Internet


                                Introduction.

One of the  main  differences  of  the  Internet  from  all  rest,  that  is
connected to computers, is that for successful work with it(him),  generally
speaking, it is  not  necessary  of  any  books.  Internet  can  serve  both
directory, and tutorial, and encyclopedia itself.  However  on  the  initial
stage, as it seems, the advantage(benefit) of the book,  distinctly  and  is
accessible of a stating basis, can be rather significant. Such book  I  also
have tried to write. But before you will  get  acquainted  to  it(her)  more
close, let's try to answer on the most important question, which,  probably,
you already set to yourselves:
The Internet: that it, at last, such
More or less scientific definition of the  Internet,  which  the  books  and
clauses on this subject are filled, certainly with, have the value. But  the
most simple explanation suffices for our purposes while: the Internet  is  a
set   of   computers   connected   with   each   other   by   channels    of
communication(connection), plus a set  of  standard  rules,  on  which  they
exchange by the information.  Thus  channels  of  communication(connection),
perhaps, even are less important, than rule of data transfer on them,  named
in the Internet by the protocols. If even two computers cooperate on one  of
such protocols is already present Internet.
The invention and the perfection of modems - special  devices  allowing  the
computer to send the information on the phone, - has  opened  doors  in  the
Internet to huge quantity(amount) of the people, at which  is  not  present.
Any special network equipment, and  there  is  only  personal  computer  and
telephone socket nearby.
Both Internet, and the modems for personal computers  exist  already  rather
long. However only at all for a long time - about 1990 -  the  Internet  has
typed(collected), at  last  critical  weight  of  the  users  and  resources
necessary for network revolution, occurring  on  our  eyes.  The  high-speed
modems allowing the usual users of personal computers  without  restrictions
to enjoy by all boons of the Internet, have appeared  even  later.  And  the
system World Wide Web (WWW, or "World wide  web"),  invented  in  1993  and
former  firstly  only  by  one  of  many  components  of  a   network,   has
borrowed(occupied) a leading position and  began  to  define(determine)  the
person of the Internet literally in last years -  two.  By  and  large,  the
world Internet boom now in the  heat - and very much was  lucky(carried)  to
you, that you were not late almost to the beginning of performance.
The Internet is, first of all huge set  of  computers  and  programs.  Among
last you will find not only such, which are able well to decide(solve)  your
concrete tasks, but also  is  greater  such,  whose  abilities  it  will  be
firstly complex(firstly difficult) even to present  to  you,  probably.  The
Internet connection gives you a unique opportunity, what imperfect was  your
computer to have a look per the twenty first century  and  independently  to
accustom with such concepts, as  world cyber  social  ,   virtual  money
,  information environment(Wednesday) habitation. Item, - word, with  all
of subjects, about what so love to write now journalists.
However it only part of the answer on a question  that  such  the  Internet
. The Internet today is not only huge quantity(amount)  of  computers,  but
also the improbable quantity(amount) of the people, for which network is  an
essentially new way of dialogue  almost  not  having  of  analogues  in  the
material world. The man - essence social, and dialogue with  itself  similar
- one of his(its) first needs(requirements). Perhaps,  till  now  still  any
technical invention (short of the telephone) does not make  such  revolution
in this ancient as the world employment(occupation) - dialogue  of  the  man
with the man.
Certainly, what exactly will interest you in the Internet  first  of  all  -
people or computers, - depends only on you.  The  ancient  metaphor  of  the
book as models  of world, perhaps, deserves reconsideration - now on a  role
of such model computer approaches much better. When the  speech  goes  about
millions computers and their users  all  over  the  world,  connected  in  a
uniform network, the metaphor this already ceases be simply  metaphor.  That
is why by exaggeration will not tell, that, leave in the  Internet,  you  do
(make) for yourselves accessible the whole world.
1. Basic protocols in Internet and search in them.

