1 2001 : .

                    

             .  



   1. Choose a correct word, which corresponds to the definition.

      List of words: a conversation, tungsten, pencil, gas, stainless steel

      An alloy which is resistant to corrosion.
   2. Choose a correct word, which corresponds to the definition.

      List of words: a conversation, tungsten, pencil, gas, stainless steel

      A social event of two or more people speaking to each other.
   3. Choose a correct word, which corresponds to the definition.

      List of words: a conversation, tungsten, pencil, gas, stainless steel

      A writing instrument which contains a lead and can be erased by a
      rubber.
   4. Complete the definition:

      The political system which aims at public ownership of the means of
      production is called ....
   5. Complete the definition:

      A person who takes care of people's teeth is called ....
   6. Complete the definition:

      A figure which has four equal sides and four right angles is called
      ....
   7. Correctly add a word or a word group to a sentence.

      The long 1..., shallow waters of the lake 2..., which stretches 155
      miles 3... and up to 35 miles 4... east to west, sparkle green in the
      tropical sun: someone called it - the Jade Sea, a very apt name.

      Word group: north to south
   8. Correctly add a word or a word group to a sentence.

      Now, here we have 1...come to the crux of the situation, for I
      maintain that a man 2... who has never traveled in other countries and
      3... to other societies cannot 4...be sophisticated.

      Word group: been exposed
   9. Correctly add a word or a word group to a sentence.

      Love means 1... caring deeply for another 2... that you would do
      anything 3..., even give up your own life, 4...for that person.

      Word group: to the point
  10. Correctly add a word or a word group to a sentence.

      1... Processed sugars 2... can be classified according to the stage
      3... in the process 4... they are produced.

      Word group: at which
  11. Put the words in the correct order:

      Who bores you what know tell are you already people.
  12. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      spatial, opposite, between, behind, across
  13. Odd Man Out - Find the different word: Edinburgh, Paris, New York,
      Warsaw
  14. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

       firstly, to begin with, subsequently, initially
  15. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      likewise, similarly, correspondingly, conversely, analogously
  16. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      between, at the same time, beside, above, in front of
  17. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      basically, therefore, as a result, consequently, accordingly
  18. Define the term: principle of classification -
  19. Define the term: comparison -
  20. Define the term: contrast 
  21. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      A loud ringing sound.
  22. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      duck, law, medicine, outsider, rice.

      A common water-bird, both wild and domestic; female of this.
  23. Complete the definition:

      An appliance for holding things together tightly by means of a screw
      is called ...
  24. Complete the definition: A loud ringing sound is called ...
  25. Complete the definition:

      Salted or smoked meat from the back or sides of a pig is called ...
  26. Complete the definition:

      A small, grey animal living in holes in the earth and going about at
      night is called ...
  27. Complete the definition:

      A separate movable seat for one person, usually with a back and in
      some cases with arms is called ...
  28. Complete the definition:

      A common water-bird, both wild and domestic; female of this is called
      ...
  29. Complete the definition:

      A rule made by authority for the proper regulation of a community or
      society or for correct conduct in life is called ...
  30. Complete the definition:

      A person who is not, or who is not considered to be, a member of a
      group, society, etc. is called ...
  31. Complete the definition:

      The art and science of the prevention and cure of disease is called
      ...
  32. Identify the time indicator: John Smith, who has starred in more than
      20 films, got his first role after the death of his wife.
  33. Identify the time indicator: When she was twelve she revealed her
      extraordinary abilities for the first time.
  34. Identify the time indicator: Once he came to power, it became obvious
      that the new pharaoh was a militarist.
  35. Identify the time indicator: It is a good thing to have some rest
      after lunch, it is a pity, the boss does not think so.
  36. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: It costs a lot of money to buy a new car. Similarly, it is
      quite expensive to fix a used one.
  37. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: I prefer dark suits, unlike my brother who likes to wear
      white.
  38. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: The Japanese like to travel abroad. The Germans, likewise,
      can be considered one of the most traveling nations.
  39. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: Japanese cars were economical. In contrast, American
      companies produced cars which consumed too much gas.
  40. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: The wallpaper in my house is the same color as that in my
      parents' apartment.
  41. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: When they speak to each other the Japanese do not look in
      each others eyes.Conversely, the Americans consider it impolite, if
      you look somewhere else.
  42. Find a sequencer which refers to the middle steps of the process: to
      begin with, finally, lastly, before this, initially
  43. Find a sequencer which refers to the beginning of the process: at the
      same time, finally, subsequently, firstly, next
  44. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Smoking
      cigarettes may cause lung cancer.
  45. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Driving too
      fast often results in traffic accidents.
  46. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: It became
      dark so we decided to stop for the night.
  47. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Due to
      industrial action this shop will be closed tomorrow.
  48. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: He studies
      Chinese because he is very interested in oriental cultures.
  49. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: She drank too
      much alcohol when she was younger. As a result, she has liver problems
      now.
  50. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Father drinks
      too much coffee, thus he has insomnia.
  51. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: He has not
      eaten for three days. Therefore he cannot think of anything except
      food.
  52. Translate into Russian: average temperature
  53. Identify the time indicator: When she was a child she dreamed to go to
      Italy.
  54. Identify the time indicator: It was May when they met for the first
      time.
  55. Identify the time indicator: After she had learned the news, she left
      the house.
  56. Identify the time indicator: The lessons start at 9 oclock.
  57. Identify the time indicator: He left the town after he had finished
      the school.
  58. Identify the time indicator: The child goes to bed at 10 oclock.
  59. Identify the time indicator: When he rang her up, she was out.
  60. Identify the time indicator: He speaks English fluently after his
      visit to the USA.
  61. Identify the time indicator: She was at home at 5 oclock.
  62. Identify the time indicator: They didnt meet often after their
      sisters death.
  63. Finish the statement:

       Communication occurs, when a sender gives a recipient ________.
  64. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Does the sender make the desired impression on the recipient?
  65. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Is the message convincing?
  66. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Does the sender give enough information?
  67. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Is the style of the message aimed at the recipient?
  68. Link the aspects with the types of communication, where they dominate:

      relational       advertising

      referential      quarrels

      appealing       personal letters, diaries

      expressive      informative texts
  69. Finish the statement:

      Information which is not expressed in the message is called
      __________.
  70. Finish the statement:

      The communication techniques which are aimed at covering up the
      sender's weaknesses are called ________ ________.
  71. State the following uttering true or false:

      The communication where the recipient interprets the message in the
      same way as the sender is called effective.
  72. State the following uttering true or false:

      What are the three dimensions of the relational aspect of a message?
  73. Find the opinion in the following sentences:

      Well, I do not think Frank is a good candidate. He drinks too much,
      chases women. He lacks responsibility, after all.
  74. Find the opinion in the following sentences:

      He is a Ph.D. in linguistics. I do not think he knows anything about
      explosives.
  75. Find the opinion in the following sentences:

      Cheap cars are not reliable. My Ford Scorpio breaks down every 1000
      miles. You should buy a Lexus, I tell you.
  76. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      Tyson is going to beat Foreman this time. My father said so.
  77. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      Buy this watch. It's cheap. Besides, it is a reliable brand, I hear.
  78. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      Look, he offers only $1000. It will be stupid to sell your car to him.
  79. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      We don't have enough money, John. Besides, we have not researched the
      market yet. It would be a suicide to start our business now.
  80. Try to carry out a for/so test in the following sentences where
      possible:

       Jane's done a great job this time. I guess it's high time she got a
      promotion.
  81. Try to carry out a for/so test in the following sentences where
      possible:

      will not buy this equipment: I just cannot afford it.
  82. Finish the statement:

      Among the signals of argumentation there are phrases that refer to a
      large piece of text. Those are called ________ ________.
  83. Finish the statement:

      The phrases which refer to shorter pieces of text, or sentences are
      ________
  84. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      As the crime rate in this part of the city is so high, the rent should
      not be so expensive.
  85. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences: I have to go home.
      Its late.
  86. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I dont have much money. I cant buy this wonderful dress.
  87. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I got up at 8 oclock. I was late for the train.
  88. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      He didnt study much. He failed the exam.
  89. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      He is very sociable. He has many friends.
  90. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      His parents are very strict. He has to be at home at 9 oclock.
  91. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      He married her. She is very beautiful.
  92. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I have heard about this writer. He is famous.
  93. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I am very much interested in the subject. I will read the article.
  94. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      Nothing can be done to improve the situation now. We can not deplete
      the forces, which are necessary to defend our own country.
  95. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      Jane will probably drop out of the course, because he hasn't done a
      thing.
  96. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      Drunk driving is dangerous. Your reaction is slowed down when you are
      drunk. Besides, you can not adequately control the situation in this
      condition.
  97. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      Jim will certainly drop out of this language course. His attendance
      rate is low. Furthermore, he has no language abilities.
  98. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      She will not make a good teacher. She is intolerant to her students.
      Apart from this - she's said she does not like teaching.
  99. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      Computers can not substitute human teachers. Computers can only
      operate within their programs. What is even more important, they can
      never provide human communication, which is necessary in the learning
      process.
 100. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      I do not think she is Japanese. Her skin is too dark. Japanese don't
      usually have such dark skin.
 101. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      It could not have been Patrick. He does not know your phone number.
      Also, he  never calls anybody so late.
 102. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      This textbook is not good for the course I teach. It is outdated.
      Another reason is - that it is designed for more advanced level.
 103. Define the type of argumentation (multiple, simple, subordinate) in
      the following sentences where possible:

      It is better to buy branded clothes than an obscure brand. You get
      value for money, for branded clothes keep their shape much longer.
 104. Assess the type of argumentation.

      You should not drink so much coffee in the evening, you will have
      insomnia.
 105. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Russian cars are not reliable. My father bought a new Lada, and it
      broke down three times during the first week.
 106. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Smoking causes miscarriage. Dr. Matthew Jones told me that last week.
 107. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Frank has 25 years' driving experience. He is an excellent driver.
 108. Assess the type of argumentation.

      We should all cooperate with the police, this would facilitate their
      job and lower   the crime rate.
 109. Assess the type of argumentation.

      The weather forecast announced that it will be slippery tomorrow. I
      think will go by subway, instead of driving.
 110. Assess the type of argumentation.

      I never let my wife drive when it is slippery. She will sure get into
      an accident.
 111. Assess the type of fallacy:

      Don't ask George for legal advice. How can you listen to someone who
      has broken more laws than one could know?
 112. Assess the type of fallacy:

      - This computer is not really cheap.

      -I would not say it is expensive. Look at the other brands.
 113. Assess the type of fallacy:

      Listen, you all should work harder. You don't want those guys from
      Poole and

      Kent to beat you, do you?
 114. Translate into English: 
 115. Translate into English: ,  
 116. Translate into English:  
 117. Translate into Russian: This statement should be proven.
 118. Translate into English:   
 119. Translate into English:  
 120. Translate into English:   
 121. Translate into English: 
 122. Translate into English:   ,    .
 123. Translate into English:  
 124. Translate into English:  
 125. Translate into English:  
 126. Translate into English: 
 127. Translate into Russian: subordinate argumentation
 128. Translate into Russian: multiple argumentation
 129. Translate into Russian: considering the fact
 130. Translate into Russian: to outline facts
 131. Translate into Russian: to justify the conclusion
 132. Translate into Russian: masked argumentation
 133. Complete the sentence:

      A question stating a problem or a situation, the main question that
      should be answered in the course of your report is called
      _________________.
 134. Complete the sentence:

      The first stage of the research is called ________ ________.
 135. Complete the sentence:

      The main types of reports are _______, ________and ________.
 136. Complete the sentence:

      Gathering and interpretation of data, facts and figures are the most
      important  activities in purely ________ ________.
 137. Complete the sentence:

      The definition of the problem should be stated in _____________.
 138. Complete the sentence:

      The components of a definition of a problem are:
 139. Complete the sentence:

      A diagram that, by means of its branches, indicates the relationships
      between  pieces of information is ... .
 140. Complete the sentence:

      Paragraphing a text can be regarded as a part of... .
 141. Answer the question:

      How many principles of classification per joint should be used in a
      tree diagram?
 142. Answer the question:

      What is the classification based on time principle especially useful
      for?
 143. Complete the sentence:

      Every start of a new branch in a tree diagram is called ...
 144. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: nevertheless -
 145. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: that is why -
 146. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: after this -
 147. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express:   in brief -
 148. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: for example -
 149. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: provided -
 150. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: so-
 151. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: besides -
 152. Give a plain English equivalent: persons-
 153. Give a plain English equivalent: interim (noun)
 154. Give a plain English equivalent: pursuant to
 155. Complete the sentence: The definition of the problem is a question ...
 156. Complete the sentence: The structure of a report becomes visible in
      ...
 157. Complete the sentence: In a policy making report you try to tell ...
 158. Complete the sentence: A paragraph is ...
 159. Complete the sentence: The foreword is used to ...
 160. Complete the sentence: The table of contents offers the reader a
      possibility to ...
 161. Complete the sentence: The table of contents reflects ...
 162. Provide an official term with the following meaning: repay -
 163. Provide an official term with the following meaning: need, have to,
      require -
 164. Provide an official term with the following meaning: cut -
 165. Provide an official term with the following meaning: carry out, do
 166. Provide an official term with the following meaning: right -
 167. Provide an official term with the following meaning: evidence, proof,
      support -
 168. Provide an official term with the following meaning: set up, create,
      form -
 169. Provide an official term with the following meaning: send, give -
 170. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      How has the American market for company software developed in the past
      ten years and how big is the market share of the ten most important
      manufacturers?
 171. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      How attractive is car leasing for the self-employed?
 172. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What is the reason for the alarming increase of environmental
      pollution?
 173. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What approach should governments adopt to decrease international
      terrorism?
 174. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What has been the increase in the market share of foreign car dealers
      in Japan for  the last 2 years?
 175. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      Why has the number of drug addicts in the USA increased by 18% since
      1997?
 176. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      How effective is the new law, which was ratified by the Russian
      parliament more than 5 months ago in order to reduce corruption?
 177. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What will be the share of Japanese products in the American market in
      the next 3 years?
 178. Translate into English:  
 179. Translate into English:     
 180. Translate into English: 
 181. Translate into English: 
 182. Translate into English:   
 183. Translate into English:  
 184. Translate into Russian: accordingly
 185. Translate into Russian: subsequently
 186. Translate into Russian: correspondingly
 187. Translate into Russian: similarly
 188. Translate into Russian: as a result
 189. Translate into Russian: basically
 190. Translate into Russian: therefore
 191. Give both the American and British spellings of the following Russian
      words: ; ; ; ; .
 192. Define when the definite article the with the word hospital is used
      and not used in American and British English.
 193. Define when the definite article the with the word kindergarten is
      used and not used in American and British English.
 194. Define when the definite article the with the word school is used
      and not used in American and British English.
 195. Define when the definite article the with the word college is used
      and not used in American and British English.
 196. Define when the definite article the with the word university is
      used and not used in American and British English.
 197. List the personal pronouns when the modal verb will is used  in
      America.
 198. The modal verb shall in England is used:
 199. List the personal pronouns when the modal verb will is used in
      England.
 200. Describe the difference in verb conjugation for plural group nouns in
      England and America.
 201. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

             10 .
 202. Give the equivalent to one centimeter in inches.
 203. Give the equivalent to one mile in feet.
 204. Give the equivalent to one gallon in pints.
 205. Give the equivalent to one pint in cups.
 206. Give the equivalent to one quart in gallons.
 207. Give the equivalent to one pint in quarts.
 208. Show the formula to translate Fahrenheit into Celsius.
 209. Give the equivalent in American pounds to one British tonne.
 210. Give the equivalent of one British stone in American pounds.
 211. Translate the sentence into American English:

          2 .
 212. Translate the sentence into American English:

       ,       .
 213. Translate the sentence into American English:

       .
 214. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,  -     .
 215. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

           .
 216. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,      5 .
 217. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

          .
 218. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,     ?
 219. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

        ,      .
 220. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

         .
 221. List the British monetary coin units in order from least to most in
      monetary worth.
 222. List the American monetary coin units in order from least to most in
      monetary worth.
 223. List the American monetary coin units in order of size from smallest
      to largest in diameter.
 224. Give the American equivalent to the British quid.
 225. Give the British equivalent to the American buck.
 226. Give the history of the slang phrase buck in America.
 227. List the bank note (paper money) denominations used in the United
      States.
 228. Explain how mens pants, slacks, and jeans are measured in the United
      States.
 229. Explain how mens dress shirts and other shirts are measured in the
      United States.
 230. Explain how mens shoes and socks are measured in the United States.
 231. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          !
 232. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        .
 233. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          !
 234. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

           ,    .
 235. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

            .
 236. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        ,    .
 237. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        ,       .
 238. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

             .
 239. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,   .
 240. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,    3     , 
      .
 241. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,    .
 242. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

