Air contamination caused by human activity


    AIR CONTAMINATION CAUSED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY
    1. AIR CONTAMINATION
    Insertion into atmosphere or the creation of the  chemical  agents  and
substances caused by  natural,  and  anthropogenous  factors  forms  an  air
contamination. The natural sources of contamination  of  an  atmosphere  are
volcanos, wood fires, dusty storms, a weathering etc. These factors  do  not
threaten with negative consequences  to  natural  ecosystems,  except   some
catastrophic natural phenomena. For  example,  the  eruption  of  a  volcano
Cracatao in 1883, when into atmosphere 18 km  cubes  of  ashes  powder  were
thrown out ; eruption of a volcano Catmay (Alaska)  in  the  1912  that  had
thrown out 20 km cubes of friable products. The  ashes  of  these  eruptions
were spread over  large part of the surface of the Earth and has caused  the
reduction of solar radiation by 10-20  %  that  accordingly  has  caused  in
northern hemisphere reduction of annual average temperature of  air  by  0.5
C.[1]
    However per the last decades  the  anthropogenous  factors  of  an  air
contamination became to exceed by scales natural factors,  acquiring  global
character. They can render various effects on atmosphere: direct - on  state
of the atmosphere (heating, change of humidity etc.); influence on  chemical
properties  of  the   atmosphere   (change   of   structure,   increase   of
concentration of  carbon  dioxide,  aerosols,  freons  etc.);  influence  on
properties of a spreading surface (change of size, albedo, system  ocean  -
atmosphere etc.)
    To  basic  sources  of  contamination  we  can  refer:  the  industrial
enterprises, transport, power system,  agriculture  etc.   Among  industries
especially toxic wastes  are  made  by  enterprises  of  colour  metallurgy,
chemical,  petrochemical,   black   metallurgy,   wood-working,   pulp&paper
industry etc.
    If you live in the advanced country, with probability 2:3 you  breathe
by air that does not meet the standards[2]. Is this air  bad  enough?  It's
bad  enough  to  cause  50  thousand  anticipatory  death   annually.   It's
potentially  enough  bad  to  destroy  ecosystem  and  to  make  the   Earth
uninhabited.

2. AIR CONTAMINATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The ecological problems  of  the  Russian  society  have  become  aggravated
recently so, that without their consideration it  is  impossible  to  decide
political and economic tasks, to  form  a  notion  of  prospects  of  social
development. A Level of ecological safety, in opinion of  the  experts,  is
lowest: 94 % of  the  interrogated  experts  have  evaluated  an  ecological
situation in country as unsuccessful[3].
    The analysis of the statistical data of the amount of wastes of harmful
substances in atmosphere during  90-s'  has  shown  that  on  the  whole  in
Russian Federation during this period there was a  significant  decrease  of
wastes by 6525000 tons or 19 % [4].
    So, in 1992 in comparison with 1991 wastes of contaminating substances
in atmospheric air from stationary sources have decreased less  than  by  17
%. Althogh the level of production in almost all branches was  decreased  by
35-30%[5].
    Leaders of wastes of harmful substances in  an  atmosphere  during  3
years are Krasnoyarsk region, the Tyumen, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk,  Kemerovo
area and these areas  only  by  the  given  parameter  it  is  necessary  to
attribute to a zone of the ecological catastrophe (see table).  As  you  see
most contaminated regions are economic centers  of  Russian  Federation  and
unfortunately most populated.


AIR CONTAMINATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION


|                            |                                             |
|Region                      |Wastes into atmosphere                       |
|                            |Thousands tons      |%                      |
|Russian Federation          |31804,2             |100,0                  |
|Including                   |                    |                       |
|Krasnoyarsk region          |3182,7              |10,0                   |
|Sverdlovsk area             |2401,8              |7,5                    |
|The Tyumen area             |2369,8              |7,4                    |
|The Chelyabinsk area        |2060,5              |6,0                    |
|The Kemerovo area           |1208,9              |4,0                    |
|The Vologda area            |978,0               |3,0                    |
|Irkutsk area                |967,0               |3,0                    |
|The Orenburg area           |911,8               |3,0                    |


  Source: Demidenko L.. Changing atmosphere. Moscow., 1996.78 p.

