1
 1     2
  1.        2
 2.       .  16
  2.1    16
  2.2              18
    2.2.1.       19
    2.2.2        21
    2.2.3       .     24
 3.      . 28
  3.1 BPAAEC TPAHCOPMATOP  30
    3.1.1      30
    3.1.2 Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop  32
    3.1.3.   aop      36
 4    .  40
  4.1PMEHEHE BM P BTOMTCOPTOBX POKATHX CTHOB     40
    4.1.1 C T     40
    4.1.2       .
    41
    4.1.3. Ccea ynpae copoc peo poa (CP)   43
    4.1.4. Ccea oaoro pacpo poaa (COP)  44
    4.1.5. AC T aox poax cao  46
    4.1.6. Aoapoaa ccea popaoo ypae poa
    e 50
 5.          55
  5.      55
    5.1.     55
    5.2.  . 57
    5.3. ponopuoao-epae .  58
    5.4. ponopuoao-uepeuae .   59
    5.5 ponopuoao-uepao-uepeuae peyop.   60
                        1  
                          

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ape  cypyc  oyeoe  cyapoe  apee   pecppyec
op popo,  oop  paypyec    eax    p  oo
ooo 1   4  pocxo  aep    poaa  peoceeo  eeoo
poxoa, a c ooio ooo 7  5oceeo 
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caooo epe  aooo. Teeoa epeaa  aepa  3
noeea pou yx epa 5, pacooe ey coo o p  yo.
paypoay ay 6  ycaaa  apaeo  eco  oc  aep.
Oeca oc aep  aa axoc  apaeo  ococ,    oopo
eec . C oo epa  cce  4 ocaec  coeee
opae aoo   a    ococ  paep  epeae  aep,
Ccea  epa  oe  poc  o  paee  cepoexao,  oop
ypaec o opooro popa   y  oepaopa  poaoo  caa.
p  oopoe  cce  epa  paypoa  a  ye  co   o
opae aoo, p o aao a oe   coeeo  c  o
oo aoo, a o opoy oy oo poec oce  .  C
oo o cce oo ep y aooo  peeax  o  3,65  o
11  opeoc 3 .
    3.      .
[pic]



[pic]


3.1 BPAAEC TPAHCOPMATOP



3.1.1     


    Bpaaec   ()     (BT)      
  ,        .  
 BT       (.,  9.1)
                  
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    .   B         
             ,
   ,  ,  
        ..      
              .
    BT        
  :  [pic]  [pic] [pic](C1  C2    C3
 C4)   ;  [pic]  [pic] (P1  P2  P3    P4)  
  (, 11.1).      (C1  C2)      
 ,   C3  C4     
 .        :    P1P2  
 P3P4,        
       (    )  
  ,  BT      
.  B      yo  oopoa  poopa  BT   opaaec
aca yo apya cpax py.
    p  pao  paaxc  pacopaopo   ocoa   a   ao
yoc  ey  ooa  caopa    poopa,  oopa  eec  
opeeeo     yoao     acoc     o     ya     oopoa
poopa.epoye  c,  aoe  ycpy  a   ooo
oye  ooax poopa, cpoo  cey  o  acoc.  Ec  BT
coyec    aece  epeoo  eea,   o   oopo   poopa
ocyecec ocpeco peyopoo exaa coo ooc,  oop
o  cpaaec    opyc  BT,  o  opye          
   . ec BT peaae  pao  pee  oopoa
poopa  peeax opeeeoo ya, o  aece  ooo  oye  
oecaoo coyc oo  caopa,  a    aece  opx  
oo poopa.
    Ec BT paoae   pee  epepoo  pae  poopa,  o  oo
pe opaoe cooae  ooo:  oo  poopa  coy  
aece  ooo  oye    oecaoo,  a  oo  caopa  
aece opx Ec oecaoa ooa  aaec  aopoo,  o
p  opao  cooa  ooo  a  poope   pe      a
oax oa, o ypoae ocpy, oae aeoc   ooc
B.
    B acoc  o  paa  yoao  acoc  C  opo
oo o ya oopoa  poopa  paaec  pacopaop  pae  a
ceye :
       1.  cyco-ocyc  paacpacopaop  (CKBT)    y   eo
          oa ape [pic] a xoe oo [pic], axoec  
          cyco acoc o ya oopoa poopa a,  apee [pic]
          a xoe oo [pic], axoeec  ocyco  acoc  o
          ya oopoa poopa a;
       2.  e  paac  pacopaop  (BT)    y  ero  xooe
          apee [pic] axoc   poeo  acoc  o  ya
          [pic];
       3. paac pacopaop  ocpoe  (BT)  peaae  
          pee eoepecx aa
    Kpoe oo, paaec pacopaop  oy  pec    aece
acax  pacopaopo  (MBT)    coacoa  ape  oex
acao aoaecoro  ycpoca,  aopaaee,  epecx  a
cxpoo c pacopaopx cceax caoo epea ya.
    [pic]
    Ha pc 11.2 oaao ycpoco paaeoc pacopaopa, B opyce
1 pacooe xoa  epe  caopa  2,    a  oopoo  yoe
pacpeeee oo 3. B aax xoaoo  cepea  poopa  4  ae
axoc pacpeeee oo 5 epec oa  ooo  pooa  c
o ea 6 ocyecec ocpeco eo 7  o-
ax oe 8.


3.1.2 Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop

    Cyco-ocyc paac pacopaop  cyco pee.  B  o
    pee pao coyec oo oa ooa poopa   cyca  [pic]
    (pc 11.3, a). p e  ce oo  oye  [pic]    e
    occ o [pic], oop coac a noo oye [pic].
    Cec co opo ooo [pic]. oo [pic]  ao    e  C
    [pic], ea oopo a-
    [pic]

c  o  ya  oopoa  poopa  [pic].  B  pee  xoocoo  x   ([pic])
anpee a xoe cyco oo
[pic]
      [pic] (11.1)
    e [pic]  acaoe  ecyee  aee  ape  a  xoe
cyco  oo,  cooecyee  yy  oopoa  poopa  [pic]=90  p
oe apy [pic]   aa  P1P2  cyco  oo    ee  e
oc o [pic]. Coa oo a oo  [pic]  oo  pao
a  cocae:  o  pooo  oc,         
[pic],    o  oepeo   oc   [pic],   ay   caee
aoo ooa oye (pc 11.3, )
    Paaaee e cocae ooa o  pooo  oc  [pic]
oecpyec yeee  oa    ooe  oye  [pic].  caee
aoo ooa oye, aoe ece  oepeo  cocae
ooa [pic], apyae cycoay acoc ape [pic]  cyco
oo [pic] o ya oopoa poopa  oc opeoc    paoy  CKBT,
opacay  c   yeee   oa   apy   [pic]   cpaee   oo
eeaeoo e  ocyecec  ye  ceppo  
.
    B cyco pee pao CKBT, oa coyec oo oa opa
ooa, npeec   cuepupoaue,  ocoaoe  a  pee
oecaoo oo [pic].  C  o    ooy  [pic]  aa  a
pecop copoee
      [pic] (11.2)
e  [pic]   [pic]   cooeceo   ypeee   copoee   coa
epeeoo oa  copoee pooo, coex ooy [pic] c  
coo
    Oo copoee pooo [pic], oa [pic] B oce  cyae
ooy [pic] oa  coy  oo  ooc,  paccaoy  
a ecox opeee ocooro oa, B o  cyae  ypeee
copoee   coa   [pic]      epoe    ceppoae    CKBT
ocyecec aae aopoo oo [pic].
    Cocaa  aoo  ooa  poopa  o  oepe  o  oc   [pic]
cec c oecaoo ooo, ao C  [pic].  Ta  a  ooa
aya,  o  C  [pic]  coae    e  o  [pic],    MC
 oo [pic], apaey  cooec c pao  ea
cpeo ooy[pic] (oo [pic] ec po ooe C  [pic]
 MC [pic]) B peyae oo o oepeo oc [pic] ye  aeo
cee ocae (coecpoa)    opeoc,  oycoea  apyo
CKBT, aoocc