Internet contains vast quantity (amount) of  the  information,  on  this  in
it(him) it is difficult to find that that is necessary if not to know  where
to search. The place of  a  presence(finding)  (or  address)  each  resource
defines(determines) it(him) URL. In URL the type of the protocol  indicating
on what server contains  the  access  is  carried  out:  on  WWW  (on  which
specifies recording: http), Gopher, ftp, telnet,  or  WAIS,  it  depends  on
that what type of the information you will transfer. The network protocol  -
set of the precisely certain rules: how to request, to make out and to  send
on a network the given version of the information
telnet
Millions computers are joined(attached) to a network Internet and many  from
them have interesting opportunities.
It appears, is quite feasible to reach these computers  to  look  databases,
available in them, and  programs.  The  special  program  telnet  allows  to
transform your computer into  the  client  telnet  for  a  data  access  and
programs in numerous servers telnet. For example  researcher  regularly  can
work on several computers, which managers  nominate  to  it(him)  a  special
name and password.
In itself telnet - the communication facility is simple; neither any of  the
own interface, nor opportunities of search it(he) does not give.
Having contacted the  help  telnet  with  the  removed  machine  and  having
entered in a  field  of  search  the  entrance  name  (login)  and  password
(password) you communicate with this machine  and  programs  on  further  to
it(her), and telnet cares only of maintenance  of  communication(connection)
between you.
Certainly, many  storehouses  of  the  information,  which  were  originally
served by the special programs with access on telnet now it is  possible  to
transfer(translate) on WWW, that  not  seldom  and  is  done(made).  However
there were also such which on  former  give  the  services  only  on  telnet
(especially among the catalogues and information services of libraries).
Standard the link on telnet connection with some site  Internet  (i.e.  URL-
the address of this connection) looks so:
telnet: // < the address of the server >
FTP
Practically information is stored(kept) in the computer world as  files.  On
this for itself  Internet the special means for an exchange of files  on
a network - network protocol FTP (File Transfer Protocol) has appeared.
The quantity(amount) of files accessible on sites of all world on  anonymous
FTP is measured in astronomical figures and constantly grows.  Besides  Word
Wide Web allows without any alteration existing FTP of archives,  to  supply
with their descriptions of any degree of  detail  and  convenient  hypertext
interface.
But how to learn(find out) where to address in  searches  of  the  necessary
file?
Archie.
The search on a name of a file on all anonymous FTP-sites of the  world  can
be carried out with the help of system Archie. She(it) is developed  by  the
several programmers from university  Magellan  in  Canada  and  carries  out
indexation of stations FTP, showing files, accessible in  everyone  station.
Archie  informs  several  millions  files  taking  place  in  more  thousand
stations FTP, and gives a surprisingly fast way of  search  of  that  place,
where it is necessary to be directed for reception of  a  file,  interesting
for you. The search in a database of the server  Archie  is  made  with  the
help of keywords, which in this case represent  simply  names  of  files  or
fragments of names.
Now Archie is accessible through WWW. It WWW page with  the  form  in  which
the keywords and options of search are specified.
Though the name of a file almost always has a certain attitude(relation)  to
his(its) contents, to use Archie for thematic search of  the  programs  does
not cost. This system will be useful, if you  really  know  a  name  of  the
necessary file or part of a name. On the other hand if you  search  for  the
program, which has the standard reduced name, that is some probability  that
this reduction will be present and at a name of a file, so  it  is  possible
to try to find such file  with  the  help  Archie.  The  results  of  search
represent the list of FTP-sites and complete names of files on these  sites.
The name of a file serves the link to this file, so  the  click  on  a  name
will allow at once receiving a file from  the  given  site.  And  domes  the
address of FTP-archive allocated by a large greasy font  will  transfer  you
to the initial catalogue of file system on this archive.
Archie the list into  the  list  into  the  list  into  the  list  into  the
