Иностранные языки

Методические указания по английскому языку



                                  Пояснения

                       к выполнению контрольных работ.

1.   Количество   контрольных   работ,   выполняемых   на   каждом   курсе,
   устанавливается учебным планом университета.
2. В данном пособии предлагается  для  студентов  6  вариантов  контрольных
   работ. Выполняются они  в соответствии  с  цифрами  студенческого  шифра
   (четные или нечетные).
3. Выполнять контрольные работы  следует в отдельной  тетради.  На  обложке
   тетради напишите свою фамилию, номер шифра, курс и факультет.
4. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены  чернилами,  аккуратно,  четким
   почерком. Слева  справа оставьте поля для рецензии преподавателя.

| |Левая страница                  |Правая страница         |      |
|Поля |Английский текст           |Русский текст           |Поля  |

5. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены  в  той  последовательности,  в
   которой они даны в настоящем пособии.
6. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования
   в установленные сроки  на кафедру “Английский язык”.
7. Если контрольная работа  не  соответствует  указанным  требованиям,  она
   возвращается без проверки.


                                 Подготовка
                            к зачетам и экзамену.

1. Прочитать  необходимые  текстовые  материалы  и  понять  основной  смысл
   прочитанного.
2. Просмотреть материал выполненных контрольных работ.

3.  Просмотреть  перечень  необходимых  вопросов   для   собеседования   по
   разговорной тематике.

4. Просмотреть газетный материал на английском языке, пользуясь словарем.

5. Прочитать и понять, с помощью словаря, тесты по специальности.



                        I. Варианты контрольных работ

                                  Вариант 1

1. Переведите текст:
                               Cosmic Flight.
    We live in a wonderful age when the most daring dreams of man are coming
true. For many centuries cosmic flights were but a dream.  October  4,  1957
became a remarkable day throughout the world. The first space satellite  was
put into orbit around the Earth.  Tsiolkovsky's  "utopian"  dream  has  been
realized. Each cosmic flight on a manned spaceship is really a great  event.
The satellite  is  a  small  space  laboratory.  Its  aim  is  investigating
radiation as well as the effects of  the  state  of  weightlessness  on  the
human organism.
2. Переведите слова и выражения:
   daring, to put into orbit, space satellite, manned spaceship,
investigating, the state

  of weightlessness, radiation.
3. Переведите предложение:
  Многие века космические полеты были всего лишь мечтой.
4. Переведите предложение:
  Первый космический спутник был запущен 4 октября 1957 года.

 5. Переведите предложение:
  Each manned spaceship is a small cosmic laboratory.

  6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
  The most... dreams of people are coming true.

   a) remarkable b) daring               c) wonderful

 7. Выбрать правильный вариант:
  Each cosmic ... is really a great event,

   a) satellite  b) spaceship          c) flight

 8. Закончить предложение:
  For many centuries cosmic flights were....
  a) "utopian" dream     b) but a dream

 9. Закончить предложение:
  The first space satellite was put into orbit....
  a) around the Earth     b) around the moon
10. Составить предложение:
 is, on, organism, aim, investigating, the, its, radiation, human
 11. Составить предложение:
 flight, manned, really, event, cosmic, a, is, remarkable, each, on,
 spaceship, a.

12. Ответить на вопросы:
   1. When was the first space satellite launched?
  2. What is a satellite?
   3. Who was the first cosmonaut in the world?


