Horse-breeding in the Tambov Area


      Applicant: Irina Nikitina, the pupil of the 11 B form CG
      Supervisors: L.I. Ivina, the teacher of Biology
                  L.N. Kozhevnikova, the teacher of English



                             Tambov 1998

      Historically Tambov area has been known as the territory of  chanters.
By the amount of private stud farms it challenged superiority  of  Voronezh,
Oryol and Kursk areas. The development of horse breeding  in  many  respects
was promoted by two circumstances. First because of the flood plains,  where
the herds freely grazed (only in one Morshansk area today are left about  20
thousands hectares even after rash ploughing up of a  large  part  of  flood
plains). Secondly, and it is also important, the deep pocket of  the  Tambov
landowners. They had large and  sometimes  fabulous  capitals.  So,  one  of
brothers Archarovs, the holder  of  extensive  lands  in  Rasskasovo  area,
bestowed him by Katherine , handed the whole horse regiment to  the  Tambov
national militia in 1812, by putting on the horses his own bonded  recruits.
He also gave regimentals, armed and supplied the  regiment  with  provisions
for three months. Nobody in Russia made such generous  gift  for  army  that
time.
         Count Stroganov, princess Golitsina, general  Lanskoy  (the  second
husband of Natalya Goncharova),  Bashmakov  -  the  Tambov  millionaire  and
holder of gold mines beyond Urals, old-line noblemen  the  Naryshkins,  the
Arapovs and many other had  their  own  stud  farms  in  Tambov  area.  The
Lavrovsky stud farm, which  nowadays  has  worldwide  glory,  was  built  in
Tambov land by the landowner Voeykov.
           The merchantry tried not to drop behind from the aristocracy. One
of  the  Aseevs  brothers,  the  holder  of  Arzhenka  cloth  factory,  has
purchased the  stud  farm  from  a  widow  of  the  local  broken  landowner
Kruchenkov. The example of Aseev, but without the raping, was followed  also
by  other  industrial  aces  from  the  districts  of  the  region.  It  was
considered very prestigiously.
           We should remember that horse-breeding remained one  of  the  few
worthy commercial activities for the aristocrats. In 1840,  when  Chicherin,
the relative  of  our  future  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs,  has  opened
distillery  in  Lyada  and  the  landowners  Tulinov  and  Poltoratsky  have
purchased cloth factories, noble society has apprehended it as mauvais  ton.
But the pinces and dukes  and  members  of  the  tsarist  family  very  well
descended to trading horses from theirs stud farms.
           All  reading  Russia  knew  from  the  story  by  Turgenev  about
inveterate  chanters  from  the  district  city  of  Tambov  region  with  a
beautiful name - Lebedyan. But  only  few  know  today,  that  the  fans  of
equitation created there the first  Russian  association  and  issued  first
horseracing journal. Much earlier than in metropolis and Moscow, the  prize-
winning horserace of Oryol  trotters  were  arranged  in  Lebedyan.  Several
years later the same association of equitation fans was also established  in
Tambov. This association  built  on  share  contributions  the  three-storey
building for its club on former Dvortsovaya,  nowadays  Sovietskaya  Street,
one  of  first  in  the  center  of  our  city  (now   The   Department   of
Communications). In this club the horse-breeders from all  Tambov  districts
met at card tables and in the hall of extensive library.
           The special page in a history  of  domestic  horse-breeding  were
written by the life copers brothers Demins from  Kozlov.  They  managed  to
get and turn over the blooded trotters  even  from  Khrenov  farm  of  count
Aleksey Orlov. Although,  only  after  his  death.  While  alive  the  count
strictly forbade selling his horses. Demins were in close  friendship  with
former counts adscript Vasiliy Ivanovich Shishkin, the manager  of  Khrenov
farm. Shortly Shishkin opened his own stud farm.
           The abundance of private stud farms in the  region  produced  big
horse fairs, beginning from Lebedyanskaya and finishing with  Tokaryovskaya,
one of cheapest in country. On Tambov fairs the merchants came  a  long  way
from European countries, and also from Persia and Turkey. Only  in  1897  61
580 horses were exported from Russia. Each tenth of them  was  purchased  in
Tambov region. On fairs they sold not only separate horses,  mainly  it  was
the business of small copers, the  owners  of  stud  farms  sold  the  young
grossly, by so-called stakes after one famous stallion and  different  dams.
Unblooded horses on Tambov fairs were bought  up  for  meat  merchants  from
Denmark. A kilo of horsemeat was  equal  in  cost  with  a  kilo  of  Danish
butter. Vneshtorg knows the price that  the  danish  horsemeat  lovers,  the
horsemeat is the irreplaceable ingredient of top-grade  sausage,  are  ready
to pay us for horses for meat.
           Many brilliant trotters were grown up on Tambov  stud  farms.  In
1904 at stud farm of Afanasyev in village Yaroslavka, now the  territory  of
Rzhaksa area was born grey stallion Krepysh. His father was  Gromadniy,  the
Imperial prizewinner, and the mother Koketka, the grand daughter  of  Varvar
 prizewinner from the farm  of  well-known  horse-breeder  Rogov.  Changing
hands, Krepysh in a 1907 stepped on the turfs of Moscow and  St.  Petersburg
for the first time. By his  graceful  pace  he  made  a  conquest  of  fans.
Krepysh entered the competitions for 79 times and in 55  races  he  was  the
first and he established or improved 13 records.  With  heartache  thousands
of fans witnessed a loss of Krepysh  in  February  1912  in  Moscow  to  the
American trotter General Age. They did not  blame  their  favorite  but  his
american jockey William Keaton,  who,  they  believed,  intentionally  drive
Krepysh in a wrong way.