    Cyco-ocyc  paac  pacopaop      cyco-ocyco
pee B o pec coyc oe  ope  oo  [pic]    [pic],
ceee  pocpace ooceo  py  pya  a  90  (pc  11.3,0).
acoc ape [pic]  a  xoe  oo  [pic]  o  ya  oopoa
poopa opeeec (11.1), a  acoc  ape  a  xoe  oo,
[pic]  opeeec  paee,  ya  yoo  c  o  oo
ooceo oo [pic] a 90:
      [pic] (11.3)
e [pic] - acaoe ecyee aee  ape    ooe  [pic]
p ee cooco ooe c ooo oye [pic].
     (11.1)  (11.3) ceye, o a xoe CKBT oya a ape,
oo  oopx poopoao sin[pic], a pyoe  cos [pic]  (pc  11.3,
),
    Oo [pic]  [pic] e oaoe apaep,  ooy  acao
ecye ae apex ooo ae oao:
      [pic] (11.4)
  [pic]    apee  a  xoe  CKBT,  .e  a   ooe   oye
[pic].Ta opao, ya (11.4), pae (11.1)   (11.3)  ae  
e
      [pic] (11.5)
Paccop paoy CKBT  p  epaece  arpyo  a  aax  cyco  
ocyco ooo, .e [pic], p oe apyo    ex  opx
ooo oc o [pic]    [pic],  oope  coay  ae  oo
[pic] (pc11.3,). oepee cocae x ooo [pic] apae  
pooooe copo  aco ao .  oa  aa
oeca ye oo np paece MC cyco  ocyco ooo  o
noepeo oc:
      [pic] (11.6)
e [pic]  [pic]  oooe oe opx ooo.
    To o opx ooax CKBT, cooecye oo oeca,
      [pic] (11.7)
      [pic] (11.8)
e  [pic]    [pic]    oe  copoe  opx   ooo.   oce
ocao (11.7)  (11.8)  (11.6) oy:
      [pic] (11.9)
    Cycy  ocycy oo ea  oao  o  cy  o  
aepy ooooo pooa, ooy oo e oaoe apaep:
                         [pic]
    a o, (11.9) ae  e:
      [pic] (11.10)
    Ta opao,  oa  aa  oeca  oepex  cocax
ooo  xox  ooo  CKBT  pocxo   p   paece   apyox
conpoe    c     ocyco   ooax.   Taa   oeca
aaec opu cuepupoaue.
    Ec apyoe copoe [pic]  [pic]  e  pa,  o  opoe
ceppoae oyaec eo, a a ae oo [pic]   [pic]
ao oecpyc oo, aco   ao e  CKBT  oec
peypy a oo o oepeo oc:
      [pic] (11.11)
    o  oo  e   a   a,   oo   oye,   apyae
cycoa ao pacpeee ao  y    oyo  aope
CKBT, o ee  opeoc  paoe CKBT
    Ma  oo  [pic]p  [pic]  oe     coecpoa   ye
epoo ceppoa, .e a ce  aoo  ooa  oecaoo
oo [pic]
    p oo opo  ceppoa  CKBT  xooe  copoee  a
aax CC2 oo oye [pic]  ac  o  ooe  poopa  (o
ya [pic]). ooy o  aa o, opee  CKBT,  ae  e
ac o ya [pic] Ha o ocoa eo  anepepa,  .eeo  oopa
apyox   [pic]      [pic]    
ocyece ooo  opoo  ceppoa.  Cyoc  oo  eoa
coco  o, o opac
ae copoe apyo [pic]  [pic], p oopx oopo poopa   y
 y copoy e ae ee oaa aepepa  A,  
  oo oye (pc 11.3, ).
    oee o eo opoo ceppoa o oepa. Ta a
p  oo  opo  ceppoa  oepee   cocae   ooo
cyco    ocyco  ooo  ao  ypao,   o      
eca ooe o e a  C,  Ceoaeo,  copoe
apyo [pic]   [pic]  opac  a,  o  oaae  oepa,
eoo  a  o  paoyo  oecaoo   oo   C3C4,o
ye  o ooe poopa.
    Tooc  paaeoc  pacopaopa    pee   CKBT   opeeec
cey oaae: opeoc ocpoee cyco  (ocyco)
acoc;    acepe    yex    oe;    epoye    co
oecaoo   oo;   ocaoo   C;    paoc    oeo
pacopa ey oo    .

   () , %

      [pic] (11.12)
[pic] [pic] -     a xoe CKBT  o
paceoo cycoaoo (ocycoaoo) aoa acoc  xooo
ape a oe oop6 poopa o  acoo  cpee    po  acoo
cpe:
      [pic] (11.13)
[pic]  acae  ooeoe    opaeoe  ooe  xooo
ape o paceoo;[pic]  acaoe ecyee aee a-
pe  xoo ooe [c, (11.4)].
    Acuepu yex oe,  opeeec  p  a  CKBT  co  copo
    ao  epx ooo o opye
      [pic] (11.14)
e [pic]  [pic]- aca ooeoe    opaeoe  ooe
(y, c) poopa CKBT o  yo,  pax  90,  cooecyx  a
ae    [pic]  [pic]
        opeeec    poeax
o oaoo anpe oye [pic]
      [pic] (11.15)
e [pic]  C oecaoo oo, epea  a  oax  C3C4  p
oao ape [pic] a ooe oye,
    Ocaoa C  yex ox opeeec  poenx o  acano
    e  xooo anpe [pic]:
      [pic] (11.16)
e [pic] ocaoa (aa) C,  epea  a  oax  opo
oo,
    Paoc ouueo pacopauu opeee ooee  apaepax
cyco  ocyco ooo CKBT, %,
      [pic] (11.17)
e  [pic]    [pic]    aoee    aeee  ae   oeo
pacopa ey  ooa.  Cy  ec  acco    CKBT,
o  xapaepyc  oyc  oaae,  pee    a
11.1.


 11.1

|     |                                               |
|                   |0,005    |0,01     |0,02     |0,05     |0,1      |0,2     |
|[pic]              |[pic]    |[pic][pic|[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]   |
|                   |         |]        |         |         |         |        |
|[pic]              |[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]    |[pic]   |
|[pic]              |[pic]    |0,08     |0,12     |0,3      |0,6      |1,2     |
|[pic]              |[pic]    |0,006    |0,01     |0,025    |0,05     |0,1     |
|[pic]              |0,005    |0,01     |0,02     |0,05     |0,1      |0,2     |

    B cxeax aoa apyc paccope yxoc BT pec
orooce  paaec  pacopaop.  O   oo   coyc   
ycpocax ooo ocea, a ae  cxeaxc a yo  oopoa.  Tae
BT oc oc, c ooceo o aepo (pc,  11.4),  o
ooe pe   x  oo  c  ou  co  oco  aoap
eo aap paepa    ceao  ocpy    paaec
pacopaop   cpaac   eocpeceo       aoaecoe    
epeoe ycpoco- Caop 1  poop 2 ooocx  BT  apec
 acx npopa,       oopx  o  o
.