    For example, as a result of  activity  of  the  industrial  enterprises
Cherepovetsk is lead up to the verge of the ecological catastrophe. And  the
main part here belongs to joint-stock company Severstal; the share of  the
company in wastes into atmosphere annually has  constituted  95  %  of  all-
urban's.[6]
As to Yakutsk, in opinion of the  chief  of  the  group  of  the  monitoring
center  of  the  environment  pollution  of  Yakutsk  hydroweather   station
headquarter Ludmila Yushkova, it is contaminated by the weighted  substances
(dust), oxide of carbon, dioxide of nitrogen and,  that  especially  alarms,
by benzapiren. In winter northern part of Yakutsk hardly  suffer  where  the
industrial objects are concentrated. The  greatest  pollution  by  dust  and
oxide of carbon is noted in the center  of  the  city  owing  to  the  large
congestion of motor-vehicle transport there. Nevertheless the  concentration
of heavy metals in air is lower than norm  and  lower  than  estimates  over
cities of Russian Federation.[7]
    Now 2/3 population  of  Russia  continues  to  live  in  conditions  of
dangerous air contamination. It undoubtedly has an effect on  their  health,
as the various chemical elements are most intensively absorbed  by  organism
during  breathing.  But  the  effect  of  changes  of  the  environment   is
especially harmful for quality of genofond.

    3. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION MEASURES
    Measures of the protection of  atmosphere  are  subdivided  into  three
large  groups.  First  group:  decrease  measures   of   gross   amount   of
contamination, thrown out into atmosphere. This is the  improvement  of  the
quality of fuel, using of  special  liquids  in  fuel  etc.  Same  group  of
measures  includes   perfecting   of   technological   processes   including
development of  the  closed  cycle  production  without  making  of  harmful
substances into atmosphere.
    The second group includes  measures  of  protection  of  atmosphere  by
dispersion, processing and neutralization of harmful wastes.
    And finally the third group of measures assumes prevention of  the  air
contamination by rational placing of the dirty enterprises  -  sources  of
harmful wastes  with  consideration  of  natural  conditions  and  potential
possibility of the air contamination.
    For realization of atmosphere  protection  measures  the  strict  state
control of air environment, economic and legal stimulation of  measures  for
control of its pollution are also important.
    But no one company begins to reduce its wastes  if  it  does  not  meet
their interests, if it is not profitable for them (especially  for  Russia).
Unfortunately it is hard to make them reduce pollution by  prohibitions.  In
this connection it is offered to distribute interesting  experience  of  the
USA, Canada, Germany and Austria where enterprises redeem quotas for  wastes
of harmful gases (i.e. pay for using of  natural  environment  belonging  to
all world community). Other variant is  introduction  of  the  international
"green tax " for harmful wastes. In this case firms would be  interested  in
ecologically clean production.[8]
    But unfortunately in most cases nature  protection  activity  does  not
yield a profit for  enterprises,  except  of  cases  connected  with  useful
using, that is utilization of wastes caught during cleaning of  waste  water
and gases. The most of these substances are valuable raw  material  (sulfur,
a dust of colour metals etc.) and  can  be  used  in  production,  promoting
thereby for receiving of the additional profit.
    This measure, certainly, requires forward scientific technologies. So,
for example, in Norway in 80's there was one factory on production of
aluminium, it threw out into an atmosphere many weighted particles,
especially lead, and the management of this factory was compelled to use
special dustcatchers. By 90's the factory became unprofitable, then it has
paid attention to this thrown leaden dust, It appears that this dust is a
very valuable material for production of completely new high-strength
plates[9]. Now this factory exists only due to waste of this dust. In
Russia, much to our regret, there are no such examples.
    Finally large significant part has an ecological culture of the
population (one of examples of respect of the nature is the act of the
board directors chairman of the company Monsanto Reachard Mahoney. He,
having seen, how much toxic wastes his company makes, was shocked and has
decided to reduce a level of toxic wastes by 90 %[10]).

-----------------------
[1] Raimers N.F. Ecology (theory, laws, rules, principles 8 hypothesis).
Moscow., 1994. 6 p.
[2] Gregg Easterbrook.Cleaning Up // Newsweek. 1989.24 July.p.27-42.
[3] Sosunova I.A. All-Russian c  hypothesis). Moscow., 1994. 6 p.
[4] Gregg Easterbrook.Cleaning Up // Newsweek. 1989.24 July.p.27-42.
[5] Sosunova I.A. All-Russian conference Ministry of the Nature of RF
1994.Health.1994.  Nov.
[6] Aisenshtat R.D. Ecological situation in  Russian Federation. Moscow,
1993.45 p.
[7] Roubin L.N.Especially protected territories. Moscow,1995.67 p.
[8] Kulikov L... Bases of economic knowledge Moscow, 1998. 233 p.
[9] Yushkova L.What we breathe, what we drink. Yakutia.1997.22 March.
[10] Karin  P.R. Ecological boomerang / Science and life. 1996. 5. P.34
[11] Politkovskaya . Till catastrophe?/New times,1994.18/19.P.51-53.
[12] .Stanley H. Evolution as a Disease // Chemtech. 1995. 8. P. 46-69.




"Air contamination caused by human activity"