                         The Novotomnikovo stud farm



                 The stud farm in Novotomnikovo played a large part  in  the
history of  domestic  horse-breeding;  it  was  founded  by  count  Illarion
Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1860 and still exists now. In short  time  he
bought up the best orlovs stallions and dams, paying no  attention  to  the
prices.
           His new stud farm in Tambov area  got  famous  after  his  bonded
jockey Oblopokhin on the stallion Zadorniy beat all capital jockeys  on  the
horses from the best  prize-winning  stables  in  St.  Petersburg  in  1861.
Zadorniy made three versts for 6 minutes and 6 seconds.
           Vorontsov-Dashkov opened a new era in horseracing after he became
in 1882 a state manager of horse-breeding at tzar Alexander III request.  At
that time he was the defense and domestic minister in the rank  of  adjutant
general.
       He turned the horse-breeding  from  lairds  merry-making  into  real
commerce. The prices on the private stud farms were raised  up.  The  owners
of stud farms in Moscow or St. Petersburg could  be  lucky  enough  and  win
whole bags in one racing season.
           In the last quarter of 19th century in a pursuit of  high  prizes
the american jockeys began to appear in St. Petersburg and Moscow  more  and
more often on theirs so-called two-minutes trotters  they  cover  a  mile
(1600 meters) for two minutes and some seconds.
            One of the first to Russia from America came Claytons, the well-
known jockey family  the father and sons  with  their  own  trotters.  They
established the prize-winning stable and began the manufacturing  of  modern
very light carts with rubber wheels. Very soon they were unrivalled  on  the
racecourses of Moscow and St. Petersburg. One  year  Clayton  and  sons  won
almost all prizes and earned more than 300,000  rubles.  The  horse-breeders
got agitated and began to repine. Some  of  them  rushed  to  buy  the  very
expensive  American  trotters.  Other  protested  demanding  to  forbid  the
performance of American trotters in Russia.
           In such conditions Vorontsov-Dashkov, as a head of domestic horse-
breeding, had to make a decision. He found a  compromise.  The  prizes  were
divided into two groups. One was for the horses of all  breeds,  other  only
for  Oryol  trotters.  But  nevertheless,  the  count   preferred   American
trotters. The only criterion of quality of  a  horse  I  consider  a  prize
pole, - he told later. With such reasoning Vorontsov-Dashkov made  vigorous
efforts buying American trotters, not only for  his  stud  farm  and  prize-
winning stables in St. Petersburg  and  Moscow,  but  also  for  state  stud
farms.
           Vorontsov-Dashkov was  interested  in  cross-breeding  more  than
anybody else. He always was present at horsing, sitting under  a  glass  cap
at center above one of the  stables.  The  count  considered  it  to  be  so
important, that often  forced  his  spouse  Elizaveta  Andreevna  (Shuvalova
before  marriage)  to  be  present  on  it  with  visitors,  which  were  in
Novotomnikovo that time. The visitors were only grand  people:  the  members
of tzar family, which arrival was marked with planting of one more  tree  in
oak alley of ancient park. Such as relatives of four daughters  married  off
in families of Shuvalovs, Sheremetyevs, Musin-Pushkins, and Demidovs.
           The conversations about horses touched common  interest,  as  all
aristocracy had stables and stud farms. This kind of  private  business  was
considered to be almost the only activity that is not derogating dignity  of
