(Looking for cultural roots of Americans)


TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGE
                            OF NABEREZHNYE CHELNY



                                   REPORT:


                  LOOKING FOR CULTURAL ROOTS OF AMERICANS.



                                                        WRITTEN BY A STUDENT
                                                               OF GROUP #002
                                                          VICTOR KOUZNETSOFF



                           NABEREZHNYE CHELNY 2002
The plan.
Introduction
First impressions while in the USA
Modern American is an ancestor of the frontiersman.
American paradoxes
Why do I like them anyway.



                         LOOKING FOR CULTURAL ROOTS.

                               1. introduction

    All societies must provide for the basic human needs of their members.
These include food, clothing, shelter, family organization, social
organization, government, security, belief system or religion, and
education. How a society provides for these needs depends on the geography
(climate), resources, and history of the society. Different cultural values
develop in different societies because of the variations in these factors
and how the people view them.
    In order to understand why people behave as they do, it is necessary to
look at their geographical location and the historical events that have
shaped them as a group. Because the history of the USA is rather short
(relatively to most of the world), some of these influences are fairly easy
to understand.

2. First impressions while in the USA

    Some visitors to the USA remain permanently baffled [about America and
Americans]. With despair  and accuracy they point out endless paradoxes in
the typical American. Friendly on the surface, but hard to know intimately.
Hospitable and generous socially, but hard-driving and competitive
professionally. Self-satisfied, at times, to the point of smugness but self-
critical, at other times, to the point of masochism. And so on.
    They find the regional diversity of Americans confusing, too. What on
earth, they ask, can a Maine lobsterman have in common with a Dallas
banker, a West Virginia coal miner, a Hollywood producer, a Montana sheep-
herder, or a black school-teacher on a South Carolina sea-island? And they
give themselves a bleak and hopeless answer; not much.
    But that answer is almost certainly wrong; these people share the
mysterious and powerful intangible called nationality. They are all
Americans and, however faint, a common denominator is there, an almost
invisible strand woven out of common history, a common heritage and,
underneath the surface differences, a common way of looking at things.

