7.  Pya-poeccyaa  coa:  e  oe
oce  epop  -  o  pya   c   coee
opeex  poeyp,  y  o  aceac  apae,
yee a ocyapca  ooc    poeee
aoaoo paa;
  8.  Hao-aaoa  coa,  aa  ce
  ao  aa,  oocec     oeco
peae (oy, aa, peope co,  a,
oppe  ..)
  9.  -yaa  coa   e   oaeo
,  opeeee    
  apoe    peooe   ec,   noype
eo);
  10.   peeo-oea   oeca    coa,
pee    oe,   ocoo   ae      ao
aoao oo: Kooo coo    aepae,
ap-ya  ap-ooo  Pacc, opa Ao    pe,
y y  p-a  .; oey coecy  po
pae opye, ocoeo epoe);
  11.    a  oece  co  (pee   ceo
oece ep - o, e,  Haoeo    p,:
eeape epo   Be  Te,  Po  y,  
Mypoe  ee epcoa  o y    A,
 C s CA);
  12.    coo-rpaeca    ca.    aa
repaece a (ce-ooe e, pec, ,
po  ..);
  13. oec  (ceaa  epoo  o
ocoe oe ocpy, peec  oeco
pae: oco, oap,  "pa'",  a  ae  oy;
poe oo, oecyao o oe  oe caoe 
poeceoe coo a oco co);
  14.  oeca  oa    c  (oe  pcpac
copoo aoo-o e,  paee    oee,
oee  ..);
  15. Co eca   pee  ("opaca  oxa",
"noxa epa epoo", "coecoe pe"  ..; pa,
co, aoae p ae epeo pa
 o coe);
  o   epecee,   payeec,    e    cepae
acca oecx  coo,    oy  e  oe
 e oe (     )  pacp
eec, cpyypy    y  aoo  a  co.
Cyecee oca   aoee  x  epax  exa
ec      
. Ka   o  ceoeco  cc  (coaco
..Moppcy),        oeco    coe     oo
paccapa:
  1) cay  ooee  ey  eea  aoo
cce;
  2) ceay -  ooee  ey  ao    o6eo,
op o pecae;
  3) paray  ooee ey ao ccea  
e, o epppye coepaec  x cooe.
  Ocoeoc  oeco   co   a   aoo
cce coco,    acoc,    o,  o  ee  e
oec ceaec oo  ecece aa, xo 
ee epeo a e peae  oe  ppo  -
"cee" oepa, op, epe; e ee  ca  
   c  opa  ccea,   xo      e
ocaoo  oecx  (apep,  opp     ..),
oeoax (opea, ea   p.),  epeoax
(aeca,    acea)     .   Kpoe    oo,
oeca  coe  e   y   oe   aoe
cce, a  ae  a  a  o  (aaece
co).   Ta   opao,    noeco    coe
coceo pa  c -    -  pae
a  epapx aox cce    cooa  x  
ex  o.  oo  ce  oo  poce   
ooeee      oeee.   Oyee   a,   eo
coaa y o ycoe ececex   oecx
ao  oee cooy oecoy  y.  B  cop
eoeeca pae eea aae cy poce
opae  co  (oe,  pya)     yopoe
oeceo , ae epexo  noecoy y
(ao, ocy, eapa  pa    p.),  Te  e
ee  ''apxaece",    copeco  cce,  co
poa  cooac,  oco6eo    oe,  oa
paoaa  oe ee oeo  pa  a
coa e oaae  ooo  oec.  B  ao
ae  noaaeo  poee  o   c   eee
coepa (apep, caca  peoc   XX .).  
ooe ccooe aoee ox  coo  eec  c
eee  pee.  Hapep,   a   CCCP   o-paoy
ocnpac a yp  cpa,  a    a  pyeo  
epo cpay oce opaoa CCCP,  1941 - 1945  .,
a 1961 , (o epoo ocoaa),   pe  xooo
o,  1980-x  I990-x oax. o  ooe    aoy-
o oecoy  coy  oo  cy  o  eocx,
peoaax  ax    ocoeocx   oeco
yyp oeca. C ao o pe,  aeaoo
oo6pae oeceo-oeco cya  eoxoo
poo cceoa  oceoo  e  o  oo
ceo  peecpa  oeco  co,  a   e   oo
coecx yp  poe  ecyx  oo  (.e,
ya ooee  aoaoy ay, epy, y;  
apxeypo-cyyp    coopye,    oeco
ooe, apaa  ..). o e acaec ooe 
coa opax ocyapc,  pax  opaa,
o oepao peee ceoeo  roocoa  
6pa oo a oy ecaypy; ece  c  e  o
e  apoa  oey-o  o  cera   aa   p
coa oecoo aa "a  ea",  opeee
ax coo ocyapceoc (aa, epa, a).
o, epoo, opaee oo e,  coaco  oopoy
oa  ocyecec  pa  pya,  oa  
oopx,  p    ac,  coye  ee   o   coey
ycope,  ep  co   eoo,   a   a    
coy. Eceo,  "oo" coe pe, c,
eepy co ooo 6opoy  y,  opo  oo
po cacce acpoe, e ea  "eac
 oy",  Ho  cey  oa    epa.    po6ea
oycpoca   oecoro   pocpaca   c   ao
co ee eocpeceoe ooee  paacoy
oey.  cceoae  ee  ooe   pax
coax coe  oeco coe  a  poe
ooo pee oe  a  eey  oooecy,
yypooecy      pyry   apa.    Oco6eo
epeco poce o eee ooceo coo,
oope cyecy e oo coee (ar, apxeypo-
cyype a,  pae  oece  ep
a "eopa", opa  axc  eee    p.).
Ec  oop  o  cyao  ooe   acee   
rocyapceo  coe   a      oeppoay
pae "yxa" cpa  ee , o  o    oea
oo cy o  cee  oep  cyecyeo  cpo,
eoc o  o eoo  ..