a true aristocrat.
            By the end of 19th century on private and state  stud  farms  in
Russia there were 20 trotters prizewinners of an  American  origin.  In  the
mass order there  was  a  crossing  of  blooded  Oryol  dams  with  American
trotters.
           The most given  was  Vorontsov-Dashkov.  Even  two  victories  of
oryols over americans in summer season of  1898  didnt  cool  him.  The
Oryol trotter Boets broke the record on three miles established by  American
trotter Monnet. His own mare Krylataya broke the record of Monnet  on  three
and three quarters of second in  the  same  season.  But  he  had  made  the
choice,  his knight's move , and was not going to back up. Soon the  count
accepted on a service all jockeys of Claytons  family  with  the  fantastic
salary 300 thousands rubles per year.
       The outstanding scientist hippologist prince Sergei Urusov engaged in
controversy against Vorontsov-Dashkov. Urusov considered cross-breeding  as
a medicine not by illness. The only developing of ability to  quick  trot,
as they have made with the trotter in America, - he wrote, - will result  in
quick but narrow, boneless, long-legged horse without rib  and  quite  often
without a back and completely useless in agriculture.  It  is  necessary  to
improve inside the breed. Bad can be born even  from  good  but  never  good
from bad .
           Many years have passed  since  then  and  this  dispute  has  not
finished yet.
           After the death of the count Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1916 his heirs,
going to leave the country, arranged cut-price sale of all horses elite  of
the farm. In Soviet time it became only a  branch  of  state  stud  farm  in
Morshansk.
           By 1918 in Novotomnikovo left only three blooded mares  of  Oryol
breed. Horses were taken from stables both by red and  white.  The  very
nice farm before now it fell to desolation and,  as  the  saying  goes,  the
farm was going. For long time it was existing  only  as  horsing  point,  on
which only a dozen of mares were blissomed per year.
           By a lucky chance among the three left blooded Oryol  dams  there
was the young mare Opora. Later she was bound to play the  outstanding  role
in domestic horse-breeding and to save the  breed  of  Oryol  trotters  from
complete oblivion. In a 1934 she gave birth  to  a  colt  named  Otboy.  His
father was stallion Burelom born in 1927. The Moscow  scientist  hippologist
S. Kalinin liked this streamlined trotter after the  Moscow  races  in  1930
and advised to pay the special attention to him.
           Meanwhile stud farms kept cross-breeding of  Oryol  trot  horses,
what was started before the revolution. Only now  they  cross-breed  blooded
Oryol mares not with American trotters, the state did not give money to  buy
them, but with crossbreeds posterity. At first they were called  american-
oryols, then just Russian  trotters.  They  were  propagated  on  six  stud
farms, mainly on Lavrovsk farm in our region.
      The big work was performing continuously on creating and developing of
that new breed of thrifty trotters. The care for Oryol  trotters  was  paled
into insignificance. The majority of the experts believed  that  this  breed
had reached the limits of the further perfection. And,  as  it  turned  out,
they were wrong.
            Today in stalls of Novotomnikovo stud farm stay the good-lookers
of Oryol breed restored by the efforts of  horse-breeding  enthusiasts.  The
farm  fosterlings  have  reached  friskiness,  which  once  was   considered
possible only for American trotters.  Now  the  Russian  troyka,  made  from