3.1.3.   aop

    acoc   xooo   ape   [pic]   eoo   paaeoc
pacopaopa o ya oopoa poopa a ee 
      [pic] (11.18)
e m    ocoa  ea,  opeeea  a    epec
apaepa BT
    Ec [pic], o acoc [pic] ea c opeoc e oee  1%  
peeax ee ya oopoa poopa o 0  o  60  (pc,  11.5,a)  
oyeyaao  acoc  [pic]  pe  ceyycxey  e
ooo  BT:   cyca   ooa   [pic]   coeea   oceoaeo   c
oecaoo ooo  [pic]  a  ocyca  ooa  [pic]  aya  a
eoe copoee [pic] (pc. 11.5, 6), ea oopoo  paec
ao,  o  oece  ooe  opoe  ceppoae  ooo   p
aao  apye  [pic].    opeee  ae  copoe  [pic]
coye ypaee
      [pic] (11.19)
    Ta opao,    ooro  opoo  ceppoa  ooo  BT
eoxoo,  o  copoee  e  ocyco   oo   o   pao
yoeoy   ae   copoe   e   cyco   oo,   a
copoe oecaoo oo [pic]  apy [pic]. Oao  ooe
opoe ceppoae ooo BT ooo  p eeo  apye
[pic].  B  cyae   epeeo   apy   peec   cxea   epoo
ceppoa  (pc  11.5,0).    oopo  ooa  oe  ea
oceoaeo c ocyc-
     [pic]
 o ooo  copoee [pic], a oecaoa ooa aya  a
 copoee [pic]. Copoe [pic]   [pic]  pa  a,  o
 ae oo oecaoo oo  [pic]    ocyco  oo  o
 oepeo oc [pic]  ao coecpoa p o  ae  ya
 oopoa   poopa   [pic].   Tooc   BT    opeeec    opeoc
 ocpoee eo acoc xooo ape o ya  oopoa
 poopa [pic]  aaoe (60  aee ocaoo C [pic]  poeax.
 opeoc ocpoee eo y, %,
      [pic] (11.20)
e cpeee aee acax ooex [pic]  opaex  [pic]
oo xooo ape o paceoo p oopoe poopa BT  a  (
60 o acoo cpee  po acoo cpe.
      [pic] (11.21)
    ee paaec pacopaop ec  ap  acca  ooc  
xapaepyc oyc  pee e:
    [pic]
         Tpacopaopa   ccea   caoo   epea   ya   a
         paaxc pacopaopax
    Bpaaec pacopaop, aaoo ceca, oo  cooa  
    pacopaopo ccee  caoo  epea  ya,  Ha  pc  11.6
    oaaa naa cxea ao epea. B aece  a-a    
    pea   pee  paaiec  pacop  .    
     [pic]     [pic]    -  
       [pic],     [pic] 
    [pic] -,    :
    [pic]
      [pic] (11.22)
    o ece x C  e  cxpoa  cce  oa  o,
oope, poxo r ooa poopa  [pic]    [pic]  BT-pea,  coa
ycpy a oo [pic]. pocpaceoe  ooee  eopa  
opeeec yo oopoa poopa BT-aa,.e p  oopoe  poopa  BT-
aa a yo [pic], eop ooa [pic] oopaaec a ao e  yo-
Cec c ooo caopa [pic], oo [pic] ypye  e C  [pic],
ea oopo ac o ya paccoacoa cce [pic]. B  ocao
paoa paaxc  pacopaopo    paccapaeo  ccee  aaoa
paoe ceco.
    Ha xoe BT-pea coaec apee [pic] oopoe  oaec  a
xo yce ooc . oce yce apee  ocyae  a  ooy
ypae O coeoo ae M. Bpaee poopa oo  ae
epe peyop P epeaec ypyey opay  P0  paoeo  exaa  
poopy -. oce oopoa poopa  BT-pea  a  aa  yo
ccea pxo    coacoaoe  cocoe,  p  opo  apee  a
xoe BT-pa [pic]. o ocec e, o  oce  oopoa  poopa
BT-pea a aa yo eop ooa  [pic]  oaaec  paec
epyp oc oo [pic]  e ao  e C.
    B eoopx cyax pacopaopa ccea  a opao,
o    e  cxpoaa  oo  poopa  BT-aa    oo
caopa BT-.  Bae  oaae  pao  cce  caoo
pea ya  ooc opao  yra,  aaoro  a  ae.  Tooc
cce  ye  e  e,  e  ee  opeoc   peex      e
paaxc pacopaopo. Kpoe  oo,    oe  ooc  cce
eoxoo poec coacoae xooo  copoe  ooo  poopa
BT-aa c xo c  .
    oaaee  ooc  cce  caoo  epea  yra  ec
nopeuioc ceoau, pecaa  coo  paoc  yox  ooe
cce. B acoc o opeoc ceoa pacopaope cce  c
paac pacopaopa ec a 11 acco  ooc:  +0,1;  +0,2;
+0,3; +0,5;+1; +2; +3; +5; +10; +20; +30 ,
    B oe o  pacopaopo  cce  a  cecax  ccea  a  BT
oeceae  oee  coy  ooc,  o   ocec   oee   coo
ooc paaxc         .  
      -           -
.            

    .
            4    .

4.1PMEHEHE BM P BTOMTCOPTOBX POKATHX CTHOB


4.1.1 C T   

              
,          5000   .   
pooca                ,
cpeecope   .        
    .           
,          .     
 , ,      .    .  Haoee
      ,          
   ,          
. Hepepe         
                  ,   
,   ,   .
    H             
              ,
  ,       
                  
.
    AC T     (  
  )         
,                   
                 (CAP),
      .
    Bopo            
,     :        ycao  
   ,      
      ,               ,
        ,  
 .
               poae  
.           pac
               .
            
,              ,
                   ,
,      .      ypae
        BM,      
 BM,     .
    Ha  .  67          AC   T   
  ,             ,
 yxo         .  
            ,  
        ,        
            oxae  ,    
.
    Baee    CAP       ,   
,    ,        BM,  :   
    CP;    
 CO;     COP.
    H                  
  TO,    ,  CH,    
CH, eeypoae CAP,       
CM,        eeex  ae  CAPH,     
    ,       ,   ,   
                   
  .           1  4.
       eoopx   ex      AC   T
  .
    [pic]
. 67       :
1   ; 2 ; 3    
; 4    ; 5    ;
6          ;  7    ;
8    ; 9   
; 10;  11  ;  12.  :
  (  );     ;   
;    ;    ;  ;
.


4.1.2       .

           a      
 AC T  cao,  cce     
    o a   ap    coepa
oe ao a eaa, y oa opa , cpeca  e
epo  opao,  cpeca   oopae   oepao      
opa, aaa c  epea opa.  Bopa  aeaca
 oeca  opa oe ocyecc a  a  ae  eo
BM, oe ce yn oporo  peeo ypoe ypae, a   c
peee    ceanpoax    cex    ycpoc,    apep,
popoeccopoo TC C2.
    Hecop a pae cxe pacooe oopyoa copox cao, a
cex caax ycoo oo e ceye exooece yac:  ca
cxoo aoo; eo yaco,  oop xo,  poe  apeaex
ycpoc, apyoe pe, eep  pacope poa,  a  ae
ea aa  a aooo    e;  coceo  yaco  paox
ee,  coepa  ce  rpy  ee;  xoo    ()  oa  
pacope ycpoca; yaco oe oooo poaa.
       aoro      yaco   peaaea   aooa   occea
opaooo copooe. occea coep  ae  o  poaaeo
eae, paye ce  poaax  .  Cooyoc  ax  occe
opaye       ypoe    cce    opaooo    .
epaoaoe opaooe copooee eaa o caa,  a  ae
c  ey  e  caa    cxoo  aooo    ooo  poye
opay epx ypoe  ccm.  B  peyae  pee  aa  cee
oppyec  oepaa  oe  ecoaxoe  yeoc  eaa  
aa, axoeoc a cae ooo .
    epa opa o eae, oeae poae, oc  pyy,
a  aea   oppenpoa   oc   aoaeco   cooe,
ocya o ao  ax cao oepaopa.
    Texo-ooeca     eoc     cce     opaooo
copooe eaa  oycoea:  ycee  poooc  caa;
copaee pacxoa epec pecypco; yyee yco.
    e po  caa  ocaec  a  ce  ye
poco,  cax  co  c  eaox   poeyo,   cee
pee   p   pee   p   ypae   paoo   .    Pacxo
epeecx pecypco copaaec a ce  yee  pocoe,  xoocx
peo  arpeaex   ee,   coe   aoo   oceoaec
.  co  pya  yyac   a   ce   aoaa   poecca
paee ao (ap)  ocea .
     occe oporo ypo ypa  o  e  ae  cucey
npeapeo  ao  acpo  caa  a   aa   .
Ocoa e pee  BMyeee  pee  a  epecpoy  caa  
copaee paa. p acpoe caa a o poepaep BM  a  ocoe
aoex  ee  a  porpa  paccae  yca  copoce  ax
poo cex e  ae x ae a  ao  o  cay  .
Ec oepaop corace c pace ae, o ae  oay  a  ay
ycao  poa,  p  o  yca  ac  eocpeceoypae
ao. p ecoac  oepaopa  co  ae  copoce,  paccax
BM, o  epeo  ccey    pe  pyoo  ypae    ycaaae
peyee  a  copoc  ao,   eocpeco   ocy   a
pyop copoce ra .
    Aoaa poecca acpo  peyeoo  aopa  ey  aa  
paox ex o acoeo pee e oya  paecoo  pee,
o ocec a pyoc coa aeaeco oe  aceco
eopa  eaa    pax  apax,  a    cooc   epe
paepo poaa
    Haoee  co  eoo  epe  paepo   poaa   papaoao
peeo    pyoy  .  epee  paepo   pyx   pocx
poe (apa,  ecpa)  cao  c  opeoc,  oycoe
e,  o   epee   ycpoca,   pacoee      yx   ao
epeypx ococx, o   opepoa  o  oc  cep
cee epeoo po. Oao  xoa    e  o  coepae
oeaee    paaee  e  ooceo  oc  poa,   o
cae ocoepoc peyao epe. ooy paec  eooo
 acoee pe ep c  ocaoo    pa  ooc  paep
poeyox po-
e (oa, pepo oa  ..).
    Coae  cce  aoypae  a  a    copopoa
pooce  pee x   acpo  caa  cepaec  ae  e
ocoeco,  o  e  ooaoo   cooec   ey   ooee
aoo a  coo apa, a  a  oce  ac  o  ypyx
eopa  aoo  cce,  a  oope  e  ecoooee  aoo
apa a oe . Meaoe aop paccac   ycaaac
apaee, p oa apo ao,  pooa  c  oo  BM,
ocyecec o ooy  pex apao,  ao  oopx    aece
pep oaoc paec y epeecx apa:
    p aax oax oepex cee aoo  oooo  poaa,
oece poxoo  oeo copoc opeeec  pacpeeee  e
 paep apo;
    p  aax  paepax  aoo    oeoo  po  opeeec
oaoe oeco poxoo;
    p aao oeo  poe,  ce  poxoo    oeo  copoc
opeec oae paep.
    Texo-ooeca  eoc   pee   cce   aao
acpo  caa  oycoea:  ae  oca     po   apo;
ae  papoca  cee  poaa;        cee
poaa  p  coe   peoan   OCTo   (acpoa   a   yc);
ae oea  pee e oepa  epcoao  p  epexoe
a o 