      ,     .
 243. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

             .
 244. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

           .
 245. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       ,  ,   ,   
      .
 246. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       .  ,     .
 247. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          !    .
 248. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       ,      ,    
      .
 249. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,   .
 250. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        ,    .
 251. List the questions that should be answered in the first two paragraphs
      in media English or newspaper articles.
 252. Define sub-dialect.
 253. Define sub-subdialect.
 254. Explain why dialects occur.
 255. Explain the influence(s) that Quebec has(have) on North American
      English.
 256. List Canadas dialects.
 257. Describe the subdialect of the Appalachians in the United States.
 258. Describe the subdialect of the Southern United States.
 259. Describe the subdialect of Texas.
 260. Describe the subdialect of the Rocky Mountain/West Coast area of the
      United States.
 261. Describe the subdialect of Hawaii.
 262. Give a synonym for the word district which is only used in New York
      City.
 263. Describe the sub-subdialects  of New York City.
 264. Describe the sub-subdialect of Chicago.
 265. Describe the sub-subdialect of Boston.
 266. Describe the sub-subdialect of Washington, D.C.
 267. Name the chief distinguishing feature which divides England into a
      North and South dialect.
 268. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give me it.
 269. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give it me.
 270. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give it to me.
 271. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give me.
 272. Define Scots language.
 273. Define the Scottish vowel-length rule.
 274. Define the velar fricative which is used in Scotland.
 275. Define the glottal stop which is used in Scotland.
 276. In the Scottish dialect, give the plural for the following singular
      nouns: leaf, eye, knife, shoes.
 277. Show the three forms (present, past, perfect tenses) of the following
      verbs in the Scottish dialect: to go, to hang, to laugh.
 278. Describe auxiliary verb usage in the Scottish dialect.
 279. List the languages that influence the Scottish dialect.
 280. Translate the following sentence from the Shetland dialect into modern
      English: Da twa languages melled tagidder to mak da tongue we caa
      Shetlandic; diswis English-osed by da Kirk, da laacoorts an id skols.
 281. Describe the history of the Welsh dialect of the English language.
 282. Name the letter-sound that does not exist in the Welsh dialect of
      English.
 283. Explain tag question usage in the Welsh dialect of English.
 284. Describe the history of the Irish dialect of the English language.
 285. Show how the th fricative is pronounced in the Irish dialect of the
      English language.
 286. Describe the rule in pronunciation (transcription) for the consonant
      clusters st, sn, sl in the Irish dialect of the English dialect.
      Give at least two examples of each (6 words) consonant cluster and
      show their Irish pronunciation.
 287. Describe the use of the word after in the Irish dialect of the English
      language.
 288. Describe the use of the auxiliary verb to be in the Irish dialect of
      the English language.
 289. Describe the use of the prepositions on, of and from in the
      Irish dialect of the English language.
 290. Show the equivalent of the subordinate clause markers when, while,
      and if in the Irish dialect of the English language.
 291. Give the suffix used in the Irish dialect of the English language used
      to express the diminutive, or smallness.
 292. List the areas of the world where Hiberno-English is used or
      influences the English language.
 293. Describe the use of the word whenever used in Ulster (Ireland), New
      Zealand and Australia.
 294. Describe the history of Caribbean English.
 295. Translate the following sentence from English into Caribbean English:
      The fish was caught yesterday.
 296. Translate the following sentence from English into Caribbean English:
      Are you drinking coffee?
 297. Describe the Creole Hypothesis in the Caribbean.
 298. Define Creole.
 299. Define Pidgin.
 300. According to Caribbean Creole, explain verb conjugation in the present
      tense.
 301. According to Caribbean Creole, explain adverb usage.
 302. According to Caribbean Creole, explain how possession is expressed.
 303. Describe the usage of the singular third person pronouns (he/she) in
      West African Pidgins.
 304. According to Caribbean Creole, explain how continuous actions (present
      continuous, past continuous verb constructions) are expressed.
 305. According to Caribbean Creole, explain how completed actions (past
      indefinite verb constructions) are expressed.
 306. According to Caribbean Creole, explain how verb negation is expressed.
 307. Describe Australian English.
 308. Describe the influence(s) of Aborigines on the Australian dialect of
      the English language.
 309. List the four influences on the New Zealand dialect of the English
      language.
 310. Define Maori.
 311. Besides the Australian dialect, name one more additional English
      dialect that presently affects the New Zealand dialect.
 312. Explain how the Maori language affects the New Zealand dialect.
 313. Name the influences on the English language in South Africa.
 314. Define Anglikaans.
 315. Explain the use of yes and no in the South African dialect of the
      English language.
 316. Describe the history of South African Indian English.
 317. Name two English dialects where reduplication of one word is used to
      show emphasis or plural.
 318. Name the English dialect where the verb is often found in the end
      position (at the end of the sentence).
 319. Explain how North Americans pronounce the closed vowel a-sound.
 320. Compare the -lk- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.
 321. Compare the -tu- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.
 322. Compare the -du- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.
 323. Compare the sch- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.
 324. List the areas in North America where French influences the North
      American dialect.
 325. List the areas in North America where Spanish influences the North
      American dialect.
 326. List the areas in North America where Japanese influences the North
      American dialect.
 327. List the Areas in North America where Polynesian influences the North
      American dialect.
 328. Name the area in North America where the speech rapidity is the
      quickest.
 329. Name the area in North America where the speech rapidity is the
      slowest.
 330. Define Tex-Mex.
 331. Explain what influences English in the state of Louisiana.
 332. Explain what influences English in the state of Florida.
 333. Explain why the following statement is false: The Rocky Mountain/West
      Coast area of the United States is the only subdialect without an
      accent.
 334. Give a proper answer to the following question in the Irish dialect:
      Will you turn the light off?
 335. Explain how questions are asked using the Caribbean dialect of the
      English language.
 336. Explain why a verb may be brought to the front of a sentence in the
      Western African dialect of the English language.
 337. Describe how nouns are made plural in the Caribbean dialect of the
      English language.
 338. Explain why and which dialects use multiple negation in sentence
      structure.
 339. Explain how the past tense of a verb is shown in Caribbean Creole.
 340. Define Affixes.
 341. Give the two main distinctive features in defining an Australian
      accent.
 342. Define Tasmanian English.
 343. Define evening as it is used in Queensland, Australia.
 344. Name the dialect of the English language which contains the most loan
      words from Polynesian languages.
 345. Besides Maori, name two more foreign languages that have given loan
      words to the New Zealand dialect.
 346. Of all English speaking countries, name the only country where English
      is spoken by the minority of the population.
 347. Compare the /r/ sound in closed syllables between the North American
      and British pronunciations.
 348. Name the foreign languages that effect speech in Alaska.
 349. List the areas in England where one might hear He aint here. for
      He isnt here.
 350. Define Dialect Island.
 351. Translate the word hesitate into the Scottish dialect.
 352. Translate the word direction into the Scottish dialect.
 353. Translate the following phrase from Standard English into the Irish
      dialect: Who does this book belong to?
 354. Translate the following phrase from the Irish dialect into Standard
      English: Hes the rest of yourself.
 355. Translate the following phrase from Creole into Standard English: She
      see he come, take he coat and go.
 356. Translate the following phrase from Australian into Standard English:
      within cooee.
 357. Translate the following phrase from the Irish dialect into Standard
      English: They are after arriving.
 358. Explain the rule of stress on words containing three or more syllables
      in the Irish dialect.
 359. Explain what are the differences between American and British
      spelling.
 360. Name the countries where British English is spoken.
 361. Name the countries where American English is spoken.
 362. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      cannot, plant, grass, address.

      Write transcriptions.
 363. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      cart, discord, record, short.

      Write transcriptions.
 364. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      arm, corn, brother, order.

      Write transcriptions.
 365. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      alarm, mother, cord, mark.

      Write transcriptions.
 366. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      important, morning, sister, march.

      Write transcriptions.
 367. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      import, morn, bar, bard.

      Write transcriptions.
 368. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      export, card, moveble, pork.

      Write transcriptions.
 369. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      March, choir, back, father.

      Write transcriptions.
 370. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      chalk, talk, tarantula, schedule.

      Write transcriptions.



                         
             .  