Oryol trotters revives  abroad  as  the  mode.  The  customers  from  abroad
readily buy them in Novotomnikovo.
            One cannot name the work on cross-breeding of Oryol trotter with
American one as reckless step. If due to Oryol  trotter  Russia  gained  the
improved breed of working horses in place of bow-backed hacks  with  bangled
stomachs, then the cross-breeding of Oryol  horse  gave  the  new  breed  of
Russian trotter of distinct sportish type.
           There is no other animal like horse the mankind  is  so  indebted
to. Without the count Aleksei Orlov we would not have Oryol trotters,  which
bring glory to Russia for many years, making an ornament to our  nation.  We
would not receive  a  trotter,  which  is  used  for  breed  improvement  of
trotting horses almost in all countries of Western Europe, and also in  Asia
and America.
           For the revirescence of beautiful Oryol trotter we are obliged to
S. Kasimenko. It was him, who managed the  farm  and  choose  the  dams  for
Burelom. In such selection the ancestry of dams is very important,  down  to
their great-grandfathers and  great-grandmothers  and  even  deeper  into  a
family tree. All their features and qualities are taken  into  account.  All
was clear with Burelom, the son  of  distinguished  Oryol  trotter  Lovchiy.
Maternally his bloodline ascended  to  the  famous  stallion  Zadorniy,  who
brought the first glory to Novotomnikovo farm of Vorontsov-Dashkov. But  the
mare Opora, born even before October revolution, was in declining years  for
horses and seemed to be not a  suitable  bride  for  young  beauty  Burelom.
However Kasimenko took chances. As we mentioned,  stallion  Otboy  was  born
from this unequal march. The careful godfather to him  became  A.  Samoilov,
who replaced Kasimenko in a 1934.
           At first Otboy didnt show anything special  in  posterity.  They
have from him just common  trotters  and  dams  not  distinguished  by  high
friskiness, only their exterior was faultless.
           The farm decided to part with Otboy. He was sent  to  other  stud
farm. And here we should say thanks to A. Popov, who was the head  of  horse
department during the Great Patriotic War. Popov decided to return Otboy  in
Novotomnikovo. But the new head V. Remizov received him  there.  Popov  went
to the front in 1943 and did not come back on farm,  as  well  as  other  36
workers of farm - hostlers, jockeys,  foragers,  tractor  operators,  smiths
didnt return here after war.
           Remizov had been working in Novotomnikovo till 1965, and  in  his
time a new line in breed of Oryol trotter was  born  and  appeared  the  new
branch on his family tree. The grey colt Otklik came into being after  Otboy
and mare Konventsiya on  Zaporozhye  stud  farm  in  1952.  Konventsiya  had
arrived on this farm from Novotomnikovo already pregnant. So all  palms  for
a new line of Oryol trotter belong to the stud farm in Novotomnikovo.
           The posterity of Otklik appeared to  be  marvelously  quick.  The
stallions Vodovorot and Borets ran a mile for two minutes  and  four  tenths
of a second.
       The interest to Oryol trotter has revived today all over  the  world.
Horses from Novotomnikovo have purchased the stud farms  of  Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, China, Germany,  and  Sweden.  All  America  and  Canada  have  got
acquainted with troika of Oryol trotters, where the thiller  was  a  trotter
from Novotomnikovo farm. The millions  of  televiewers  in  these  countries
admired them. Many newspapers of Old and New  World  enthusiastically  wrote
about them.