reception.
URL-address indicating FTP-connection, owes, as a minimum to include a  word
ftp as the left part and address of the site in right:
ftp: // < the address of the server >.
WAIS
 Almost all information resources Internet give an opportunity of  automatic
search, but only in one of them - in  system  WAIS  (Wide  Area  Information
Server, global information server)  -  the  keyword  search,  is  the  basic
method of access to the information.
The system WAIS represents the huge  distributed(allocated)  database,  i.e.
the separate parts of this database are  located  on  different  net  points
worldwide. The program - client for work with servers WAIS not only is  able
to communicate with them under the special protocol, but also  stores(keeps)
the list  of  all  databases  WAIS  with  their  addresses  and  names,  and
sometimes and with the brief descriptions. There  it  is  possible  to  find
archives of news, every possible  catalogues,  directories,  collections  of
scientific clauses and abstracts, indexes and much another. Practically  any
information, for which the database is the convenient form  by  performances
which is interesting enough to a wide audience, can be submitted in WAIS.
The database WAIS is so great, that idle  time  of  recordings  -  extremely
unpromising way of access to the information. Therefore in WAIS  the  rather
complex(difficult) method of keyword search  and  phrases  is  applied.  The
documents received as a result of search, are sorted by the  WAIS-server  by
quantity(amount) of entry in them of keywords and on, as far as is  complete
in each of them all set of the ordered keywords is  submitted.  Such  system
is capable to give good results, is especial if to break process  of  search
at some stages.
The first stage of search usually is the search special in a database  under
the name directory-of-servers, which  contains  small  on  volume  of  the
description (abstracts) of all other  bases  WAIS.  Thus  it  is  better  to
specify not those keywords,  which  at  the  end  interest  you,  and  those
general(common) concepts concerning your field of knowledge.
Having chosen on the first stage of one or several bases, it is possible  to
begin search actually of documents - that also it is  possible  to  do(make)
in some calls,  getting  acquainted  after  each  search  with  results  and
changing the list of keywords, the necessary  document  will  not  be  found
yet. Besides WAIS has one useful property: if at the next  stage  of  search
you have found the document, which contents are especially  close  that  you
search, it(he) can be added to  the  list  of  the  relevant  documents.  In
result at the following  stage  WAIS  will  find  the  documents,  not  only
containing a set of your  keywords,  but  also  similar  on  the  dictionary
structure on those texts, which you have specified as most suitable.
Though Netscape is capable to work  with  servers  WAIS,  for  this  purpose
it(he) should know the address of the special proxy for the  protocol  WAIS,
of which your provider can not  appear.  The  special  WAIS-clients  working
including under Windows, not  only  convenient  for  interactive  search  in
databases,  but  also  allows  to  manage  services  any  of  the  server  
intermediary.
URL-address for WAIS looks as:
wais: // < the address of the server > / < the name of base >
Gopher
Each of the considered till now Internet  protocols  quite  could  exist  in
itself: telnet gives access to the programs, FTP  -  to  files,  WAIS  -  to
databases.  All  these  systems   were   created   both   developed   almost
independently from each other and put before itself the concrete  purpose  -
to construct the mechanism of access to one certain kind of resources.
However as Internet of dews  also  became  complicated,  it(he)  pushed  the
people to an idea, that the information on a nature is uniform and what  not
too reasonably to divide her(it) on different  kinds of  resources    with
unlike methods of access. By the end of  80-s'  years  the  idea  of  a  new
universal remedy of work with the diverse information was carried in air.
The first system called to  embody  for  life  these  dreams  began  Gopher,
appeared on light 1991  at  the  American  university  of  state  Minnesota.
Fundamental concept incorporated in its(her) basis  was  structure  enclosed
each other menu.
Having communicated Gopher- by the client with one  of  Gopher-servers,  you
first of all get in the root, main menu of this server. Having  oriented  in
his(its) contents and passing further from one submenu  in  another,  it  is