  B opeeeo   oeca  coa  cpo
e a cycca,  oope  aepy  e  coo  
payy, coo  ooao cpoe eoea.  eo
ooy, o xyoece opa oee  e  co:e  
aaa  (pao  a    occ  co),   oo
paoaoo  -  ocp,    yoo   oec
("peae  e peae") ceye - ya oe
cxo-ooece  oco6eoc  eoea.   Hapep,
 eca ooeo   ooao  ae  oya
opaa    pocpaca    c    oo     coea
epax      opoax   oeo.   ocee
eoey,   o  ncxo,  ayc  y  
coxpae paoec. B o e pe 6oe oee a
ooo pecppyec coae a ca   eoopoy
yc, a "o"  eoey.  eo  ooy  opoe
a   cyyp  (eea  a,  cay  Coo,
eocpe6)  pepac    coeo  poa   co.   
oac a    coopye,    a    oea
coy. He cyao opoa eoao Epo peca
coo "y  epae",  oa  "a  po  oa
opoa eac  c  a  a...  B  XIII  ee
opoce oy oea o oceeco  a, 
ep ao oex  6ope  c  eoaa  yo  
peeceo caoc papyee opx ae". B o
pepe    aee  co  a  a  coaoo   
oecoo o, a  ae  eocpa    c,
oopy oaa co a . Papyee  co
-   co    paooe    yoee    aapo
oeeoo paa,  poee  yyp,  ao,
ex opoo  .. - o  cnocoo 6op co a
ac     c.   Oao   oce   paec   oo
ye ocac  "coeca  a":  Kapae,
ac, epca cea, cae  coa,  a  ea
aepac  cop; o e caoe oocc    opaa
axc oo. B  o  o  o    ycope
e  "ao  coxpaeu"    ,   
  ooo a    pyo,  o  cao,  copee
ceo, c , eao-apao ppoo coa.
 a opoc ee eoaoo ye.
  oypoc  peca    eoopx   pyx   ycoo-
paecx   p   oe   yee   a   o6c
ocoeoc eoeecoo ocp. K..  y
oe  apeec  ao,  eaax     ae
coa  poe. o poe ea  ooe
a ocyec  ceaec:y  opaoy  ooec
ao  opa  oe   cpo      o   cea
6eccoaeo.    Mape    cpyyp     peoo
aaaopa, apep, peoa ocpa  epy
oepe  eoepece  cpyyp  a   pec,   py,
apa.  a  y ox pyx cceoaee  co
epapo  ca  c  "eccoae"   e   a
oeee eoea  o.
  Bocpe ea  eoe ooa ae  ao
a ooeco ypoe (pac - po, oyo - eo,
e - coe  ..), xo oo ea 6 ee  
 coa oec. Heoop cceoae oop o
oye  coea eoo   epoo  eo  a
aa oacoc -a opac eoapa  -  epoo  paa
pao. Cey  e  ocp  coo  opee
co    pe,  cee  pa   oeca,   ypoe
opaoa eoea  ..
  Ec  a    c  (  peeo    e
acca) peca a e oco a,  o  
x o "copa  ec",  opay  oecoe
pocpaco  ao  oeca.  o  poecc    ye
xapaepo      ax   coo    (.e,
aoece yp cce),  co oepe, cay
c  paao     ceao.   Oao      cyae   c
oec coa, payeec, e o cpooc  
coea eeo, opy   aae,  apep,  
e. Opee ee opae   aooepoc  o
a          ocoa
aa, B.Tepep oea, apep, o "py  coo
oy    cpoe  a  opao,  o6  coca
cooee,  oopo opeee  co  ypy
aaoo ac pe     oopo  o  cyecoa
ycoe paa coee. o cooee e  o  ocox
ecx  ocoecax, a  o  o  ao    ao
yype ocoe cpyyp  ,  a,  cea,
pao  coco occe o oa".
  Ocoeo   pacope      o   ooe   ""
epa.    O    oo    pep:     ceac,
paccapa ee  epe Hope noce  cye
cpa  HATO ( oocoy y  oaac  cepa,  a
eo    ca   ep),   ocapy   pae
  aue  a    -         
"             .
Moe   ocyapc    (    opaa),    oco6eo
opaoae  XX ., apya  cape  epaece
paa,   o   oo   oxapaepoa   a   oy
ooe pex noecx "o".
  Ec oop o aoo  oeco  oaope,
o ceye oe,  o  oece  co  a  
"yc" py  pyy, yo oo yeo x  coe.
Hapep, oece aeca oo  pypoe  
ao-o ao  ae,  pooc  oe  aex
cyypo-apxeyp  acae,  c   cooae
ao-aaox  pyao-poeccyax cpec,
y, pacapao c ycoo-paeco coo  
..   Taa  ocaoa  aopcye  epe   
coae    e    coecx    op     eoo,
ceoaeo, pepypoa ox eo  e  e
opraa. p o, a  , oeca coa
oe  y  oya    coaa.  Kpoe
oo,  a  opa  ocyecc  y   coa
ox  cpyyp    ae  .  Be   aeee
peaaee oeco co - copa  "o  
co aea" a oo oe e,  opepy  x  a
e   ao   opaau   e   ca       pa
oaaec, o coa  o ceo    cpye
 o, o cpye  oe  e,  a  aaa  -
ayc paoo    ooa    coepecoa
eo.   Bao    pyoe:  pao  pacoaa,  oa
oece co  yopec    aypoa
coae  eooecx cey.
  oo  ac   oeco   co   ca   c
ac ooe:
  "Koa o acy, pye axoc  oe 
oec cpeee  poec  pae  ey  e  
py  x ee oe,  x peax  aax oea"
                                                                  