                            The Lavrovo stud farm



            The Lavrovo stud farm is located in  Mordovian  area  of  Tambov
region and stands out against other  trotting  stud  farms  because  of  the
achievements of its fosterlings.
            Established by the good judge of horses V.P. Voeykov  170  years
ago, the Lavrovo stud farm is one of big fishes of domestic  trotters.  Ii
is the birthplace of the well-known grey Oryol trotter Lebed 5.44  (Atlasniy
- Pobeda), born in1829. He is on the pictures of the artist  N.G.  Sverchkov
and on the tapestry made by bondmaids from  village  Lavrovo.  These  things
are kept in the museum of horse-breeding of TAA.
           Till the end of 80-th the farm in Lavrovo kept the path of cross-
breeding.
           During the civil war the facilities were ruined, the horses  were
plundered. They could save only  one  mare  Margaritka  2.16,1  (Fatalist  -
Binyonia), born in 1918, who later became a founder of dams family  and  was
the great-grandmother of Pervenets 2.00,4. During  the  acquisition  of  the
farm (1922-23) not only Oryol-Americans got  there,  but  also  the  Oryol
trotters.
           Since 1930 all Oryol dams were excluded from Lavrovo  stud  farm.
Together with mares half-breeds, which  were  brought  on  farm  instead  of
Oryol mares, also came the studhorse  Aloisha  2.14,2  (Aloisha  -  Kreolka)
from the line of Peter The Great. There was started the line of Aloisha  and
the line of Trepet  together with  Smolensk  farm.  In  January  1935  from
Aloisha and mare Paguba (the grand daughter of  Peter  The  Great)  appeared
the red stallion Podarok 2.02,1; 3.09,4; 4.17.4  the pride of  Lavrovo  and
the founder of one progressive line in Russian trotter breed.
           The important part in the stud activity of the farm  also  played
then the lines of Iris (through Khorovod,  Khor  Kalinych,  Interes),  Nalim
(through Lunatik  and  Otprysk),  Aksvort  (through  Viktor  Vorti,  Vampir,
Vzriv). The main was the method of cultivation in itself of the horses  of
desirable type using  cross-breeding  and  in-breeding.  The  crossing  with
lines of Aloisha and Gildeets  had  become  one  of  the  bases  of  Lavrovo
complex creation.
           The returned cross-breeding was also applied with Oryol stallions
for the improvement of horses exterior. The Oryol lines in remote  ancestors
are traced in the best horses of the farm.
           Through the Oryol trotter Bunt 2.14.3 (Metsenat - Budushnost) the
lines of Podaga and blooded Boyar  were  enhanced.  The  daughters  of  Bunt
could be met in family trees of  Vasilyok,  Pervenets,  Lazutchik,  Pavodok,
Vopl.
           All-Union prize horse and founder of the line Podarok was  selfed
on Oryol trotters Zadornov and Petushok. His best get:  the  sons  Pervenets
2.00,4, Pryatel 2.03,4, Lazutchik 2.05,6, Park  2.10,4,  Vopl  2.09,2,  Azot
2.06,3, Pereryv 2.07,6; 6.44,6, Lotus 2.09,9 and daughters  Povilika  2.09,3
(the mother of Prologue 2.06),  Aplikatsiya  2.14,7  (the  mother  of  Atlas
2.07,6) and Atmosfera, Podarok gave with dams, who  had  the  similar  Oryol
ancestors.
           Only from Podarok the farm had more than 298 colts. 20 among them
are of class 2.10 and even thriftier. The children of Podarok  have  won  17
international prizes: Priyatel, Pervenets and Lazutchik  5 prizes each  and
Park - 2  prizes.  No  other  stallion  from  our  stud  farms  had  such  a
successful offspring.
           The all-Union records of Podarok were broken only 13 years  later
by his son from Masandra the Derby  racer  Pervenets  2.00,4  ;  3.11,4  ;
4.11,2 ; 6.52,3 who was born in 1949. Podarok also gave from Argentina  the
all-Union prizewinner Pryatel, born in1954 and the  winner  Lazutchik  (from
Lazur); born in1959.