3. Modern American is an ancestor of the frontiersman.

    People never really escape from their origins. So, to understand an
American you should focus for a moment not on the modern American, but on
his ancestor, the 17th  century settler who, having survived the grim
Atlantic crossing, found himself with his back to the sea facing a vast and
hostile wilderness that had to be tamed and conquered if he was to survive.
conquer it he and his descendants did, in a struggle so epic that its
memory lingers on in countless Western movies. Many of the basic attitudes
and characteristics formed in that struggle persist in Americans today. You
may find some admirable, and others less so. The point is, they are.
    Everywhere he looked, that early American was surrounded by problems.
To this day, by tradition, by training  almost by instinct  Americans are
problem solvers and solution seekers. In some parts of the world,
uncomfortable or unpleasant circumstances are endured because they have
always been there and people see no alternative. To an American, a problem
is not something to be accepted; it is something to be attacked.
Adaptability, ingenuity, raw physical energy  these made up the
frontiersmans survival kit. To these qualities his descendants have added
enormous confidence in their technology and a kind of invincible optimism.
No matter what the obstacles, whether they set out to conquer polio or land
a man on the moon, Americans are convinced that initiative, intelligent
planning, and hard work will bring about the desired condition sooner or
later.
    A problem-solver is an achiever, and you will notice that once how
greatly Americans respect and value achievement (they have even invented a
whole industry called public relations to make sure that achievement
doesnt go unrecognized.) They are happiest when accomplishment can be
measured specifically. A businessman wants his charts and graphs kept
rigorously up-to-date. A book tends to be judged by the numbers of copies
it sells. In sports, Americans obsession with statistics often amazes non-
Americans. No fuzzy theory here; no guesswork. The American wants to know
exactly who is achieving what  and if he cant measure it hes inclined to
wonder if its any good.
    To be an achiever, one must be a do-er, and it will soon be apparent to
youthat Americans are much better at doing that at merely being. In fact,
youll notice that if theyre deprived of doing for very long, they become
miserable. Some Americans grumble about their jobs, but the truth is most
of them think they should work hard and most of them like to work. It is
this national characteristic more than natural resources or any other
factor  that has made the USA so productive. In modern American life, the
non-worker is regarded with a certain scorn based, perhaps, on the
conviction that in pioneer days he would not have survived.
    These attitudes have produced a highly kinetic society, full of
movement and constant change. If youre accustomed to a more leisurely
pace, you may find the American tempo exhausting. Or you may find it
exhilarating. Most Americans enjoy it; its a high compliment when they say
of a person, He has a lot of drive, or He knows how to get things done.
Almost invariably, the 1st question an American asks about a newcomer or
stranger is, What does he do? Hes interested primarily in the persons
main achievement, his work or his impact on his environment, not his
personal philosophy or inner world.
    Restless and rootless, the frontiersman had no time to be philosopher
or a theoretician, and his descendants still take a pragmatic and
straightforward view of the world. you may feel that Americans are much
more concerned with material than with spiritual things. Youre probable
right. Religion is woven into the fabric of American life but most people
have little taste for metaphysics. Man is seen not so much as a passive
part of the schemes of things, but as a re-arranger of that scheme. When
the pioneer needed a waterwheel for a grist-mill, he built one, and his
great-grandchildren still have a unique genius for inventing machines that
can dominate or subdue their environment. Americans think nothing of moving
mountains, if the mountains are in their way. They simply combine their own
optimism and energy with unlimited mechanical horsepower and push.
    Until recently, its true, Americans have been prodigal with natural
resources, because they seemed to be limitless, and careless about ecology,
because the traditional American way was simple to move on when an area had
been exploited. Now they are beginning to realize that its better to
cooperate with nature than try to overwhelm it. A European or Asian could
have told the Americans this long ago, but he would not have listened. He
learns more quickly from his own mistakes than from the accumulated wisdom
of the past.
    Regardless of where you come from, it will seem to you that the
American is usually in a hurry. Because of this, he is extremely time-
conscious. He has a strict sense of punctuality and hates to waste time by
being late or having others late for appointments. If you ask an Englishman
or a Frenchman how far it is from London to Paris, youll get an answer in
miles or kilometers. Ask an American and hell probably tell you in hours
with his calculation based on the fastest available mode of transport.
    Partly because of this time-obsessions, Americans are impatient with
ceremony, which is time-consuming, and with protocol, which they view with
suspicion as a dubious relic of monarchist days when they were rigid social
distinctions between people. Americans are taught from the cradle that all
men created equal, a phrase enshrined in their Declaration of
Independence. They dont really believe that this is true in terms of
ability, but they accept it politically. One man, one vote, with the will
of the majority prevailing and the rights of minorities  safeguarded. This
is the Americans political ideal, and it puzzles him greatly when it is
not accepted or admired abroad.
    In everyday live, in a kind of a tacit acknowledgement of this official
egalitarianism, Americans tend to be informal, in most parts of the country
breezily so. Visitors from abroad are often astonished to hear secretaries
in American offices call their employers by their first names. The American
is also gregarious; he likes to join clubs or other organizations where the
backgrounds  and thought-patterns of other members do not differ too much
from his own. He is likely to have friendships compartmentalized; those he
sees only at social gatherings. He enjoys the companionship of such
friends, but doesnt offer  or expect to receive  deep intimacy or total
commitment. The rapid pace and enormous mobility of American society make
lifelong friendship difficult, although in small towns and settled
communities they do exist.
    Some visitors to the USA say that the thing they miss most of all is
the emotional support that comes from close, sharing friendships. When a
Spaniard or Greek or Brazilian has some acute personal problem, he turns to
his best friend. An American is more likely to turn to psychologist, or a
marriage counselor. Americans have great faith in the expert, a
reflection of their conviction that specialized training and knowledge make
problem-solving quicker and produce better solutions. Most old societies
are firmly rooted in tradition. You will find that, while they often have a
sentimental attachment to the past, Americans are not true traditionalists.
To the forward-looking American, established ways are not necessarily best.
Unless your visit takes you to older parts of the country  New England or
the Deep South  youll probable find that people regard adaptability as
more important than conformity with ancestral ways and customs.
    In many countries, persons tend to think of themselves primarily as a
member of a group, or community, or sect, or a clan. The American sees
himself as an individual, and this individualism makes him wary of
authority in any form. He will accept military discipline in wartime, but
only reluctantly. He believes in maintaining law and order, but he also
believes that he is the best judge of what is good for him. In recent years
he has been forced to the conclusion that only centralized government can
deal with certain massive social problems. But his basic concept of
government remains unshaken; that the State exists to serve him, not the
other way round

