-

,


                                                                       [pic]
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    ѡٮ  ɫ߿߬ ᵿ
     Ѽ ẫ᡿

p߬ pѡٮ p߼߬
ҡp߿ ѡ Ѽ .. ӫ


..p

PPP, PP  

 ߫



p  1994
[pic]
 681.142.2

ppἼp᡿, pѡԿpᡡ  Ѭ:  ߫/
..p. . . ӫ߼. ҡ-; , 1994. 97 .
JSBN 5-230-16-955-9
ū߫ ѡ 񡫼  ߡ pѡ ߫pѼѡ
ppἼp᡿, ᡡ  Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡټ ի 
ppԬ ppἼ. Ļߴ ߡ ѻ ᬫ ի, ԫ
 p  p὿ᵿ,  ߫һԿ ߫󽴯ڿ ߫ٮ Կ
ppἼp᡿.
 pү p pѡԿpᡫ  ѡԫ, ڿ pԿ 
ᡡ  Ἷ ppἼp᡿ p pᵿ ߿Ѽ.
  pѬѡᡫ p ѡ ߵ "ppἼp᡿",
"ա ppἼp᡿", "ߡ pᵿ ա",
"ѽp᡿  ". PѬߴ  ߻᡿   p
߻ѵѮ "p ѼԿ", "ԫԿpᡡ ߿Ѽ
pԬ pᵿ  һpѡ", "ppἼ ߻ѡ ߽ѽ
 ԫԿpᡡ ߿Ѽ". ٻѡ  p "pᵿ ߿Ѽ
 ա".
ߴ  ѡ ᬵ-ѽ߬ ߫ ߬
ѡ ӫ߼߬ ҡ߿ ѡ Ѽ ..ӫ
Pѵѡѡ 漿p ..
JSBN 5-230-16-955-9               p߬ pѡٮ
                          p߼߬ ҡp߿, 1994
P
ԫڿ ߫  ߴ pҬ  ᬫ- ٬
ppἼp᡿.  ԫ, ѽ  ᬽߴ   ԫ, ԫ 
ա ppἼp᡿.   ѽ p, ᡡٮ  ѻѮ
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի  ppԬ ppἼ,  ߫ 
ԫp pҪڿ  pٮ p ppԿpߴ  ߫һ
ῼᡡ  ῼүڿ Ѭԫ. ѽp᡿  p
p  pἬ ԫ ѻ ᡫ  ᡿Ѽ (߻ѵᵿ) Ѭԫ
p p  Ѭԡ p ٬ ppἼp᡿, ԫ p
   Ҫ ߽޿ߴ ԫ ppἼp᡿  ᡫ 
ԡ ߼߽  pѫ߼߽ѡѼ  իpޫ ԡ  ԫ޿ߴ
Կ.
ߡ ѽ ᡡ ߫ ᬽߴ  ԫ, ԫ Կ  ѽ
 ߪԫ ᬫ p ߡ ѻ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ
ի, ppp   pp  pѡ  ԫ
pѡ, ԫp 󫽿 󡿼ѽ ѽ  pѮԿ 
p ᡿ ի  ѽ  p Ҽѡ  p὿ 
ppԬ pԡ ppἼ. 佴 ԫ  Ѽ ߽  
ѽ ߻ ߫pѼѡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ (
 "ppҪѡ" ߻ѵټ Կ).  ߻Ѭ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ի   p὿   ԡ ա
ҽ ppἼp᡿  ߻᡿Ѽ pp᡿ Կ,
᡿ p-ݬ߻p, p߫, ߫ppἼ  ..
ԫp     ٻѡ, ߽   ѽ  ߡ ԫ
߫ ߽ߴ ߫ѡٮ pԿ߬   Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ
pҿp᡿ ppἼ ѽѮ. ᬫ  ߫ѡ ѡ, ߬
ppἼp᡿ - p pߴ  ᡿.  Կ
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի  ޡ ѡ ѽ p
󻫽 ߽޿ߴ  ԫ  ԫ߬, pҬԿ󡫼,   
ѻ ԡѡ. ġ  ѯ p pѽѡ p
ѼԿ߬ ߡ   ếpүߴ  ҿ  "p
߼߽".  ԫ  ߻᡿ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի 
 Դ ߴ  pټ,  p - .
pѡ ppἼ, pѡ  ߫, pѡ  ߻᡿Ѽ
ᵿ, pԫ  ٬ ҽ-2. p ԫ ٬ ߡ  
ԫѽ: p񿵿 ѬԿ,  ԫp p ԫp, 
pѡ p ҽ, 󫽴 p޿p ppἼ ppԬ
 p ߡ.   Ѽ ҽ-2 ߴ pѽѼ pһ
"߬Ὣ", ԫp ޿p p߻ppѡ.
ū߫ pᡫ  ѽ, ԫpٮ  Ѭԫpٮ 
ppἼp᡿  ٬, ѯѼ p pp᡿ Կ, 
  Ѽ  Դѡ ޿ pҺ p pѼ  ա
ppἼp᡿, ߻߫ѡ Կ p ѼԿ߬ ppᵿ
ѽ ᡿ pҬpᵿ  ԫ ߼ѡ ߽޿ߴ  ԫ
߬ڿߴ   pѫԿ.  Կ ߽, -񿼫, ѫի
 ԫ ߻pԿ p,  ԫp p ԫp.
ū߼p  իpޫ ԡٮ  p ppἼp᡿ pѺ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ  -   ԫ, ԫ  ,  ٮ ҽ 
pԿ ޿ ߻߫Ѯ  ԫ Կ.
I.  P  PP  f PPPf
ūԿ pҬp  ߫pߴ ߫ ߽ټ Ѭԫ, ڿ
 ѽԡԿ,    Ѽ ߫ѡټ  p 
(Ѯ, ݽѼѡԫ) Ѽ ߻᡿ pѽѡ ߿Ѽ p.
ppἼp᡿  ppԿp  ߬ pẽѡ 
߿ᵿ ѽ  Կ- Ѭ pѼ .  ԫ 
pҬpᵿ  ppἼp᡿  pԫ  p ᬫ
Ѭ. 髺, pҼߴ, Ѭ  Ѻ p,   ԫ
߽ (    p Ѻ p) ,   Ѯ pߴ
pҬp, p,   Ѽ ߽, 󫺼.
ԫp߬ pҬpᵿ  ppἼp᡿   ѡ  ٬
ppἼp᡿ һp󽴯ڿ pҬp - pԫp ߽ pի,
p,   pẽټ pἿ ԫpѡ  ի  .. ѽ ᬫ
pҬpᵿ ᬽ  ѡ ѼԿ  ѼԿ
ppѼ ppἼ. ppἼp᡿  ߻᡿Ѽ pԫp
Ѻ߽ pի (GO TO)  ԫ  Ὣ Ѫѽѽټ, 
ڿߴ  ߿Ѽ p pҬpᵿ.  Ѭԫp ٬
ppἼp᡿ ԫ pԫp ٽ  ѡ, ԫ  
ppἼԫ  ߬ѡ  ᬫ, ѬԿ, իpޫ
pڿ,   p Ѽ  pҬp (!) ppἼ. (pѼ,
   p߿ Կ  ٬ "ٮ" GOTO ѫᡡ
"߬p", ߼p  ߯  "pҬp").
黫߽ ߽ ѡ, ԫ pҬpᵿ - ԫ Կ
ppἼp᡿.   ppἼ, ߽Ҵ ᬫ Կ ( ߻Ҵ
GOTO),    󻫽 pҬp    Ѽ, Ѻ GOTO.
f٬ ppἿp᡿,  ԫp ٽ ѡ һp󽴯ڿ pҬp,
὿ pټ   Կ  Ѽp  ߫pѼѡ ٬ (٬
p ѡ, pp, FORTRAN). үڿ ừ  pԿ
ѻ pҬpᵿ 󿽫 ߫᡿ ѫի񿼫Կ pҬpᵿ
ᡡ. ūѡ ᬿ pҬp,  ỿ߿,  Ὣ ߻᡿
 ٬ ppἼp᡿ ᡿ pp᡿ Կ (٬ ԫp
ѡ, pp - PL1). PԿ Կ ᡿, ppᵿ Կ 
p ( Ѭԫ +  pᵿ  )  ߻᡿
ҽ  ppἼ ݬѡ pԡ Կ ᡫ  ѡѼ
٬ p ѡ (Clu, ҽ-2  p.). Խѽ ߫ѡ
Կ    ٬ ߴ ὿ p p pp᡿
Կ.  ԫ  իpޫ ԡ ա ҽ ppἼp᡿
  ߡ,  ԫp ѻ pp᡿ 
  񫻫ѽ . p   pү p
󫺼Կ ҽ  ᡿ p-ݬ߻p. ꡬҽ
󫽴 p߼p ҽ  p ppἼ Ѭԫ, ѡ 
 - ҽ.     "ѻӫ", ѽѮ
󫺼ټ ߻᡿ Ѭԫ, pѽѡ  ҽ,  ,
"һpp", -  ԫ ߽  ҽ ԡ ԫ ڿ 
Ѭ (pp,  pp),   "pp" (
pѽἿ ҽ  ߻    Ѭԫ). ᡿
p-ݬ߻p pҽpү "ѻѡ ppԿ" ҽ ҽ Ѽ
߻᡿ ߫үڿ Ѭpᵿ pѽѡ Ѭԫ.
 Լѡ ߻Ѭ pѽ ٬, ԫp   ٬Ἷ,
pѡԿpᡡټ  Ѭ.  ᬿ ٬ ppἼ pѽߴ 
p ҽѮ, ٮ  ԫp ߫p   pѽѡ pԡ
Կ , Ѯ  ѬἿ ԫ Կ Ft  pѡ Ѽ ѡ
Ѭԫ Wt. T  Ft ݬ߻pԿpүߴ "һppټ ݬ߻pԫ", Wt -
""  ҽ. ᬿ pẫ,  ҽ pѽߴ p
M=,  ᡿ p-ݬ߻p pѽ Կ߬
Ѫҽ 󴺿.
 ԫ ppᵿ ҽ 񫽪ѡ p߼pߴ  ppἼٮ
ݬѡ pѽѡ  Ѭԫ, ߫pڿ   ߯ pᵿ
 Ѭ ԫ . pp, ҽ, p὿үڿ  Ѭԫ
, 񫽪ѡ ߫p ᡿ pԡ Կ "ԫ" (T)  Ѯ
 ѬἿ   (Ft), pp, ߽үڿ:
       PROCEDURE Create (X,Y:CARDINAL): ;
                          (櫺 ԫ  pἿ X,Y).
       PROCEDURE Destroy (VAR T: );  (὿ ԫ ).

       PROCEDURE Sm (T: ; New_X, New_Y: CARDINAL);
       (pѼԿ ԫ    p New_X, New_Y).