           On Lavrovo stud farm was brought  up  the  all-Union  prizewinner
among two-year trotters Protalinka - 2.13,1 (Lucifer -  Parallel),  born  in
1948. The prize of Protalinka is the standard for two-year trotters.
           During the period before the war on Lavrovo stud farm was created
the type of a trotter distinguished by the harnessry forms,  pedigree,  good
top line, depth, strong dry limbs but which is a little craggy.
           The hybridists of the farm were constantly selecting by the  type
and friskiness.
           The big job of creating the famous trotters on Lavrovo  farm  was
made by zootechnicians Y.N. Sarantsev (1920-1934), A.K. Brinken (the  author
of selection, which gave Podarok),  V.N.  Zhardetskiy,  K.V.  Voskresenskiy,
R.I. Kalinin, who had been working here for 14 years  and  was  one  of  the
founders of line of Podarok. Also he was the author  of  the  farm  plan  of
line breeding in 1976-1975. On the racecourses the trotters of Lavrovo  stud
farm were driven to the victories  by  such  jockeys  as  A.V.  Zotov,  A.A.
Sorokin, N.R. Semichev, M.G. Chudnenko, V.T.  Novikov,  A.P.  Kreydin,  V.Y.
Kochetkov.
           To its 150-year jubilee the farm had 5 Derby trotters. These  are
Pobeditel 2.11,7, Vecher 2.06,7, Arzamas  2.06,4,  Pervenets  2.00,4,  Albom
2.03,9. In 1965 by the number of 2.10 class trotters the Lavrovo  stud  farm
was on the fourth in the country, and on the second  place  in  class  2.05.
The first was the stud farm in Dubrovskiy.
           However, the period of success was followed by the long period of
decline. Mainly it could be  explained  by  the  fact,  that  the  group  of
studhorses didnt have the appropriate  stallions.  Otprysk  2.09,3,  Zheton
2.09,7, Zabiyaka 2.09 could not give a class horse in 60-es.  And  also  the
technology of breeding was inadequate. The horses  were  not  supplied  with
high-grade forages as many natural pastures and the hayfields were  ploughed
up.
           The new progressive stage of selection began  in  1971  with  the
coming of standard breed stallion Low Hanover 1.59 (Bolshoy Star's  Pride  
Lynd Deen). From this outstanding studhorse  the  farm  gained  253  horses.
Among them are: Ligatura 2.04,2, Velonia 2.03,2 r, Lan 2.05 r, Ghilka  2.07,
Leeter 2.04,4 r, List 2.04,9, Vlastnyi Zhest 2.05,5, Alt 2.06, Alzhir  2.07,
Valezhnik 3.12,2 and  other  class  trotters.  Such  intensive  use  of  the
studhorse for the insemination of  mares  with  the  dilute  semen  deserves
attention of the horse-breeding experts.
           The work with Low Hanover allowed to half-complete the dams group
of the farm with his daughters and grand daughters and improve  the  average
frisky parameter of dams on 3,6.
           After the use of Minion 2.11 (Napor  Mudraya Poslovitsa) and Low
Hanover in 60-es, the type  of  Lavrovo  trotters  was  also  changed.  They
became more blooded and dry, lost roughness of a head, became  less  massive
but more vigorous and good-tempered.
           The descendants of Low Hanover showed the high results in a 1983.
His great-grandson Gopak 2.04,2 (Parket - Glubokaya) had  become  the  sixth
derby trotter of the farm when he won  a  Grand  all-Union  prize.  The  Low
Hanovers great-grandson Lepetun 2.07,6 (Parket - Lesostep) won a Big three-
year prize, and grandson Peak 2.03,8  (Kolchedan  -  Programma)  became  the
winner of World international prizes (in Moscow) and Villam  (in  Hungary)
and was the second in the Elite prize.
           On January 1, 1984 195 trotters of 2.10  class  and  more  frisky
(the third place on this parameter after the stud farms  in  Dubrovskoe  and
Elyan) are brought up. 19 of them  are  of  class  2.05  and  friskier.  The
trotters from Lavrovo won 33 international prizes.