                                  Вариант 2

   1. Переведите текст:
                                  "Ulugbek"
      The great  scientists  of  Central  Asia  were  not  only  outstanding
thinkers,  who  confirmed  to  the  world  faultless  of  their   ideas   on
understanding the Universe. Central Asia also had  some  of  the  remarkable
astronomers, who made careful observations under  natural  phenomena.  Among
Samarkand's astronomers of the 15-th century was Ulugbek  who  made  himself
famous by his observations needed  for  science.  Having  studied  Astronomy
under famous scientists Ulugbek began  intensively  observing  the  sky.  He
built enormous observatory in Samarkand. Observatory  was  equipped  by  the
most modern tools of that time.
2. Переведите слова и выражения:
scientists, outstanding thinkers, to confirm, faultless, the Universe,
remarkable, observations, intensively, enormous observatory, modern tools.
3. Переведите предложение:
Ученые Центральной Азии были не только выдающимися мыслителями, но и
замечательными астрономами.
4. Переведите предложение:
Обсерватория Улугбека в Самарканде была оборудована самыми современными
приборами.
5. Выбрать правильный вариант:
Samarkand's astronomers achieved the great accuracy in their ......
a) ideas
b) observations
c) instruments
6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
The catalogue " Starry tables "contained ........ position of 1018 stars in
the sky.
a) precise
b) geographic
c) different
7. Вставить предлоги:
Astronomy was subject..... major concern ..... him.
8. Вставить предлоги:
Ulugbek's contemporaries were fascinated..... the magnificence ..... the
observatory.
9. Вставить предлоги:
Ulugbek widely used definitions .... geographic coordinates .... different
places .... Central Asia .... practical purpose.
10. Составить предложение:
of, astronomers, known, all, world, were, works, the, Samarkand's, widely,
the, over.
11. Ответить на вопросы:
1) What was Ulugbek famous for?
2) What was the great achievement of Ulugbek in Samarkand?


                                  Вариант 3

1. Переведите текст:

                            The Electric Current

When a conductor joins two points of different potential, electricity  flows
from one to the other along the conductors until the potentials  are  equal.
This process is very rapid, and with  good  conductors  is  completed  in  a
fraction of a second. While it lasts, an electric current is  said  to  flow
from one point to the other. By convention, the direction of the current  is
said to be that from the higher to the lower potential, i.e.  the  direction
in which positive charges would travel, but actually, owing  to  their  much
greater mobility, it is the negative electrons which move, and it  is  their
motion which constitutes the current.
2. Переведите на русский язык:
conductor, potential, rapid, direction, positive, charge, mobility, motion,
negative, current.
3. Переведите предложения:
1) Electricity flows from one potential to the other until the potentials
are equal.
2) An electric current flows from one point to the other.
3) The motion of the negative electrons constitutes the electric current.
4. Выбрать правильный вариант слова:
When a conductor joins two points of different potential... flows from one
to the other.
a) process
b) electricity
c) motion
5. Выбрать правильный вариант:
This process is very ... and is completed in a fraction of a second.
a)large
b)slow
c) rapid
6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
The direction of the ... is that from the higher to the lower potential
a) current
b) electricity
c) charge
7. Закончить предложение: The electric current passing through a wire ....
a) will cool that wire
b) will heat that wire
8. Закончить предложение:
By connecting wires to the top and bottom discs Volta ....
a) was able to get electric current
b) was able to heat a conductor
9. Закончить предложение:
When an electric current flows along a conductor, ....
a) the latter becomes strong
b) the latter becomes heated
10. Составить предложение:
from, to, along, flows, potential, the, conductor, electricity, one, other,
the.
11. Перевести на английский язык.
1) Направление тока осуществляется от высшего к низшему потенциалу.
2) Электричество течет от одного потенциала к другому, пока потенциалы
равны.
3) Именно движение отрицательных электронов образует электрический ток.


                                  Вариант 4

1. Переведите текст:

                            Faraday's Experiment

Faraday knew from his long study of electricity  that  magnetism  should  be
able to produce a current, as well as vice versa. In spite  of  his  various
failures, the idea of  producing  a  current  directly  by  magnetic  action
remained firm in his thoughts. One of his friends said  later  how  at  this
period of his long life Faraday used to carry about with him in  his  pocket
a small rough model of electro-magnetic apparatus. This consisted simply  of
an inch-long straight iron core with some turns of copper wire  wound  round
it. The basic idea he had in mind was this: if  an  electric  current  in  a
wire can produce  a  magnetic  effect,  why  should  not  a  magnet  near  a
conducting wire produce an electric current?
2. Перевести на русский язык:
 electricity, magnetism, various, directly, magnetic, action, really,
successful,             immediately, reaction.
3. Переведите предложения:
 1) Faraday knew that magnetism should be able to produce a current.
 2) He had produced electricity through magnetism which had never been done
before.
 3) Faraday used to carry about with him a model of electromagnetic
apparatus.
4. Выбрать правильный вариант слова:
In spite of his various.... Faraday was sure that magnetism should be able
to produce a current.
 a) failures         b) purposes       c) magnets
5. Выбрать правильный вариант:
Anyone who has a coil of wire, a.... magnet and a sensitive current
indicator may repeat Faraday's experiment.
 a. ) big   b) bar     c) copper
6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
Amplifying the current, the scientist.... the necessary results
 a) deflected          b) got     c) switched on
7. Закончить предложение:
Faraday's basic idea was that a magnet near a conducting wire should
be.....
 a) on opposite sides of the ring b) able to produce an electric current
8. Закончить предложение: Faraday separated each turn.....
 a) by string for insulation purposes   b) fed from the battery
9. Закончить предложение: Faraday wound long coils of thin copper wire....,
 a) he was disappointed      b) on opposite sides of the ring
10. Составить предложение:
by, produce, wanted, electricity, Faraday, to, electromagnetism.
11. Перевести на английский язык:
 1) Идея получения тока непосредственно действием магнита не оставляла его
мыслей,
 2) Обычно Фарадей носил в кармане маленькую модель электромагнитного
прибора.
12. Ответить на вопросы:
 1) What was Faraday famous for?
 2) What was his idea?
 3) What can you say about a small model of electro-magnetic apparatus,