Wt  ԫ pp 񫽪 p὿ ߬p  ҽ ᡿, ᡡ
 p὿ᵿѮ Ft.  Ѽ ߽ Wt     ߫᡿Ѽ
p߫ "" Ѭԫ . pp, ᡿  ",
ff  P P" 񫽪 ҽp   p
ᬫ ѡ.
ūpѼ, ԫ ҽ   ppἼٮ ݬѡ  ߫p
  ᡿e ԫ  ԫ . Ѭ  ߫ߴ 
ҽ,   ߽  Ѽ ߽ ѻp߬Ѽ ( pѡ pp -
ԫ  pѼѡ ڿߴ ԫѬ). ԫ ԫѽ p 
ԫ, ԫ pѼѡ  ppἼ ݬѡ Ѭԫ  
pѽߴ  ҽ-  ߫ѡ  ݬ߻pԿpүߴ  
pѽ. ( ҽ-   pѽѡ   pԡ ԫ,
pѽѡ  p pҿp᡿ ԫѬ).  ԫ ߼߽ ݬ߻p
pѼѡ-Ѭԫ (ԫ ppѡٮ p) 񫽪ѡ p߼pߴ
 pѡ Կ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ppἼp᡿.
f٬, pѡԿpᡡ  Ѭ, 󽴯ߴ pѮ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ٬. ū߽ ppүߴ ὿Ѽ ߻ѵ߬
᡿, p὿ү ԡѡ - (Կ-Կ), ᡡ 
߻᡿Ѽ ᡿ ߽᡿ , ߡᡡ 
߫߬ ѽ ѡ. ߫  Ҭ ߽  19-
Ѭ  pѺҽ ߿ѼԿᵿ ѡ   ( pү p).
 ߿ѼԿᵿ ᬽ  ᡫѡ ԡѡ  
ԡ, pp:
       "Ѭ" *> "Ѻ" *> "᡺".
 (p ߻ߴ p "߫") "Ѭ"
ppߴ ڿ Ἷ,  "Ѻ"  񫻫ѡ  Կ
  ԫڿ (ԡټ) Ἷ, pڿ ԫ
Ѻ,  . . ᬿ pẫ, ߻ᡡٮ Ἷ ߿ "*>" Ҭ
pѡ p޿pѡ (񫻫ѡ)    Ἷ.
᡿ ߽᡿   Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬ 󫽴
߿ ᬫ ppἼ Ѽ ߻᡿ Ѭpᵿ "-
"   Ѫ, ߬     pp
 ߡ Ҫ ߫ᡡ ( Խѡ!) . ߻᡿ ԫ
᡿ ѻpѡ ᡫ  󫺼 p߽ѡ 
pԡ Կ,  ԫp ppߴ ppἼ,  pѽѡ
ԡѡ -. Կ, ԫ   Դ pѽѡ ᬿ
ԡѡ pѼԿ.
  Խѽ ߫ѡ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ٬
ᬽߴ  p᡿ᵿ ῼѮ Ѭԫ  ߡ "ٽ
߫ѡ". ūѡ ᬿ ᡿ ῼѮ Կ߬ pp
ѻ p᡿ᵿ ߽ѽ p߫  , ߡᡡ 
p񿵿 pտѬp  Ѯ.  pտѬp, ᡡ 
p p᡿ ppἼ   ߽ѽټ ٻѡѼ  񡫼 (!)
p߫p, ߴ Ὣ p߻߫ѡ  ѽp᡿ ߿ᵿ,
 ߬ Կ Ѭԫ ҡpү pѼѡ  ѡ 
߫ԫ  pѺҽ ѡ ߫ѡ. PpԬ  pտѬp
pѡ, Ѭԡ ѻ "ѡ ߫ѡ", ѡ Ѭԡ-
pѡԿpᡡ ի,   ߫᡿Ѽ p߫p
pᵿ .  ԫ  pѼ ѡ ߫ѡ Ѫ ѬἿ 
 ߼ѽp    񡫻p߫p    իpޫ
ԡ p, ߻ڿ ߬ pώѽ ٻѡ
pѼѡ ԿѮ: ߫ppἼ, p߫, ᡿pѼ ppἼ,
߫Կ ῼѮ  ߻᡿ ԫ ߬pԡ-߫Կ
һpѡ.
 ѽ Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡٮ ի  ppԬ ppἼ pp 
  ԫ pҬpᵿ һpѡ,   pҬpᵿ ᡡ. p
ԫ Կ Ѭ (ԫp p    pѽѡ), p
p,  ߫p   ᬿ-ԫ p Խ  Կ
pạԴ pҬpᵿ. Ѭԫ    , 
pѼѡ,  pp,  p.   ԫ  pԿ󫻫ѡ
p Կ߬  Ἷ߬  ѻ p p
߼߽. Ѭ  ppἼ "pߴ"  "Ҽp", ѡ  ߫ԫ,
߬   p, ""  "p" p
Ѭ, . . ߻p  ѡ ѡ p p. ū
Ѭԫ  pҼ Ѭԫp pԡ Կ, pp,
"pѡ"  "p ҡ"; Կ, Կpү pү ߿Ѽ 
p: "ѻѡ", "ᡫ", "ԫ".  ԫ  Ѭ - ԫ
ڡ p  ѡ, ԫpү ߻߫ ѽ  , ᡿ 
ҿ.
Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ppἼp᡿   ppἼp᡿ 
ߴ ߬,  ҿ p ѡ ү p.   Խ
  ppἼp᡿ ԫ ի p ү ὿p ԫ 
pҼѡԫ  p὿ᵿ  ޿ pѡ  p p
p.
II. f    PPf
ūԿ  Ѭԫ.- 꼼ѡԡ  .- ؽѼѡ pѡ.-
pp᡿ .- p.- pѡ Ѭԫ ѡ.-
諡 Կ.- p߽ٮ Կ.- ѡٮ Կ.

 Ѭԡ-pѡԿpᡡ ի  ppԬ ppἼ ѡpټ
ߴ Կ  Ѭԫ.  pѽߴ  
Ѭԫ, ڿ pѡ (ѡԡټ) Ἷ, pڿ
 Ѭ . pѼ ߻ѵᵿ (pѽѡ)  pߴ
Ѽ pѽѡ  ѡԡ , ԫp  ԫ  p p
߫pүڿ pᬫ. pp,  " ߻Ѽ" p
Ѽ Ѽټ (ѡ, ެ, p  p.)  ߴ
߫pүڿ pᬫ  .   p pᬫ
ԫ   ߻ߴ, pp, "p", "pѡ
ѽѬ", "߻߫  ừ᡿ p"  .. һ
   pѽ  "Ѽ".
ūԿ  ߴ, ᬿ pẫ, pټ  pѽѡ .
ѵᵿ      ᡿Ѽ ѡ , 
ԫ, pѡѽ   p  ᬿ ѡ   ߼߽ -
᡿ ѡ ߴ ppԿ Ѭ. Ļpѽѽ 
,  Ѽ     (߻Ѽ, p
 p.). Ļpѽ Ѭ  (pp,  ἿѮ p),  񫽪
pѽ ѡ Կ :
 ߻Ѽ (p):= Խ; 髺p(p):= 20.
ԫ ߻Ѭ pѽ   Կ ݬѡ߿,  Ѭ 
-  ѡ߿ Կ.
 p ԫp   ߴ , ߫ Ѭԫ ԫp
 ѡߴ  Ἷ p ppἼ (Ѽ pի  ի, 
 ߴ).      ѡ pѼѡ ppߴ
p pѪڿ Ѽ Ѭԫ     p߽ѡѼ
(߻߬ Ѽ): p, ᡫ, p, pp.
Կ  ߻߫ ᡿  ү Ѻ߿   p.
 ѡԡ  Կѡ  pѽ ߫pѽٮ
ѼԿ߬ ߻Ѭ ߻ѵᵿ .  Ѭԫ  Ἷѡ
 pѽ ߫Կٮ (pһ) ߻Ѭ . ѼԿ߬ ߻Ѭ
p὿ߴ  ppἼp᡿  ߻᡿Ѽ pԡ Կ,
߫Կٮ -  ߡ ߻᡿ ѡ Կ.
Ѻ߿  ߻Ѭԫ ᡿  ᬽߴ  ԫ, ԫ
᡿      ᡫ  ᡿Ѽ p.
߽  ߫pүڿ pᬫ ԫ,  Ѽ  ѡ 
ԫ  ߫ᵿ Ѭԫp p Ѭԫ (߿󫽫,
ᬫ).  pѡ pp Ἷ -   ѡԿԫ Ѭ,
  ի  ߫ ѡԡ   ԫ   ᬫ
ѼԿ߬ Һ -    ѡ Ἷ "ӫ" ӫ
"",  Ἷ "ӡ" ӫ "ӡ". ߽ ߫ᵿ,
Ѽ ߫, ,  Ѽ  ѡ ѼԿ߬  
ѡ 󫺼  Ѭԫ, իԴ  ԫ  ԫڿ ѡ
Ѽѡ.
  ߴ  Ѭԫ , ڿ Ἷ :
={a/P(A)}. Ѽ ԡѡ: "is-a"-"ߴ Ѭԫ "  "has-a"-
" Ἷ". Կ ԡѡ    ߬ 
"ԫ  ԫ ԫ" (<=>), ѽѮ ߿ ᡿ :
             _V_ a: a is-a A(P) <=> a has-a P(A).
 ( _V_ - ԫ ڡԿ).

P(A) 󬽯     ạѮ: " Ѽ " 
" ߻߫ (󫺼) ѽ ԫ ". ӿ,
" ԫ" (" "   ѮѼ ӫԫ ""). 
ạ    ѡѼ (ѡѼ)  ἴԿ 
Ѭ  ѡ . ѵᵿ ᬿ 
ߴ ߻ѵᵿѮ ѡ. ġ ѽ Ẽ Կ
ἴԿ, ѫի񿼫  ѡ ѡ ,    ӻᵿ
(߼. ). ѵᵿ  "᡿ ߻߫Դ" ߴ
ҡ ߻ѵᵿѮ - ԫ ᡿ Ѯ (ӫ, ҡ),
ԫ  ٻ Ѭ .  ᬫ Ѯ ᬪ
ߴ ѡѼ ҡ , ԫӫ   ᡿ߴ 
 ἴԿ Ѭ. ӿ, ҡ 
"Կ" ѽ ߻߫  Ѭ  Ӽᵿ
. ġ     ѡ ᬿ ԫ (߻߫)
ѡ,  "󫡿 ( ѽ)", "߽ ()", "ӿ
()". ѵᵿ ѡ  "Կ" ᡿  
 ѡ (󫡿, ߽, ӿ), ҡ ߻ѵᵿ
ѽ ᡿ ߫үڿ ԫ.
软ټ ԿѼ  ߻ѵᵿ ѡ ߴ Կ ݽѼѡ
ѡ. ӿ, ѡ  ""  ᡿ߴ  Ѭԡ
ἴԿ  񡫼 ޿ ߽ (WORD)   (BYTE). ƿ WORD  BYTE
ԡߴߴ  ӿ ޿-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ԡ Կ. ġ
ѽ ԫ Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ  󽴯 ӫἼ ү
  ѽѡ ӻᵿ ѡ, ᡴߴ  ᬫ
ݽѼѡ.  ԡټ Կ ԡߴߴ  Կ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿,
ӻᵿ ԫ ѽߴ ᡿Ἷ, ӫѡټ  ٬.
ӿ, Կ CARDINAL, Ѭ ԫӫ ӻԿүߴ  
߽, Կ INTEGER, ӻԿѼٮ  ѽ ߫ ᬫ, REAL -
Ѯѽ ߽  . ӫѡ ᡿ pᵿ ԡ
Կ   Ẽ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ Ѭԫ ߫үڿ Կ.
ᬿ Ẽ   ѽѡ   ߻ѵ ҡ: SIZE
(<Ѭ>)  TSIZE (<ƿ>). pp, TSIZE (CARDINAL) = 2 (); SIZE
(V) = 2 () / V is-a CARDINAL. ( / ٻ ӫ 
߽).  ạ ὿ᵿ  ߿ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ 
ѡ Ѭԫ   ԫ  ԡ Կ 
߻ߴ ạ ݽѼѡ ѡ. ӿ, TSIZE (ADDRESS) =
2()  16-Ӵ񡫮   ٬ ҽ-2 (὿ᵿ   -4), 
ԫ  Ѽ TSIZE (ADDRESS) = 4   ߿ ԫ  ٬ ӿ
὿ᵿ   Կ IBM PC.
ԡٮ Կ ҿߴ ѽѼ  ߡ ӫ᡿
ԡ Կ. ᬫ ӫ᡿ ᡫ  ѡѼ ߬
 Ѭ  ߿Ѽ ߫pүڿ pᬫ, ѽڿ ٮ
. ӫ᡿ ὿ ԡѡ "߫ԫ " (con-of). ӿ,
ԡѡ A con-of (B,C),  ,, - ,   ὿ᡫ 
٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ѬᵿѮ, ᡡ  ѽѡѼ իӫޫ
ԡ Կ ỿ߿:
                      TYPE A=RECORD
                             <꼴 >: B;
                             <꼴 >: C
                       END
ᬿ ẫ, ỿ - ԫ , ߫ѡٮ  ạӫ .
ӫ᡿ ӫ  ᡫ  ߻᡿Ѽ Կ ߿.
ӿ, Ѭᵿ
              TYPE A = ARRAY [1:3] OF B
ѽ   con-of(B,B,B). Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ-
 ѽߴ ӫټ Ҽӫ᡿Ѽ Ẽӫ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ 
ѡ,  ߽ ӿ:
TSIZE (A) = 6 / TSIZE(B)=2.
ѵᵿ ѡԡ  Կ " ߻߫" (߻ѵᵿ
ԫ, Ѯ)   ߻᡿Ѽ ߫ ạԿ
ӫ᡿ - pѽѡѼ ߿, p὿Ѽ  ӫӡټ
ԿἿ. ūԿ ߿ ᡫ  ߫һ ᵿ (Ѯ),
ӫ  Ѭԫ.  ԫ ѡ Ҽ "߿"
Ѭ -  Ѯ ӫߴ  . ӿ, Ѭ 
  鬽  ٬.   Ӵ ӫԿ󫻫
ԫ ѡ (ѫӿ ԫӫ, ٬ ),  ߫  ԫӫ Ѭ
߻߫ѡ ӫ Ѯ (Կѡ),  ԫ ߽ ߿ - ԫ
߫һ  ߻߫Ѯ.
佴 pѽѡ ߿ ߻үߴ ӫӡ Կ.  Ѽ ߽
 ӫӡٮ Կ ѽ:
          -  󫺼 Ѯ;
          -  Ѭԫ,  ԫټ  
            ӫѡ Կ Ѯ.
ӿ, ߻ѵᵿ
         TYPE DST = PROCEDURE (VAR )
ѽ 󫺼 Ѯ  ѬἿ  . 
ӫ, ᡡ  ӫἡ ҽ  ѯ  Ӽ
߫ڿ  ѬᵿѮ DST,  ߼ӿߴ  Ѭ  DST.
ӿ, Ѯ "󬽯"  "٬"  ߼ӿߴ 
ݽѼѡ  DST ԫ ӿ ߽, ԫ  ӫ, ڿ
Կ Ѯ, ѽѡ  ߽үѼ  :
        PROCEDURE 鬽 (VAR S: );
        PROCEDURE ٬ (VAR S: );.