4.1.3. Ccea ynpae copoc peo poa (CP)

    Ccea oeceae coacoae  copoce  pae  ao  ee,
poay c aa  aee    epoo  pye  ee    poay  c
aa ea ee eaa  coo pye . o  ooe
ec poay a oex copocx  capoa  pe  poa  c
e oe aeca .
    Paccop  paoy  cce  p  oepa  ococa   a
oooo ae  eeex  poeyax  epoo  rpy.  eco
coooee, ycaaaee  c  ey  aee  ooc    ae
paoc copoce  eaa  xoe  oceyy e    oe
  peye  [pic]  ec  Eoy   a;   [pic]yeoe   aee;
Lpaccoe  ey  e;  [pic]copoc  xoa  ooc    oceyy
e; [pic]copoc xoa ooc  peye e.
     oepa ococa ae   eaeeoxoo  peaoa
ao aop  ypae,  p  oopo  paoc  copoce  epeeo  
aeo  oo  ooc  ocaec   ocoo      ao   .
Bcee  copoc  poaa  ocyecec    BM   cey   opao.
Opeeec pe  poxoe  epe  oo  ooc  cex  eeex
poeyo  epoo  py   [pic]      [pic]acoa   yco   o
capoao eepaopa; [pic]co yco, ocyx   ce
o reepaopa o  pe  poxoe  epe  oo  ooc  eeeoo
poeya  [pic];  [pic]  e   poxoen   epe   oo   ooc
eeeoo .
    Copoc epeeo oa ooc opeec   paen  [pic]  ec
[pic]  eeeoe paccoe   epoo  pye.Aaoo  opeec
copoc ax oo ooc [pic].  coxpae ee  ae  
ao eeeo  poeye  eoxoo  peypoa  copoc  pae
cex  ao  nepepo  py,  pe  ppaee   copoc   pae
ao[pic] oo  poopoao acoo copoc paen  ao
 ao e
      [pic] (3.1)
e[pic] oocea ea ppae copoc
paen ao i-  

4.1.4. Ccea oaoro pacpo poaa (COP)

    Copoo poa, oyae  pyax, papeaec ey  oa,
ycaoe a ocee e caa, a a  epe  aaae  ,
a  a paoepe , peaaee   ya  a  xooe.
Ocoe peoa, peee  ey oa:  oyee  aaoro
pa 
 coa ooc epoo pea.
    Ha oce copeex epepx eocopx caax epe 
epc   cce   oaoo    pacpo    poaa,    oeceae
aca xo ooro, ayee cooae a  xooa  
cee ca aapx cya  xocoo ac caa. p    oo
peac e  pae  aa  Oa    x  coco    epe  
pacpaaeoo  poaa,  ocoy    poecce  pea  c   a   ooc
eeca: o pacooe ooceo o    cay,      oe
opea epo epo y a oe ooc  e  aa    ca.Ta
opao, eocpeceoe epee  ooc a xoe  caa  o  pe
eooo, a  ooe  poopoae  ee  apye,  e    ao
o  ,        .  ae  ceo  a
pae  coyec  oea,  o  oopo  acpoa  ee  caa   
poecce poa paec ee. ooy   opeeeoo  opea
Lo ooc, axoeoc a yace exooeco  caa ey  e
pea eaa  coao oo epe cao,  oa  cea  oyac
oce poa ocoa a
      [pic] (3.2)

    e oe   a  ano  exooreco  yace.Bopa
aaa coco  cocae  aa  pacpo  p  aax  exoorecx
peoax.
    p pee a xoo papeae  poaa  oo  pocxo  a
opao, o ce opeaee ac    acao  ooo  ,  
eoeco pa peae aaae  epe    (paoepe  ),
poe oo ocee y, a oopo oycaec ee , o  e
opoe  eoopo  peeo  e  Loc.    peoa  oycoe
eoxooc  ye  cooae  oeo  oa  xooa  
aeoc pacoppo ocee y.
    p pacpoe  ooo  ac  pacaa  eye  o  acpoe  a
opeae  acao  oox  paoepx  n  Lax,    oo  p
oce  a  oo  pacaa  ooycaopa,   ycaoeoo   a
opeeo pacco o  pea  opopyeo  ooee  pacaa,
aec ccea oaoo pacpo, oeceaa  aca  xo
ooo p o   pacaa.  a  yaca  oaoo  pacpo  L
opcccc a cya pacco o ooycapa o   pea  L  
opea,   poeo   a          oey    pepae    ac
ooycaopa, L:
[pic]                                   (3.3)
    p pee a  xoo  paoepe    o  opeec  
yco
[pic]                               (3.4)

  Lmax      ;   Lmin      oa   a
pacpaaeo e,opeeea, a [pic].
    cea  eoxooo pacpo a ocoa aepa  L, oeoo
o (3.2)  (3.3)   cooec c (3.4) opeee  c  pyo  epo
aaao , yaaxc  pacae L,
  [pic]
  re V  co yaaxc pyo; v  poa  ac,  xapaepya
  o epo  eaa, yero  oxo.
    o c y oep eaa, poepec  oooc  apac
ocao [pic] o e oycoo ocaa Loc:
    [pic],
 y=0, 1, 2, 
    c ocao W oaaec e eee eoopo  oyco    Loc,
.. W>Loc, o pacpo a paec.
    Ha pc. 68 pcaea o-cxea paccopeoo aopa pacpo np
papea pacaa a paoepe .