    Conditions of creation and growing up of the hippodrome cracks in the
                             Lavrovo stud farm.
                                 Brood work.

           The hybridists from Lavrovo had to work  much  to  transform  the
motley brood structure into  a  valuable  heart  of  the  breed  of  Russian
trotters. Half a century ago the average dams measurements in Lavrovo  were
154,8-154,7-173-19 and met the requirements only of the  second  class.  Now
there are 110 brood mares on the farm. Their measurements meet the  standard
of the breed and make 159,5-162,1-183,3-19,6 cm. Average friskiness  of  the
main dams 2.15,2, of the horsing dams - 2.14,9. Almost all mares  ranked  as
Elite class. With due regard on the farm they look at the growing up of  the
self-repair: the age of more  than  50  %  of  brood  horses  included  in
selection is less than 10 years. The  duly  use  of  young  dams  with  high
friskiness and good measurements, allows to select mares in  time,  both  by
the age and quality of posterity.
           More than half of dams belong to the line  of  Volomait  (through
Low Hanover and Apex Hanover), 22 mares are from the line of Podarok,  14  
from the line of Trepet (through the daughters of Minion and Pavlin),  12  
of Nalim (daughters of Otprysk). There are several  representatives  of  the
lines of Gildeets and Scotland. The related to each  other  mares  form  the
groups. The hybridists from the stud farm try  to  save  the  most  valuable
dams nests.
           According to the selection plan the Lavrovo stud farm works  with
lines of  Podarok,  Volomait,  Aksvort,  Gildeets,  Scotland.  The  line  of
Volomait was successfully developed on the farm through Kolchedan  1.58,8  r
(Low Hanover - Kaleriya), born in 1967, and  also  develops  through  Parket
2.06,2 (Prolog - Prisma), born in 1972. The posterity of Kolchedan has  made
about 180 heads,  including  classy  Peak,  Lokon,  Lukretsiy.  Parket  gave
almost 100 horses. Among them are Gopak, Lepetun, Aprel 2.08.  Zalet  2.04,4
(Lazutchik - Zaletnaya) from the line of Podarok was unsuccessfully used  in
5 seasons, and he is excluded from the mating plan for 1984.
           The  work  with  the  line  of  Gildeets  was  performed  through
Kolokolchik 2.08,6 (Konniy - Kolombina), but he also did not  paid  off  and
work with this line was terminated.
            Two  falls  were  received  from  Grand  2.04,8  r  (Abrikos   -
Gugenotka), born in 1976; the line of Scotland. The youngsters of Grand  are
blooded but had not run on hippodromes yet. In this line the hopes were  set
on the all-Union prizewinner Bubnoviy 3.11,2  (Bill  Hanover  -  Bastiliya),
born in 1977, who just began to procreate offsprings on the farm. More  than
20 mares were selected for him.
           Almost for 10 years the farm had been working with  the  line  of
Nalim through Linkor 2.07,5 (Aprichnik - Lotereya), born in 1971. Though  he
gave Globus from Gubka, Lakolin from Luna, his  use  was  limited  since  he
transmitted to posterity the narrow underjaw. The work with  this  line  was
continued through Kropot  (Charodei  -  Kreolka),  born  in1977.  In  cross-
breedings with the lines of Podarok and Volomait and in remote  in-breedings
with grand daughters of Lunatik for Kropot was appointed 20 mares.
           The main method in selection is the  selection  for  in-breeding,
usually moderate and occasionally  -  close  in-breeding  for  the  test  of
studhorses and dams.
           The wide use  of  the  stallions  of  standard  breeding  is  the
tendency in brood work. The big hopes were set on the use of Blesk, for  who
about 30 mares were picked up. It was desirable for the farm to receive  the
deeply frozen semen of standard bred Repriz and Victorious Speed.
           2-3 months prior to the beginning of a horsing season The Head Of
Horse Department A.  Yakimov,  the  veterinary  by  education,  checked  the
physiological condition of  and young mares. The  horsing  was
conducted under the control of the follicle maturation. It  saves  stallions
and increases the percentage of colt fetation.
           Horse feeding on the stud farm is organized properly. The  sowing
of long-term grasses is enlarged thus improving the fodder base.  After  the
ending of horsing period the dams are constantly on  the  pasture  and  they
are weatherproofed. The stud horses are kept in  stables,  constructed  many
years  ago.  Here  is  used  the  standard  technology  of  growing  up  the
youngsters. Usually they start to gentle the youngsters when  they  reach  1
year.
           The collective of Lavrovo stud farm regularly achieves  the  high
fetation of mares and high youngsters output.
           Experienced jockeys on 6 hippodromes  of  the  country  test  the
trotters from Lavrovo: in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Tallinn, Tambov.