                                    1

 371. Complete the definition: A loud ringing sound is called ...
 372. Identify the time indicator: They didnt meet often after their
      sisters death.
 373. What way of ending a dispute do the following means correspond to?

      Voting
 374. Assess the type of argumentation.

      The weather forecast announced that it will be slippery tomorrow. I
      think will go by subway, instead of driving.
 375. Answer the question:

      What are the 2 ways to introduce structure redundancy in a text?
 376. Translate into English:   
 377. Translate the sentences from British English to American English:

      a) After I leave school, I want to go to university.

      b) Excuse me, where is the university, please?
 378. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

             .
 379. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give it to me.
 380. Explain how questions are asked using the Caribbean dialect of the
      English language.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    2

   1. Put the words in the correct order:

      Used aircraft is the aluminum of manufacture in.
 381. Identify the time indicator: He left the town after he had finished
      the school.
 382. Finish the statement:

      Information which is not expressed in the message is called
      __________.
 383. Translate into English:  
 384. Complete the sentence: Long examples are called ...
 385. Translate into English: 
 386. Give the equivalent to one centimeter in inches.
 387. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,   .
 388. Define Maori.
 389. Compare the -du- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    3

   2. Complete the definition:

      The political system which aims at public ownership of the means of
      production is called ....
 390. Identify the time indicator: When he rang her up, she was out.
 391. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Does the sender make the desired impression on the recipient?
 392. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      This textbook is not good for the course I teach. It is outdated.
      Another reason is - that it is designed for more advanced level.
 393. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express:   in brief -
 394. Translate into English: 
 395. It is -13?C in Moscow. How warm is it in Fahrenheit?
 396. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

           ,    .
 397. Describe the subdialect of the Rocky Mountain/West Coast area of the
      United States.
 398. Name the area in North America where the speech rapidity is the
      slowest.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    4

   3. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      A separate movable seat for one person, usually with a back and in
      some cases with arms.
 399. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: It costs a lot of money to buy a new car. Similarly, it is
      quite expensive to fix a used one.
 400. Finish the statement:

      The phrases which refer to shorter pieces of text, or sentences are
      ________
 401. Translate into English:  
 402. Complete the sentence:

      The literal citation of a part of another publication is called ....
 403. Give an English equivalent: en bloc -
 404. Translate the sentence into American English:

       ,       .
 405. Describe the difference in mens shoe sizes in England and in the
      United States.
 406. List the languages that influence the Scottish dialect.
 407. Define Tex-Mex.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    5

   4. Put the words in the correct order:

      Who bores you what know tell are you already people.
 408. Translate into English:  
 409. Find the signals of arguments in the following sentence:

      Considering the fact that smoking causes lung cancer, it is advisable
      that we should restrict it in public places.
 410. Translate into English: 
 411. Complete the sentence: A (very) complete report contains the following
      parts: ...
 412. Translate into English: 
 413. Give both the American and British spellings of the following Russian
      words:

      ; ; ;  ;  ().
 414. Give the British equivalent to the American phrase: Lets get back to
      the subject.
 415. Define the Scottish vowel-length rule.
 416. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      chalk, talk, tarantula, schedule.

      Write transcriptions.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    6

   5. Complete the definition:

      A person who is not, or who is not considered to be, a member of a
      group, society, etc. is called ...
 417. Identify the markers of comparison / contrast in the following
      sentences:

      The children dont look like their mother.
 418. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: The film is very interesting.
      Tom and Ann says.
 419. Translate into English:  
 420. Complete the sentence:

      Every start of a new branch in a tree diagram is called ...
 421. Translate into English: 
 422. It is -5?C in Moscow. How warm is it in Fahrenheit?
 423. Explain how mens dress shirts and other shirts are measured in the
      United States.
 424. Describe the history of the Irish dialect of the English language.
 425. List the areas in North America where French influences the North
      American dialect.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    7

   6. Complete the definition:

      Salted or smoked meat from the back or sides of a pig is called ...
 426. Identify the time indicator: She doesnt watch TV in the evening.
 427. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: He is a Ph.D. in linguistics. I
      tell you.
 428. Translate into English: 
 429. Complete the sentence: The definition of the problem is a question ...
 430. Translate into Russian: as a result
 431. Define when the definite article the with the word kindergarten is
      used and not used in American and British English.
 432. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         .
 433. Name the chief distinguishing feature which divides England into a
      North and South dialect.
 434. List the areas in England where one might hear He aint here. for
      He isnt here.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                    8

   7. Put the words in the correct order:

      Weaving cloth is a fibers made material by.
 435. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: Gold and silver differ with respect to cost.
 436. Finish the statement:

      The part of the response from which the sender can infer the way his
      message has been received is called _______ .
 437. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Last time I went sunbathing I got sunburnt. I guess if I go sunbathing
      with you now it will happen again.
 438. Give a plain English equivalent: pursuant to
 439. Provide an official term with the following meaning: evidence, proof,
      support -
 440. Translate the sentence into American English:

       .
 441. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        .
 442. Translate the following sentence from English into Caribbean English:
      Are you drinking coffee?
 443. Explain what influences English in the state of Florida.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------


                         
             .  

                                    9

   8. Define the term: comparison -
 444. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: These two games are quite alike.
 445. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I am very much interested in the subject. I will read the article.
 446. Define the type of argumentation (multiple, simple, subordinate) in
      the following sentences where possible:

      It is better to buy branded clothes than an obscure brand. You get
      value for money, for branded clothes keep their shape much longer.
 447. Answer the question:

      What is the classification based on time principle especially useful
      for?
 448. Provide an official term with the following meaning: right -
 449. It is 15F. How much is it in Celcius?
 450. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       ,  ,   ,   
      .
 451. Describe the rule in pronunciation (transcription) for the consonant
      clusters st, sn, sl in the Irish dialect of the English dialect.
      Give at least two examples of each (6 words) consonant cluster and
      show their Irish pronunciation.
 452. Explain why a verb may be brought to the front of a sentence in the
      Western African dialect of the English language.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   10

   9. Paraphrase the following sentences choosing one of the given
      expressions of place.

      Expressions: between of, among, opposite, round, in front of

      Before us there is a parking lot.
 453. Identify the agent: A Russian biologist was approached recently by
      American intelligence agents, asking him to reveal some points of his
      research.
 454. Find the opinion in the following sentences:

      Cheap cars are not reliable. My Ford Scorpio breaks down every 1000
      miles. You should buy a Lexus, I tell you.
 455. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      Jane will probably drop out of the course, because he hasn't done a
      thing.
 456. Give a plain English equivalent: persons-
 457. Translate into English: 
 458. Give the equivalent to one pint in quarts.
 459. Explain how mens shoes and socks are measured in the United States.
 460. Describe Australian English.
 461. Explain why and which dialects use multiple negation in sentence
      structure.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   11

  10. Complete the definition:

      A sharp blade with a handle, used as a cutting instrument or as a
      weapon is called ...
 462. Identify the time indicator: When she was a child she dreamed to go to
      Italy.
 463. Find the signals of arguments in the following sentence:

      Marlboro Lights is a well established proven brand. The percentage of
      tar and nicotine is really low. That's why I prefer it to other brands
      available.
 464. Translate into Russian: It follows that
 465. Complete the sentence: Never present new information in your ...
 466. Translate into English:  
 467. It is 3?C. How much is it in Fahrenheit?
 468. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        . ?      ?  
       ,   .
 469. Show the equivalent of the subordinate clause markers when, while,
      and if in the Irish dialect of the English language.
 470. Explain the rule of stress on words containing three or more syllables
      in the Irish dialect.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------


                         
             .  

                                   12

  11. Complete the definition:

      A structure of wood, store, brick-work, steel, etc. providing a way
      across a river, canal, railway, etc. is called ...
 471. Identify the time indicator: The child goes to bed at 10 oclock.
 472. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: He is an expert in the field.
      Tom says.
 473. Assess the type of fallacy:

      I am the author of this book, because I wrote it.
 474. Answer the question:

      How many principles of classification per joint should be used in a
      tree diagram?
 475. Translate into English:   ,   
 476. It is 5?C in Moscow. How warm is it in Fahrenheit?
 477. Give the British equivalent to the American phrase: Ill eat my hat if
      it isnt so.
 478. Describe the sub-subdialect of Boston.
 479. Define Anglikaans.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   13

  12. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      duck, law, medicine, outsider, rice.

      The art and science of the prevention and cure of disease.
 480. Find a sequencer which refers to the beginning of the process: at the
      same time, finally, subsequently, firstly, next
 481. Find the signals of arguments in the following sentence:

      This project is much too expensive, so the construction plans should
      be revised.
 482. Translate into Russian: basic form
 483. Complete the sentence: In a policy making report you try to tell ...
 484. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What is the reason for the alarming increase of environmental
      pollution?
 485. Give the equivalent in American pounds to one British tonne.
 486. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

      !   !
 487. Describe the subdialect of Texas.
 488. Translate the following phrase from the Irish dialect into Standard
      English: They are after arriving.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   14

  13. Put the words in the correct order:

      Which commonly beings is a used by human drug tobacco is.
 489. Translate into Russian:  In front of us there is a group of five human-
      like creatures.
 490. Finish the statement:

      Among the signals of argumentation there are phrases that refer to a
      large piece of text. Those are called ________ ________.
 491. Translate into English:  
 492. Give a plain English equivalent: interim (noun)
 493. Translate into Russian: to establish relationship
 494. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,     ?
 495. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

             .
 496. Define the glottal stop which is used in Scotland.
 497. Give the two main distinctive features in defining an Australian
      accent.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   15

  14. Complete the definition:

      Pearl-white grain used as a staple food everywhere is called ...
 498. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: The Japanese like to travel abroad. The Germans, likewise,
      can be considered one of the most traveling nations.
 499. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: He is a famous writer. The
      teacher says.
 500. Assess the type of fallacy:

      Listen, you all should work harder. You don't want those guys from
      Poole and

      Kent to beat you, do you?
 501. Complete the sentence:

      Gathering and interpretation of data, facts and figures are the most
      important  activities in purely ________ ________.
 502. Translate into English:  
 503. Define when the definite article the with the word school is used
      and not used in American and British English.
 504. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        -   . ,   , 
       .
 505. Define sub-dialect.
 506. Name the countries where British English is spoken.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   16

  15. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      spatial, opposite, between, behind, across
 507. Translate into Russian: average temperature
 508. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      His parents are very strict. He has to be at home at 9 oclock.
 509. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      Nothing can be done to improve the situation now. We can not deplete
      the forces, which are necessary to defend our own country.
 510. Complete the sentence: The foreword is used to ...
 511. Provide an official term with the following meaning: need, have to,
      require -
 512. List the personal pronouns when the modal verb will is used  in
      America.
 513. Give the history of the slang phrase buck in America.
 514. Describe the sub-subdialect of Washington, D.C.
 515. Compare the sch- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   17

  16. Complete the definition:

      A small, grey animal living in holes in the earth and going about at
      night is called ...
 516. Identify the markers of comparison / contrast in the following
      sentences:

      Her daughter is the same age as my son.
 517. Find the opinion in the following sentences:

      Let's go for a drive tomorrow. It is raining cats and dogs today.
 518. Translate into Russian: masked argumentation
 519. Complete the sentence: The table of contents offers the reader a
      possibility to ...
 520. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What will be the share of Japanese products in the American market in
      the next 3 years?
 521. Give both the American and British spellings of the following Russian
      words: ; ; ; ; .
 522. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       -   ,    .
 523. Describe the use of the word after in the Irish dialect of the English
      language.
 524. Of all English speaking countries, name the only country where English
      is spoken by the minority of the population.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   18

  17. Correctly add a word or a word group to a sentence.

      The long 1..., shallow waters of the lake 2..., which stretches 155
      miles 3... and up to 35 miles 4... east to west, sparkle green in the
      tropical sun: someone called it - the Jade Sea, a very apt name.

      Word group: north to south
 525. Identify the time indicator: He speaks English fluently after his
      visit to the USA.
 526. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences: I have already read
      the article.
 527. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      She will not make a good teacher. She is intolerant to her students.
      Apart from this - she's said she does not like teaching.
 528. Complete the sentence: Put your main statement at ... or ...
 529. Translate into English:     
 530. Translate the sentences from British English to American English:

      a) Mrs. Kelly goes to church every Sunday.

      b) The workmen went to the church to repair the roof.
 531. Transfer the following phrase into the interrogative and the negative,
      showing both the American and British variants: She has two sisters
      and one brother.
 532. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give it me.
 533. Define Tasmanian English.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   19

  18. Complete the definition:

      Readiness to give pain or cause suffering to others is called ...
 534. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Father drinks
      too much coffee, thus he has insomnia.
 535. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      Look, he offers only $1000. It will be stupid to sell your car to him.
 536. Translate into English:   
 537. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: so-
 538. Translate into Russian: insufficient amount of money
 539. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,      5 .
 540. Explain how mens pants, slacks, and jeans are measured in the United
      States.
 541. Describe the subdialect of Hawaii.
 542. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      alarm, mother, cord, mark.