                                  Вариант 5


1. Переведите текст:
                    The Discovery of Magnetic Induction.
The discovery in 1820 that there was a close connection between  electricity
and magnetism was very exciting -until  then,  the  two  subjects  had  been
considered as quite independent. The first discovery was  that  currents  in
wires make magnetic fields; then in the same year, it was found  that  wires
carrying current in a magnetic field have forces on them.  In  1840  Faraday
discovered - electric effects exist only when there is  something  changing.
If one of a pair of wires has a carrying current, a current  is  induced  in
the other, or if a magnet is moved near an  electric  circuit,  there  is  a
current. We say that currents are induced.
2. Переведите слова и словосочетания:
Discovery, magnetic induction, wires, magnetic fields, current, electric
effects, induced, an electric circuit, connection, electricity and
magnetism.
3. Переведите предложения:
1) Electricity and magnetism subjects had been considered as quite
independent subjects.
2) If currents make magnetic fields, people suggested that magnets might
also make electric fields.
4. Выбрать правильный вариант:
For the atom to be electrically neutral, the number of protons must
be....... to that of
electrons.
a) more       b) equal       c) less
5. Выбрать правильный вариант:
We know Isaac Newton to express the connection between........ and motion
in the form
of several laws.
a) electricity       b) current       c) force
6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
Before Faraday's discovery the only usable source of........ was the
galvanic battery.
a) electricity       b) magnetism       c) conduction
7. Закончить предложение:
Artificial magnets may be made by placing.........
a)  a magnet to be magnetised into a battery
b)  a piece of iron or steel to be magnetised into a coil
8. Закончить предложение:
Faraday wanted to produce electricity by.........
a) Electromagnetism       b) electric circuit
9. Составить предложение:
Was, carrying, a, have, them, discovery, that, current, magnetic, forces,
the, wires, in, field, on.
10. Составить предложение:
A, electricity, and, had, as, was, between, magnetism, subjects,
considered, independent, there, connection, and, these, been, quite.
                                  Вариант 6
1. Переведите текст:

                       Generating an Electric Current

Alessandro Volta, a professor of physics, established  the  true  source  of
the electric current. He demonstrated that  it  could  be  produced  by  the
action of dissimilar  metals.  In  1800  he  developed  the  first  electric
battery, a device known as a voltaic pile. Although he  tried  a  number  of
different materials he found that the best results  were  obtained  when  he
used silver and zinc as the two metals. The pile consisted of  a  series  of
small disks of these and of cardboard, the latter having been  soaked  in  a
salt solution.
2. Переведите слова и словосочетания:
source, dissimilar, device, a voltaic pile, silver, zinc, cardboard,
soaked, salt solution, series.
3. Переведите предложения:
1) The electric current could be produced by the action of dissimilar
metals.
2) A voltaic pile consisted of a series of small disks and of cardboard.
4. Выбрать правильный вариант:
Alessandro Volta established the true... of the electric current,
 a) material
 b) source
 c) field
5. Выбрать правильный вариант:
During his experiments Volta developed the first electric...
   a) battery
   b) source
   c) device
6. Выбрать правильный вариант:
By connecting... to the top and bottom discs Volta got electric current
a) discs    b) wires   c) bars
7. Закончить предложение:
An electric current is a flow of electrons along...
a)   the particles were electrons
b)   a metal wire or a conductor
8. Закончить предложение:
There are many measuring devices e. g....
a)   galvanometers, voltmeters and others
b)   slight changes every day
9. Закончить предложение:
The method of producing electricity directly from heat attracts...
   a) problem of life
   b) attention of scientists
10. Составить предложение:
that, current, produced, action, metals, demonstrated, the, could, by, of,
Volta, electric, be, the, dissimilar

                      II. Тексты для чтения и перевода.

Read and translate the texts:

                         Uzbekistan Chooses Its Way.