                              The State Stables



       Many sources of dynamic development of the  city  went  back  to  the
first half of the 19th century. Among them was the process of  formation  of
the state stables. It was connected to the  resolving  of  certain  military
strategic problems:  the  Russian  army  needed  strong  and  hardy  horses.
Therefore the problem of the improvement  of  mass  horse-breeding  remained
urgent for many decades.
           The attempts on improvement of horses quality were undertaken in
Russia in 1789-1799,  then  appeared  the  first  state  stables.  In  1836,
according to the decree of  Nikolai  I,  they  returned  to  these  problems
again.
           In Tambov the state stable appeared in 1837 in  northwest  suburb
of the city.
           The ensemble from  two  stone  buildings  and  hospital  for  the
animals  at  the  center  of  internal   courtyard   was   erected   in1848.
Historically, trotters were placed in the white building of the stables  and
heavyweights - in the round one.
           The gate, decorated with a head of a horse connected the foreside
buildings. In ancient times the horse head was a symbol  of  power  for  the
Scythians, and for our recent ancestors it was a symbol of happiness.
           The street along the stable buildings with the lapse of time  got
the name Konyushennaya. The building of the Tambov State stable is not  only
the architectural monument of the first half of 19th century, but  also  the
monument of horse-breeding history of Russia.
           In the system of stud farms the most important part  belonged  to
the hippodromes. The  tests  on  the  hippodrome  were  obligatory  for  the
selection of saddle-horses and trotters. By their results was performed  the
animals  selection  for  breeding:  on  friskiness,  endurance   and   sport
qualities of horses. The Tambov hippodrome was one of  oldest;  it  followed
the stables and appeared in a valley of  Studenets  in  1837.  In  1876  the
racing hippodrome was reconstructed according to the needs of time.
           The construction of stables and hippodrome made active local fans
of horse sport and had formed the basis for the stud farms association.
           Since 1845 the association had been renting the ground  floor  of
Public library (Sovietskaya 114), where the methods of  improvement  of  the
horse-breeding were discussed as  one  of  the  important  branches  of  the
region economy.
           The assemblies nominated prizes for trotters and  racehorses.  In
the competitions participated not only the horses of  landowners,  but  also
the horses from farms. The data on the most interesting  prize-winners  were
given in The  stud  farm  book  of  Russian  trotters  ,  issued  in  St.-
Petersburg in 1892.
           The competitions and races were usually  organized  after  Tambov
horse fairs. They were conducted in June and October of  each  year  on  the
fairground to the north of the stables.
           On Tambov fair they drove the horses from herds  by  the  special
cattle roads; and the dealers bought animals here and sent  them  in  Moscow
and St. Petersburg.
           In the middle of 19th century  up  to  300  horses  of  different
breeds from trotters to draught horses were driven  to  the  fair  from  the
stud farms of the  region.  The  prices  differed  from  30  to  800  rubles
depending  on  the  genuineness.  Full  information  about  the  fairs   was
published in the special editions like The Horse Fairs in Russia.
           Annually in Tambov took place the exhibitions of farm horses  for
agricultural needs. The best  samples  were  awarded  with  the  appropriate
premiums.
           The wars of last and new centuries have  tragically  reduced  the
number of wonderful animals, bred in the  region  by  the  efforts  of  many
generations. The working  conditions  of  Tambov  State  stables  were  also
complicated. Nevertheless, some traditions of  Russian  horse-breeding  were
saved there.
           The history of the soviet period is marked with new  prizewinners
and famous Russian troika.
           Many years the school of horse sports was working in the stables,
where 12-year's old boys and girls were taught the bases of  equitation  and
mainly  the love to this wonderful animals.
           In the soviet period the state stable was often visited by one of
the first marshals of The Union S.M. Budenniy.  The  Tambov  hippodrome  was
named after him.

           Today the live stock of the horses in Tambov region is  decreased
dramatically and this process continues. The  annual  reduction  is  600-800
heads.

      The bibliography:

       .  :    
      //  . - 1992. - 7 . - . 3.

         .             .   -    .:
      ,1988. - 224 .

       .    //    . - 1984.  -
        2. - . 12-15.

       .,  .,  .     -  150
      //    . - 1965. -   3. -  . 15-20.

        .             (   
       ) //    . - 1960.  -  
      9. - . 5-8.



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