Политология

Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак

                                HOSNY MUBARAK

                             (birth 05.04.1928)

      For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as  the  big
statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and  reliable  Arabian  head.  Can
solve numerous problems of the country,  he,  nevertheless,  uses  the  best
efforts to prevent degradation.



                      HOSNY MUBARAK- " MISTER HONESTY "


       Ten  centimeters!  Such  distance  separated   vice-president   Hosni
Mubaraka from death October, 6-th, 1981  when  during  military  parade  was
killed  (more  precisely  to  tell  -  Egyptian  president  Anvar  Sadat  is
executed).
      He till now hears singing the bullets flying around of him.  Remembers
that instant when one of aggressors has shouted to him: " Stand  aside!  You
are necessary for us not, the Pharaon is necessary for  us!  "  Sees  Sadat,
laying in a pool of blood...
        In  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  shocked,  but  safe,  Mubarak
officially has informed compatriots on death of the head of  the  state.  In
one week he became the president of Egypt.  In  that  year  to  him  it  was
executed 53 years and he, apparently, was rather pleased with  the  role  of
vice-president. But...
  April, 15, 1975 Sadat has appointed the 47-years commander of  Air  Forces
Hosny Mubarak vice-president.
- I have chosen him for loyalty and reliability,  -  he  has  explained  the
step some weeks after.
       Hardly later, speaking about Mubarak,  the  Egyptian  president  will
note his such qualities, as persistence, fidelity and competence.
      Wife of Sadat - Djihan which by then had already sufficient  influence
on the husband, has agreed with this choice. She,  on  an  own  recognition,
found Mubarak" deprived any ambitions to remain devoted to his spouse ".
       Itself Mubarak, as he said, was surprised and puzzled, when Sadat  as
caused him and has offered a post of vice-president.  Him  career  political
or the statesman as he secretly dreamed become the chief of the Joint  Staff
of the Egyptian army never interested.
      It is necessary to tell, that so unexpected  choice  has  thrown  into
confusion also his nearest environment. However, soon the  reasons  of  this
step  of  steel  are  clear:  the  president  wanted  to  get   support   of
militarians. It was found out also, that a choice  of  the  Egyptian  leader
has affected, as spoke in retinue Sadat, "unity of sights on  rapproachement
of Cairo with Washington "and an allergy" to  Soviet  Union  which  suffered
both that, and another.
      Anyway, Mohammed Hosny Seid Mubarak (his full name  is  those)  became
the second person in Egypt, right hand of Sadat, his shadow.  Before  it  he
has made an outstanding career of the professional militarian.
       The Future president was born May, 4-th, 1928 in Egyptian  country  -
in small village Kafr an ale - Musyl'ha  (province  Manufia),  in  delta  of
Nile. His father owned a small site of the ground and simultaneously  worked
in legal management of a province.
Hosny it was brought up not in luxury.  His  friends  and  schoolmates  were
children of  fellah.  Probably,  it  the  openness  and  simplicity  of  the
president speak.
      He studied persistently, and after leaving school parents advised  him
to continue education at Cairo university at faculty of fine  arts.  However
he has decided on other...
      War of 1948 with Israel has shown: the Arabian  armies  are  disabled.
In the Egyptian officer case inflow of  youth  began  from  average  layers,
including from a countryside. Hosny Mubarak has  selected  a  trade  of  the
pilot. Having finished with distinction in 1949 military college, he  served
on Sinai, then was the instructor of air academy. Repeatedly  left  in  50th
years in the USSR where it was trained in flights on modern types of  planes
which Soviet Union delivered Egypt.
        In 1956 Mubarak took part in reflection English, French  and  Israel
aggressions.
      Abilities of the  young  pilot  were  noticed,  and  in  1959  he  was
appointed the commander of a squadron of bombers TU - 16. In some  years  he