  B  o  ooe  cyecye  ea  "acooc"  
pe    oecx    coo,     oycoea
aaeo oe  oeceo-oeco  epapx.
eo  ac  ye  npeey  a  pao   coepa
coece ec  oaa ea,  oope  
pyrx  aypoa.  Heo  aee  pe  (opoa,
cep  epaa), o-o  o oeco ee  
py aa, eocy po  .  Ec  ae
oece ep ocaa epec "o"  o  p
o ce e oyc  peyeca  "ep".  Moe
pyooe paox   oycec  ap    oy
pep. aco oooep e  e  oco  pe
o, p  ac, opya ce ec   coy
x,  .., a o noaa,  oepa aopea.
ec coac a oxoa  yopee coo:
   1)  ea  paeoc      ooc   "o
      opoa";
   2) "o epa" cpoeoe ooee  e.
  Bo  o ee oo   poope  o  a
aoo. a o  eee    yecee  a
ooa  oepa  epapx,  o  p  peo  cee
ocox coecx  opepo  (peo,  peop)
ae co,oy pepac  o. ooy ye
ee,   o   aa   oecoo    coa
pxoc a pexe  epo  cop,  cae  c
ecaoc oeceo-oecoo ycpoca.  Ha
o  ,  "oeco"  oeco  co   a
 ao-o  eo,  cpeca  ea  
ocoa  onpeeeo  ooc  paaec   po
poopoao pocy aepao    yxoo  yyp
( ye oop o coe a cye eee ey
eao  aepe)  ac o oecex aao
      .  O   oe   oeco
co  opacae  a   poopoao   pocoy
yee acee ae. Ka eoe ece  e
coec aa, py opay oe opaa co
coe  coo,  o  pya  oe  eoo  
oupy cape,  ce  o  peoaae  peee
ex    x  coo.      coa   aepae
eoc,   oope   ae    ac        poecc
cua.  Ececeo,  eoope  a  yxo   
aee, ycya eco  py.  Ta  opao,  
o6e  oeco  aoo  cce,   cooecy
cpyypa eoo  aepao yyp  opeo
oece, ye  eueo  aoe.  B  o  ooe
oa  e  ep  ayya.  epoe   poocoe,
apaee oeco c    ,  
  coec xapaep, oe oo  caa  o
pooco aa - oy, Boco -  aa  
., Ha eco o coecx op cpay y py.
Ceac apoac peoe  ee,  oc
oe eoo,   ocoe  oopx  -  e  e   co.
Coa pooae cy  oe,  py.
  Bo  pe  copecx  epeoo   coa   oe
e  co  oece    aece   coca,
pa pye op.  Ka  pao,  e  e  caouc
oe  ee, oa poco  eec.  Coec  Co
e  e  oy  "accy"  co,  e   copeea
Pocc. Ho  a  ca  a  oppoaa  (xo  
oao) a oy e  a y o6oc e. B o
a e ca  caoc - opeea pccca aoa
ccea o coco   oeca  coecx  (
ceoaeo,   eooecx)   opaoa,    pe
epeo ocyax eca ceye aepae 
yxoe  epec.  Ocoeoc  eeo   epexooo
epoa, c o pe oeco co y cex  a
y: a Kpaco noa  oee  eocpa,  o  a
ax opy po cocecy pace e   oe
yae op; apay o  Maoe  ea  epece  
Moe  coaa, o y  o  ocaac  
eopa.  Co  c  oop  o  o,   o   oa
ocyapcea eoo ee  ooaeo  e  paa,
capa - ee e ya. ooy-  ae cpae o cx op
aooaeo e pa ocypcea coa. Ta,
oopo  oec (ya ope,poop    ),
yepea   yaa   peea,   o   e   oepaa
ocypceo  yo,  e  "pace"   co
eo CCCP  aece ao copeeo Pocc.  He
epo, opocc apa  npcae  oo  
apa ccea,  oopo  opoe  ope  Ape
epoaoo cocecye co a epo Pocc (aao
ep Coecoo Coa). Coa  a  epa    
o   opaae    epexo    xapaep    e
noco  cc   Pocc.   Bopaee      capo
epco coe o e cocoao papaoe
oo eoo, oopa    oa    ocoo  6
peop.   oaao,   o    o    eo-ce-pac
poopo (epaa  ao  pooo  oa
Pocc)  ae pe no  pac    
opo, a o ya opo  "opoac"  oa  a
Kaa. B ao ooe e ceoao  aa, o
cey c coeco  coo  cococoa  paxy
eoor    CCCP.    ceo  eopeeeoc   c
coo   e    e    aopcye    papee
eooecoo pca, a a apoa aoo  
oeco  cce  ocyecec    oa,  oa
opeypoa c  oe  coa  -  co  -
cye,  ocpa  coy,  oa   cyecye
epapx coo, aoex  ocoy eoo, o  a
epapx  aoece ey eea e oy  
ee.
  oeca coa aoca c  peoo  
a a ooeco, aco "epeeae"    x,
opaa   oece    ea        peoe    
oaece.  Booe    opa   poecc.   epe
ocooe  eocpa    Pocc  aa   ea
oa   ocpac   peca   a   oa
pecoro  xoa;    coeco  cop   op   pec
epeeac  "op" c  ao  ape  eco
ce  ..   cop  eco,  o  pcoe  
peooe   aco   ceaoc,    a    a    ca
     