4.1.5. AC T aox poax cao

    B pee a yee yca acox    cooox  po
poaa oa  po  pa  yepca  ao  caa  oo
ooc.                
      (C),   ycaoe   a   earco
eaypeco   .    Ca    oeceae    pooco    185
poepaepo  poooox  yapo  paepa  (pa  ooc(coa
ce) o 100(200 o 420(1000 , o 6 o 30 .
    cxoe aoo acco o 18,8 , o o 3,6 o 11,4   ocya
o a 1500. p  copoc  poa  o  10,5  /c  pooeoc
epo oepe caa cocaa 1 , , poaa, a p oo pa  C
pacca a yc 1,6  , poooox .
    epca  ao  ca  HTMK  oopyoa  pe  apeae
ea c aa oo, oo e 1300, y epo  peepc
yepcao-ao  pya  ee,  aa    oopx  coco   
ypcao       cooraeo    ee,    epeepco    coo
yepcao  e,  yaca    ope  pe,   xooa   a
yaco aooe.
    Texooec poecc pooca  ao  aaec    ceye.
acoe  aoo  o  caa  a  1500  paa   yaac   a
apyoe cea, pacoppyc poraa   o  oo  aac  
e c ara oo.  ee apee ao  eac  p  oo
ceax ycpoc, yaac  a  pee  poa    oac  
oo e 1300, poaa  arooo    oopo  pooc  a  515
poyco. aea  poaa  ooc  ocyecec  a  812  poyco
oceoaeo  yx epox  yepcao-ao  pyax    a  o
poyc  coo e, p epe e c  ooc  pooc  c
oa  oo  cooo  ae.  poaae    coo  e  ooc
oac poaa a yaco , a oopo aa ooca o o  100
  papeaec  a  epe    opae  ,  ae   a   ec
poaa oac  ce xooo.  Oce  a  apac
a pooe pae a  pa   yx  ao  epeyp
ococx  ae poxo ceopc ocop ooe
    B acoc o peyao opo a   (ocya  po  a
ca ooo poy  arpyac  ao,  o  oac  a  yac
oe e ocyec pay ao  a  opoa  peccax,  pey
eex ec, ooey papey  a  aaae  ,  acy  
oop opo a ceopcx ceaax.
    K  exooec  ocoeoc  pooca  aoa  paccapaeo
cae  ceye  oec:  ape  aooo    eax  c   aao   oo;
oceoaey  oy  y  poay  ooc    yepcax  aox
pyax  ee  e  pee  pacax  oe  oepeoo  epeee
eaa; ooy pe pacao a epe  c  peee  epex
epex  ,  epex  poaox  ce   cpec   eyopoo
ocaoa ooc a pe; aoaecy  oppepoy    papeaex  
ope coco ao  ,    acoc  o  x  eepayp;  oepey
aoy paccaoy  epeeee ao   xooax;  pay  ao  
yx   ao   epeypx   ococx   a    poox    aax;
pacoppoae ao o ce ceaa  eoo  epeoc    
 .
    Ka  o    peeo  xapaepc,  exooec   poecc
aooo pooca ee cpeo-epep  xapaep,  pe  eo
ee p ocaoo aoox, oceoaeo pacooex o  xoy
exooecoo poecca yaco e, e,  exa  opea  opeo
poaa,  xoo,  exa  oe,   ca.   Bce      yac
oac py o pya o xapaepy exoo; pyeoy  cpoec
oepa ypae (apep, pooe apea epec  aca,
a pe,  apaaeoe  a  poay  eaa    oo  e  a  o
poyc,  cocae  o      e   cey);   peyeo   ooc
epeee exao caa (o eco epo  p  pacae  ao
a  xooe    o  cox  oe  epa  p  ycao  ax
exao   ypcax   aox   ee);   oey   epepaaaeo
opa. o ooe paccapa poecc  ypa  exoorec
poecco aooo caa    eo  a  cooyc  aocax,  o
oo  eacx  poecco  ypae  a  ao     yaax
yaco, .e.  ocyec  eepaa  .  B  c  c  
eecoopaa eoo AC T  yepcaoo  aooo  caa  a  p
aooe occe   cooec  c  pe  yaca  exoocoo
poecca: yaca  apa  aooo,  yaca  poa  eaa,  yaca
pe,  oxae    yopaa.  B   coca   AC   T   xo   ae
aoapoaa  cncea    copooe    oepaoo
ypae.  Hapy  c  paceee  AC  T  ceo  caa   a   oee
yacoe  AC  T    cooec  c  xoo  exooecoo   poecca,
pooc  eee   oaox   yoax   ypo      ao
yacoo  AC  T,  B  peyae  oa  cpyypa  ocpoe   AC   T
yepcaoo aooo caa oaaec aaoo AC  T  peepcoo
ooo caa, pecaeo a . 43.
    a cpyypa oocc  y epapxecx oypoex cpyyp  c
eepaoa aoo  ypaee  exooec  poecca  a
x ypox epapx  (caooe  ypaee  epopoa  epe
cce  aoaecoo  peypoI   ypoe;   ecoe   popao-
oecoe  ypaeeII  ypoe),   Aaa      oa   aclx
cpae  ypae  a  yacax  apea  aooo,  poa,  opea,
oxae  yop  eaacoca  III  ypoe  AC  T,  Kpoe  oo,
ec  po  epaoaoo  oeexooo   ypae,      oop
oocc  aoapoaa   ccea   opaooo   copooeIV
ypoe  exoa aoapoaa  ccea  apoa    oepaoo
ypae pooco  V ypoe.
    peyeca   ao   cpyyp   oycoe   ae   ypaee
oe  exoorec  yaca,  oooc  oaoo  oa  
apaa aa aoana a o epa  (ypo  AC),  a    o
opoa (yac caa), a ae xopoe pcocoeoc    npooy
cooa poBM.
    cxo  peoa oecee aeoc, a ypoe  AC  oe
yopoa caocoeo, ooy  o    pao  epxx  ypoe
epapx e ae pepae  yopoa  xypoe  (I,  II).
Ka pao, ypoe II cpyyp  oeceae  ypaee  exoec
poecco o  ec  popaa,  pae  oepaopo,  a  ypoe  III
opye ypaee ypo  II  ye  e  yac  oepaopa  (apep,
pae  popa  oa,  cxo    acecx  coc  eaa  c
cooae   oee   yc      oeo   poa   paccae
paoa pacpo a   .).
     peaa cpyyp ooypoeo AC T  aox  cao  oy
  pee  pane  cepo  ycaee   cpeca   ceo
ex.Haoee yoao o oeco execx cpec  (KTC),
ocpoe  a  oo  poepoo,  ypoao   ocpyo,
aapao    popao  coeco  ae,  ec  ceyee  ceeco
execx cpec: cee oec  ceeca  a  ECypoe
AC exa; ypae cee oec CM2, CM2Mypoe  exox
cce  oepaoo  ypae,  yea  pooca      opaooo
copooe eaa; ypae  cee  oec  CM2,  CM2M,
CM1, CMlMepx ypoe AC T (oa  ypae  exooec
poecco);  popoeccope  cyoec  c  c  oeo,  a   ae
oec  execx  cpec     oax   opaoo-ypax
cce   a   ae   pocxe   c   -oeo   cee   epa   
popoeccopo , KTC C2 ypoe AC T (ypoe II).  aaoe
ceeco execx cpec  xapaepyec  ae    e  cceoo
aoecee  aeo porpax  oye    ooo  oepaox
cce ooax  oeco,  oox  opaoa  ce
poecc    aoece  cex  oeco  a  ooo,  a  
pax ypoe . Kpoe oo, a oa  ooe  paoa
c  oc  epaa,  pacooe     ecox   oepax   o
ceoro oeca, ee  coe cocae eeyae  epna
ocaoo  pae  ycpoca  c   c   oeo   c   cooecy
popa oeceee.
    eu aoauauu. Aa exooecoo  poecca  aooo  caa
oaae, o peee  AC  T  eoxoo    oecee  ceyx
ee:
    ) ocyece pa exooecx poecco, peaa oopx p
pyo  ypae  eooa.  K  cy  ax  poecco  oo   oec
ypaee  pea  oa  ye  oopeeoo  c   coo   cee
ooc  (o  0,05  )   epeee   ecox   ax   exao
yepcax ee, a ae eyop  ope  eaa  a  ax  ope
pe;
    ) ocee cao poeo pooeoc p cox copocx
poa  (o  10,5  /c)  c  ae  eoc  a  poa  
peyae   coacoaoo    oaoo    ypae    ooce
poa exaa caa  cooo aeca apea  eaa    eax,
paoax cyeoaecoo ea pao poaoo caa;
    )  yca  cooaeceo  poy,  o  ocaec   cpoo
peaeae peo apea, poa   coo  ooc  oooo
ypae   a   exaa   ee.   oceee    ocoeco
cococye ae yee  eepx      ae  oooc  yca
poy  cyeo oe oyco;
    ) oe xoa ooo  peyae paoaoo pacpo ao  
oa peo apea  poa eaa;
    ) ce paa  peyae cpooo  coe  peo  poa,
apea,  opea    oxae  eaa,  o,  poe  oo,   cococye
oe  cpoa  cy  exaecoo    epecoo  oopyoa   
ce aapoc  pocoe caa;
    e) oo epopecypco p apee  poae eaa   peyae
oaoo ee x exooecx poecco;
    ) yye opaa ypae  pecae epcoay  oeo
oea   oepao   opa   o   paoe   oopyoa,    apaepax
exooecoo poecca  ycaeo poy, o oeceae  yco
 ycopeoo oce ca poeo  pooeoc    cpoo
ocoe p eoxooc poy ooo copaea;
    )  oee  yco  pya  oepaopo    pyoo   ocyaeo
epcoaa caa.
    Ceoaeo, AC T, poe oecee ypae poecca, oopoe
eooo peaoa p pyo ypae, opepoaa  a  oa
ypae, e oopoo ec a oep:
    [pic]
     [pic], [pic],[pic],[pic]   pooeoc,
aepao,          epopcypco,           aeca           poy;
[pic],[pic],[pic],[pic]cooc yaax oep; Uypaee.
    cxo    aeex  ee  aoaa,  a  ocoa   exo-
ooecoo  aaa  oea-ypae  opeec  ocoe  y
aoapoao cce ypae,   paccapeoo  yepcaoo
aooo caa HTMK coca yAC T cey:
    cyooe    ceoe  apoae   pao,   oepaoe   ypaee
pooco    oa  apea  eaa  a   yace   eoecx
apeaex ee c aa aa;
      pacppoae  eaa  o  pacaox   coo   
eoec ea, arpyo, pacao  epeeee arooo    e,
ae eaa  e  eo oae  oo peepco  e  1300  c
coee peyeoo ea poa;
    popaoe ypaee epeeee aoo exaa oo  e
1300 c opeoc e oee 0,5 ;
    popaoe ypaee pea oa  copoc pea poa
 peepcx poeyoo   pecoo  pyax  yepcax  e,
a  oooe  ypaee  a  exaa   x   ee   c
orpeoc  e  oee  0,05      oeceee  cxpoa  copoce
ax poo x ee c  ooco  0,51.0  %  c  eo  a
ae  ooce;
    ypaee pacoppoae  eaa  a  yacax  ee  aooo
caa;
    paoa pacpo ao c eyop  ocaoo  ooc    opea
(opeoc e  oee  20  )    paccaoo  epex  epex  
ope pe c opeoco 5,0  c  yeo  eepaypo  oppc  x
ooe;
    pacoppoae eaa a yacax  ope pe   apyooo
yaca xooo;
    popaoe   ypaee   exaa   xooo    c    aa
peypye ao paca ao c opeoc e oee 20 ;
    cop  opaoa exooeco opa o  paoe  exaecoo  
epecoo  oopyoa  a  yacax  ee      rope   pe,
oepa ye pooca  opo apaepo ooo poy;
    oepaa c c  AC  exooo  ypo,    coca  oopo  xo
aoapoaa ccea cee a eao o  caa  a  caax
caa, a ae aoapoaa ccea yeaaooo xoca    AC
exa.