became the commander of  a  brigade.  The  maximum  military  education  has
received in the USSR, in Academy of a name of Frunze  in  which  studied  in
1964-1965 years.
      When in 1962 civil war began from Northern Yemen, Mubarak appeared  in
structure of the Egyptian contingent directed to this country. He took  part
in operations and has recommended himself the  brave  and  skilful  military
pilot.
      By the way to tell, officers envying him, using this  fact,  began  to
spread  rumours,  that   Mubarak,   being   in   Moscow,   has   turned   in
"procommunist". A reality, however, another.  He  not  bad  speaks  Russian,
gives due to planes of the Soviet manufacture, but he in any way  cannot  be
counted "procommunist". Faster on the contrary...
      The most difficult test for Egypt became 1967. Israel  has  put  heavy
defeat of  the  Egyptian  army.  Practically  the  aircraft  completely  was
destroyed.
      At once after war Mubarak was appointed the chief of military  college
in Bilbeis. Of him have set the task: taking into account the  danger  which
has hung above the country to increase release  of  pilots,  having  reduced
term of their preparation with 4 till 2 years. It  was  necessary  to  break
all system of training. Mubarak  days  did  not  leave  college,  personally
watched observance of the daily routine and study of cadets.
      He Noticed by president Gamalem Abdel' Naserom, becomes the general of
aircraft in 1969 and is appointed the chief of a staff of the  Egyptian  Air
Forces. In 1972 he already  -  the  commander  military  -  air  forces  and
simultaneously the deputy minister of defense.
        These posts have allowed him to  reorganize  the  Egyptian  aircraft
which was not answering at that time modern requirements and to  prepare  it
for war with Israel, begun October, 6, 1973. It is necessary  to  recognize,
that then the Air Forces of Egypt have achieved impressing results.
       Mubarak becomes the national hero, receives from hands Sadat  "  Star
of Sinai" - the highest Egyptian military award - and погоны the general  of
army. Military "ascention" he is a native of simple family - is  obliged  to
epoch of  Nasere.  To  political  rise  of  him  has  pushed  Sadat,  having
appointed vice-president and, thus, having opened him a way to  the  supreme
authority.
        Since then this broad-shouldered, a dense constitution  the  general
began to seize art of political "pilotage". Sadat has  given  him  for  this
purpose the ample opportunities, having made him some kind  of  "  departure
ambassador ". He has assigned on  Mubarak  performance  delicate,  sometimes
difficult assignments.
        Aspiration of Sadat to play the leading part on international scene,
his often trips  abroad  gave  Mubarak  an  opportunity  to  strengthen  the
positions inside the  country.  He  began  that  has  reorganized  political
police and confidential services which have penetrated into  all  chink  the
Egyptian society. He, certainly, did not manage to  cure  all  illnesses  of
these departments, but as a result of the carried out cleaning he could  get
rid of the elements which have compromised.
      Becomingin 1978  vice-president  national  -  democratic,  created  by
Sadat in exchange him of the spoiled Arabian socialist  union,  Mubarak  has
got influential friends, that has strengthened his position even more.
       During six with superfluous years  vice-president  honesty  put  into
practice a policy of the cartridge. In the top echelons of power  about  him
responded yours faithfully,  marked  his  intelligence,  natural  sharpness,
hardness and frankness, serviceability.
        Simple Egyptians appreciated vice-president incorruptibility. He has
managed to remain away from corruption with which his relatives, many  high-
ranking officials, which were infected Sadat, not hesitating, plundered  the
country. It is no surprising, that Egyptians till now name Mubarak "  mister
honesty ".
      Probably,  he  and  would  remain  diligent  vice-president,  but  the
bullets which have struck Sadat, have advanced Mubarak  further  away  -  he
became the president of Egypt.