  pec  coaa.  Cac     ae   aae
aoece  oeco  eoo      peoo
pa. B copeeo Pocc, pao a  o ce pe,
ece   ee   aco   oyc   poo
coo, a  peoe  -  cya  c  oecx
o. o  acaec  ooeco  co,  o  ee
ao p o cex cpaa.  Bo  co  eeo
aepa epa .pepa a o o 6pa:
  "oece    cce,     opae     caap,
ocyapcee  pa  pxo    yx,     oo
aa  epaco  poeoc  Krupp,  Siemens,  
Daimble-Benz ocac . ooy oo  epaca
poeoc    eceoe,  o  o      a
coo  ycooc  ee  ocex  150  e,  -
cocoa epy   yepeoc  cee"
                                                                   . 
   oaaeo, o ppo oa e, o pe  a
  CA-  pep  peoe  pee   c   pecae
eapaca   paey   c   peeo    pyee
opaoo opopa Microsoft .eco,  epoo,
ca,  o  o  aepac  co  popeee  
ooeee cec oo. Ha o , ae
pep   coco    oaa    peee    po
ecoo coa a  pae.  Ocoe  cnoco6
oye y oec co  e  ec  co
peee   oo  eceeo  ocoe,  o  eo
"ya    pa",  oece   a   coaeoe   
eccoaeoe.    B    aooaece     oca
ocyapc  peycapaec  aaae  a  ocepee
aoax coo. B o e  pe  o  oop
ypa  "oo"  oeco  co,  ee
opoae    pax  opax,  yee     yex
aeex,  acoe  yoae    CM.   oee   a
ceapo  paax  ocyapcex  ao   cy
apee  x  ooeoo  opaa    coa,   a
eae ex e  aro  a  acpax  ax
pao ya yaee  ac.
  P  aopo,  cey   pa  T.poa,  ca
co  eepy   eeo   o   oeco
cce.  oee  oo,      x   "cyoaa
pepeoc  o  oec   coa   ec
eoxoo   peoco   opaoa    aoaoo
ocyapca". paec a cex ax rocyapcex
 coax   oepaec  eco  ao,  pou,
oace. Oaoe e    ooc  a  ae  CA  -
oeopee paeca ao, oeex  eepa.
ooe pep -  a    pac    copeeoc
eco  cee  cpa  ocpax  e  pa
aa (1848 .):
  "Ec  oee y e pexe a,  oee
y e ooy o pa, a ec  cpae,  a  
a "
                                                                    