possible to engage actually in search of the  information.  The  information
in system Gopher is organized strictly hierarchically, from the general  to
the particular. On each step the server sends yours  Gopher  -  client  not
only contents of the next menu,  but  also  service  information  on,  where
there are objects appropriate to items it the menu. The  client  deduces  on
the screen only transfer of items,  but  when  you  choose  one  from  them,
it(he), having verified with the information, available at him(it), or  will
send on any of Gopher - servers search about distribution of  the  following
of the menu, or will try to establish FTP- or telnet- connection  with  some
site Internet.
Obviously from all information tools Internet Gopher most of all is  similar
on WWW - both these systems are called  to  serve  the  shell  with  diverse
resources. However Gopher is deprived of those rich representational  means,
which do(make) WWW not only information catalogue, but also new  mass  media
and even by a new genre of art. It is  possible  to  tell,  that  Gopher  is
subset WWW - that very much simplifies integration itself  Gopher  as  one
of kinds of resources in WWW. Practically all that is told about  work  with
Gopher - by the client fairly and for travel on system Gopher with the  help
of a browser WWW.
URL of one the menu consists of items Gopher -  from  addresses  Gopher-  of
the server and listed those items of the menu,  which  will  result  you  in
initial item:
gopher: // < the address of the server > / < item of the menu >
WWW
In spite of the fact that per the first years of the  existence  Gopher  has
won the large popularity, the need in any became ripe  more  simple  and  in
too time to maximum universal  system,  in  which  communication(connection)
between resources would be  more  free  and  associative.  Such  system  was
developed in 1993 and is named World Wide Web (WWW). System WWW to be  under
construction on concept of a hypertext, or, is exacter than hypermedia.  The
hypertext is a text of which component are connected with each other and  to
other texts with the help of the links. The hypermedia  is  that  that  will
turn out from a hypertext if  to  replace  in  his(its)  definition  a  word
text on  any kinds of the  information  :  the  graphic  images,  video,
sound etc.
World Wide Web world wide web means literally. Why she(it)  so  refers  to
as. As it is clear from the name, she(it) is global. You not always know  in
what part of light there is a computer, to which you are connected. You  can
begin to read page Web in Dallas, then to proceed(pass)  in  Australia,  and
all this on one pressing of the button of the mouse. WWW  is  similar  to  a
web. It is a complex(difficult) information network connected hypermedia  by
communications(connections). WWW allows to not refuse information  resources
already saved in Internet, other means, accessible with  the  help,  -  FTP,
telnet and Gopher. It is more than  that,  the  work  with  these  resources
through WWW is so convenient, that, say, FTP-clients, former at one time  by
separate class of the programs, now are used only by few.
And nevertheless main in World Wide Web is not convenience of access to FTP-
 of archive and Gopher-menu. The majority of servers  of  system  WWW  offer
the information, which without WWW hardly in general when or would get in  a
network.  Speed  of  creation  and  updating,  the   rich   representational
opportunities in a combination to ease of  access  and  huge  audience  have
made WWW by new mass media. The start WWW-servers and creation of  WWW-pages
already has turned of a style to new business - with all  that  is  peculiar
to modern business: by a payment for square centimeters of  the  advertising
area.
On the other hand, the fast distribution  of  system  so  naturally  uniting
diverse resources, was promoted not in the last instance by its(her)  origin
not in  of a business  concern,  and  in  scientific  establishment  -
European laboratory of physics of particles, which employees did  not  begin
to do(make) of secrets of the development and  have  not  tried  at  all  on
it(her) to grow rich.
Fortunately, nature WWW as first of all means of search and organization  of
the information allows to hope, that this remarkable invention to  not  turn
to the tool of only one commerce and advertising.
The servers and clients WWW communicate among themselves under  the  special
protocol HTTP (Hyper Transfer Protocol, hypertext  transfer  protocol).  URL
for WWW looks as:
http: // < the address of the server >