Ӽ ߿ ԡ߿ߴ  ѼԿ,  ӫἿӫ᡿  ߻ߴ
 ߿ Կ  Ѯ (ԫ).  ҽ-2 
ԡٮ ӫӡٮ Կ, ѬἿ ԫӫ 󽴯ߴ ӫ Ѻ
ӫ:
              YPE PROC = PROCEDURE (); .

ؽѼѡ ѡ ᬿ Ѭԫ ӿүߴ ԡѡѼ TSIZE (PROC) =
TSIZE (ADDRESS), ..   Ѭԫ ԫ ԡ ӫӡ
Կ ߻үߴ  ի  ߫үڿ ӫ (ԫ ߬
- Կᵿ ӫ). ԫ ԡѡ ߻p   pp
Կ.  ԫ ߼߽ ߻ѵᵿ ѡ ԫ Ѽ  Խߴ
 ߻ѵᵿ ѡ   ѻӫӡ ߫.
  ݽѼѡ ѡ, ᡡ  ѽѡټ ߫, ᡿ߴ
ѡ Ѭ ԫ . ᬫ ѡ ߴ
ѡ, ỿټ  ݽѼѡ ѡ.     
᡿ѡ Ӵ񡫮 Ԭ (   ᡿ѡ) 
ߴ ټ  ѡ. ӿ, ,
ӿѼ Կ CARDINAL,   ѡ 2n ẽټ
ѡ  ѽ,  n - Ӵ . 佴 16-Ӵ
߽ ԫ ߻Ѭ ѡ 󬽯  ߽  0  216 - 1 = 65
535. , ppѼ Կ CHAR (),   ѡ
  28 = 256 ẽټ ߿Ἷ (  ASCII  p߬ ߿󫽫),
߬ ݽѼѡ ѡ ᬫ   Ẽ   : TSIZE
(CHAR) = 1.
 ѡ, ԫӫ   , ӿѼ Ѽ
 ټ Կ, ߴ ԫ ԫ Կ. , ӿ, 'A' -
 Կ CHAR,  177 -  Կ CARDINAL  INTEGER. ū߬
   Կ ,     ᡫ Ӵټ
߽ѡѼ.  ԫ ߼߽  Կ, ὿Ѽٮ  , ߴ 
߽ Կ. ᬫ, ߬ Ӵ   ٮ 
߽, ӿ, 216 ẽ ѡ  Կ, Ҽ
ѡ ᬫ ߽ѡ ٽ  ᡿ ӫἼ  ԡٮ
ԡٮ Կ CARDINAL. 佴 ᡿ѡ   ѡ 
٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ߻үߴ  Ѽ Ѻ Կ -
һӴѡ 񼡫    ԡ
ԡ Կ.
 Ѭ  ߫ ᪡ ԼԿ, ԫ ѡ Ѭ
ѡ   ߬ҿӫᡫ Ѽ ѡ᡿  Կ. 佴
὿ᵿ ԫ 󫺼Կ ߻ߴ ߽ѡ, ӿ:
    TYPE =(, , , , 櫽, , ); .

 ѡ  Ѭ  ᡿ߴ ߻᡿Ѽ Ѽ
. ū߬ ѡ ᬿ  ạ ӫἼ, 
ѡ᡿ ߫Ӫ ݽѼѡ pӫ᡿ Կ.
    ᡿ѡټ ߻Ѭӫ ѡ  ߬ҿӫ ٮ
 Ѭԫ   ޿ӫ ߻Ѭӫ. ᬫ ҿӫ᡿ ếߴ
 ѡ ҽ ѫӿ ,  ߫  ԫټ Ѭԫ
      񼡫. , ӿ, ߻Ҵ
ѽѡٮ  Կ "",  ߬ҿӫ  "Ǭ",
ݽѼѡἿ ԫӫ  ߴ ẽ ᵿ . 佴 ԫ 
٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ߻ߴ ѡٮ Կ, ѽѼٮ 
ߡ ẫ ߽ Կ:
             TYPE Ǭ = SET OF ; .

 "Ǭ" 󬽯   Ҫ  7,  27 Ѭԫ, ѡ
ԫ ѽߴ ѡټ Ἷ.  :
{  } -""  "";
{ ,  } -ᬬ, ߫ѡٮ   ;
{ .. } -ᬬ, 󬽯ڿ       ߯ ;
{} - ᬬ "᡿",  ߫Ӫڿ  񡫮 .
ؽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ "Ǭ" 񫽪ѡ ߬ Ẽѡ  Ѽ 27
ẽ ѡ, ߽ѽ, ټ Ѽټ ݽѼѡԫ,
ӿټ  ѡ ᬬ, ߴ :
                    TSIZE(Ǭ) =1.
Ѭ ẫ  ()  ԫ ӿ ᬪ  Ẽߴ 
񡫼 , ߼Ӵ  ԫ, ԫ ߻ߴ  ѡ 
 3 . ѡٮ Կ, ӫѡٮ  ߡ Ѻ Կ [0..15],
 ԡٮ Կ
                BITSET = SET OF [0..15].
 Կ, ԫ TSIZE(BITSET)=2 (). Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ
 ѡ Կ   ѽߴ ѡѼ
              N DIV 8 +(N MOD 8) DIV (N MOD 8).
 N - ߽  ẫ Կ, MOD  DIV - ᵿ ߫ѡ
ѽѡ  ҽ  ѽ (񻫽ߴ, ԫ  0 DIV 0 = 0).
Կ߬ Ẽ ݽѼѡ ѡ ѡ Կ ѽߴ Ѽ,
ԫ   ѡ Ѭ ᬫ Կ ߻ߴ
ӿԿ߬ ҡ . ӿ, ѡ ᬬp
{,,}     ߽үڿ ẫ:

                     櫽   P 
               +--+--+--+----+--+--+--+--+   (7-  
               | ?| 1| 0|   0| 0| 1| 0| 1|   ߻ߴ)
               +--+--+--+----+--+--+--+--+
                7  6  5   4   3  2  1  0
   ѬἿ ѡ Կ ѽѡ ҡ, ᡡ 
ݽѼѡӡټ ᵿ  Ἷ (ѡ, ѡ,
ạ, ߿ӿ߬ ạ); ӫӬ ߫ԫ  (
ӿԿ߬ ҡ); 󬽯ѡѼ/߬ѡѼ ẫ Ѭԫ 
  .. ūӫ  ԫ  ӫ  Ҭ  ٬
ӫἼӫ᡿.
߻᡿ ӿԿ߬ ҡ  ѡ Ѭԫ
ѡ Կ 󫽴 ᡿ ѬԿү   ᬿ
ѬἿ  ӫ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ.
III. f 
ѡԿᵿ ѡ᡿Ѽ.- ὿ѡ.- ᡵ һ.- Ļpԫp
p߫ѡ.- Ѭ߿p᡿.- ѡԿᵿ Ҭ᡿Ѽ.- ٮ 
p᡿ѡٮ Ҭѽ.- ƿ ADDRESS.- ὿ѡ  ߫ "^".

ѡԿᵿ Ѭ ᬽߴ  ѽѡ (իѡ)  ݽѼѡ
ѡ  ѡ һ  ѡ Ѭ - ѡ 
.
  ߡ ߻߫ ѡԿᵿ Ѭ: ѡ᡿ 
Ҭ᡿. ѡ᡿ ᬽߴ  ạѡ Ѭ ѽѡ ѡ.
ᬫ ạѡ ӫߴ   ߽,   ӫ ٻѡ
ӫἼ Ѭ    ѿѡ. ӿ, Ѭᵿ
                     VAR A,B: Ѭ
ѽ ὿  ӫἼ  Ѭԫ  ѡἿ   B
߫ѡ, ٮ  ԫ  ٮ ݽѼѡ ѡ.
Կߴ  Ѭ   ѡ   Ѫ, ԫ "  ߽޿"
󫺼, 󫺼 ᵿ  " Ѭ  ټ ѡѼ ".
꼴 - ԫ ӿ ӫἼ, ߻ڿ   ߿ᵿ һ 
񡫼  ԫ  Ѭ. ūԿ ""  ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
߻ߴ  ߿ Կ "ѡԿԫ".  ԫ ߼߽ ӫ
ӫἼӫ᡿  ٻѡ ӫἼ ߴ ӫ߫ ѡѡ ԫ
ѡ Ѭԫ,     ѡԿᵿ.
ѡߴ   ѽ  Ѭԫ-ԫ.  ԫ ߽
ᬿ ѡ  ὿ӫᡡټ ѡԿԫἿ - ὿ѡἿ,
 ὿ү ᡵٮ һ   Ѭ. ӿ,
              TYPE Ѭ = RECORD
                      B : _ӫѡ;  : B
                   END;
              VAR  A,B : OѬ; .
὿ѡ A.B Ԭӫ һ   ӫѡ Ѭ A, B.B -  
ӫѡ Ѭ B  ..  使 ᡵ һ ѽߴ 
ӫѮ ӫ᡿  Ѭԫ .  ԫ ӿ 使=1. ߽
ԫ  _ɫѡ:
      TYPE _ӫѡ = RECORD
               : ; : ߴ; : ѡ
           END;
ԫ ὿ѡ, Ԭڿ һ   ӫѡ Ѭ ,  񽿡
ᡵ, ү 2: ... ӫԫ ѡԿԫ  ߼ӿ 
ԡٮ ߽ ὿ѡ  ҽ ᡵѮ һ.
ᡵٮ һ  ѡ ѽ Ѽ ѡԿᵿ
pԫ Ѭ,  ԫp pᡴߴ ѡ  . 櫬Կ ԫ
Ѽ  ߻Ҵ ԫ ӿ߫ѡ
   WITH < ὿ѡ > DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END.

ᬫ ԫ ߫ 񽿡 ᡵ һ  p Ѭ,
ѡԿpѼ pѺ <὿ѡ>. ߽ ߽ ᬿ pԫ 
p߫񿡴Ѽ pѡ ѽ, ԫ ߻᡿ pԫp p߫ѡ
 ѡ ߫pԿ pѼ ٻѡ ԫ pѡ ppἼ.
齫ѡ ԫӫ ӿ߫ѡ ߻ 񫻫ѽ ߫ѡ
ᡵ һ. ӿ,  Ѽѡ VAR A: Ѭ, ԫ 
 ߽үڿ ẫ:
WITH A DO
   < ߫ pἿ Ѭ A Ѻ ѡ B  >;
   WITH B DO
          < ߫ pἿ   Ѭ 
           Ѻ ѡ ,M,D>
   END
END.
ѡ Ѭԫ     ӫ  . ԫ ᡫ 
Ѽ, ԫ Ѭᵿ  ӫߴ  ѽ TYPE (Կ),  ѡ᡿
Ѭԫ -  ѽ VAR (Ѽѡ).
߽ԫ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿,  ѽ  TYPE  VAR,
  "߼ӿ"  "ޡ"  ԫ, ԫ ѡ  
ӫ ѡ Ѭԫ -  ԫ ӿ ạ Կ. 
  Ѽ ԫ WITH Ӽ ߬ ߼޿᡿ ᬿ Կ
(߼. ӿѡٮ  ӿ: ٮ WITH ӿ߫񿡴  Ѭ,  ԫӫ
  ). ᬫ ߼޿᡿  Ѽ ߽  ѡ
󡿼᡿ ӿ ӫἼӫ᡿ ӿ߫񿡴Ѽ ѡԫ. ӿ,

               VAR A,B: Ѭ; C: ;

               BEGIN . . .

