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Топики по Английскому языку


Economy in Rassian

The Russian is reach in natural resources in the past few years  the  Russia
try to remove from a centrally controlled economy to a  market  economy.  In
spite  of  decline  Russia  has  various  branches  of  industry,  such   as
metallurgical, automobile and chemical industry. Russia  is  divided  on  11
economic regions such as: North, North  west,  central,  volga,  ural..  And
Asia :West Siberia, East Siberia,  and  the  Far  East.  Russian  s  machine
building industry provides most of the  Federations  requirement  for  steam
boilers and turbines ,electric generators, grain combines,  automobiles  and
electric  locomotives  and  machine  tools,   instruments   and   automation
components.  Important  automobile  factories   are   located   in   Moscow,
Н.Новгород,   Ярославль   Ижевск.Rus.   textile   industries   are   heavily
concentrated in the  European  sector  especially  in  the  central  region.
Russian agriculture is not so developed. But some of the  main  crops  grown
on the South are wheat, fruits,  on  the  North  are  wheat,  barley,  oats,
vegetables. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important  branch  of
R. agricultural. Forests is a very important  branch  for  Russian.  But  in
Rus. can not use the resources more effectively. In Rus.  the  resources  is
sold as the raw materials. It is necessary to employ of  manufacturing.  And
then we will live better.

The Russian Art.
The most important form of early Russian art was the icons.  The  word  icon
means image in Greek. Icon is the religious pictures of  Christ  and  Saints
on wooden panel. They decorated churches, mostly placed on the  iconostasis.
In Russia the finest icons were produced from the midforteenth  century.  In
that time a specific national style icon painting was formed.  Russian  icon
painting reached the highest point  of  its  achievement  in  the  works  of
Theothan Greek, Andrey Rublev and Dionissy in  the  mid-15  century.  Andrey
Rublev is a Russian greatest iconpainter. In 1408  he  was  engaged  on  the
murals in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Vladimir when he also  produced
his version of the icon of Vladimirs Virgin. And well known  cuch  icons  as
Спас and Троица which was found in Vladimir.  A.R.s  icons  is  expressed  a
distinct filling of harmony, deep spirituality, grace and the beauty of  the
colors. Rs works is one  of  the  greatest  creations  of  medieval  Russian
painting.   Intimate [intimeit] намекать,  Severe[sivie]  строгий,  Distinct
[distinkt] отличный, тчетливый.  Creations  [krieishn]  создание,  творение.
In the2th half of 19th  century  artists  of  the  Wanderers  group  started
painting scenes of contemporary life. Vasiliy Perov, Ivan Kramskoy,  Aleksey
Savrasov,Ivan Shishkin, Valentin Serov and Vasiliy Surikov  were  wanderers.
The works of Wonderes are displayed in the  famous  picture  galleries:  the
Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow,the  Russian  Museum  in  St.  Petersburg.  They
called themselves the  Wanderers,  because  they  wanted  to  realize  their
ideals by taking wondering exibitions  tthroughout  the  country.  The  most
clear represenative of Wonderers in my opinion  was  Vasiliy  Surikov.[1848-
1916]. He was the first of the W. Hewas born in Krasnojarsk  in  Siberia.His
masterpiece  was the Боярыня Морозова. [1887] Its an enormous  painting-both
in size and scale. A decorative surface rhythm and  strong  horizontals  are
other eharacteirctics common to Russian art, both ancient  and  modern,  and
like wise first recovered in the work of Surikov.

The English Art.
The 18th century , the Golden Age of British Art. The 18th   century  ,  the
great age of British painting. It  was  in  this  period  that  British  art
attained a distinct national character. Hogarth was followed  by  a  row  of
illustrious painters: Thomas  Gainsborough,  with  his  lyrical  landscapes,
funcy  pictures  and  portraits,  Reynolds,  who  painted  charming  society
portraits  and  became  the  first   president   of   the   Royal   Academy.
William Hogarth was unquestionably one of the greatest  of  English  artists
and a man of  remarkably individual character  and  thought  .  It  was  his
achievement  to  give  a  comprehensive  view  of  social  life  within  the
framework of moralistic and framatic narrative.
His masterpiece of the famous series was Marriage a la Mode .  This  set  of
pictures describes a marriage between the daughter  of  a  rich  man  and  a
young lord, the son of an old earl. The Girls father has brought a bag  full
of money with him. Their children are together but apart: the young  man  is
watching himself in the glass; the girl is listening to a young  Counsellor.
The pictures round the room help understund the situation.  In  one  of  the
pictures Madam sits listening to the young Consellor, whose  portrait  hangs
in her room. Other pictures in the series show My Lord  who  amuses  himself
with a bad company. He  returns  home  tipsy.  Madam  wastes  her  money  at
auctions. The end is known. My Lord attacks the Counsellor,  who  kills  him
and is executed. Moral: do not listen to counsellors; dont marry a  man  for
his rank, or a woman for her money; dont  visit  auctions  unknown  to  your
husband; dont have bad friends. Otherwise you will be ruined.
From the 18 century portrait painting,eit


Mass media

The most popular sources of entertainment and  information  are  the  press,
radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important  part  in  the  life  of
society. Millions of Americans in  their  free  time  read  newspapers.  The
English word ‘newspaper’ does not really. Describe everything that  you  can
read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories  about
recent events (news), but opinions, advertising, and other  non-news  items.
The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign  and
Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690.  Now  there  are
about 2,600 newspapers published  in  the  USA.  The  New  York  Times,  the
Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the  most  important
daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news.  The  radio  does  not
interfere with your activities. You can listen  to  the  radio  while  doing
some work about the house, reading a book or driving a  car.  On  the  radio
one can hear music, plays, news, and different  commentary  and  discussions
called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange  views  on  social,
economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of  the  American  radio
is soap opera. It is a sentimental  serial  drama  that  describes  domestic
problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast  every
day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate a lot  of  games  on  the
radio. They are  called  ‘panel  games’.  Radio  brings  also  cultural  and
educational  programs.  Many  programs  are  made  up  of  classical  music.
Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many  serials  on
TV in the USA. They appeared  in  the  1950s.  TV  games-  attract  a  large
audience,  too.  During  TV  quiz  programs  TV  viewers  answer   different
questions. There is a lot of education on television. For example,  you  can
take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking  and  in
many other subjects, or learn a  foreign  language  by  TV.  Educational  TV
films and programs are shown in schools  and  colleges  as  a  part  of  the
curriculum.




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