      Write transcriptions.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------


                         
             .  

                                   20

  19. Complete the definition:

      A small, domestic, fur-covered animal often kept as a pet, to catch
      mice is called ...
 543. Identify the markers of comparison / contrast in the following
      sentences:

      They both go in for sports.
 544. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      He married her. She is very beautiful.
 545. Translate into English:   
 546. Complete the sentence:

      The main types of reports are _______, ________and ________.
 547. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      How has the American market for company software developed in the past
      ten years and how big is the market share of the ten most important
      manufacturers?
 548. It is -3?C. How much is it in Fahrenheit?
 549. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          !    .
 550. Describe the history of Caribbean English.
 551. Explain how the past tense of a verb is shown in Caribbean Creole.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   21

  20. Complete the definition:

      A separate movable seat for one person, usually with a back and in
      some cases with arms is called ...
 552. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Driving too
      fast often results in traffic accidents.
 553. Try to carry out a for/so test in the following sentences where
      possible:

      will not buy this equipment: I just cannot afford it.
 554. Assess the type of fallacy:

      The ecology became worse, because there are too many satellites near
      the Earth.
 555. Give a plain English equivalent: polemical -
 556. Give an English equivalent: per diem-
 557. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

            .
 558. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

               , 
       .
 559. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give me.
 560. Translate the following phrase from Standard English into the Irish
      dialect: Who does this book belong to?



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   22

  21. Complete the definition:

      Something that happens without a cause that can be seen at once,
      usually something unfortunate and undesirable is called ...
 561. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: The wallpaper in my house is the same color as that in my
      parents' apartment.
 562. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      I dont have much money. I cant buy this wonderful dress.
 563. Assess the type of fallacy:

      We should not allow immigrants to enter this country. One day there
      will be  nobody to speak our native language.
 564. Answer the question:

      What should be the chapter number of a foreword?
 565. Below you will find a definition of the problem. Indicate whether it
      is descriptive, evaluative or policy-making. In the case of a
      descriptive definition of the problem also indicate the subtype.

      What approach should governments adopt to decrease international
      terrorism?
 566. Define when the definite article the with the word college is used
      and not used in American and British English.
 567. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

           .
 568. Explain why dialects occur.
 569. Define Dialect Island.



                                                               . 
                          --------------------------------------------------



                         
             .  

                                   23

  22. Complete the definition:

      A rule made by authority for the proper regulation of a community or
      society or for correct conduct in life is called ...
 570. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Due to
      industrial action this shop will be closed tomorrow.
 571. Find the signals of arguments in the following sentence:

      Contrary to what you have just said, I admit that American legal
      system does not suit this country.
 572. Translate into Russian: to justify the conclusion
 573. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: besides -
 574. Translate into Russian: therefore
 575. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

           .
 576. Give the British equivalent to the American buck.
 577. Describe the sub-subdialect of Chicago.
 578. Translate the following phrase from Creole into Standard English: She
      see he come, take he coat and go.



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                                   24

  23. Complete the definition:

      A figure which has four equal sides and four right angles is called
      ....
 579. Identify the agent: The newspaper reports that in most American
      universities the application fee will be increased.
 580. Which of the aspects do the following questions correspond to?

      Is the message convincing?
 581. Define the type of argumentation (multiple, simple, subordinate) in
      the following sentences where possible:

      Computers can never substitute a real teacher. However, they are good
      as an aid in the teaching process.
 582. Complete the sentence:

      The definition of the problem should be stated in _____________.
 583. Provide an official term with the following meaning: start, begin -
 584. Give the equivalent of one British stone in American pounds.
 585. List the American monetary coin units in order of size from smallest
      to largest in diameter.
 586. Describe the use of the prepositions on, of and from in the
      Irish dialect of the English language.
 587. Explain why the following statement is false: The Rocky Mountain/West
      Coast area of the United States is the only subdialect without an
      accent.



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                                   25

  24. Odd Man Out - Find the different word:

      likewise, similarly, correspondingly, conversely, analogously
 588. Identify the time indicator: The lessons start at 9 oclock.
 589. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      certainly disagree, for this project has no future.
 590. Assess the type of argumentation.

      We should all cooperate with the police, this would facilitate their
      job and lower   the crime rate.
 591. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: in spite of
 592. Give an English equivalent:  per capita -
 593. Translate the sentences from British English to American English:

      a) My brother is very ill in hospital.

      b) When Ann was ill, we all went to the hospital to visit her.
 594. Give the British equivalent to the American phrase: I have a bone to
      pick with you.
 595. Describe the sub-subdialects  of New York City.
 596. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      cart, discord, record, short.

      Write transcriptions.



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             .  

                                   26

  25. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      duck, law, medicine, outsider, rice.

      A rule made by authority for the proper regulation of a community or
      society or for correct conduct in life.
 597. Identify the markers of comparison/ contrast in the following
      sentences: I prefer dark suits, unlike my brother who likes to wear
      white.
 598. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: He is not reliable. My mum
      says.
 599. Find the signals of multiple argumentation in the following sentences:

      I do not think she is Japanese. Her skin is too dark. Japanese don't
      usually have such dark skin.
 600. Complete the sentence: A paragraph is ...
 601. Translate into English:  
 602. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

         .
 603. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

           .
 604. Define Scots language.
 605. Compare the -tu- combination in regard to pronunciation between the
      North Americans and British.



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             .  

                                   27

  26. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      duck, law, medicine, outsider, rice.

      Pearl-white grain used as a stable food everywhere.
 606. Find a cause - effect marker in the following sentences: Smoking
      cigarettes may cause lung cancer.
 607. Find the signals of argument(s) where possible:

      am sure he will be executed. He has killed two people, after all.
 608. Translate into English: ,  
 609. Complete the sentence: Make sure that your summary is ... not ...
 610. Give an English equivalent: per annum -
 611. Give both the American and British spellings of the following Russian
      words:

      ; ; ; ; .
 612. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,   ,    
      .
 613. Name the area(s) in England where you may hear the following word
      order: ...give me it.
 614. Name the foreign languages that effect speech in Alaska.