      The proclamation of Independence on September 1-st 1991  was  landmark
in the history of the Republic.  Uzbekistan  is  a  multi-national  country
inhabited by more than 130 nations and nationalities.
      Uzbekistan's  present  day  economy  is  diversified  consisting   of
agricultural  and  manufacturing  industries  including  the  gas  and   oil
industries, ferrous and nonferrous  metallurgy,  coal  and  uranium  fields,
engineering,  cotton-ginning,  textiles,  canning  and  others.   Uzbekistan
possesses the largest economic potential and highest growth figures  amongst
the  republics  of  Central  Asia  in  both  industrial   and   agricultural
development. An important place in the Republic of Uzbekistan's  economy  is
given to the rural sectors  and  especially  the  cotton  growing  industry.
Uzbekistan  ranks  4th  in  the  world's  gross  cotton  yield  stakes.  The
substantial scientific-technical  potential,  both  in  the  industrial  and
agricultural  development  sectors,  has  been  created  in  the   Republic.
Uzbekistan maintains foreign trade connections with many  countries  in  the
world, participates in  various  international  exhibitions  and  festivals,
enjoys the  memberships  of  many  international  organizations,  banks  and
funds. At present over 120  countries  of  the  world  have  recognized  the
Republic of Uzbekistan and diplomatic relations have been  established  with
more than 60 of them. In Tashkent - the capital of independent Uzbekistan  -
there are 27 embassies, a UN mission and the opening of a further number  of
embassies is planned. Broad  opportunities  have  been  opened  up  for  the
involvement of the Republic in an international division of labour  and  for
the  extension  of  foreign  trade,  ties  having  been   obtained   through
independence   and   sovereignty.   Uzbekistan   today   has   a   developed
infrastructure.  The  total  length  of  railroads  is  over  3.5   thousand
kilometers, connecting all the  large  economic  centres  of  the  Republic,
ensuring entry to the CIS and other countries. There are  over  40  thousand
kilometers of  highway.  Uzbekistan  is  a  Republic  where  traditions  and
principles of world community are highly honoured and being a  full  member,
the Republic concentrates its efforts on the elaboration and realization  of
independent economic and social policies  directed  at  renewing  life,  the
intensive development of  the  national  economy,  the  improvement  of  the
peoples' well-being and  its  rapid  integration  into  the  world  economic
structure. The peoples of Uzbekistan look ahead with optimism.



                                  Tashkent.

      The early information about our city you can find in  ancient  Eastern
annals of the 2 century- BC. Caravans going by the Great Silk  Road  passed
Chach (the ancient name  of  Tashkent).  Convenient  geographical  position
favoured the city in its turning into the capital of the state.
       At the end of the 10-th and the beginning of the 12-th century people
more often called Chach by another name - Tashkent, which means "Settlement
made of stone".
      The monuments of  medieval  architecture  harmonize  with  the  modern
architectural constructions. This combination differentiates  Tashkent  from
many other cities. So does the hospitality, cordiality of Uzbek people.
      Tashkent always welcomes guests. International meetings, symposiums,

conferences, festivals are held here.  The  city  has  many  friends-sister
cities; Karachi,