                    +- WITH A DO
               (1)  |      WITH B DO C:= END; B.B.:=C
                    +- END . . .

                    +- WITH A DO
               (2)  |      WITH B DO C:=; B.:=C END
                    +- END . . .

                    +- WITH A DO
                    |      WITH B DO C:= END
                    |  END;
               (3)  |
                    |  WITH B DO
                    |      WITH B DO :=C END
                    +- END.

 ӿ ѡ ߽ү  ѽ : ѡ Ӽᵿ  
ӫѡ Ѭԫ    . ٮ ѡ Կ ԫ ѽ, ԫӫ -
. ūѼ ?  Ѽ ѡ  ӿ Ѭ ᬫ ԫ
"WITH B" ὿ү ẽ ӿ߫ѡ, ߴڿ  Ѭ. ᬿ?
佴 ԫ, ԫ Ѫ 󫺼 ѼԿ߬ ޿, ߽ѡ
ᬫ Ѭԡ ߿ pԫp p߫ѡ, ߽ 
߻  ὿ѡ (  ѬԿ ӫἼ),
  ӫ᡿ ѡ Ѭԫ  pԫ (). ū߽
  ԡѡ Կѽ.
ӿ   ߿Ἷ Ѭԫ  () ߿Ἷ ӫ 
ѡԿᵿ ߴ  ߡ Ѭ߿p᡿ (Ҽᵿ). Ѭ
ѽ Ӵٮ  Ѭ ( )  ٻ ӫ
ԫѡ ѡ  ѡ . ѡ, ԫѡ Ѭ߫, -
ѪѼ ߴ ѡἿ ( ԫ ߼߽ Ѭ  Ӽ
߼ӿ  "߫ү "  ߿ ӫ, үѮ ).
᡿, ѽᡡ  ԡ߿ѽ ӫ᡿ ѡ Ѭԫ 
, ӿ   ѡ ӿѡѽ  ѡ᡿ 
Ѭ߿ӫ᡿Ѽ.
 һ  Ѭ, ѡԿpѼ ѡѼ, ԫp ԫѡ Ѭ߫,
p὿ߴ  ߡ ߽ѡ p ߫ү ݽѼѡ pѡ.
pԿ߬ pѡ, p὿ү ᬫ ߽ѡ, ߻ Ѭ
 p ߽.
᡿ - ԫӫ ߡ󡫮 ߻߫ ѡԿᵿ - ᡫ  ߻᡿Ѽ
߫ Ѭԫ,  ѡ ԫ ᡿ߴ   "ѽ",
Ҭ  ѡԿѼٮ Ѭ. ᬫ ߫ٮ Ѭ ߴ
ҬѽѼ  ٽ. ѽ Ѭ-Ҭѽ  Ҭ  
Ѭ,  ԫ ߽   Ѭ-Ҭѽ,   "Ἣ ",  " "
( Ҭ   ᬫ Ѭ). ѽ, ԫٮ  Ҭ 
Ѭ ẽ ߫, ߴ ټ ҬѽѼ. ѽ,
ԫٮ  Ҭ ԫ  Ѭ ѽѡ , ߴ
᡿ѡټ ҬѽѼ.
ٮ Ҭѽ  ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ ὿ߴ Կ ADDRESS.
諡Ἷ ԫ Կ 󽴯ߴ   ӫ ἴԿ .
߫ ԫ ߴ , Ѽ  ߽ NIL 
ѽ Ҭѽ, ԫٮ   Ҭ.
᡿ѡٮ Ҭѽ  ѽߴ ẫ "POINTER TO", ӿ:
                TYPE ѽ = POINTER TO Ѭ;.

 Ѭᵿ ѽ  ҬѽѮ, ԫ  Ҭ ԫ
 Ѭ   Ѭ.  ԫ ߼߽ ٮ Ҭѽ 
ѽ Ӽ ߽үڿ ẫ:
                 TYPE ADDRESS = POINTER TO WORD.
 ᡡ ߿ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
          TSIZE (ADDRESS) = TSIZE (WORD) = 2 ().
p ԫ Ẽ  ӫ ߫, ѽѼٮ ڡ
  Կ ADDRESS, ߫󽴽       16-Ӵ   216 =
65536 = 64*1024 = 64K. Ѽѡ ޿ӿ ߡ ӫ
(  Ἤ ԫ  ӴԿ ) ӿѽ    ߿
٬ ӫἼӫ᡿  ѽѡ Ẽ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ ߫  2
:
 TSIZE (ADDRESS) = TSIZE (ARRAY[1..2] OF WORD) = 4 ().
ӿ ԫ ADDRESS  ӻԿӫߴ  Ҭ:
            TYPE  ADDRESS = RECORD
                SEGMENT, OFFSET: CARDINAL;
            END;
߻᡿ ԫӫ Կ߬  ߡᡫ  Ѭߡ ѡԿᵿ
Ѭ. SEGMENT ѽ  ѡ  ӫ ߫,
ԫѼ ߼ѡѼ (OFFSET),  ԫӫ ᡿ߴ "ԫ"  
ѡ  ѡ ѡԿѼ Ѭ.
 Ѭ-Ҭѽ (ٮ  ᡿ѡٮ) ѡԿߴ
ѡѼ, Ѭӿӫᡡټ  ӫἼ. ѡ Ҭѽ, ߫ᡴѼ ""
Կ ѡѼ, ѡԿ     Ѭ (Ҭ 
).  ѡԿᵿ  ӫ ѡ 󫽴 Ἷ߬ (
ӫ ٻѡ ӫἼ) ѡ "ѡ ѽ" Ҭѽ 
߫ѡ ѡԿӫ ẽ Ѭ. "ԫ" ѡ᡿ 
 ᬿ 󫺼Ѯ. 쿪 ӿѡ ߬ ᵿ ٽ
ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ ҬѽѼ " ѡ" P.

         TYPE : ... ;   VAR P: POINTER TO ;

             ؽѼѡ xѡ Ҭѽ
           +-----------------------------+
    꼴: P | ѡ Ҭѽ       *--+---+  (P=NIL)
           +--------------------------+--+   v
              +---+-----+--------+----+     -+-
              |   |     |       -+-
              |   |     |        |
           +--v---+-----+--------+-------+
           | +++  |     |        v       |  +-+  Ѭ 
           | +-+  v     v                |  +-+    p
           |     +++   +++               |
           |     +-+   +-+               |       Ѭ 
           |                             |         Pԫ
           | P pp ἴԿ |
           +-----------------------------+

ѡ ѽ, ѽѼ 󫺼ټ ѡ Ҭѽ P,
Ԭ һ  Ѭ  . ѡ ѽ,
ҬѮ  "pԫ",  P, Ѭӿӫᡡ  POINTER TO ,
ߴ Կټ, ѽ P=NIL   ԫ  Ҭ.
ѡԿᵿ Ѭԫ Ѻ ٽ Ԭ 󫺼Կ ᡿ᵿ
Ἷ߬ Ѽ ᡡ pҬp. Ѭ,  ԫ
ҿүߴ ᬿ Ҭ, 񫽪   " 󴺿 
 ѬἿ", ԫp ߻ѵpߴ   Ҭѽ. ӿ,
      TYPE ؽѼѡ_ = RECORD
                               A : ;
                               B : POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_
                            END.
쿪 ӿѡ ߬ ᵿ 񡫮   ᡡ pҬp -
pҬp 諽, ߫ѡ   ᬿ ݽѼѡԫ.

      +--------+                           +----------+

      |        v                 v P       |          v


      |    +---+---+         +---+---+     |      +---+---+
      |    |   A   |         |   A   |     |      |   A   |
      |    |-------+         +-------|     |      +-------|
      |    |   B *-+-------->+   B *-+-----+      | B *   |
      |    +-------+         +-------+            +---+---+
      |                                               |
      +-----------------------------------------------+

                VAR P: POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_

 ԫ ᵿ ѡٮ Ҭѽ P ߽ѽ ( ѡ
ѽ Ѯ) Ԭ һ  Ѽ ݽѼѡ pҬp 諽.
Կ, ԫ  ԫ ᵿ ( Խ  Ѯ) ݽѼѡ ѡ
Ҭѽ P Ҫ  ѡ. ӫԫ Ӵ ߫ pѽ pѡ 
Ҭѽ - ԫ ٮ ӿѼ  ߬ ᵿ pѡ
ᡡ Ҭ.
 ӿѡ ѡ Ҭѽ ߬ ӻԿߴ 
ѡѡ ѡ ߫үѮ ѽ (ᡫ, 󿪬
Ҭѽ   Ѭ). һ  Ѭ Ѻ Ҭѽ Ԭߴ
Ѽ ѡ᡿ Ҭѽ  ߫ "^". ,  ӿѡ 
ӿ  һ  Ѭ    Ѻ P: POINTER TO
ؽѼѡ_ ѫի񿼫 ߻ ὿ѡ  P^.A.  Ѽ
"޿ӫ" ߽ү ߽ѽ һ:
 P - һ  Ҭѽ, ѡԿүѼ ؽѼѡ_;
 P^ - һ  Ҭ ؽѼѡ,  ԫү Ҭ P;
 P^. - һ  p (ѡ) ԫ Ҭ;
 P^.A - һ  p .
ٮ   ὿ѡԫ Ԭ һ  "Ѽ" ҡ
Ѭ ( p). p Կ, ԫ  ԫ ӿ (  Ѽ
߽)
           SIZE (P) # SIZE (P^) # SIZE (P^.A).
Կ, Ѽ  SIZE (P^)   ԫ pp?
P  "^" (ѽ) ᬽߴ  "ԬԿ" һ  Ѭ
Ѻ ѡ ҬѮ   ٽ. ꡫ  pᵿ pạ
 "p߬pԿѼ ٽ". ߻ ߿ "^"    ѡ
Ѭ, ԫٮ  ߴ ҬѽѼ,  Ѽ ߽ Կ.
߻᡿ ὿ѡԫ  ߿󫽫 "^"  ԫ ӿ߫ѡ
ӫߴ  ߡ󡫼  ,  Ҫ ٽ ᡫ  ӿѡѽ 
ӫᡡټ Ҭ.  ߽ , ԫ  ӿ߫ѡ
ѽ߫pạ   ԫѬ pѡ:
1)  ߫ѡ ᡵ һ  ѡ ӫᡡ Ҭ;
 2)  ѡ Կ, pếѽԿ  pҬpԿ ppἼ.
佴 ߽ P: POINTER TO ؽѼѡ_ ߻᡿ ԫ
        WITH P^ DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END
 p὿ p߫ѡ  ؽѼѡ_p, pẼѡ  ἴԿ "" P,
 ԫ
          WITH P DO < ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ > END
 p὿ p߫ѡ ԫ (!)  p Ἣ Ҭѽ
(..  SEGMENT  OFFSET)    ᬫ ߼߽  
p߫ѡ  ؽѼѡ_p.  ԫ 󴺿 ᬪ ԼԿ, ԫ 
ӿ߫ѡ, Ѭӿӫᡡ ߫үڿ ԫӫ WITH, ٻߴ
߽ ԫ,  ѽѡ ѡ ӿ߫񿡴 ὿ѡ, .. 
"ի"  ӿ߫񿡴Ѽٮ ѡ. ūԫ  ѡѡ ѡ
p߫񿡴 Ҭѽ ӿ ӿ߫񿡴Ѽ ѡ  ѡ Ҫ
߫ᡡ ӿ߫ѡ  ѿѪ p޿  ٻѡ ԫ
pѡ. pѼ  pp:

      VAR P: POINTER TO ;
      BEGIN ... P:= ...; (* ᡫ P   *)
       WITH P^ DO ...
        (*   ԫ,  ԫٮ Ҭ P *);
           P:= ...; (* ᡫ P  ٮ  *)
                ... (*   ټ ԫ *)
       END.