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             .  

                                   28

  27. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      A loud ringing sound.
 615. Identify the time indicator: It was May when they met for the first
      time.
 616. What way of ending a dispute do the following means correspond to?

      Reaching consensus
 617. Translate into Russian: common knowledge arguments
 618. Give a plain English equivalent: remittance -
 619. Translate into Russian: accordingly
 620. Give both the American and British spellings of the following Russian
      words:

      ; ; ; ; .
 621. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          !
 622. Describe the influence(s) of Aborigines on the Australian dialect of
      the English language.
 623. Translate the following phrase from Australian into Standard English:
      within cooee.



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             .  

                                   29

  28. Complete the definition:

      An appliance by which a door may be fastened with a bolt that needs a
      key to work it is called ...
 624. Identify the time indicator: After she had learned the news, she left
      the house.
 625. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: The play isnt worth seeing.
      Olga says.
 626. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Russian cars are not reliable. My father bought a new Lada, and it
      broke down three times during the first week.
 627. Complete the sentence: There are two types of redundancy ...
 628. Translate into English:  
 629. Define the difference in location with the prepositions in and on
      when referring to street names in England and America.
 630. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

               .
 631. Name the letter-sound that does not exist in the Welsh dialect of
      English.
 632. Besides Maori, name two more foreign languages that have given loan
      words to the New Zealand dialect.



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             .  

                                   30

  29. Paraphrase the following sentences choosing one of the given
      expressions of place.

      Expressions: between of, among, opposite, round, in front of

      The Abraham Moss Center is on the borders of Cheetham and Crumpshall.
 633. Identify the markers of comparison / contrast in the following
      sentences:

      Both tobacco and alcohol are injurious to health.
 634. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: Its a reliable brand,
      everybody says.
 635. Translate into English: 
 636. Complete the sentence: Evalutive research often contains ...
 637. Give an English equivalent: i.e.(idest)-
 638. List the personal pronouns when the modal verb will is used in
      England.
 639. Give the American equivalent to the British thirteenth floor.
 640. Describe the Creole Hypothesis in the Caribbean.
 641. Describe the history of South African Indian English.



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             .  

                                   31

  30. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      A small, grey animal living in holes in the earth and going about at
      might.
 642. Identify the time indicator: Once he came to power, it became obvious
      that the new pharaoh was a militarist.
 643. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences:

      He didnt study much. He failed the exam.
 644. Translate into English:   ,    .
 645. Complete the sentence:

      The components of a definition of a problem are:
 646. Provide an official term with the following meaning: repay -
 647. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

       ,  -     .
 648. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

         ,   .
 649. Describe the subdialect of the Southern United States.
 650. List the areas in North America where Japanese influences the North
      American dialect.



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             .  

                                   32

  31. Put the words in the correct order:

      Plant food to produce grown is cereal a which is.
 651. Identify the markers of comparison / contrast in the following
      sentences:

      Her skirt is the same colour as mine.
 652. Finish the statement:

      The communication techniques which are aimed at covering up the
      sender's weaknesses are called ________ ________.
 653. Assess the type of argumentation.

      You should not drink so much coffee in the evening, you will have
      insomnia.
 654. Complete the sentence: The table of contents reflects ...
 655. Provide an official term with the following meaning: send, give -
 656. Give the American and British equivalents to the adverb of time now
      when translating from Direct to Indirect Speech.
 657. List the American monetary coin units in order from least to most in
      monetary worth.
 658. List the areas of the world where Hiberno-English is used or
      influences the English language.
 659. Name the English dialect where the verb is often found in the end
      position (at the end of the sentence).



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             .  

                                   33

  32. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      An appliance for holding things together tightly by means of a screw.
 660. Identify the time indicator: When she was twelve she revealed her
      extraordinary abilities for the first time.
 661. Find the argument(s) in the sentences: The lift doesnt work. The
      neighbour says.
 662. Assess the type of argumentation.

      Smoking causes miscarriage. Dr. Matthew Jones told me that last week.
 663. What type of relations between paragraphs do the following linking
      words express: consecutive -
 664. Translate into English: -, -
 665. Give an American and a British translation to the Russian phrase:

           .
 666. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

          ,      .
 667. Describe the use of the auxiliary verb to be in the Irish dialect of
      the English language.
 668. Name the dialect of the English language which contains the most loan
      words from Polynesian languages.



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             .  

                                   34

  33. Choose a correct word which corresponds to the definition. List of
      words:

      clamp, clang, bacon, badger, chair.

      Salted or smoked meat from the back or sides of a pig.
 669. Identify the time indicator: It is a good thing to have some rest
      after lunch, it is a pity, the boss does not think so.
 670. Find the argument(s) in the following statements:

      We don't have enough money, John. Besides, we have not researched the
      market yet. It would be a suicide to start our business now.
 671. Translate into Russian: This statement should be proven.
 672. Complete the sentence:

      A diagram that, by means of its branches, indicates the relationships
      between  pieces of information is ... .
 673. Translate into English: 
 674. It is 75F. How much is it in Celcius?
 675. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

       ,      ,    
      .
 676. Give a synonym for the word district which is only used in New York
      City.
 677. Describe the differences of pronunciation in British and American
      English:

      March, choir, back, father.

      Write transcriptions.



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             .  

                                   35

  34. Complete the definition: Frozen water is called ...
 678. Find a sequencer which refers to the end of the process: first,
      initially, lastly, after this, then
 679. Try to carry out a for / so test in the sentences: I dont remember
      his number.
 680. Define the type of argumentation (multiple, simple, subordinate) in
      the following sentences where possible:

      You cannot use this fact in court. There is no proof to it. By the
      way, why not use the tape we have?
 681. Give a plain English equivalent: reside -
 682. Give an English equivalent: e.g. (exempli gratia)
 683. Translate the sentences from British English to American English:

      a) Kens brother is in prison for robbery.

      b) Ken went to the prison to visit his brother.
 684. Give the American and British equivalent to the Russian phrase:

        ,    .
 685. According to Caribbean Creole, explain how verb negation is expressed.
 686. List the Areas in North America where Polynesian influences the North
      American dialect.



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