                             INDEPENDENT FLIGHT


      Mubarak has inherited from Sadat almost  monarchic  mode  isolated  in
the Arabian world and wallowing in external duties. However  in  people  and
in  the  environment  of  secular  opposition  which  many   representatives
appeared at Sadat behind a lattice, coming to power new president  have  met
with the big hopes for changes.
         "The  New  leader  have  supported  therefore,  -  known   Egyptian
journalist Hejkal, wrote in one of articles - that he was the most  suitable
person, capable to disseminate the fear reigned in Egypt  and  to  heal  the
mental traumas put to the country. The person who would not  began  to  make
grandiose plans was necessary for Egyptians, but also would not  finish  the
country before accident ".
       Quiet, modest, but resolute -  Mubarak  has  provided  transition  of
authority practically without a uniform false step. As has shown  time,  the
former military pilot who has gone in the first independent  flight  as  the
head of the state, not only has not  given  in  before  getting  from  Sadat
troubles, but with honour has left many followed tests, having  strengthened
the  authority.  Acknowledgement   to  that  -  participation  of  president
Mubaraka in meeting of chapters of the Arabian states and  the  governments,
taking place in Casablanca in May, 1989, and then his election on a post  of
the chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
         But  it  will  be  later...  While  Mubarak,  having   borrowed   a
presidential armchair, has set free  on  all  political  prisoners  and  has
shaken hands with them. Members of the organization  finishing  with  Sadat,
were prosecuted, and then executed or imprisoned. To tell  the  truth,  many
secret extremist Islamic groupings soon were revealed, one of which  -  "Al-
Aksa" in May, 1982 has sentenced the president to a death penalty.
       However, due to  the  vigorous  activity  of  confidential  services,
Mubarak  has  managed  to  separate  the  "moderate"  elements  of   Islamic
opposition rejecting violence as a method of  internal  political  struggle,
from " incorrigible extremists ". In result,  for  first  twelve  months  of
board he has released 4.000 Islamic active workers.
       Running forward, I  shall  tell,  that  Mubarak,  knowing  about  the
danger proceeding  from  Islamic  extremists,  avoids  drastic  measures  in
religious sphere. He  understands,  that  the  problem  of  radical  Islamic
fundamentalism still remains on  the  agenda.  Though  extremists  also  are
tired out in a underground, they at any time  can  appear,  how  it  already
happened in October, 1981, when was killed (or is executed) Sadat.
      As  to  secular  opposition,  that,  having  come  to  authority,  the
president at  once  has  declared  readiness  to  start  dialogue  with  its
leaders. He has resolved activity of  opposition  parties,  and  even  their
representation in parliament. Besides he has  agreed  with  renewal  of  the
edition of newspapers of opposition.
       Aspiring to strengthen the position,  and  at  the  same  time  being
compelled to be considered with supporters Sadata, kept  key  posts  in  the
political and economic life, the new president started to carry out  gradual
"desadatation". Under his direct instruction were prosecuted the brother  of
the deceased  -president  Ismat  Sadat  and  his  sons  supervising  roguish
operations.  Process  above  them  has   allowed   Mubarak   to   show   the
determination to liquidate corruption in the Egyptian society.
      The majority of those who watched  activity  Mubarak  at  the  initial
stage, unanimously marked, that he has declared himself as the figure  of  "
new type ". When him have asked: " You are going to  follow  What  political
line - of Nasere or of Sadat? ", he  has  answered  with  a  smile:  "  Own,
certainly ".