 ԫ ӿ ᡫ P " ٮ  "  ӿ  ѡѡ Ҫ
߫ᡡ ӿ߫ѡ  ߫ѡ "  ټ ԫ" Ѻ
Ҭӫѡ ѡԿԫ  ߫ԫߴ - ԫ ѡ ӫ񫽪  ߫
"ټ" ԫ. Ѻ᡿ ԫ ԫѽ  ߽Ҫ ԫ
  ѡԿѼ ޿, 󫺡ڿ ԫ p ѡԿᵿ
Ѭԫ ԫ Ҭ᡿.
 ѽ Ҭѽ ѡԿᵿ ӿ Խߴ  ѡ᡿
Ѽ, ԫ  ߻ ߻ѵ ѡԿүڿ Ѭ - Ҭѽ
( ٽ),  ԫټ     ټ  "ټ"
ѬἿ. ԫ ѡ ޿Ӵ 󫺼Կ "ԫ" ѡ᡿ 
󫽴 ὿ Ἷ߬ү ѡԿᵿ ẽ Ѭԫ Ѻ
  ԫ  Ҭѽ, ѡԿѼٮ ѡټ ӿѡټ Ѽ
ѡѼ.
IV. PPf 
ū. - Կ Կ. - ҡ ѫẫ᡿  ӿѡ
Կ. - ỿ߿  ӿἿ. - ߽᡿ . - Ļѽѡ "
ὫѡѼ ". - ἫӻԿѼٮ Ѭ.

Ӽ "ӻᵿ" ѽ "ӿ᡿" Ѭ ѽѡ
ѼԿ߬, ߼߽ . ӿ, ߿ "I", ӻԿѼٮ
 "ɿ߬_",  ߫pߴ  Ѭԫ ѽѡ ߿Ѽ
߽ѡ, ӿѼ ߫ټ Ἷ ԫ ߿Ѽ.
 ԫ  Ѽ "I"  "" Կ߬  ӿߴ
߫ѡ  Ἷ. "I"  Ҭ ߬  
߫ѡ ,  ԡԿ, ѽ ߫ ӫѡ "", 
 Ҭ Ѽѵ   ᬿ   .
 ѡ ӻᵿ   ԫ  Ѭ   ԿѼ
.  pѡѼ  ӻᵿ Ѭԫ 
ὬѼߴ Ҭ    - ԫ   
pԫ  (ẫ Ҭ)  ѽ ߻᡿ Ѭ
(߻  .ѡ "ӿ  ڿ",  ٮ ӫ
ӻԿӫ ѡү     ߬᡿
ի), , ᬫѵ,  ԡ  ӻԫ:  -
ԫ ӫ - ԫ ,   -ԫ ޿.
 ӫἼӫ᡿ Ѭ  ᡡ  ѽߴ ԿѼ
ݽѼѡ ѡ, Ҫ ߻ᡡټ  ڿ .   
 ἴԿ   ݽѼѡ ѡ ߫Ӫ ߽ѽ ҽѮ 
񿡿, ӻᵿ  ԫ ߽ѽԿ  Ѭ 
߿  ӫἼ. 髻ӫ  ԫ, Ѻ ᬿ "" (, ߬)
 ߼ӿ  ݽѼѡ ѡ.  ԫ ߼߽ Կ ԡ Կ 
ӫἼӫ᡿  ٻ ӫ ᬿ  (, ߬).
 Կ ѽ  󫺼 ӻᵿ Ѭ. 
ԫ   ٬ 3- ѡ ߡټ ߴ Կ ߫ԿԿ
Կ.  ߼ӿѼ  ߻Ѭ ᬫ ߫ԿԿ: ߫Կ 
ѡ (ѡ) Ѭ  ἴԿ   ߫Կ ߫ѡ 
ӻᵿ.
Կ ѡ ѽߴ ẼἿ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ.
ӿ, ߽ Ѭ Կ CARDINAL ᡴߴ  񡫼 ޿ ߽ (2
)  Ѭ Կ INTEGER ᡴߴ  񡫼 ߽, ԫ INTEGER  CARDINAL
߫Կ  ѡ (Ѫ ߫   ޿ټ Կ WORD).
AὫ ߫Կ  ѡ CHAR  BYTE; WORD  ARRAY [1..2] OF
BYTE  ..
Կ  ӻᵿ ѽߴ 󫺼 ߻
Ѭ     Ѭ  . ӿ,  
 󿽬.  ӫἼӫ᡿ ߫Կ  ӻᵿ 
ߴ  󫺼 ӿ᡿ Ѭ   ѡ
Ѭ    ߴ ߫Կ  ӿ᡿. ӿ
ᬫ ߫ԿԿ:
   VAR A: CARDINAL; B: INTEGER;     BEGIN ... A:=B .
Կ  ӿ᡿  Ҽ ߫Կ
ѡ Ѭԫ.
ūԿ ߫ԿԿ Կ ߽ ѽ ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿ 
"ӫ"  "ӫ".   һ ٬ 󿽫 ߴ
󫺼 Ӵ ߻᡿ Ѭԫ ạ ߫  񡫼
ѡ. ᬫ ѡ ѫի񿼫 ҿӫ  ߡ ߻ѵ
ҡ ѫẫ᡿ Կ, ӿѡ Կ  ߻ѵ ԫ
߫ѡ Կ. Ҽߴ, "ѻѡ ӫԿ" ٬ - Կ 
߽,     ߿ ү ߬ѡ  ԫ .
"ӫ" ٬ 󽴯 ӫἼ ү   ӻᵿ
Ѭԫ:  񡫼 ѡ  "߼޿" ߫ԡ ẽ Ѭ,
ӿ ԫ, Ҽߴ, "ѡ"  ԫ,  Ѽ ӿ ᬫ
߼ѡ,  ߴ  ѽ. Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡٮ Կ
ӫἼӫ᡿ Ѻ߽  ѡ "ӫ" ٬ 
ټ Ἷ ӫ ߫ԿԿ Կ, ԫ  Ѽ ߽
 Ѫ ߫Ѽ ӫἼ, իԴ   󫿼
"ӫԴ" Ѭԫ  "ԡټ" ӫἼ.
ҡ ѫẫ᡿  ӿѡ Կ ὿ү 󫺼Կ ߫ѡ
 ӿ᡿. ӿ ԫ ᡿ ᬫ ߫ѡ  ѫẫ᡿ 
ӿѡ ߴ ߫ѡ ẽټ. ӿѡ Կ  ᡫ 
ᬿ- ѫẫ᡿Ѽ ߫ү ѡ  ݽѼѡ ѡ.
ᬫ ѡ ӫԫ "ߴ   " - ӿߴ
Ѽѡ  Կ. 佴 ὿ᵿ ӿѡ Կ ѫի
߫Կ ѡ ߫үڿ ݽѼѡԫ. ӿ:

       VAR A: INTEGER; B: CARDINAL;
              BEGIN  A:=-3; B:= CARDINAL (A); ...

 CARDINAL() ߻ߴ   ҡ ӿѡ ѡ  Կ
CARDINAL.   ᬿ ѡ  ߻ߴ ῼѡ᡿ ẫ
޿-ӿѡԿӫᡡ Կ. ӿ ߻᡿ ҡ ӿѡ Կ
ӫἼ 񫽪ѡ իӫޫ  ѡ Ѭԫ   
"ѫᡡԿ"  ӻᵿ   . (ӿ,  ԫ
ӿ  "-", Ѽٮ 񿡿Ѯ  15- Ӵ ݽѼѡ ѡ A,
 B  ӻԿӫߴ  215. 櫫ѡ ߽ ӿѡ B =
215 + 21 + 20 = 32771). Կ߬ ҡ ӿѡ Կ ҡ 
 ߼߽  󽴯ߴ. ߻᡿  ߽ ٬ (ᬿ 
CARDINAL, BOOLEAN, INTEGER  ..), ѽڿ ѡ ẫ Կ, 
Ѭ BEGIN ... END ѫի񿼫 ߽ԫ ԫ  ӫ
ѬԡԿ ѡ, ߫ѡ  Ѭԫ ẽ Կ.
ѫẫ᡿ Կ  ԫ ߼߽ -  ӫԿ󫻫 ӿѡ.
ߡ ѬԿ ᬫ ѫẫ᡿ (CHR, ORD, VAL, FLOAT, TRUNC)
὿үߴ ӫѡټ ѽѡټ ӫἿ.  ᬿ ҡ
 ޿Ӵߴ   ߻᡿ ߻ѵ Ѭ. p 
ҡ ѫẫ᡿ ԡߴߴ    ߽ټ ԿἿ  ӫ
  ߫үѮ .   ӬѼ   ߻Ѭ
߻᡿ ҡ VAL. ū߬,  Ҫ ԼὫ, ޿
ẫ Կ ὿үߴ    ߡ ߽ѡ, VAL  
    ߽ټ.  ߿߿߬ Ҭ ٺ VAL ӿ
ԫ  ߽үڿ :
      <꼴 Ѽѡ Կ B> :=

                  VAL (<꼴 Կ B>, <Ѭ  CARDINAL>).
  Կ B  ߻ߴ ԫ ẫٮ Կ, ὿Ѽٮ 
ߡ ߽ѡ ( Կ ӫ REAL   "ӫ"). Ѭԫ
 CARDINAL  ԫ Ҭ    Ѽѡ,  
. ӿ,
  VAR c: CARDINAL; b: BYTE; i: INTEGER; ch: CHAR;
     BEGIN  ch := 'A';  c := 32771;
           i := INTEGER ( c );                   (*1*)

           i := VAL ( INTEGER, c );              (*2*)
           b := BYTE ( ch );                     (*3*)
           b := VAL ( BYTE, ORD(ch) );           (*4*)
           b := VAL ( BYTE, c );                 (*5*)
 ᬫټ  Ѻҽ ӿ ᵿ (1)  (2)? (3)  (4)? 
ᬫ Ѻҽ ӿ ᵿ (5)? , ԫ  ᵿ 
 ѫẫ᡿Ѽ ѡ Ѽѡ  ߽   ӿ 
߫ԿԿ ѡ.
ҡ FLOAT  TRUNC ạѡ  ὿ᵿ "ի" 
ӿԿ ѽ  ӿԿ Ѯѽ ѽ  ӫ. ġ ӫ
    ӫἼӫ᡿.
 Ҭѽ ߫Կ  ѡ, ߻ѡ ߫ԿԿ 
ӿ᡿ ᡫ  ߻᡿Ѽ ҡ ӿѡ ADDRESS. ѻѡ
"ӫԿ"  ߫ԿԿ ҬѽѮ ߴ   ạ
߿   ԫ  ٬.
񡿼  ӫѡ ѻ   ٬ ӫἼӫ᡿
 ѡ ߴ ѡ Կ Ҭ, ԡ 
᡿Ѽ "ỿ߿  ӿἿ" (ỿ߿  "Ἷ", ỿ߿ Ѽѡ
Ҭ).  ᬿ Ҭ ߴ ߻ѵ ѽڿ (ڿ)
, ѽڿ ӻᵿ Ѭ. ӿ, Ѭ 
"ѡ"  ӿߴ ߽үڿ Ἷ:
- ߻Ѽ,
- ӿѪ  һ,
- ἿѮ,
- Ẽӫ Ѽ Կѡ.
ӿ   ӿڿ  ѡ,  ߽ ԫ
߻Ѽ. ߻ڿ  ѡ  ӿߴ ߫ټ
: ӿ, ߴ   ԫ  ߽ѡ   .
ᬿ ẫ, ߻Ѽ ѡ ԡ߿ߴ  ӿ ѽڿ
: ѡ ԫ  ѽ ߻ڿ ѡԫ,
ӿѼ ὿Ѽ 񫻫ѽ ,  ѡ
߻ڿ. ӿ ԫ "߻ڿ ѡ"  "߻ڿ ѡ" 
ӿߴ ạټ ҬἿ Ѭԫ:
TYPE  ߻Ѽ = ( Խ, , ,  );
      ߻ڿ_ѡ = RECORD
         FAM : Ἷ;
          GR : 쫼_һ;
          SB : ߻Ѽ;
          ST : REAL;  (* Ẽ Կѡ *)
      END;

      ߻ڿ_ѡ = RECORD
         FAM : Ἷ;
          GR : 쫼_һ;
          SB : ߻Ѽ;
          __߽ѡ : ( ,  )
      END.