4.1.6. Aoapoaa ccea popaoo ypae poa
e

    Oco y aoapoao cce popaoo  ypae
(AC) poa e :
    ypaee pea oa p peepco poae   oo  e
1300,  poeyoo    peco  rpyax   yepcax   ee   a
ocoa porpa, apaee paccax exooa caa;
    ypaee   copoc   pea   p   peepco   poae    
poeyoo      pecoo   yepcax   ex,   a   ae   p
epeepco poa .coo e  a  ocoa  aax  popao
copoce  axaa,  poca    acao  copoc  poa    ao
poyce  epex apaepo   ooe eaa;
    cxpoa copoce epopoo  poeyoo    pecoo
py yepcax  ee  c  e  a  ae    ooce  o
aa  aoo copaea ea    aaeo  apa,  a
ae aec ae aepo ycaoex ao;
    ypaene  pacoppoae  eaa  poaa  p   peepc
poae  ex  epeae eaa ey e;
    epee  pecaee ocyay  epcoay  exooeco  
epocoo  opa  o  eepaype  eaa,   ycx      oeax
poa,  aax    aecx  aex  pacopo  ao,  copocn
epopoo, oax   apex  epecx  ee,  o  eepaype
ace epoaee, a ae oepao opa o  yopoa
AC;
    aoaecoe  peeppoae  execx  cpec      peaa
aoee  oecex  y  ypae  pea  oa,   a   ae
ypae copoc pea poa  cxpoa   poeyoo  
pecoo pyax ee;
    aaeca paa, acapoae cao ypae, aa o
oex oeca execx cpec   c;
    exapoaa oooa popa poa a epoapax;
    oco opo paoococooc  oeceee oooc oa
execx  cpec  cce  c  oo   ceapoax   ceo   
ycpoca epaoaoo opo.
    Ccea  AC  ocpoea  a  ae  pa   aoex   yoax
ycpoc:  ycpoca  ca    oa  porpa  poa;  pooo
oooo  peyopa;   ycpoca   ypae   copoc   pea
poo; ycpoca ypae  coo  e;  ycpoca  oepaoo
aoec oepaopo c cceo; occe copa, epo  opao
 epea opa; occe ypae poaa.
    B ccce ae coyec oec ao epo exooeco
aoaa: ooe a ya  oopoa  ax  exao  ee;
yce a yra poa ax poo ; a  copoc-
ycope  ax   po;   a-epe   caecoro   oea
poa; a ae eaa a  a;  oopee  ooe  opeo
eaa a  .
    Cpyypa aoapoao cce  popaoro  ypae  yaca
poax  ee,  ae  a     cpyypa   AC   T   ceo   aooro
caa,eepa. Ccea coco  epx  aoox  occe
ypae: ACӗ1300 oo e, ACӗPpoeyoo  py  ee,
ACӗחpecoo py ee  ACӗחcoo e, cax  ey
coo  epe  occe  epo  opao   opa      ypae
poaa,  a  ae  opaooepe  opaopo  oco  ypae.
Cpyyp occe ACӗP    ACӗ  ooc  e,  a  cpyypy
ACӗ1300  oo  paccapa  a  ac  cya  x   cpyyp   e
ycpoc ypae copoc pea  cce ypae  poaa.
Taa   eeaoaa   cpyypa   AC   nooe        peyae
cocpeooe  execx  cpcc     paoax   cooecyx   ee
aeo copa y  c, oc x  oexoa,  
oe ocyae cce.
    Ccea AC a yace yepcax  ee  yopye  cey
opao. Oepaop o  ycpoca ca  epoap  c  popaa
poa, pae  ycaaae eoxo pe  pao  aoa,  a
ae  o  ae  ycox  ye  ooe   ax   exao,
aecx  aepo  ropoax  ao    epax   ao   
ycaaae ccey  cocoe  oa  epoo  poyca.  p  oae
opeo  eaa  ccea   ypae   poaa,   coy   ca
oopee, oeceae pacoppoae ooc  paoe e  aay  ee
 e a copoc  axaa.  cpoco  ypae  copoc  pea
poo a  ocoa  opa  o  ao  epo  exooeco
aoaa  opeee  exooecy  cya,  ypae  copoc
peo ao yepcao e  cooec c aa  aopa,
ae oa  poo oo  peyop  a  epecaoy    naye
epe a  poyco    ca  a  cxpooe  ypaee  copoc
pea epao  e    poao.  B  c  c  e,  o  pyoe
ypaee pea oa  a  yepcao  aoo  cae  paec
eooo, a oa cce ypae  oox ao ooe  ax
exao  oe  pec      aap,   cce   ypae   a
exaa    copoc  pea  poo,  a  ae  ooe  a
ypoa    paoa      pee   opeo   peepa.   Bo   peepa
ocyecec aoaec  o ae oepaopa. npaee  oo
peepa pooc occeo c oepaopa c  cceo  ypae  a
ocoa cao oaa, oyx o ao, ex cpoee  cxe
ao.
    Ha yace ypae poa e aee ec  nocucea
ynpaeu peuau npoa, oopa peaye ceye y:
    oa peo oa ocpeco oppe  ee c poecco 
ao  poyce  cyecyx  cxe  poa  c  eo  yee  xoa
ooo o eaa  peyae poa  ycoo    oyco,
a ae yee xoa ao epx ;
    oa   copocx   peo   poa   ocpec   oppe
apaepo oee ypae  peo acae pee c e  oe
pooeoc caa    oepa  peyeo  eepay  pacaa  
oe poa;
    paoaoe ypaee  exaa  poax  ee,    acoc,
ycaoo ax  exao  aaoe  ooee,  copoc  pea
ax   oo      porao    c    e    oecee    aao
ooeoc;
    o, xpaee  oppepoy acco popa a;
    ea  peypx    epeypx  coco  exooecoo
poecca  oopa poecca  e,  opo,  copa    opao
opa;
    oeceee aoec c oepa  ocya epcoao;
    opo xoa exooecoo poecca    yopoa  occe
ypae;
    cooaee  ocyae y.
    occea ypae pea poa coco :  oa  oa
peo poa, oa ea coco, oopa   oepaoro
aoec, oa ypae exaa,  oa  opao  opa,
o  opao  opa  o  cy  py  ee  ae    ce   n
oeco opao opa,  a    oopx  coep:  ycpoca
peopaoa  opa,  epe  caecoo  oea,   epe
yc poa, epe ooe  eaa,  epe    pacaa,
epe  eepayp  pacaa,  epe  o  ooc,   epe
copoce exao e.
    o ypae exaa o cy py ee  ae    ce  n
oeco ypae exaa, a    oopx  coep  ycpoco
oppoa  aa    m  ycpoc  ypae  exaa   o   cy
exao   e,   oxaex   aoapoa   .    o
ypae  exaa  peae  aa  ycao  ax  exao   
aaoe  ooee,   ypae   copoc   pea   exao,   
acoc, pao  opoee x o aao copoc, ypae  poco
eaa  ao a aao  copoc  p  ypae  a  poo,
opoee poao o aao copoc    oey  poca  eaa  
ao, aaa  aao  ypae.  Peaec  ae  aaa  ypae
exaa py ee  cooec c p pepe oa  
y pee a poa, oeceae coee pooro  yco
[pic].  ec  [pic]pe  pao  ax  exao      aye   ey
poyca,  [pic]pe  peepca   paox   porao   (pe   opaa
poaaeo ooc  aa    ooo  poyca),  [pic]pe  peepca
paox ao.
    cpoco  oppoa  aa  coep  acc   ecx   paox
popa poa, ee  oopo    e  aa    ao  poyce
epeac  cooecye  ycpoca  ypae  exaa.cpoco
oppoa  aa  aoaec   ocye   epecpoy   xox
xapaepc     yc      ypae      exaa      (aaa
aaoae) c yeo opex  ypaex  exao    xox
peypyex  oopa,  opo  yopoa  ycpoc   ypae
exaa. ce peca coo poe  ooe  yop,
paoa o ooy aopy eao o a ypaeoo  exaa  
oppye  a  ypae    cce  aaecoo  ypa  
acoc, peayec aop peypoa coc  poca  eaa  
ao o ooe:
      [pic] (3.5)
 [pic] a  y  raoo  epopoa;  [pic]eoa
a aoo, cea epe Nc yco aa  ya  oopoa
poaoo  aa    [pic]ey  e  ooo  yca;   [pic]   y
ope  aoo  poa  co  copoc  poca  o  o  caoa;
[pic],[pic].
    Moe  ypae  a  exaa  aaoa  (3.5),  oe
coco  o, o cocaa [pic]=0[pic]  a  eco  eoaao  
cec acoae ey porpao aa  ey  e
exaa. Topoe y poca coo acoc y  opoe
epop  o  copoc    paoyo  cce   perypa   
.    acoc  ya  eoc  peyopo,  ooy
oe (3.5) ec o o ooe  [pic],[pic].
    o  ea  coco  oea   ypae,   a   
oepaoo aoec coep n eco o cy  py  ee  
oeceae:
    ea   peypx      epeypx   cpe    coco
exooecoo oea ypae, a  opeeee  oeo  axaa
aoo a, poca aoo  ao, paoa ax  oo  
poao  o  copoc  poa,  pee  a   a   ycaoec
copoc,   pax   oo      oee    ypae,    ax
cya;
    oopa poecca ypae o oe coco oea ypae;
    o oepapa opa, eoxoo  ypae,   oopaee
xoa exooecoo poecca a ocax ypae rpya ee.
    o o peo poa o aoec c  py  oa
occe   ypae   pea   oa   a   ocoe   opa   o
epocox  apaepax  poa,  eoepecx   apaepax   poaa,
opa  o  ecoc  ee,  ooe  poaa,  coco  
ao,     cyecyx  cxe  poa,  oepao  opa  o
poaaeo  eae   oeceae   oa   peo   poa   
cooec c aa pep  o    .  B  xoe
pee aa oppyc  ac  ao poyce   o  ypae
ee,  oopx poaaec aooa, oppe  aa a  e
oa,   oopeeo   oeceaec   aaa   apaepo    oee
ypae  copoc   pea      oee   ea   coco
exoorecoo oea ypae. Oa peo poa coco  
peapeo opeee apaepo oe (3.5) [pic],[pic]   aaa
x  pea yco, a ae  pacee acco oppe cxe oa  
cooec c aa pep o apaee papaoa aopa.
pa  ce  oec,  coy  ycpoco  oya  
cpoee oy opo pax oo occe  ypae  pea
oa,  peaye  paeey  cpyypy  aapaoro     porpaoo
opo  aoc,  o  oeceae  epeee  peo  pao  
eee cpae ypae  p  cox    oaax.  Hae  
       