To pass from one page Web to another - an interesting way of research  World
Wide Web, however you early or late need to  find  something  concrete.  But
thus it to make it will be not  possible.  In  Internet  there  are  special
tools of Web-search.

Tools of search in WWW.

 Tools of search of the information in Internet,  constructed  on  different
principles and pursuing the different purpose, exists much. But  all  unites
them that they settle down on  the  specially  allocated  network  computers
with powerful channels  of  communication(connection),  serve  every  minute
huge quantity(amount) of the visitors and require(demand) of the  owners  of
significant expenses on support and updating. Nevertheless,  almost  all  of
them respond on searches  of  the  users  completely  ,  and  the
sponsors and advertisers pay for this pleasure. On scales  of  influence  on
network community of retrieval  systems,  undoubtedly,  are  one  of  corner
stones Internet.
The classification of retrieval systems is more convenient for building  all
on the basis of on the tax and processing of the information  given  to  the
users, - or else how many  is  automated  in  them,  who  types(collects)  a
database, in which the search is made: the people or computers.
2. Tools of search
Conditionally tools of search are subdivided into search  means  of  a  help
type  (directories)  and  retrieval  systems  in  the  pure  state   (search
engines).
2.1 Thematic catalogues
The search tools of the first type  name  subject,  or  thematic  catalogues
more often. The company owning such catalogue,  continuously  conducts  huge
work, investigating, describing, cataloguing and displaying on  half-glasses
contents of WWW-servers and other  network  resources  scattered  worldwide.
Result her(it) titanium of efforts is the  constantly  updated  hierarchical
catalogue, at the top level the most  general(common)  categories,  such  as
business are assembled, "science", "art" etc., and the elements  of  the
lowermost level  represent  the  links  to  separate  WWW-pages  and  server
together with the brief description of their contents.
Guarantees that such catalogue really covers all contents WWW,  nobody  will
give, however possible(probable)  not  the  completeness  and  selection  of
materials is with interest expiated there, that for the  present  not  under
force to any computer - intelligence of selection.
The subject catalogues give also  opportunity  of  keyword  search.  However
search this occurs not in  contents  of  WWW-servers,  and  in  their  brief
descriptions stored(kept) in the catalogue.
The subject catalogues Internet can be  counted  literally  on  fingers,  as
their creation and support require(demand)  huge  expenses.  To  most  known
concern Yahoo, WWW Virtual Library, Galaxy and some other.
Yahoo.
Is most popular in the population  Internet  the  catalogue  Yahoo.  On  the
first page Yahoo, located to the address http://www.yahoo.com,  you  receive
access to two basic method of work with the catalogue - keyword  search  and
hierarchical tree of sections.
Having begun descent(release) on sections of the catalogue,  you  will  see,
that each section contains the precisely same field for  input  of  keywords
and button Search, starting search.
Each section can include as transfer included in him(it) and actually  links
to pages concerning at once all section, with their brief descriptions.
Instead of travel you can  at  once  get  in  the  necessary  place  of  the
catalogue Yahoo with the help of  search.  Having  entered  one  or  several
keywords divided(shared) by blanks, in a line of search and  having  pressed
the button Search, you receive the list all in  Yahoo,  that  comprises  the
specified keywords. This list will  be  divided(shared)  into  two  parts  -
categories and sites.
If total of the links returned as a result of search, exceeds 25,  the  list
of the links will be broken on some parts.

Magellan.
But not seldom happens so, that the list, given out by the machine, is  very
great and to see (overlook) it(him) simply not really. An output(exit)  from
this situation can become stricter selection of the information  brought  in
the catalogue. One of most known such systems - catalogue  Magellan  to  the
address: http: // www.mckinley.com
This database contains the items of information on 80 thousand  WWW-pages  -
that very much not much in comparison with those in  millions,  which  exist
in a network. However if Yahoo as the description of a resource uses  one  -
two lines of the text, the employees of system Magellan  on  some  of  pages
brought in their database,  write  the  small  reviews,  and  also  estimate
quality of these information resources  on  a  five-mark  scale.  Till  past
bases of the reviews, Magellan owns as an own automatic  index,  for  search
in which it is necessary to throw the switch under a field  of  input  in  a
rule(situation) entire database.
As a rule search represents  one  or  several  keywords  divided(shared)  by
blanks.
Point.
The  service,  similar  by  the  principles,  of  firm   Point   (http:   //
www.pointcom.com) in general basic emphasis does(makes) not on  search,  and
on work with the thematic catalogue.
The service Point is known in a network  for  that  its(her)  employees  are
constantly engaged  of network resources and  conduct  the  lists
of those sites, which they consider(count) belong to    to  the  best  five
percents(interests) WWW .
Firm Point Conducts a shared database all   of  five-percentage  WWW-pages,
where about everyone it is possible to read the detailed license.
Virtual Library.
The most old subject catalogue WWW is the catalogue Virtual Library:
http: // www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubj ect/Overview.html
This system  full  enough  covers  a  scientific  layer  WWW  -  servers  of
universities, laboratories and educational institutions.
Russia-On-Line Subject Guide.
For the users  in  our  country  the  certain  interest  can  represent  the
thematic catalogue Russia-On-Line Subject  Guide,  located  to  the  address
http://www.online.ru/rmain. This catalogue contains rather  motley  assembly
of the links on foreign sources plus the thematic review of the Russian  and
Russian resources WWW.