 Կ, ԫ  Կ Ҭ  ڿ Կ,  Խ
 ԫ  ߽񡿼  (pԫ, Ѽ). ١ߴ ѽ
 SB   ӿ,  ߬ҿѼ Ҭ Ѭ  
ỿ߿  ӿἿ:

 TYPE  ѡ = RECORD
          FAM : Ἷ;
          GR : 쫼_һ;
          CASE SB : ߻Ѽ OF
               : __߽ѡ : ( ,  ) |
              Խ, ,  : ST : REAL
          END
       END.
ѡ ߽ Կ ߻Ѽ  ԫ ӿ ѽ
ӻᵿ Ѭ   ߻,   ߻
ѡ. ᬿ pẫ p pҬp ỿ߿  pἿ
ᬽߴ  󫺼Կ  ppᵿ  pԿ󡫮 ߡ.
 ԫ 󴺿 󫺡 ӫ  ߻ѵᵿ ѡ Ҭ
ѡ. ġ ߫Ӫ ԫү 
    TSIZE (Ἷ) + SIZE (GR) + TSIZE (߻Ѽ)
 Ѽѡү (p pԿ), Ẽ ԫӫ ѽߴ ѡѼ SB.
 ԫ  ( ߽ SB = )
        SIZE (__߽ѡ) = 1; ,
  󫮡 ߽ ( ߽ SB # ) SIZE(ST)=4. ᬫ  Ẽ ἴԿ
ѽ ߽ԫ  ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ "ѡ"? ѡ
ѡ - ߿ 󫺼ٮ, ԫٮ  ߴ  ѡ
ᡡ ѡ. ū߬ TSIZE (߻ڿ_ѡ) > TSIZE
(߻ڿ_ѡ), ߽ԫ ѽ ἴ, ԫү  ѡ
ᡡ  ߻Ѽ ѡ. ߽  ᬫ ѡ Ѯ  Ӵ
߻ڿ, ԫ  ݽѼѡ ѡ  ӻԿӫߴ 
߫  ԡѡѼ ѽѡ SB=. ӿ ԫ  p ,
ѽѡ ߽ԫӫ  ST    ߻ ѡ, p
߽ ӫԫ   ߻ߴ,  ٮ  
ӻԿӫߴ  ߫ᡴڿ ѡ 
__߽ѡ.
Կ, ԫ ѽڿ , һ󽴯ڿ ӫ  ӻᵿ,
   ѡߴ.  ᬿ ߽  pԿ󡫮 ppᵿ
pѽߴ  ѽڿ ,  Կ߬ ߻᡿Ѽ ѡ
 p pѡ  Ѭ. pp:
 TYPE  ѡ = RECORD
          FAM : Ἷ; GR : 쫼_һ;
          CASE  : ߻Ѽ OF
               : __߽ѡ : ( ,  ) |
              Խ, ,  : ST : REAL
          END
       END.
 VAR V: ѡ. p ԫ  ݽѼѡ pѡ  V ѽ 
 , ԫ   pẼp TSIZE(Ἷ)+SIZE(GR),
 pԿ  pẼp
       max {SIZE(__߽ѡ), SIZE(ST)}.
pѡ  Ѭ pѺ ὿ѡ V.__߽ѡ p 
ppᵿ pԿ󡫮 Կ  ߫  p߽ټ Կ (,
),  pѡ V.ST -  ppᵿ ԫ  Կ  ߫ 
Կ REAL. Կ, ԫ  pԿ ppᵿ  ߴ
 "ԫ", ᡡ  󫺼Դ 󫺡ѡ
񫻫ѽ ޿. ὿  pҬp pԡ Կ ߽
pp Ѭpᵿ Կ ѽ  (߻Ѽ),  ᬪ
 ԫ Կ (,Խ,,), p p, ߽ѡ ԫ
񡿼 ԫѽ: pѼѡѼ ߫p᡿ ү ߿߿߬ү pҬp
ỿ߿  pἿ.  ߼߽ ppѬԡ ppᵿ Կ Ѭpᵿ 
ѯ ᬫ ѡ -  pp ѡ ү
ѽ  󫺼!
 Ѽ ߽ Ѻ߿  ԫ, ѡߴ    , ỿ߿ 
ӿἿ ᡿ p 󫺼  ӻᵿ Ѭԫ 
pԿ󡫮 ߡ.  ԫ  ߫ԫ pѡԿpү p Կ pҬp
 p pԿ󡫮 ppᵿ Ѭԫ.
὿ ڿ Ѯ  Ҭ ߼ѡ ӿ ߻ڿ_ѡ
 ߻ڿ_ѡ ߴ  ӡټ  ӫἼӫ᡿. 
ԫ ߼߽ ỿ߿  ӿἿ  ߼ӿ  Ӽ ᬫ
᡿ Կ, 󫽴ү ߴ  ԫӫ  ᡿ 
Ѭԫ.  Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ٬  񫻫ѽ
󫺼 ᬫ ᬫᵿ, ѽ ү ӻᵿ
Ѭԫ   pԿ󡫮 ߡ,   ߡ p޿pѡ . 
󫺼   ᡿ ߽᡿ .
᡿ ߽᡿ 󫽴 ᬫ  ẽ  Ѭԫ
Ѽ ѽѡ  ڿ . ᬫ ѽѡ ӫߴ  ߡ
ԡѡ "  ԡ" - ѡ. ѡ   ѽѡ
Ӽ  ߡ ԡѡ 󬽯ѡ 񼡫  .
  -  Ѭԫ  ѡԡټ Ἷ (A): A = {a/P(A)}, a B
= {b/P(B)}. ߽ P(A) IN P(B) (P(A) ߴ 񼡫 P(B), IN  -
ԡѡ 󬽯ѡ), ԫ  ""  (A*>B, "*>" - ԡѡ ѡ).
 ԡѡ (*>B)  ߴ ߫,  - ߫, ӿ ԫ 
Ѭ   ӿߴ ߽Ѽټ Ἷ P(A) 
ӿѡټ P(B)-P(A). ӿ,  ԫ  Ἷ
߻ԡ    Ѭԫ ߫ѡ "ԫ"
, ԫټ   ᬫ ߻ԡ , , pp,
.  ԫ ߼߽
         ߻ԡ_ *> ԫ, .
ӿѼ (ԫ)^P() = P(߻ԡ_). ( ߿ "^"
߻ߴ  "ѡ "). , ԫٮ  ߴ
ᬿ , ߴ Ӵټ ߫.  ߡ ѡ 
ѡԡ  ߫   ӫѡ Ѫ߫ ԡѡ
񿡿 ߽᡿,  ԫ   ѻѡ ߴ
  . ӿ,

                    ߻ԡ_

                                *
                                |
             +------------------+---------------------+

             |                                        |
             |ԫ                              |
       +-----*-----+                            +-----*-----+
       |           |                            |           |
       |           |                            |           |
       *           *                            *           *
     Һ                      Ӭ         f
               ԫ
       |
       |
       |
       *
     Ἣ

ѼԿ ѡ  ԡѡ   ԡ  Ѽѡ ߿
ᬫ ᡿ ߫  ߡ 񿡿 ߽᡿  
"" Ѭԡ. ӿ,
              TYPE ѽ = RECORD
                              A: ; B: ᮬ;
                          END;    .
Ӽ  ԫ ӿ  ѽ ѡ:  *>ѽ (ᮬ
*> ѽ), ᬫ ҿԿ   ߻ӿߴ  ӿ  
ԡѡ  .
 Ѭ, ҿѼٮ  ߡ ԡѡ ѡ, ߴ
Ҭӫ Կӫᡡ (߽ѡ) . ӿѼ ٮ ߽
()  ᬫ Ҭ ạѡ  ٻѡ ӫ ݽѼѡ
ѡ  ߫ү   ӫ 󬽯ѽ.
ӿ,  Ѭ  "f" (߼. Ѽ )  ѽߴ
Ҭӫ:



   TYPE Ҭ f = RECORD

                          : ߻ԡ_;
                          : ;
                          : f;
                        END; .
ӻᵿ f  ߻ԡ   ԫ 
߻᡿Ѽ ߽   ݽѼѡ ѡ. ӻᵿ f   - 
߻᡿Ѽ  ߽:   , , ᬫѵ, ӻᵿ f  
߫     ߻᡿Ѽ   ߽: ,,.
Ѭᵿ  "Ҭ_f"  Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ٬ ѡߴ
ԡѡѼ
            f <*  <* ߻ԡ_.
 Ѭᵿ ѽ ӿ 󫺼 ӻᵿ Ѭ  ạ
ӫ ѡ (p޿pѡ ).
 p pѼ, ԫ Ѫ Ҽ ߼ѡټ Ἷ 
ӻᵿ Ѭԫ (ỿ߿  ӿἿ  ߽᡿ )
 ӿ ẽ: ỿ߿  ӿἿ ὿ү
ү ӻᵿ  ӡԿ󡫮 ߡ,  ᡿
߽᡿ -  ߡ ޿ѡ  ߫.
 Կ ߻᡿ ԫ ӫἼӫ᡿, ӿѡԿӫᡡ 
Ѭ, ޿ӫ ߻ӫѡ  Ѽٮ ԫ ѽѡ Ѭԫ
"ὫѡѼ" (cѼ). ԫ ԫ   ὿ ạټ
߻߫Ἷ,   ߼ӿ  ӿ, ߻Ҵ ѻ Կ 
"" (߬), ѽ  ӻᵿ Ѭ " ߬".
諡ҿҴ Ἷ ٬ ẽ "߬", ӫἼ 
󫺼Կ  ӻᵿ Ѭ.
ӿ1.
      TYPE POINT = RECORD X,Y: INTEGER END;
           Point = RECORD Y,X: INTEGER END;
       VAR   A: ARRAY[1..2] OF WORD;
             P: POINTER TO POINT;
             p: POINTER TO Point;
             X,Y: INTEGER;
     BEGIN X:=1; Y:=5;
           P:=ADR(A);                         (*1*)
              P^.X:=X; P^.Y:=Y;               (*2*)
           p:=ADDRESS(P);                     (*3*)
              X:=p^.X; Y:=p^.Y                (*4*)
ԫ ӿ ὿ "Ӽᵿ" Ѭ-ԫ  Ѭԫټ
Ἷ (1,5)  Ѭ-ԫ  Ἷ (5,1).  ӫἼ 
ݽѼѡ ѡ  Ẽӫ   ߽, "߬" POINT, "ӿᡡ" 
Ҭѽ ,  "߬" Point, ᡡ  ᡿ѡټ ҬѽѼ .
Ļᵿ (1)   "ὫѡѼ" ߬ POINT  ݽѼѡ ѡ  
ỿ "Ѻ " ѡ  ԫ   ἴԿ .
Ļᵿ (3)   ὫѡѼ     ἴԿ ߬ ()
Point  ѡѼ  ԫ Ѻ ٮ . ᬿ ẫ,  
ԫ  Ѭ, Ẽѡٮ  , ӻԿߴ  ԫ ӿ 󫴬: 
ԫ  Ἷ (1,5)  ߿ӿ Ѯ ԫ  Ἷ (5,1).
Կ, ԫ  ᬫ ѫẫ᡿   ӫի, - 
ѽߴ Ҭӫ  - ߬, Ѻ ԫү  ߼ӿ 
Ѭ. (߼ӿ ԫ ӿ,   ӫ, Ѽ  ỿ߿
ԫӫ (2)  (4)  ߻ߴ ӿ߫ѡ?)
ū߬ ѡ ӻᵿ Ѭ ѽߴ 
߫, ԫ  ᬽߴ       ἴԿ,
߻᡿ ԫ Ὣѡ ᡫ  ӫѼ Ẽӫ ᬿ ߫,
߫  Ẽ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ  .. "ի" ߬  ѽ
ݽѼѡ ѡ ӻԿѼ Ѭ  ѻ߬Ѽټ
޿Ἷ (  "Ҫ"  ἴԿ). Ὣѡ ߬ ߫ 
  ԫ  Ѭ ѽѽ ٻ   ݽѼѡ ѡ
Ѭ Ѻ 񫻫ѽ ߼ѡ "" Ҭ Ѭ. ߽
߬ ạ ߫ Կ ߫ԡ (ѯ Կ  ѡԿټ
ӿἿ, ᬫ ӻԿѼ Կ), ѽѽ ڿ ѡԿ
Կ ߻   ߬ (),       
(󡿺). Կ ӫ Ѭѡᵿ  Ѫ  ޿,
ᡡ   ӻᵿѮ Ѭ. (Կ, ԫ ᬿ ޿
ѯ  ߬ԫ "ӫѡ", ѡ  Ҫߴ 
ѡԿүߴ).
  ӿ  ԫ Ὣѡ   ߻᡿Ѽ ߫,
ѽѼ ҬἿ ẽ ߿. ӿ,  ߿
 ѽ  ߴ  "Ӽӫ"  ߿ ߿󫽫.
Ὣѡ  ԫ ߽ ߴ  "ѡټ" ԫ ᬫ
Ӽᵿ:
    VAR C: ARRAY [1..100] OF CARDINAL;
        P: POINTER TO ARRAY [1..200] OF CHAR;
        CH: ARRAY [1..200] OF CHAR;