,          
           
,           
  .
              5.    

5.    

    yop,   oope   peaoa   caape   ee   ao
perypoa,   aa   .   B   ax   peryopax   oepa
eppoa, epepoa, cypoa   yoe  a  oco
oe oc  acoo  oo.  B  ec  c  peaye
aoa  peypoa  peyop   epepo   ec   ec   a
pae . Paccop x.

5.1. 

    opoa aa peryop, y oopoo xoa ea [pic]
caa c xoo eo [pic] coooee
      [pic] (5.1)
     [pic]   oe  epea  (yce)  peyopa,  c
ece  apaepo  eo  acpo.   Ka   o,   paee   (5.1)
oyaec  pae (5.0) p yco, oa  C2=C3=0.  
peyop copaeo aa -peyopo, a a  o  pea  -ao
peypoa.
    Paccop paoy poopoaoo peyopa a pepe  -peyopa
poo  ec,  peaaeoo    oepa  aaoo  ypo  
peepyape (c. c.2, )   oe apoo a (c,  pc,  3).  Hepyo
e, o peypy opa p pax apyax oea  perypoa
aae  pae  ooe   ceoaeo,      cocoe   paoec
peypyeo ycpoca   cce  peypoa  ye  cyecoa  p
pax  aex  caa  [pic].  Ta  opao,  p  pee   -
peyopo eea caea oa: pa  apya,  paae  
oey peypoa, cooecy pae ae peypyeo  .
o  ocec  e,  o  epeeee  peypyeo   opaa      ooe
ooee, cooecyee oo apye, oe    ocyeceo  oo
a ce ooe peypyeo . B pe  ye    eca
eeaee ooe oo, yea e  epea  [pic].  Ho
paec o cex  cyax  e  epeee  pe  op  e
cpay opaaec a xoe oea , ceoaeo,  a  cae  ee
ooe peypyeo e (o) [pic].Boece  peyopa  a
peypy opa [pic]. cece oo oxoo opa, a a  
poo cyae ye coaac ooe perypyee oece,  o
oe pec    eycooc  cce  peypoa  -a  
    (aaec  epexo  poecc)      yee
acaoo  aecoo  ooe.     x   coopae   ceye
yea  aee[pic].  Ho  yeee  [pic]   po      yee
aaoa ee  caa  o.  C  yeo  oro    cce  c  -
peyopo   ceye   pa    opeeeoe    oaoe    aee
oea eo epea [pic],  oopoe  eye  pa  p  acpoe
.
    epexoa  xapaepca  -peryopa  oaaa  a  pc.  103.   .
Hacpoe apaep  poopoaoo  peyopa  aco  peca  
e e (, opaooey epea, , e,
      [pic] (5.2)

    Bey  (  aa  cene  epaoepocu,  a  ae  uanaoo
poccepoa ( eaecx ),  ,
[pic]

eo  caa,  copoc  c,  oo  peypoa,  npeeo
poopoaoc.  Ec  pa  ey  (      poeax,   o   oa
oaae,  aoy  ooe  peypyeo  e  (%  o  aca
ooo  ao ACP)  epeee peypyeo opaa  
ooo paeo ooe  pyoe. Cee cpaoepoc opeeec  
epexoo xapaepce -peyopa  a  o      
.
    B  aeco  ooe  -peryop  ec    
[paee (34)]
    epeaoa y -pey  
      [pic] (5.3)
     oc -peyo ec x pcoa. p oe
oyax   oe   ao   peyop   cpo   po    ccey
peypoa    paoecoe  cocoe.  Oao  -a  coceo   -
peyopa  a  caeco  o,   .e.   ocaooo   ooe
peypyeo  e,  ooc   peypoa,   oeceaea   a
peyopa, cpaeo .  Paee  oeaoc,  o  ye  opa
oaoo   ae   oea   epea   -peyopa   oo   
aeo cee ye caecy oy peypoa,  o  ooe
cee ee    ccee  c  -peyopo  ae  eopeec  eooo.
Paoc  ey  aca    a   ycaoc   ae
peypyeo  e  [pic]  aa   ocaoo   epaoepoc   -
peryopa. Ee ey opee  pae  [pic]ooy  -peyop
oo pe a, e o exec yco  p  yopoa  ACP
a   oee   peypoa   oycaec   ae   caeco    o
peypoa. Hapy c -peyopa poo  ec  ocaoo  poo
pe -peyop epoo ec,  coyee  a  yepcae
peyop cax pax exooecx poecco.