   Ta o oce e cyao  pa aoao 
peoao epa  copeeo Pocc coaae  c
ycee oeco po cyeo eepa. C  oo
copo,  o  oo  oc  caoyaee  acee,
poaeo   ao  peo,  c  pyro  -    cyae
pe   coo   epao   ac   -    ye
cococoa eoop eepao ee.
  oo pae o, oo caa, o oeca
coa ec oo  cyecex cocax ace
oeco   .   Bece   c    e    aoap
ceec  ocoaeoy  oec  coo  a
eoeec pay ycaec  po  aox  cce  
oeco  peae.  o,    co   oepe,   eae
coaeoy   ocp   ocoeoce   oecoo
pocca    oe   a   po   ycaaac
epao-eopaeco  cce,  a  a  ce
ee po paee paoae ocoae ( o, o
M.Beep     aa      eao-pauoa      o
eoc).


  P.S.  ,       
       
        .



                          


   1.             
      C 1. , 1830
   2.      
      1. , 1813
   3.           
      . , 1905
   4.     .17. , 1893
   5.   ..  . :  .
      ., 1892
   6.       XVI  -  XVII  ...
      ,1962
   7.  ..    
       XVII -   XVIII  .  (  
           )  //
             
       . , 1982
   8.        //        
       . : , 1987 (1988)
   9.    . , 1993
  10.                 -
      . , 1995
  11.  ..,  ..    
      . , 1974
  12. ..   . ., 1988
  13.  ..  . : , 1990
  14.  .   . : , 1995
  15.  ..        
      //                
                
      . , 1947; . 17.
  16.    ..      (  
        )  //    1939   N
      1(49).
  17.    ..        
      . , 1911.
  18.  ,   . 1799
      ., . .  .
  19.  ..   .  ,
      1993.
  20.           ..            
      . ., 1989
  21.  .         
      // 1993 N1
  22.  .,  .     //
       , 1990. N 3(113), .59
  23.  .   // 1985 N2
  24.  1999-1  : 
  



                                 


                            1.   2


               2.     
                          5


                3. CMBOKA: ME EOOE  PEKAMO 11



                          4.   18



" "