    BEGIN


      P := ADR(C); FOR I:=1 TO 200 DO CH[I]:=P^[I] END;...
ᬿ  ,  󿽫,  Ѭӫ󬫮, ѫẫ᡿Ѽ,
ӼᵿѮ  .. ޿ ߿. ߻ ߻᡿ ԫ
Ὣѡ   ѽߴ Ѽ, ߴ   Ѭԡү
Ҭ ߬-. ߽ ߴ, ԫ  ѫẫ᡿ 
 ٻѡ ѡ ӫԫ, Ѻ ߻᡿ ߻ѵ ߽ѡ,
ᡡ  ẽټ ӼἿ ѡ ᡡ,  ѿѡ ߫үѮ
 ߡ ӿԿ. ūԡ Կ, ԫ ߻᡿ ԫ Ὣѡ
  "Կ"  ᡿ѡ, ᡡ  ٬
ӫἼӫ᡿. ӿ, ߻Ҵ Ὣѡ ӿ ӻᵿ Ѭԫ,
ẼѼ   Ἷ߬ ἴԿ,  "Կ" ᡿ѡ,
ᡡ ߫ Կ߬ (ԡ - ѽѼټ) ẼἿ ߿.
 ᬽѡ ԫ  ᡫߴ  ἫӻԿѼ Ѭ.
髺Կ Ἣӻᵿ   ߻᡿Ѽ Ѭԫ
ӫӡ Կ, Ѭԫ-Ѯ.  ạ Ѭԫ
ѽ Ὣ ߻ߴ  ա "" ӫἼӫ᡿,
 ԫ񫽫  Ѭԡ-ӿѡԿӫᡡ ի  ߴ ߫
ӫ, ӫ Կ Ѭԫ - ԫӫ, ѽڿ Ἷ ώѽ
ڿߴ ӫ߫ ӻᵿ.
ӫӡٮ Կ ( ߿, ߼. p. II) ѽ 
󫺼 Ѯ,  ԿԿ. ӿ,
          TYPE Ѯ = PROCEDURE (ᡫ);
ѽ ߿   ᡫ.   Ѯ 
ᡬ ᡿ߴ Ҽ:
               PROCEDURE 鬽 (: ᡫ);
               PROCEDURE ٬ (: ᡫ); .
Ѭᵿ VAR D: Ѯ ѽ Ѭ  Ѯ. ᬫ Ѭ
 ᡿ ѡ 󫺼 Ѯ  ᡬ (.. "",
ԫ Ҫ ѽ)  ( ի Ѽ) Կ󿺿ӫߴ
(ἫӻԿӫߴ)  ԡѡ  ᡬ:
               VAR D: Ѯ; C: ᡫ;
               BEGIN...
                    D:=鬽;...
                    D(C);... D:= ٬;... D(C); .
Ļԫ D(C)  ԫ ѡ ѽ Ἣӻᵿ Ѭ D 
ԡѡ Ѭ ,  ԫ ӿ᡿ - ѽѡ Ѭ D
ѡ 󫺼ټ ѮѼ. ạ Ӵ, ԫ ӿ᡿
 " ӫ" D,   D "ѽ"  ᬫ  Ѭ 
ԫ "ѽ" (󬽯  ᡫ   ٬) ѽߴ  Ѽ
߽  ӫἼ. ߻᡿  ӫἼ Ѽѡ 
Ѯ Ὣ ὿  ѡ Ӭ, ӿ ԫ ѽ
"ѽ" ߴ  ߬ ԫԡ Ѯ - Ἣӻpᵿ.
, ԫ  Ѯ, ᡡ  ᬫ ἫӻᵿѮ, 
ѫѽ Ѭ-Ѯ,  ٻѡ  ӫἼ
ᡫߴ  ᡡ. ߡ ӿѡѡ ԫ ᡿ -
ѽӫ᡿ ߽ ߿Ѽ.
V.  /  
"Ѽ " Ѭ. -  ἴԿ. - ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ.
- ѡᵿ. - ӫѼ "ߴ" ٽ  ߫. - ԫԿ߬
ἴ. - 﫬 . - ǬԿᵿ Ѭ.

Ѭ, үڿ  ӫἼ, ѽߴ   ӿ: Կ߬ 
Ἷ߬. Կ ӿ ѽߴ -ạ:  ߡ ѡѡ
߫ԫ Ѭԫ ѽ   ߡ "Ѽѡ " Ѭԫ. 
ѽѡ 񻫽, ԫ  Ѭ, ѡڿ  ߫ԫ 
ӫ  ӫἼ, ߴ Ἷ߬.  ԫ ԡѡ, ӫ
Ӵ, Կ߬ ѬἿ 󽴯ߴ ԫ ,  Ѭ-
Ѽѡ  ߴ Ἷ߬. ԫӫ ѽѡ 񻫽
󫺼 Ѽѡ ᡿ Ѭԫ, 󫺼Կ ߫᡿ 
ҡԫѡ Ѭԫ.  ԫ ߼߽ Ѭ, Ѽ ᡿ ԫ
 Ѽѡ ٻѡ ӫἼ, ߵѡߴ  ԫ
үڿ (Կ߬), Ѭ , Ѽ ᡿ () ԫ
ѡ Ѽѡ ٻѡ ӫἼ -  Ἷ߬. ԫӫ ѽѡ
ߴ Ѭԫ, ԫ ѡԿүߴ ԫ Ѻ Ҭѽ.
Ѭ, ѡԿӫᡡ ѡѼ,  ԫ ԡѡ  񫽪
ߵѡߴ  Կ߬, ߬  "߫᡿" ߴ
߽ԫӫ  ߫ᵿ Ѫ ѡѼ  ݽѼѡԫ ѡ Ѭ
  ᡿ pѼѡ p ӫἼ.
櫺᡿ Ѭ ߽ ӻԿӫ  ѽѡ ἴԿ  
ݽѼѡ ѡ.  ӻᵿ Ҽ ѽѡ 
 ӫ ἴԿ    ӿ,   - Կ߬ү
ἴ  Ἷ߬ү. ٮ  ἴԿ,  ߽  ԫ Ѭ,
 իߴ  һpѡѼ p߽ԫp  p߻pѽߴ 
Կ߬ Ѭ, үڿ  ߿Ѽ ԫ. ӿ, Ѭᵿ
              VAR A: POINTER TO CARDINAL;
                  B: CARDINAL;
߫ ߽ԫ  ѫի񿼫Կ "Ѻӫ"   Կ߬
ἴԿ  ߽  ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ  ѡѼ    ߽ 
ݽѼѡ ѡ Ѭ  ѡѼ .
信Ἷ߬ ἴ ạߴ  ߫᡿ Ѽѡ үڿ
Ѭԫ. ԫ  ἴԿ   ạԿ: ߫ѡ
Ἷ߬ү  ԫԿ߬ү. ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ ( Խ 
Կ߬)  իߴ  ߻Ӵѡ ӫἼ:   
ѬԿ ӫի ѽѡ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ (߫᡿ Ѭԫ) 
  ѽѡ ݽѼѡԫ  "" 񡫮 ἴԿ (ҽ
"" ݽѼѡԫ), ԫ  ԫ ߼߽ ߿ "ҡԫѡ"
Ѭ.
ԫԿ߬ ἴ - ߫ ạ Ἷ߬, ԫ ᬪ
һߴ ѬԿἿ ӫἼ, ᡡټ  ӻᵿѮ Կ
Ѭԫ (Ѽѡ pp Կ).  ԫ ߼߽  ạԿ
Ἷ߬ ἴԿ ѽ ԫ  ἴԿ   : ἴ 
ӻᵿ ߿ Ѭԫ (߫ѡ Ἷ߬)  ἴ 
ӻᵿ Կ Ѭԫ (ԫԿ߬). ߼Ӵ  ڡ
 (Ἷ߬ ἴ), ߻ѽѡ ἴԿ  Կ 
ߡᡫ  ạ ӿ  ὿ߴ ߫ѡ ạټ ӿԼἿ.
ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ  ߿ Ѭԫ ( ѮѼ
ӫԫ Ἷ߬ ἴ) ὿ߴ  ߡ  ߡ ӫ
( ԿѼ  ߿Ѽ ҽ):
       PROCEDURE ALLOCATE (VAR A: ADDRESS; N: CARDINAL);
       PROCEDURE DEALLOCATE (VAR A: ADDRESS; N: CARDINAL); .
  - ٮ Ҭѽ, ԫٮ Ҭ  ѽѡү  ἴԿ
(ݽѼѡ ѡ Ẽӫ N ) ӿ ٺ ALLOCATE   ѡ
NIL (..    Ҭ) ӿ ѡ ԫ Կ "-"
 Ѽ ٺ DEALLOCATE.
 ߻᡿ ᡿ѡ ҬѽѮ ѽ   ԡѡ
ѽ߫ạټ ߻᡿ ߻ѵ ٺ: NEW(P)   DISPOSE(P), 
VAR P: POINTER TO <Ѭ>. (NEW  DISPOSE - ӫ,  ٺ
߽үߴ  ٺ ALLOCATE  DEALLOCATE ߫ѡ). ߻᡿
NEW  DISPOSE 󫽴 Ѫ  ѼԿ߬ ޿, ᡡ 
ẽټ ѡ N  ߽ѽԿ ٺ ALLOCATE...DEALLOCATE,
ѽѮ ߫᡿/ҡԫѡ   ԫ  Ѭ.
 ѽ ߽ѽ ٺ  NEW...DISPOSE ( ߫ѡ
ALLOCATE...DEALLOCATE),  Ѽ ߽  ѽѼ 
ӫἼ, ӫ Ӵ ӫѼ, ᡡ  ᡿ᵿѮ 
߻ѽѡѼ  ӫ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ. 񡫮  ᬿ
ӫѼ ߴ ӫѼ ѡᵿ. Ѭ ѡᵿ ᬽߴ 
ԫ, ԫ   Ἷ߬ ἴԿ "ӫߴ"  Կ -
ѡ ẽ 񽿡. ᬿ-ԫ   "ᡴ" - ߻үߴ
ӫἼԫ  ݽѼѡ ѡ  Ѭԫ, ᬿ-ԫ "",
ӿѼ  ᡿   ᡴ ѡԫ  Ѽ ߽
  ߫ѡ ӫټ.  ӫ ӫἼ  ߫᡿
 Ѭ ӿ  ԫ, ԫ ߿Ѽ һѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ
"" Ѽ ѡ, իڿ  Ẽ.  ᬫ 
  ẽ,   ᬫӡ : ᬫ ѡ 񫽪ѡ
 Ẽ,  ѡ޿, Ѽ ޿Ѽٮ ӫἼԫ. ߽ իڿ
ѡ  ޿ Ẽ, Ѽ ߴ,  ӿү ӫἼ 
  , ԫp ѻp  p߼pߴ ߿Ѽ  ᡴٮ
pѡ,  ԫ ߴ  񡫮    
pѡ. ӿ ԫ ӫѼ ѡᵿ ᬽߴ  ԫ, ԫ Ѭ
"ӫѡ"  ӿԿ  ԫ, ԫ  񡫮   իߴ
 "ѡ" ӫѡ  ѡԫ,  ߫һԿ
߫󽴯ڿ ԫٮ Ѽ. Ѽ  ѡ, ߼Ӵ  ᬫ Ѽ,
ӫ ӫἼ  ٮ ݽѼѡ ἴԿ   Ԭ  ӿ
 ѽ ի ݽѼѡ. 쿪 ӿѡ ѡ ӫἼ 
Ѽ ߻ѽѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ, ӿүڿ Ѭ
ѡᵿ. ӿ ԫ  ӫԫ 񻫽ߴ, ԫ ڿ Ѽ
Ἷ߬ ἴԿ ߫ 20 .