        On the spot has specified, that his policy will  be  based  on  four
principles: democratic pluralism, an openness, honesty and the  decision  of
economic problems.
      No, president Mubarak did not call in question  (anyway,  public)  the
basic directions of a political  rate  of  the  predecessor.  But  tried  to
expand  freedom  of  actions   in   the   inherited   frameworks,   refusing
simultaneously from sensational gestures in style  of  Sadat.  Moreover,  he
did not try to disguise verbal demagogy problems facing to Egypt as  it  was
done by the former leader. In opposite to Sadat Mubarak  did  not  undertake
ostentatious attempts to solve internal problems by  reviewing   the  study.
But in the  first  speeches  he  constantly  called  for  growth  of  labour
productivity, amplification of feeling  of  the  responsibility,  to  social
justice.
        As against Sadat new the head of the state abstained from  promises,
but invariable tried to give a new pulse to economic policy. He  slowly  but
to develop began truly in Egypt democracy, trusting  what  exactly  it  will
provide in long-term prospect political stability to  a  mode.  It  is  more
than that, he has frankly declared people, that  the  government  can  solve
all problems facing to it.
      - New Egypt will be constructed only  by  work  of  Egyptians,  -  the
president likes to repeat.
      Nevertheless, Mubarak  in  the  intention  to  improve  economy  still
recognizes that "infitah" -  the  policy  of  open  doors  begun  by  Sadat,
basically was correct, but it was put into practice unsuccessfully  and  was
discredited corruption, reigned in Egypt.  Having  received  thanking  Camp-
Daving to agreements "special" attitudes from USA, president  Mubarak  tried
to squeeze out from them a maximum possible. Both in political, and  in  the
economic plan, skilfully playing on aspiration of Americans to be  fixed  on
Near East.
        Using such trump card as threat of freezing, and even a severance of
diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarak has received  to  some  extent  to
influence a  middle  East  policy  of  USA.  Certainly,  a  degree  of  this
influence to overestimate does not cost, but it, undoubtedly, is.
        President Mubarak, certainly, appreciates  communications  of  Egypt
and USA as receives from them two, and even it  is  more,  billions  dollars
annually as gratuitous gifts, loans and military credits.  These  injections
of steel for him that "lifebuoy ring" which keeps on  shallow  the  Egyptian
economy.
      But also here there are strict limits on cooperation, is  especial  at
a political level. So, for example,  on  the  offer  of  USA  to  help  with
construction of military base on Red sea for the forces  of  fast  expansion
the Egyptian president has answered with resolute refusal.He  has  declared,
that Egypt will construct its  itself  and  will  keep  there  the  control.
Americans can use it when  Cairo  will  consider  military  intervention  of
Washington necessary.
      Never refusing "special" attitudes from USA, Mubarak at the same  time
has made appreciable efforts for restoration of normal diplomatic  relations
with Soviet Union which were completely normalized in 1984. Practically  all
obstacles, long time braking development of attitudes between our  countries
today are eliminated.
       It is not necessary to think, however, that "  independent  flight  "
passed president Mubaraka smoothly. The Israeli intrusion  into  Lebanon  in
June, 1982 has caused internal pressure  on  Mubarak  with  the  purpose  to
change character of the egipetsko-Israeli attitudes. One more test  for  him
steel of excitement of 17 thousand  employees  of  forces  of  the  internal
safety, having a place in February, 1986. The army  has  quickly  suppressed
these  excitements,  and  the  president,  due  to  resolute  actions,   has
strengthened the positions even more.