2.2. Automatic indexes.

It is possible to approach to a problem of  search  of  the  information  in
Internet and on the other hand. There are  programs  in  which  have  loaded
some thousand well-known URL-addresses. Being is  started  on  the  computer
with access to WWW, this program begins automatically  to  download  from  a
network the documents on it URL, and from each new  document  she(it)  takes
all links, contained in it,(him,) and adds them in the  base  of  addresses.
As at the end all WWW the documents are connected  among  themselves,  early
or late such program will bypass all Internet.
Certainly, the program can not understand as or classify that  she(it)  sees
in a network. The programs of  such  type  refer  to  as  robots.  They  are
limited to the tax of the statistical information and  construction  indexes
in the texts of the documents. The  database,  collected  by  the  robot,  -
index - stores (keeps) in it, simply speaking, item of information  on  that
in what WWW-documents to contain those or other words.
Such the automatically collected index also underlies retrieval  systems  of
the second sort, which frequently and name - automatic indexes.
The automatic index consists of three parts: the program -  robot  collected
by this robot of a database and the interface for search in this base,  with
which the user works.  All  these  components  quite  can  function  without
intervention of the man.
As any classification of  materials  in  such  systems  are  absent,  it  is
necessary to resort to them only then,  when  you  precisely  know  keywords
concerning that it is necessary, - we shall tell, a surname of  the  man  or
it is enough some of rare terms from the appropriate area. If to set  search
on the a little widespread words, you will have not enough  life  to  bypass
all URL-addresses, received as a result of search, - for example, the  index
of system Alta Vista contains of 11 billions words taken  from  30  millions
of WWW-pages.
An automatic index of WWW-pages  exists  much:  WebCrawler,  Lycos,  Excite,
Inktomi, Open Text and others. Some of them (for example,  Lycos)  represent
more or less successful synthesis of the  subject  catalogue  and  automatic
index.
Alta Vista.
Its(her) address http://altavista.digital.com. This system has  appeared  in
December 1995. She (it) one of largest on volume of indexes  from  all  such
retrieval systems both most powerful and floppy  rules  of  construction  of
searches. Alta Vista understands two different languages of searches  rather
strongly distinguished from each other. On the first  page  Alta  Vista  you
see the form for simple search (Simple Search), and the panel of heading  at
the top of page contains the button Advanced Search, having  pressed  which,
you receive the form for complication of search.
Except for WWW-pages, Alta Vista conducts a separate index for clauses  from
more than 14000 conferences Usenet (including hierarchy  of  groups  relcom.
*).
Search Alta Vista: that Alta Vista worked on group of words, only when  they
cost(stand) beside, it is necessary  to  conclude  this  group  in  inverted
commas. If it is necessary to exclude from result all  documents  containing
a certain word, it is necessary to attribute  this  word  with  is  familiar
minus.
The word without any mark works in search precisely  the  same  as  also  it
with is familiar plus.
As against Yahoo, by default Alta Vista  searches  of  entry  of  the  whole
words. The ordered terms should stand in the  document  separately,  instead
of to be a part of other chains of symbols. If  you  need  to  find  of  all
entry of a word, even when it is included into  structure  of  other  words,
use a symbol *. The asterisk can stand only  at  the  end  of  a  word,  and
prevent giving many (too much) of  results,  Alta  Vista  requires(demands),
that the word which is coming to an end on *, should consist not  less  than
of 3 letters. Moreover, a symbol  *  allows  to  find  not  any  termination
(ending) of a word, but only not exceeding length of five  symbols  and  not
containing of capital letters or figures.
Results of search Alta Vista, as well as Yahoo, gives out  as  the  list  of
the links on the documents, but instead of the description of each  document
near to his(its) heading you will see simply first some  lines  of  his(its)
text. If will be found more than 10 documents, Alta Vista will  break  their
list on pages till 10 links on everyone. Alta Vista sorts the links so  that
on the first place there were most important documents with your  keywords
at definition of a degree of importance taking into  account  the  following
factors:
 Whether the keywords into heading of the documents enter;
 Whether these words in the first several lines of the documents contain;
 As far as are close to each other in the text the keywords are found out.