Seattle, Tunis, Patiala, Birmingham. That's why Tashkent is  considered  to
be "the city of

friendship and brotherhood".
      Today Tashkent - is the, capital of Uzbekistan, cultural center of the
country. There are 9 theatres, Conservatory, museums, such as  Art  Museum,
Museum of history of  Uzbekistan.  Tashkent  has  shady  parks  with  queen
fountains,  concert,  art  exhibition  halls,  stadiums,  swimming   pools,
libraries, gardens.
      Opera and Ballet theatre named after Navoi looks like the palace  from
the outside. The palace where music reigns. Plays are on here  almost  every
evening. And during a year the theatre presents 2-3 premiers at  spectators'
disposal. The building  was  constructed  in  1947.  The  figures  of  Uzbek
traditional monumental architecture are used in the facade decoration.
      Exhibits in the exhibition hall of  Uzbekistan  Artists  Union  change
continually. Light,  roomy  halls  are  put  not  only  at  famous  artists
disposal, but that of youths as well. There is an exhibition  hall  in  the
centre of the city. It was opened in 1974.
     While making a city tour in Tashkent, you cannot help paying attention
at the peculiarities of modern buildings. Each of them is the  part  of  the
national culture. The facades of buildings are decorated with  the  elements
of national ornament. Architects try  to  take  into  account  the  national
traditions. For example, one of the blocks was built  in  a  way  neighbours
can easily contact  with  each  other,  using  special  galleries.  Builders
create  modern  blocks  trying  to  be  close  to  the  feel   of   makhalla
(community). The modern construction - TV tower is not standard. It  is  the
highest construction in Central Asia. And it is adjusted to  the  seismicity
9. Its height - 375 meters. On the height of 100 meter?  and  220  metersthe
tower is girdled with  telecasting  station  for  5  programs,  broadcasting
station, meteorological station. There is also observation site,  where  you
can enjoy the magnificent view of the city, revealing  bars  and  restaurant
here. At the restaurants you  will  be  served  with  the  dishes  of  Uzbek
cuisine. The interior is decorated with national paintings.
      Tashkent is the only city in Central Asia, which has underground.  The
construction of it started in 1973 and in 1977  the  first  line  began  to
operate. Tashkent Underground - it is 30 stations and they differ from each
other. Architectural and artistic decoration of station depicts  its  name.
The leading architects and artists of Uzbekistan took part in designing  of
the stations. Underground is a favourite means of transport  of  people  in
Tashkent. You can go to any part of the  city  in  no  time  (The  interval
between trains is 240 seconds ).



                               Great Britain.

      The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland- this is  the
official name of Great Britain. It  is  composed  of  the  island  of  Great
Britain, the northeastern part of Ireland and multitude  of  small  islands.
Great Britain separated from the European continent by  the  North  Sea  and
the English Channel. In the west the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish  Sea  wash
Great Britain.
      The Atlantic Ocean and the seas washing Great Britain as well  as  the
south western winds affect the climate of the  country  making  it  maritime
and damp.
      The North and West of G. B. are mountainous. The Pennines  located  in
the central part of the island of G. B. stretch from north  to  south.  Many
short rivers flow down the Pennines.
      Northern Ireland presents a hilly extremity of the Central Plain.
      The United Kingdom comprises  England  and  Wales,  which  occupy  the
greater part of the island of G. B., Scotland in the North  of  G.  B.,  and
Northern Ireland situated in the north-east of Ireland.
      The principal part of G. B. is England. Northern  Ireland  enjoys  the
rights 0f an autonomous region. The territory  of  G.  B.  is  divided  into
counties - Lancashire, Yorkshire, etc.
      The English nation arose as a result of the amalgamation of the native
population of the British Isles-Celts with the  Germanic  tribes  of  angles
and Saxons who repeatedly invaded Britain, and with the  Normans  who  lived
in the North of France and conguered Britain in  the  middle  of  the  11-th
century. The present descendants of  the  Celts  -  Scotchmen,  Welsmen  and
Irishmen constitute less than one fifth  of  the  total  population  of  the
country.
      The population of G. B. speaks English.
      G. B. is a country of highly developed culture. The eminent  physicist
Newton, the famous naturalist Darwin greatly contributed to  science,  while
the works of great master of tragedy Shakespeare, the  poet  Byron  and  the
novelist Dickens enriched world literature and art.
      G.  B.  is  a  highly  developed  industrial   country.   Coal-mining,
metallurgical, textile, shipbuilding,  electrical  engineering,  automobile,
aircraft and chemical industries are of great importance for Britain.
      G. B. - is a constitutional monarchy. The head of  the  state  is  the
king or the queen  who  ascend  the  throne  by  right  of  succession.  The
Englishmen say of their monarchs: "They reign, but don't rule. "
      The monarch's power is limited by the  Parliament  consisting  of  two
Chambers: the Chamber of Commons and the Chamber of Lords.
      The Chamber of Commons is popularly elected and the Chamber  of  Lords
is composed  of  high-born  nobility  who  hold  their  title  by  right  of
succession.
      The executive power is welded by the Cabinet  presided  by  the  Prime
Minister. The post of the Premier is filled  by  the  leader  of  the  party
which holds the majority in the Chamber of Commons.
      There are two major parties in  G.  B.  -  the  Conservative  and  the
Labour.