                                 AEROBATICS


       In October, 1987 the  National  assembly  of  Egypt  unanimously  has
selected Hosny Mubarak  the  president  on  the  second  six-year  term.  In
November of the same year the League of Arabian  countries  (LAC)  has  made
the decision that its members can restore  if  will  wish,  full  diplomatic
relations  with  Egypt.  Nine  countries,  including  Saudi  Arabia,  almost
immediately have directed the ambassadors to Cairo.
        In December of the same year in Cairo the flag above  representation
of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)  was  lifted.  Thus  Mubarak  has
shown, that Egypt again is ready to play a role of the "traffic  controller"
assisting negotiations PLO and USA, Jordan and Israel about  convocation  of
peace conference on Near East.
        One of the key factors which  have  defined  finally  success  of  a
strategic rate of diplomacy Mubarak  on  full  returning  of  Egypt  in  the
Arabian numbers, precisely thought over, consecutive behaviour of  Cairo  in
its contacts to Tel Aviv was. From the moment of coming to power by the  new
president very successful form of  the  attitude  of  Egypt  to  Israel  was
produced: " Prospects  of  development  of  bilaterial  communications   are
defined by the general situation  on  Near  East,  process  of  middle  East
settlement ".
       Such formulation (and Mubarak followed it strictly) enabled  to  hold
Israel on respectful distance. On  the  other  hand,  the  similar  position
obviously directed on protection common  Arabian  of  interests,  could  not
remain unnoticed in the Arabian capitals.
       Has not remained unnoticed and such fact:  president  Mubarak  -  the
unique Egyptian head of a high  rank  whom  has  refused  to  visit  Israel,
despite of numerous official  invitations.  To  tell  the  truth,  when  him
already "have absolutely got", and he could not resist to pressing,  he  had
to go at some o'clock per the small Israeli  settlement  located  in  desert
Negev. " I have made it against my heart... " - he has admitted later.
        Besides the Egyptian president willingly offered  the  services  for
settlement of many bilateral conflicts, for example,  irano-Iraq.  All  this
has helped creation of completely new representation  about  Egypt,  radical
image distinguished from Sadat's representation. In many respects  this  was
promoted also by the person of Mubarak.
Sadat loved formal  receptions,  magnificent  suppers,  ceremonial.  Mubarak
does not love high life, hates everything,  that,  in  his  opinion,  is  an
excess. Sadat adored to appear on public  in  motley  military  uniforms  at
numerous awards. Mubarak does not put on the form since the civil  post  has
held.
      Sadat was completely corrupt, Mubarak  -  the  incorruptible  patriot.
Sadat spent time in magnificent palaces.  Mubarak  lives  in  the  small  2-
storeyed country house constructed by him(it) on own  means  still(even)  in
1971.
      Sadat the born actor, the fan of light of a stage  and  long  tiresome
speeches. Mubarak has no eloquence, but he also is deprived propensities  of
the predecessor  to  eccentric  to  theatrical  gestures,  frankly  dislikes
chatterers.
        Intellectuals laugh at him, tell about him every possible histories.
But not malicious, as about Sadat.
      Mubarak it is sincerely devoted to business of democracy,  Sadat  only
dexterously juggled with this  term.  The  new  president  in  practice  has
proved, that his performances in protection of  a  personal  freedom  -  not
mere words. At him political life in  the  country  began  more  democratic,
than at Sadat.
      In Egypt many consider, that Mubarak, becoming the witness of  attempt
at the predecessor, has learnt from this the important lesson: it is  better
to move forward gradually and to risk only insignificant failures,  than  to
try to supervise over the country in the dictatorial style of Sadat  fraught
with shocks. Probably, for this reason care, the pragmatism, moderation  and
a sequence became distinctive features  of  a  political  rate  at  the  new
president.
       Naming  Mubarak  "embodiment  of  care",  already  mentioned   Heikal
emphasizes, that it "care of the skilled pilot to which before he will  lift
the plane in top, the exact data on weather, loading and other  data  "  are
necessary.
      In opinion of one western diplomat, Mubarak, in essence, has  remained
" the rectilinear commander who gives orders and expects  obedience  ".  But
he not the dictator. He first of  all  the  militarian  who  annoys  if  his
orders are not carried out.
      Egyptians in the greater degree, than inhabitants of other  countries,
appreciate a shade of some greatness in the heads. Therefore many  criticize
Mubarak for his modest suits, the not refined speech and excessive  shyness.
They consider, that he has not enough scope of the present statesman.
      Anyway, but due to persistence and thin feeling of  a  step  president
Mubarak has managed to rally Egypt and to return  to  it  former  authority.
Arabs could not understand unpredictable of Sadat and  did  not  trust  him.
Mubarak with his consecutive and realistic foreign line to them it be  clear
and causes trust. With him want to deal.
         Having  disseminated  the  extremely  adverse  impression  made  on
Arabian world by Sadat, president Mubarak has  managed  to  turn  to  itself
arabs.
       Year of 1989 became rotary both  for  Egypt,  and  for  Mubarak.  The
president started to play more and more appreciable  role  on  middle  East,
African and even world stages.
       The National hero Egyptians come back  of  Casablanca  Mubarak  where
there  passed  the  interArabian  meeting  have  met.  At  this  summit  the
president of Egypt already in the first speech  with  resoluteness  inherent
in him has let know, that Cairo is going to provide to  itself  indisputable
leadership in the Arabian world.
       Alongside  with  increase  of  the  prestige  abroad,  the   Egyptian
president has strengthened the authority and inside the country.