Info seek

Info seek, entered in of operation at the end of 19996  years,  is  somewhat
reminiscent Alta Vista, however volume of the complete  texts,  surveyed  by
him,(it,) of the documents yet does not exceed 30  million.  Web-pages.  The
address: http://www.infoseek.com. It is rather powerful system  having  high
speed and idle time in circulation. Opportunities of drawing  up  of  search
almost same, as well as in Alta Vista, but not so rich. At  almost  complete
preservation of values of marks "plus", "minus"  and  "inverted  commas",
sensitivity to a difference header both lower case letters  and  opportunity
to limit search to fragments Web- of pages, Info seek yet has no ability  to
define(determine) beside the worth terms (there is  no  operator  NEAR),  to
limit  search  by  date  of  updating  a  source  and,  main,  to   truncate
terminations(ending) the key terms.
But the given retrieval system contains weight  of  facultative  functions.,
for  example,   opportunity   concerns   to   those   to   define(determine)
quantity(amount) of the links in WWW on concrete page, that is to judge,  as
far as she(it) is popular or, on the contrary, to find out, how  many  links
to external pages contain on the given site, more correctly, how  many  from
them are reflected in index files Ultra seek. Use of special function  Image
seek allows to find in  Internet  of  the  image  (figures,  photo)  on  the
certain subject.  Info  seek  has  also  one  of  the  best  directories  of
resources of a Network.

HotBot

By one of powerful search means in World Wide  Web  can  attribute  (relate)
HotBot, containing the items  of  information  on  the  complete  texts  110
million. Pages. The address: http://www.hotbot.com. HotBot  belongs  to  the
newest systems, therefore his (its) profound search  gives  amazingly  ample
opportunities for detailed elaboration of search. It is  reached  (achieved)
at the expense of use of the multistage menu offering  various  variants  of
drawing up of the search instruction. It is possible to carry out search  on
presence in the document one or several terms, search on a  separate  phase,
search of the concrete person or links to the  certain  electronic  address.
For the greater detailed  elaboration  of  search  probably  application  of
conditions SHOULD (can contain), MUST  (should  necessarily  contain),  MUST
NOT (should not  contain)  in  relation  to  any  concepts.  Besides  HotBot
represents     search  by  date  of  creation  or  last
updating of the document, on geographic a  rule(situation)  of  the  server.
Top of service opportunities is  the  search  of  the  documents  containing
certain types of files, for example video. For this purpose it is  necessary
only to make a mark in special item of the menu of search.
WebCrawler.
It is one more tool of search such as search-bot (search        the  robot).
The address: http: // www.webcrawler.com. The search here  is  very  simple.
Enter maximal keywords into a field of search, press Search.
Lycos.
It is the large database that contents of all pages, found by  Web.
The address: http://www.lycos.com.

World Wide Web Worm.