                The National Programme Of Personnel Training.

     The National Programme of Personnel Training corresponds to provisions
of the Decree of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On  Education”,  elaborated  on
the basis of the analysis of national experience, proceeding from the  world
achievements in the system of education  and  oriented  on  molding  of  new
staff generation with high common and  professional  culture,  creative  and
social  activity,  ability  to  orientate  itself  independently  in  socio-
political life, capable to put forward and solve perspective tasks.
      The aim of the present programme  is  the  fundamental  reforming  of
education system, elaboration of the national education system for  training
of highly qualified personnel up to the level advance democratic states  and
meeting the requirements of high spirit and morals.
      The implementation of the aim demands  the  development  of  mutually
beneficial international collaboration in personnel training.
     The international legal base for cooperation in for personnel training
is  created,  prior  directions  of  international  cooperation  are   being
realized, international education  structures  are  developed,  exchange  of
scientific researches and teaching staff and students are widened. The  base
for international recognition of national decree on education  is  prepared.
The  activity  of  concerned  Ministries  and  Departments,   Embassies   of
Uzbekistan for the sake of intensive  attraction  the  direct  and  indirect
foreign investments for specialists training is intensified.

        Revival of spiritual values and national self-consciousness.
      No society  can  see  its  perspective  without  the  development  and
strengthening  its  spiritual  potential,  spiritual  and  moral  values  in
consciousness of people.
      The cultural values of the nation, its spiritual heritage have been  a
powerful  source  of  spirituality  for  the  peoples  of  the  East  during
millennia. In spite of rigid ideological pressure during a long period,  the
people of Uzbekistan have managed to preserve their historical and  cultural
values and their local traditions,  that  were  carefully  transferred  from
generation to generation.
      From the first days of our independence, the major problem, raised  on
state policy level has been to revive that huge,  invaluable  spiritual  and
cultural legacy that was formed by our ancestors during many centuries.
      But we were aware that the simple deny of values of the former  system
posed a danger of political and cultural extremism which did not  imply  any
creative programme. At the same time, spontaneous and thoughtless return  to
the values, traditions and tenor of the past can lead  to  another  extreme:
to the denial of modern life, to the denial of the  necessity  to  modernize
the society.
      Historical memory, restoration of an objective and truthful history of
the nation, native territory, territory of the state is given  an  extremely
important place in the revival and growth  of  national  self-consciousness,
and if you agree also the national pride.
      Historical experience, succession of  traditions  -  all  this  should
become those values, on which new generations are brought up.
                             Static Electricity.
      We shall give an account of the electrification of bodies in terms  of
atomic structure. The atoms, normally containing equal numbers of  electrons
and protons (units of  negative  and  positive  charges  respectively),  are
broken up, and electrons pass from one body to another, leaving  the  former
positively and  the  later  negatively  charged.  This  is  not  the  normal
condition of matter, and at the first  opportunity  the  positively  charged
body acquires electrons and the negatively charged  body  expels  electrons,
so as to recover the neutral state.

                            The Electric Current.
      When a conductor joins two points of different potential,  electricity
flows from one to the other along the conductor  until  the  potentials  are
equal.
      This process is very rapid, and with good conductors is completed in a
fraction of a second. While it lasts, an electric current is  said  to  flow
from one point to the other. By convention, the direction of the current  is
said to be that from the higher to the lower potential, i. e. the  direction
in which positive charges would travel, but actually, owing  to  their  much
greater mobility, it is the negative electrons, which move, and it is  their
motion, which constitutes the current. It is unfortunate  that,  before  the
existence of electrons was thought of  the  conventional  direction  of  the
current should have been wrongly chosen, but it is now  too  late  to  alter
the convention. The student must bear in mind that when a  current  is  said
to flow from A to B, what actually happens is that electrons flow from B  to
A.