4. American paradoxes

Yes, American life is full of paradoxes. Its people and culture, values and
beliefs are often seen as contradictory and at times even absurd. But like
all impressions of a nation or people, popular perceptions do not always
match to the day-to-day reality. Here are some of the paradoxes that you
can meet in the US.
Americans are fiercely individualistic. It may seem that everyone has an
opinion, whether they are informed about the subject or not. The every man
for himself attitude is much a part of the American mentality. Americans
place great value on the individual. They believe that individuals are
solely responsible for their success and failures in life and that they
should earn their own way.  Due to this belief, you may see that
individual achievements are often measured by ones ability to accumulate
material things, rather than the quality or strength of ones character.
You will also hear arguments in support of individual rights over the
community good. And, even though Americans tend to be very generous in some
situations, many of them are not supportive of national programs where they
think that healthy, able-bodied people might not have to work for their
benefits. Americans are extremely patriotic. The have taken great pride in
their nations accomplishments and in being as the best or the 1st.
whether it to be in national wealth, discoveries or inventions,
technological feats, or sport. National symbol such as the raising of the
flag, the pledge of allegiance and singing the countrys national anthem
are rituals routinely made part of public life.
However, despite their fervent nationalism and love of country, only about
half of the Americans vote in political elections. In the 1992 presidential
elections that elected Bill Clinton, only 55% of eligible Americans voted,
which was the largest voter turnout since 1968, when 61% of citizens voted
for president. Many Americans dont see voting as a duty but do consider it
a right. While immensely patriotic, the are suspicious of government,
distrust politicians and dont see voting doing much to significantly
impact their everyday lives.
Self-absorbed in their own particular work and activities, most Americans
have limited knowledge even about their own country.
Americans have an extremely organized approach to recreation and leisure
activities. Their weekends and vocations are prepared and managed like any
other work while shopping and watching television consume much of their
leisure time.
In a nation where shopping is considered a leisure activity, Americans are
quite proud of the their purchasing power. The popular slogan shop until
you drop reflects the pattern of Americans going to shopping malls filled
with every imaginable consumer good and looking for the best deal. The
variety of goods and services available to the average American consumer is
staggering.
If one didnt know better, one would think that all Americans are rich and
can purchase anything that please them. But this is hardly the case. The
number of Americans living in poverty is more than 14%, while close to one
third of Blacks are poor. Americans are faced with walking by the growing
number of homeless people who they see on the streets.
Crime has become a result of poverty, drug trafficking and an assortment of
social problems that only seem to grow in number each year. While crime was
once the scourge of urban America, it has now become a major concern for
suburban and rural America as well. Millions of citizens own guns, and it
is reported that deaths by guns may soon be higher than the rate of
Americans who die each year in accidents. While the US has the largest
prison population in the world, little has been done to stop the
proliferation of lawfully owned guns among Americans who staunchly defend
the right to bear arms that is guaranteed by the US constitution.

5. Why do I like them anyway.

Despite the many serious problems they face, most Americans are optimistic
people. They have great faith in the future and believe that the future
will always be brighter.
Although they are often self-critical people, their criticism is seen as a
method by which the continue to create a better future for themselves. They
have traditionally thought that things can be fixed and will always get
better for the future generations. They place great faith in technology and
its ability to improve the lives of people.



                                   SOURCES
How to Understand Those Mystifying Americans by Arthur Gordon.
Introduction to the USA  student workbook.  1993, 1994 by YFU Washington,
DC, USA.



" (Looking for cultural roots of Americans) "