You      will      find       this       tool       of       search       on
http://www.cs.colorado.edu/home/mcbryan/wwww.html. It is one more  extensive
index of sites Web.
In each concrete case it is expedient to use the tool of search. You  should
try to carry out(spend) search  through  one  tool  and,  if  you  have  not
received results, to pass to another. But nevertheless  what  tool  to  use?
First of all it is better to take advantage of the thematic  catalogue  such
as Yahoo, size at them rather small, but the speed is great. If to find  the
necessary  information  it  was  not  possible,  it  speaks  that  you   are
interested in a too narrow subject, or badly correspond  with  your  subject
the  keywords,  chosen  by  you.  It  does  not  mean,  that  the  necessary
information in WWW is not present - it will be simple to find  her(it)  more
difficultly. For its(her) search to you will be reached  to  take  advantage
of more  primitive,  more  automatic  and  consequently  by  more  universal
systems such as Alta Vista.



2.3. Russian retrieval systems

The retrieval systems of global scale concentrate  the  basic  attention  on
English resources of a Network. The task of search  of  the  information  on
servers within the limits of the separate  countries  is  carried  out  with
systems of local  character  specially  adapted  for  features  of  concrete
languages. There are similar search means and in Russia.  All  of  them  are
united by (with) an opportunity of processing of materials in  all  Cyrillic
codes*. However on  capacity  and  level  of  offered  service  the  Russian
retrieval systems considerably differ from each other.
 Rambler, "" and "ndex" now concern to leading group systems.
Rambler
Among favorites is allocated Rambler (http://www.rambler.ru), becoming  with
the first professional domestic retrieval system. This system provides  full
text search on 3 million. Pages located on more than 15 thousand  Web  sites
of Russia and the countries of near foreign countries. Besides  Web-servers,
the week archive of news of hierarchy relcom is surveyed also.
Rambler has close to an optimum conclusion of results of search. Even  in  a
normal form the link on found object  inserts the complete information.  The
system is designed in such a manner that the same document  in  the  various
coding is shown in the various coding are  shown  only  once,  and  his(its)
concrete addresses are summarized in  the  list.  its  a  reduces  time  on
analyze of the received results because of absence  of  duplication  of  the
same documents.
The main lack Rambler consists in impossibility to carry out search  on  the
whole phase or  even  to  specify  in  searches  limiting  distance  of  the
required terms from each other. The casual combination of completely  untied
words results in distribution of the links on the documents, are  absolutely
not relevant to search.


The retrieval system  (http://www..ru) is supplied with weight  of
various functions carrying her(it) number user-friendliest.
One consists of the main advantages  in ample opportunities of  drawing
up of search. Besides the traditional operators "both" and or,  search  on
the whole phase, the system is capable to isolate combinations of the  terms
located in the text by a number (line) with  each  other.    offers  an
opportunity of machine translation of search with  Russian  on  the  English
language and on the  contrary.  Both  Rambler,  and    are  capable  to
allocate the same document in the various coding and to give  out  the  link
to him (it) only of time, listing(transferring) concrete  addresses  in  the
list URL. Unfortunately, thus the items of information  on  the  out-of-date
versions  of  the  same  page  in  time  do  not  leave  which  are   listed
(transferred) as existing, having a difference only  in  date  of  updating.
One more lack of this system is not always correct processing of  the  names
of pages, because of what as a result of search  the  document  without  the
name  frequently is underlined .
       ndex
Retrieval system ndex  (http://www.yandex.ru),  where  besides  servers  of
domains ru< and su< ndex  the contents of foreign Russian Web-
sites.
The main distinctive feature  of  this  system  is  the  deep  morphological
analysis of the process able terms. The most powerful linguistics allows  to
take into account practically all possible (probable) shades of the  use  of
keywords and to make search maximum precisely. ndex has the good  mechanism
of recognition of one document in the several coding or on mirror servers.
After leading Russian  there are some more search means, among  which
 the Russian machine of search   (http://search.interrussia.com),  "TELA-
search"    (http://tela.dux.ru/)     and     Russian     Internet     Search
(http://www.search.ru). While  all  these  servers  do  not  differ  neither
breadth of search, nor by comfort, and can  be  used  only  as  addition  to
conducting search means.
The search service in the Russian block Internet, as well as  all  over  the
world, develops promptly. There  is  no  doubt,  that  in  the  near  future
parameters of existing systems  will  be  raised,  the  new  generations  of
search means giving to the users still (even) the large  opportunities  will
appear.





"Internet "