        TYPE  = POINTER TO _1
             _1 = RECORD
                  ԫӫ_1, ԫӫ_2, ԫӫ_3:CARDINAL
             END;
              = POINTER TO _2;
              _2 = RECORD
                  ԫӫ_1, ԫӫ_2, ԫӫ_3, ԫӫ_4:
                                                    CARDINAL
               ND
        VAR T1, T2: ; 1, 2: ;
        BEGIN   NEW(T1);... NEW(M1);... NEW(T2);...
                DISPOSE(T1);... DISPOSE(T2); NEW(M2);...



           +-------------------+ -+
           |       WORD        |  |
           +-------------------+  |
           |                   |   >  ٮ ѡ, 
           +-------------------+  |     ߻ᡡٮ 
           |                   |  |          Ѭ 1^
           +-------------------+ -+-+
           |                   |    |
           +-------------------+    |
           |                   |    |
           +-------------------+     > ѡ, ᡴٮ
           |                   |    |     Ѭ 1^
           +-------------------+    |
           |                   |    |
           +-------------------+ -+-+
           |                   |  |
           +-------------------+  |
           |                   |   >   ٮ ѡ, 
           +-------------------+  |       ߻ᡡٮ 
           |                   |  |          Ѭ 2^
           +-------------------+ -+

꽽ᵿ ӫѡ  ѡ Ԭ ӫ NEW(M2).  ԫ ѡ
Ѽѡ  Ἷ߬ ἴԿ ѯߴ   ѡ ڿ Ѽ
 ߽, ԫ ԫ  ٻѡ ӫ  ѽѡ ݽѼѡ
ѡ  Ѭ 2^ (..  Ѭ,  ԫpٮ  Ҭ M2),
ᬫ ѡᵿ  󫽴 ߿Ѽ ѽ ἴ  Ѭ 2^.
Ѽ һѡ Ἷ߬ ἴ  ߻ѵٮ ߻߫ 
pѡԫ - ҽ ἴԿ. ӿ ѡ ᬫ- ݽѼѡ ѡ,
߻Ѽ  ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ,  ҽ 񡫮 ἴԿ  
὿ᡫ "߬ѿ᡿" ߫  pѡԫ   pѡ
 Ѽ. ӿ, ߽  Ѯ ӫἼ ѡ
߽ѽ ѡ  Ἷ߬ ἴԿ  ӿѡү , ԫ
ᡡ  Ԭ  ἴԿ  ӫ:
       BEGIN NEW(T1);...NEW(T2);...NEW(M1);...
             DISPOSE(T1);...DISPOSE(T2);... NEW(M2);...

 ӿ Ԭ ӫ NEW(M2)  ҽ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ 
իߴ  ٮ ѡ Ѽ  ߽, ẫᡡٮ
"߬ѿ᡿Ѽ" ݽѼѡԫ 1^  T2^, ٻѡټ ӿ Ԭ ӫ
DISPOSE(T2).  Ѽ ߽ ӫ ѬԿ󡫮 ὿ᵿ һѡ
Ἷ߬ ἴ, ߻Ѯ Ҽ Ԭẫ ӿ ᡿ѡ
Ѽ, ߫󽴯 ѽү ӫѼ.   ԫ Կ, ԫ 
᡿ᵿѮ ѽѡ " ի" ѡ ἴԿ 
ӫἼӫ᡿  ᬿ Ӽ  "տ"  "", ԡߴڿߴ
߬  ӫ߿ , Ѽ  -ԫ߬ Ӽ.
Ѽ  ѡ Կ Ӽ  ạ ӿү ӿ
᡿ᵿ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ.
᡿ᵿ Ѭԡ ߽ѽԿ ӫ߫ , ӫ ԫ, 
Ҽ   Ҽ ӫѼἿ.  ԫ     ӫѼ
"ߴ ٽ"  "߫",  ѽ   ԫӫ 񡫮  ԫ 
޿, ᬽѮߴ  ѬѬԡ   Ҭѽ. үڿ
ѡ ӫἼ ӿ 󫺡ѡ ᬿ ޿ (Կ
""  ).

        VAR T1, T2:;
        BEGIN NEW(T1);...T2:=T1;...
              DISPOSE(T1);         (* T2-"ߴ ٽ" *)
              ............
              NEW(T1);...NEW(T2);...
              T1:=T2;              (* ߴ "߫" *)

 ԫ ӿ ԡ, ԫ "ߴ ٽ" - ԫ Ҭѽ ӿ񡫮
ӫἼ, Ҭڿ  ٮ ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ. ū߬
ԫ ѡ   ѽѡ ߿Ѽ  ᬫ- ӫ 
ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ, 2  Ԭ һ   "Ҫ" ᡡټ 
"޿"  ӻᵿ  . ū߽ ᬫ
ӻᵿ  Ѽ ߽ ѻ߬Ѽ. Կ, ԫ "ߴ" ٽ
 "" ٽ (ѯ ѡ NIL, ߼. p.III) 󽴯ߴ ߫ѡ
ạټ Կ. "߫" - ԫ ᡴٮ ѡ Ἷ߬ ἴԿ, 
ԫӫ  ӿ񡫮 ӫἼ Ӵ һ.  ӿѡ ӿ
߫ӫ ߴ ٮ  1^,  ԫٮ Ҭ 1 
󿪬 (ᡫ  2). ԫ ߫ ᡿: ӫἼ   
Ѽ һ,  ߿Ѽ һѡ "" ߫ ᡴټ ѡԫ
ἴԿ.
񿡴 Կ   ޿   ԫѽ:  
Ҫߴ ߻ѽ . ѡԿӫ  ޿
 ԫ Ѽ ѽ ӫӬ  Խ ӫἼ. , ᬫѵ, 
󫿼 󫺼ټ 󽿴   ӫἼ ߫  "Ѻ"
ߴѮ ٽ. ġ Կ߬ ӿ ԫ  ѽѡ ի
ἴԿ,  ԫ Ѽ  ߴ ٽ ߻߫ ӿ ѽѡ ߽
 ὿ ӫ ٻѡ ӫἼ.  ߽ ߿Ѽ
"ѡ" ߴѮ ٽ  ߴ ѡ ߫.
߻᡿ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ ᡫ  ߫᡿Ѽ / ҡԫѡѼ
߻ѵ ݽѼѡԫ ѡ, ᡡ  Կټ ѬἿ -
Ѯ󿴼  ӫἿ.  ӫ p  ٻѡ
߫ѡ   . ūү  ү
 Ѽѡ, ۴ѡ  ӫ, Ӽ ,
ݽѼѡ ѡ    ӫ, ..  Ѭԫ,
߻ڿ ٻѡ Ѯ, ᡡ  ӫӫ. ѫի񿼫 
  󫺡 ԫ  ѡ ٺ ӫ - ѡ
ӻᵿ Ѭ ӫӡ Կ. ū߽ ѡ ᬫ
ӻᵿ ѫի񿼫    Ѻ. ᬿ ẫ,
Ѽ    ᡿ߴ ѼѡѼ Ԭ ӫἼ, 
ԫӫ  . 櫫ѡ ӫ  ߫᡿  
  ٺ ӫ,  ӫ  ҡԫѡ -  ᡿Ѽ 
ԿԿ Ѭ (ԫ RETURN  END  ѽ ӫ). ӿ:
           VAR W1, W2: PROC;
           PROCEDURE _1;
                VAR A: INTEGER;... BEGIN... W2;...
           END _1;
           PROCEDURE _2;
                VAR A: INTEGER;... BEGIN... W2;...
           END _2;
           BEGIN... W1:=_1;... W2:=_2;... W1;...

 ԫ ѡ   Կ Ѭ ӫӡ Կ PROC =
PROCEDURE(): W1  W2   ӫ Ѻ ӫ: _1  _2,
ԫ  ߻ߴ   Կ PROC. ӻᵿ
(Կᵿ) W1 ӿ  ٺ _1  ߫᡿  
(߫ӪѮ Ѽѡү ).  ӫ ٻѡ _1 ӫߴ
Կᵿ Ѭ W2  ߫ѡ  ߫᡿   
_2.   Ѭڿ ѡ Ѽѡ  ߿Ѽ   Կ
߬ Ѭԫ. ( ԫ ӿ Կᵿ W1 ӿ  Կᵿ
W2, Ѽ   ߴ  Կ󡫼 ߫ԫ  Ѽ Ӵ 
Կ  ԡ ߽ѽԿ: ߡ  ߿ߴ W2, Ѽ
W1). ū߽ѽ Կᵿ  ߿ᵿ   󽫪ѡ
ٺ ӫ, ߫ѡ һѡ ԫԿ߬ ἴ
ߡߴ  ߻᡿ Ѭ - Ҭ, ӪѮ ү
󽫪ѡ. 쿪  ԫ ѡ ӿѡ ᵿ ߻ѽѡ
ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ, ү  ѡ ߫ԡ ԿԿ
Ѭԫ W1  W2.

                +-   +-------------------+   -+
                |    | Ѽѡ       |    |
                |    +-------------------+     > 﫬 
                |    |      |    |        W1
ᡴԫ ӫ-  <    +-------------------+   -+
         |    | Ѽѡ       |    |
                |    +-------------------+     > 﫬 
                |    |      |    |        W2
   ޿  --> +-   |-------------------+   -+
    Ѭ            |                   |    |
ԫԿ߬       |                   |    |
    ἴԿ           |                   |    |   
                     |                   |     > ӫ
      ߿ᵿ     |                   |    |     ἴԿ
    |      ^         |                   |    |
    |      |         |                   |    |
    |      |         |                   |    |
    v      |         +-------------------+   -+
ǬԿᵿ
ӿ Կᵿ   Ѭ ޿ Ѭ "߬ߴ 󡿺" 
ѽ, ѽѼү ẼἿ   ԫ Ѭ,- ӿ 
߿ᵿ ޿ Ѭ "񡿼ߴ ".  ߻᡿Ѽ
ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ   ߡ ӫѼ: Ѭ߿ 
ѡԿ ߫ᵿ.
Ѭ߿ - ᡿, 󫽴ڿ Ѭ ߫ ἫԿ-.
ӿ,  Ѽ:
               W1-->W1 (Ӵ Ѭ߿)
            W1-->W2 ...-->W1 (ѡ Ѭ߿).

Ӵ Ѭ߿   ѻѡ ԫӡ (󽫪ѡ)
ԿᵿѮ,  ѡ -  ᡡ (ӿѼ ߽ 񡿬 
Ѽ W1-->...-->W1   ӫټ). ߻᡿ Ѭ߿
Ӵү ᡫ  ẼἿ  ӫ ԫԿ߬ ἴԿ.
߻᡿ Ѭ߿ Կᵿ Ѭԫ,  񡫮 ԫӫ, 󫽴
 ѡ ᬫ  Ѽ  ߫Ӫ᡿ ӫἼ,   ԫӫ, 
Ѭ߿ Ѽ (߫ѡ  ѡ Ѭ߿)  ӫԡ
ѡ  ѡԿѼ ޿.
ѡ ߫ᵿ ᬽߴ  ԫ, ԫ   ԫԿ߬
ἴԿ   Ѽѡ Ẽѡ ߬ 񡫿ѡ Ѭԫ,
ѯڿ  Ѽ ߽ ẽ ѡ  ԡߴڿߴ  ạټ
ԿԴ   ԫ   -ᬿ ạ Ѭԫ.  ӿѡ
ӿ ү  񡫿ѡ Ѭ: Ѽѡ , ᡡ
(߫ӫᡡ)  Կ W1,  Ѽѡ , ߫ӫᡡ 
Կ Ѭ W2.  ߫  ӿ Ѭ ߿Ѽ һpѡ
ԫԿ߬ ἴ  p߼p   Կ󡫮 ߽񡯯
߫ᡡү ߫ᵿ (ү ""  ޿ Ѭ ԫԿ߬
ἴԿ). 髺ѡ ѡԿ ߫ᵿ ߽ѡ ԫ
߻᡿Ѽ  ӿ ӫἼ 񡫿ѡ Ѽѡ  ẽ
 Ѯ ( 񿼫Կ). ߽ Ҫ ߻᡿ ᬿ
Ѽѡ  ߴ ѫիټ ( Ѽ  ԫ ߫ߴ), ԫ ӿ
 ӻᵿ ߽   ѡԿ ߫ᵿ.


", "