                                 Magnetism.
      The existence of magnets shows that matter  can  be  active.  Everyone
knows something of the property of certain pieces of iron steel - and  to  a
smaller extent, cobalt and nickel- by which they can  attract  other  pieces
of iron and steel and hold them up against gravity; and there is,  in  fact,
a naturally occurring oxide of iron, knows  as  "lodestone"  which  has  the
same property. If we suspend a  magnet  by  its  center  so  that  it  hangs
horizontally, and then bring the end of  another  magnet  near  one  of  its
ends, we find that the suspended magnet is  either  attracted  or  repelled;
while if we present the other end of the second magnet to the  same  end  of
suspended one, the reverse happens-there is either repulsion or  attraction.
On the other hand, either end of the magnet will  attract  pieces  of  iron,
which are not magnets.
                             Magnetic Polarity.
      We have here a behavior somewhat similar to that of  electrified.  The
magnitude of the force is again far greater than that of gravity; and  there
is the same attraction and  repulsion  between  bodies  affected,  and  only
attraction between an affected and an unaffected body.  We  therefore  speak
of positive and negative magnetization if we wish. We do not,  however,  use
these terms, but speak of two ends of the  magnet  as  "north"  and  "south"
poles. The reason for this is that a freely suspended  magnet  always  hangs
so that one end  points  approximately  towards  the  north  and  the  other
approximately towards the south, and if we disturb it, it always returns  to
the position. We therefore speak of  the  north-speaking  poles,  and  these
names are usually abbreviated to north (N) and south (S) poles.
                       Conductors And Non-Conductors.
      The ease with which this is done depends on the atomic constitution of
the body. In some substances electrons move fairly easily, while  in  others
they find movement difficult.  This  difference  is  expressed  by  what  is
called the electrical conductivity of the  body.  Substances  through  which
electrons move easily are called good conductors. Generally speaking,  among
solids metals are good conductors and non-metals  are  poor  conductors.  If
materials are arranged in the  order  of  their  conductivity  it  is  found
although there is no sudden transition from a group of very good to a  group
of very bad conductors, the atoms are restored  to  their  normal  state  as
fast as they are broken up, by the passage of electrons from the rod to  the
Earth to the rod, as the case may require. (The Earth must  be  regarded  as
containing free electrons and  as  being  able  to  accommodate  many  more,
without, observably electrified, owing to its great  size.  Any  electrified
body, whether charged positively or negatively, immediately becomes  neutral
when connected with the Earth either directly or through a conductor.  )  It
appears to be always  the  electrons  that  move,  and  not  the  positively
charged atoms (or 'ions', as they  are  called).  This  would  be  expected,
because of the much smaller mass of the electrons. If, however, a  conductor
be held by an insulating handle, so that electrons cannot  pass  between  it
and the hand. It also can be electrified by friction. In all experiments  on
frictional electricity the apparatus used must be quite dry,  otherwise  any
electrification  produced  is  destroyed,  since  moisture  has   conducting
properties.
                            Permanent Magnetism.
      The electric current consists simply of electrons  or  ions  traveling
round and round a circuit, and it may well be  asked  why,  apart  from  the
general thirst for knowledge, we should be interested to  constructing  vast
machines in order to make invisible particles do the  same  thing  over  and
over again. Two reasons have already been given: we can use such  a  process
to produce chemical action, as in electrolysis and  electroplating,  and  we
can use it to produce light and heat. The  third,  and  the  most  important
reason of all, is that we can use it  to  produce  magnetic  force.  It  has
already been said that a circular current  acts  as  a  magnet,  but  before
considering the magnetic effects  of  a  current  in  more  detail  we  must
examine the properties of the so-called  "permanent"  magnets  -  pieces  of
iron and steel which attract other pieces of  iron  and  steel  without  any
obvious connection with electricity at all, although, as already stated,  we
believe the force to be associated with the motion of electrons  within  the
magnets.
                        Interpretation Of Magnetism.
      We assume that an electron moving in an orbit is a small  magnet.  For
simplicity, suppose the orbit is a circle in plane of this sheet  of  paper,
and suppose the electron is revolving in a  clockwise  direction.  Then  the
upper side of the paper is a S-pole and the  lower  side  is  a  N-pole.  If
another similar orbit existed in a parallel  plane  just  above  the  first,
there would therefore be  attraction  between  them  and  the  orbits  would
approach one another, while if the second electrons were  revolving  in  the
opposite direction to the polarity they would be reversed  and  there  would
be repulsion. Each atomic electron revolving in its  orbit  is  therefore  a
small magnet, and the magnetic  properties  of  observable  bodies  must  be
expressed in terms of interaction of these intra-atomic  magnets.  Like  the
assumption of the existence of elementary particles in atoms,  this  is  not
orbitrary guesswork. We can experiment with electrically charged  bodies  of
observable size moving in orbits, and we can  find  that  they  do  in  fact
behave as magnets in the  manner  just  described.  It  is  therefore  quite
reasonable to suppose that the  elementary  charges  behave  similarly,  and
provide us with elements out of which we can build a satisfactory theory  of
magnetism.
                     III. Вопросы для зачета и экзамена.