             The Ministry of Educatuon of the Russian Federation

                The State University of Humanitarian Sciences
                     The Department of Foreign Languages



                   HOSNY MUBARAK – THE PRESIDENT OF EGYPT



                                               The student of the first year
                                         the Department of political studies
                                              Nikolaeva Ekaterina Alekseevna



                                Moscow, 2002


                                  CONTENTS:


Introduction.

   1. Hosny Mubarak – “Misner Honesty”.
   2. Independent fligyt.
   3. Aerobatics.
Conclusion.
Literature.



                                INTRODUCTION


      In an extreme antiquity the territory of Egypt became a cradle of  one
of the first in a history of mankind of civilizations.  It  many  times  was
exposed to invasions of foreign conquerors. In 1882 Egypt  was  occupied  by
England, in 1914 is posted by the English protectorate.  Formal  declaration
Egypt as independent kingdom has taken place  in  1922.  Having  imposed  to
Egypt in 1936 the unequal contract, England continued to occupy  a  zone  of
Suez canal. June, 18, 1953 Egypt is proclaimed by republic.
       After revolution of 1953 at life of  the  oustanding  figure  of  the
Arabian  national-liberation  movement  of   president   Nasera   in   Egypt
progressive social  and  economic  transformations  were  carried  out.  The
antiimperialistic foreign  policy,  a  rate  on  friendship  and  widespread
cooperation from  the  USSR  and  was  consistently  carried  out  by  other
socialist countries.
       From the beginning 1970 years внетренняя and the  foreign  policy  of
Egypt began to undergo essential changes.  Its  management  led  by  Садатом
began to pursue a policy of " liberalization of economy " and "  open  doors
",  характеризовавшуюся  wide  encouragement  of  the  private  capital  and
foreign investments. Over a policy of the Egyptian management has  prevailed
proimperialistic  a  rate.  In  result   the   country   experiences   sharp
sociopolitical and an economic crisis.
       In Egypt counteraction to an antinational reactionary rate of a  mode
amplified on the part of various political forces. Trying to  suppress  this
counteraction, authorities resorted to more and more wide reprisals. It  has
resulted in an aggravation of conditions in the country.  October,  6,  1981
during military parade in Cairo the group of the military men  belonging  to
the Muslim religious organization, accomplishes attempt on Sadat and he  was
killed.
       The New Egyptian management continues to carry  out  in  basically  a
foreign policy leaning on close cooperation with USA. Inside the country  it
has cancelled some repressive measures. The significant number of  political
prisoners is released.
       The constitution Working in Egypt is accepted  September,  11,  1971.
The supreme body of legislature - National assembly.



                                 CONCLUSION


      Many recollect, that in the first years of  board  Mubarak  has  taken
advantage in the interests of a  condition  of  the  general  simplification
which has come after destruction  of  Sadat,  and  the  termination  of  the
dramatized performances of the former president. Prudence new heads  of  the
state was perceived faster as the certificate of wisdom, instead  of  as  an
attribute of shyness. He typed glasses, making  special  accent  on  modesty
and focusing mass media on reduction of attention to his person and  members
of family. Among some other innovations he has sworn himself  to  limit  the
speeches till one hour.
      Today, as well as within service in the Air Forces, president  Mubarak
wakes up in five mornings and prepares for breakfast for  family.  From  six
up to eight studies reports and messages then leaves for the office.
      Till 15-00 - meetings with foreign delegations, meetings with  members
of the government and experts. Then two school hours sports in club  of  the
Air Forces - gymnastics and "squash" (game reminding tennis). The  tightened
figure the president can give odds to young people.
      In the Evening - continuation of a working day.
      For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as  the  big
statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and  reliable  Arabian  head.  Can
solve numerous problems of the country,  he,  nevertheless,  uses  the  best
efforts to prevent decline.
       The tasks worth  today  before  the  president,  hard  for  Egypt  is
located in region where the extremism represents the usual  phenomenon,  and
the moderate approach - exception.
       Hosny Mubarak can make still very  much.  The  only  thing,  that  he
should not make is to wait...



                                 LITERATURE


   1) The directory of “The Country of the world”, 1986.
   2) The big encyclopaedic dictionary, 1991.
   3) The concise Oxford dictionary of politics, 2001.


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