5.2.  .

    epa  aa  peyop,  y  oopx   eee   xoo
e poopoao epay ee xoo, .e.
      [pic] (5.4)
e  [pic]oe  epea  -peyopa,   xapaepy   copoc
coeoo exaa  p  ooe  xoo  e,  a  a  
pae (5.4) cye, o
      [pic] (5.5)

paee (5.4) oyaec  (5.0), oa 1=3=0.  epa  peyop
copaeo  aa   -peyopo,   a   a   o   peaye   -ao
peypoa,    -peryop    aaae    .    pep
acaecoro peyopa  paccope  paee  (pc.  5).  Ka  ceye  
p pao  acaecoo  peyopa,  peyp  aoo  a  oy
axoc     paoeco   coco      p   aao   ae
peypy   e.      coa,   o    poo    epeeee
peypyeo  opaa  poopoao  epay  ooe   peypyeo
e o ex op, oa e occaoc  ee  aaoe  aee.  B  o
coco  ocooe  paoe  oe  -peyopa  o   -peyopa.
ooeo  ocoeoc   -peyopo   ec   peypoae   e
ocaooo ooe peypyeo e.
    Cpaa pae (5.4) (41), , o -peyop   aeco
ooe  ec  eppy   (acaec)   .   epeaoa
y -peyopa
      [pic] (5.6)
    oe epea [pic] ec ece acpoe apaepo
-peyopa.  Ceye  oe,  ocopoc  epeee  coeoo
exaa    peypyeo  opaa   paec   opaea      ooy
coooee  (5.5)  cpaeo    p  ooex  xoo   e,
ex eoopoo acaoo ypo. p opax ycox pao  ACP
o ycoe coaec    coaec  ao  peypoa  (5.4).  
ooe  oe  peeoro  ae,  o   ora   peyop   ceye
paccapa a pee c ocoo copoc epeee  eypyeo
opaa, ocoeoc oopoo yy oca e.
    oa epeaoy y -peyopa aca  e
      [pic] (5.7)
e  [pic]ocoa  pee  erppoa,  ac    o  cyae
ece apaepo  acpo  peyopa  C  yeo  pce  (5.7)
ao peypoa (5.4) -peyopa pe 
      [pic] (5.8)
oo eep,  o  a  xo  peyopa  ocy  oco  ca
[pic]. p ocoo  xoocae  xoo  ca    cooec  c
paee(5.8) eec o aoy
  [pic]
o cee pee [pic]  aee  xooo  caa  caoc  pa
xooy ([pic]).  Oca  ocoa  pee  eppoa  -peyopa
[pic] paa pee,   eee  ooporo  c  oea  ocye  a  xo
peyopa  ocooro  caa  ca  a  xoe  peyopa   ocae
ae, paoo ae xooo caa.
    Heocao  -peyopo  ec  ooceo  ecoa  copoc
peypoap ooe peypyeo e peypyee  oece
a oe acae ooo eeo, copoc peypoa e ee,  e
oe eaTp -peyop e pe  a  oeax,  e  oaax
caopaae,   a   a   ccea,   cocoa       oea    e
caopaa  -peyopa, eycoa,  ooy  a  caocoee
peyop -peyop  pe  peo,  x  oo  pe    ACP  
oee  c  peyopa,  oppy   pye   ao   peypoa,
apep c -peyopa. Ka pao,  -ao  peypoa  oppyec
e  caocoe  peryopo,  a  oo     oye,   ocpyo
c  cocao  ac  peyopa,   peayeo   oee   co,
apep, -ao  peypo.  epexoa  xapaepca  -peyopa
oaaa a pc, 103 

5.3. ponopuoao-epae .

    poopoao-epa   aac   peyop,   y    oopx
eee xoo e poopoao a ee xoo  e,
a  epay ee ee:
      [pic] (5.9)
    Bpaee (5.9) oyaec  pe (5.0) p yco, oa  3=0.
poopoao epa peyop copaeo  aa  -peyopo,
a a o, peaye -ao peypoa. Ka o  pae  (5.9),
 oe o paccopex epx yx o peyopo -peyop  ee
e acpo, opeeee ea,[pic]   [pic].    pae  (5.9)
ceye,   o   p   -peyope   epe   peypyeo    opaa
poopoao cyapoy oec o ee peypyeo e  
epaa, oo o pee oo ee, B  o  cyae  peypy
opa  ye  epeeac  o   ex   op,   oa   cyecye   ooee
peypyo e o aaoro ae,  ocaoo epaoepoc  
ccee e.
    B aeco ooe -peyop oo paccapa a  ccey,
cocoy    apaeo  coeex   yceoro      eppyero
ee,  .e.  -peryop  aee  ccee     yx   apaeo
ex peyopo: -peyopa  -peyopa(pc. 104, ).  Oca  c
yeo pae (5.3)  (5.7) epeaoa y -peyopa ee 
      [pic] (5.10)
    Ec p acpoe  -peryopa  ycao  oe  oy  ey
ocoo pee [pic], o o pepaaec    -peyop.  Ec  e  p
acpoe ycao oe   [pic]      -  
    [pic].ycao oe -peyop.
    aapye  epexoe  xapaepc  eaoo   -peyopa,
pecaee  a  pc.  104,.  oce  caoopaoro  ee  xoo
e  oe pee [pic] xoa ea  (ooee  peypyeo
opraa)  o   ece   poopoa   (caeco)   ac   aoa
peypoa (5.9) oeo epexo  epoaaoro ooe  (oa
)    ooe  ooee  (oa   )   poopoaoe   ooe   [pic]
peypyeo e   coecyee  acoey  ae  oea
yce [pic]  peea poopoaoc  (.  Bea  opea  [pic],
ae   o   ece   ye   erpao   (acaeco)   cocae
coe exa peyopa ooeo  epeeae  peypy
opa  y e copoy  ,  c  ocoo  copoc  [pic],  poopo
ooe peypyeo  .  B  peyae  oo  xo  ea
oee  ee eo eec   cooec  c  acpoe  a
pee eppoa [pic], apep o po 1  2. p  acpoe
pyopa a oee pe eppoa xoa ea  eec  o
po 2. Ec pe eppoa  pa  ecoeoc  o  coooee
[pic] opaaec  y, epaoe ece peyopa ocycye   o,
a ye yaaoc e, paoae a poopoa (pa 3)
    H-peyop  co  cpyypo  cxeo  (pc  104,  a)    epeaoo
ye a (5.10) oaae apaepa acpo   pe  eppoa
[pic] e ac  onea epea kp.epexoa  xapaepca  -
peyopa oaaa a pc, 103,.
aee [pic] oo oopee o epexoo xapaepce peyopa a
pe yee xooo aa (oce ooa pao poopoao
ac) a ey pay xooy cay,

5.4. ponopuoao-uepeuae .

     poopoao-epea  oocc  peyp,  oaae
cyapoe oece a peypy opa, poopoaoe a  ooe
peypye e, a  copoc ee ooe:
      [pic] (5.11)
  [pic]nocoa  pee  uepeupoau,  xapaeya  cee
 oec o pooo a  peypyeo oec.
    ao perypoa (5.11) oyaec    pae  (5.0)  p  2=0,
ooy poopoao-epe  peyop  opaaa  -ao
peypoa. B  aeco  ooe  -peryop  pecae  o
ccey    apaeo  coeex  yceoo      epepyeo
ee. epeaoa y peyopa ee 
      [pic] (5.12)

5.5 ponopuoao-uepao-uepeuae peyop.

    B  poopoao-epao-epeax  peyopax  eee
xoo  e  (oece  a  peypy  opa)   poopoao
ooe peypyeo (xoo)  e,  epay  oo  ee  
copoc ee o  e.  ao  peypoa  aoo  peyopa
ee 
      [pic] (5.13)
     (5.13) c paee (5.0), oo  cea  o,  o
paee   (5.13)   cooecye   -aoy    peypoa.    ooy
poopoao - epao-epea peyop copaeo  aa
peyopo.


    Ha  pc,  106  oaao  a  eec  xoo   ca   [pic]   p
caoopao ee  caa  paccoacoa  [pic]    peyopo:
poopoaoo (pc.106, a), epaoo (pc, 106,6), poopoao-
epaoo (pc, 106, )   poopoa-epao-epeaoo
(pc, 106, ) ec.
    Ka o  pc, 106, , cpae -peyopa    cey
opao:  p  oe  a  xoe  peyopa  paccoacoa   yce
peyopa  ep oe epeeae  coe  exa  cpo,  
cpoo opoao, oecpy aey ac pac. ae  
paoy cyae epaop, oop eeo, o e  poco  eaey
oy,   pae   peypye   apaep        aaoy    ae,
epeaop,   peapy   a   copoc   ee   paccoacoa,
opcpye paoy popa   ex  cyax,  oa  apaep  aae  cpo
ooc o peyeoo ae. Kpoe epecex e  apaepo,  
acpoe  apaepa  peyopo  epepoo  ec  ooc  ae
eyceoc  peyopa  [pic],  opeey  ay   ey
xooo caa, p oopo oaec oaa a  coe  exa.
p ax eax eyceoc aac  oe  ace  e
coeoo exaa, oope oy pec  cpoy xoy  eo  
cpo, Opee ey eyceoc oo o  opye  [pic],  
[pic]  oycoe  ooee   peypyeoo   apaepa;   [pic]pya
xapaepc epoo peopaoa.



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