1. Where do you study?
2. What faculty do you study?
3. What can you say about your future speciality?
4. Who is your best friend?
5. Where does your father (mother, sister, brother) work (study)?
6. When does your working day begin?
7. What do you usually do in the morning?
8. What do you have for breakfast (dinner, supper)?
9. How do you get to the University?
10. Till what time are you busy at the University?
11. How do you spend your leisure time?
12. How often do you go to the cinema?
13. What music (books, films) do you like?
14. Do you watch any programs on T. V?
15. What subjects do you study at the University?
16. What is your favorite subject?
17. When and where were you born?
18. Where do you live?
19. Why did you decide to enter the University?
20. When will you be able to speak English fluently?
21. Who is your favorite writer (poet, actor, sportsman)?
22. What books of this writer do you like best?
23. What famous American, British and Uzbek writers do you know?
24. Is your family large or small?
25. How old are your parents?
26. Have you many relatives (aunts, uncles, cousins)?
27. How many seasons are there in the year and what are they?
28. When does it often rain?
29. When do trees begin to burst into leaf?
30. What holiday does our Republic celebrate in spring?
31. How do you spend your time in summer?
32. Do you listen to the latest news every day?
33. What for do you study English?
34. What is your native city?
35. What was the ancient name of Tashkent?
36. What are the friends-sister cities of Tashkent do you know?
37. How many theatres are there in Tashkent? What are they?
38. What places of interest in Tashkent do you know?
39. When was Exhibition Hall opened and where is it situated?
40. What can you tell about the T. V. tower?
41. How many stations are there in Tashkent Underground and when was it
opened?
42. What territory does the Republic of Uzbekistan occupy?
43. When did Uzbekistan become independent?
44. What does the independence for our Republic mean?
45. Where is Uzbekistan situated?
46. What is the climate of our Republic?
47. What can you say about the Constitution of our Republic?
48. Who is the President of Uzbekistan now?
49. How is the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan called?
50. What is the official name of Great Britain?
51. What parts does G. B. consist of?
52. What is the capital of G. B. ?
53. What sea separates G. B. from the European continent?
54. What climate has G. B. ?
55. What are the most important parts of London? Speak about each part.
56. Who is the Queen of G. B. ?
57. How is the residence of the Queen called?
58. What places of interest in London do you know?
59. Why do the Englishmen say about monarch's power: "They reign, but don't
rule. »
60. What do the Londoners say about their city?
61. Where is the official residence of the Prime Minister of England
situated?
62. What is Westminster Abbey?
63. What do you know about the parks of London?
64. What picture gallery is the largest in London?
65. What are the most famous Universities in G. B.?



                                 Литература:

   1. Islom Karimov “Building the Future. Uzbekistan – its own model for
      transition to a market economy”.
   2. К. Иванова “English for students of electrical engineering”. Л. 1983.
   3. З. Павлова “Сборник общенаучных и технических текстов на английском
      языке”. М., Высшая школа, 1964.
   4. В. М. Макеева “Английский язык” (для неязыковых вузов). М., Высшая
      школа, 1968.


                                 Содержание.


Пояснения к выполнению контрольных работ …………………………….. 3



Варианты контрольных работ ……………………………………………….  4



Тексты для чтения и перевода ……………………………………………… 10


Вопросы для зачета и экзамена …………………………………………….. 16





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