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English Literature books summary

                    Last update: 17.12.2002 (version 3.1)

1) 1984 by G.Orwell    2
2) Animal Farm by G.Orwell   15
3) Childe Harold by G.G.Byron_____________________________________17
4) The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles 18
a) French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian 20
5) Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe   21
6) Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad  29
7) Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott    32
8) Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence   36
9) Lord of the Flies by W.Golding 38
10) Middlemarch by G.Eliot   42
11) Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens    55
a) The Poor Laws 63
b) What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean?     64
c) The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor. 65
12) A Passage to India by E.M.Forster   65
13) Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen    71
14) Pygmalion by B.Shaw      82
15) The Quiet American by G.Greene_________________________________86
16) Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe     87
17) The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde    92
18) The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946)  102
19) Ulysses by J.Joyce 103
20) Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray    109
21) William Shakespeare      117
a) Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars    117
i) A Midsummer Night's Dream      117
ii) The Merchant of Venice   118
iii) The Tragedy of Richard II    118
iv) Hamlet, Prince of Denmark     118
v) Othello  119
vi) King Lear, 1594    119
vii) The First Part of King Henry IV    119
viii) The Tragedy of Julius Caesar      120
ix) Macbeth 120
x) Romeo and Juliet    120
b) Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works      121
i) Hamlet   121
ii) King Lear    127
iii) Macbeth     133
iv) The Merchant of Venice   138
v) Othello  142
vi) Richard III  144
vii) Romeo and Juliet  149
viii) The Tempest      152
ix) Twelfth Night      153
22) Wuthering Heights  156

                              1984 by G.Orwell

Part 1
Chapter 1
      The book opens on a cold April  day  with  39-year-old  Winston  Smith
returning to his dilapidated flat in Victory Mansions.  The  hallway  sports
an enormous poster of a man known as "Big Brother"; the caption reads,  "BIG
BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU." The eyes of the poster seem to follow  Winston  as
he moves.
      Upon entering his flat, Winston dims the telescreen (where someone  is
reading statistics about pig-iron production), which  can  never  be  turned
off completely, and which both receives and transmits. Outside, Winston  can
see "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU" posters, a poster with the  word  "INGSOC"
on it, and the police patrol spying on people.
      Winston is living in London, the  predominant  city  of  the  province
known as Airstrip One in Oceania. Bombed sites reveal that some sort of  war
is going on. Winston tries to recall his childhood, to see  if  things  have
always been like this, but cannot.
      Outside his window stands the Ministry of Truth (a.k.a. "Minitrue"  in
Newspeak,  the  official  language  of  Oceania),  an   enormous   structure
displaying the three slogans of  _the  Party_:  WAR  IS  PEACE,  FREEDOM  IS
SLAVERY, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. There are four Ministries: the  Ministry  of
Truth  concerns  itself  with  the  spread  of  information  through   news,
entertainment, education and the  arts;  the  Ministry  of  Peace  (Minipax)
deals with war; the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) administers  law  and  order;
and the Ministry of Plenty (Miniplenty) handles economic affairs.
      After swallowing some shocking Victory Gin and plying himself  with  a
cheap  Victory  cigarette,  Winston  carefully  tucks  himself  out  of  the
telescreen's visual range with an old book, an old  pen  and  an  inkbottle.
These are compromising possessions, acquired through various means;  Winston
is secretly something of a rebel, unhappy with the status quo.  What  he  is
about to do--start a diary--is not "illegal" (since, we discover, there  are
no laws anymore), but is certainly life-threatening.
      Unused to writing by hand, Winston falters momentarily before  writing
"April 4th, 1984." He sits back, uncertain whether it actually is 1984,  and
he  suddenly  wonders  for  whom  he  is  writing.  Here  the   concept   of
_doublethink_ (see Analysis) hits him; his attempt to communicate  with  the
future is impossible, futile. He is no longer sure what he wanted to  write;
the moment has been  building  for  weeks  and  suddenly  he  finds  himself
wordless. Even when he tries to write, he finds  he  is  not  recording  the
incident which had inspired him to begin the diary on this day .
      This incident took place during that morning's "Two Minutes  Hate,"  a
daily, almost orgiastic ritual of propaganda. Winston recalls  noticing  two
people: a girl whose name he  does  not  know  but  whom  he  recognizes  as
working in the Fiction Department, and O'Brien, an imposing man  and  member
of the Inner Party. Winston feels a dislike for the girl, whose youth  gives
him the sense that she is a dangerous Party zealot; by  contrast,  he  feels
drawn to O'Brien in a way almost resembling trust,  because  he  hopes  that
O'Brien is secretly politically unorthodox.
      The "Two Minutes Hate" begins with footage of Emmanuel Goldstein, "the
Enemy of the People," castigating the Party. Apparently, Goldstein had  once
been a leading Party member  who  rebelled,  was  condemned  to  death,  and
disappeared to form the underground  Brotherhood.  The  symbol  of  ultimate
treachery, Goldstein is featured in every Hate as the source of  all  crimes
against the Party. [Through Winston's reaction, we begin to  get  the  sense
that  the  image  and  persona  of   Goldstein   are   actually   completely
manufactured,  hinting  at  the  possibility  that   he   is   in   fact   a
propagandistic creation of the Party. This is reinforced by the  observation
that there are always new spies,  new  Brotherhood  members,  being  exposed
every day, despite the  Party's  brutal  efficiency  in  creating  universal
hatred for Goldstein.]
      As the Hate goes on, people get increasingly worked up,  shouting  and
throwing things at the screen. [It is, Winston notes,  impossible  to  avoid
joining in.] The Hate overwhelms the members, sweeping  them  into  a  blind
ecstasy of hatred. Winston directs his  hatred  at  the  girl,  because,  he
realizes, he wants to sleep with her.
      The Hate reaches its climax when the terrifying images melt  into  the
face of Big Brother, who utters soothing words before fading away  into  the
three Party slogans. The crowd, passionately relieved at the  appearance  of
their "savior" starts to chant, "B-B! .  .  .  B-B!"  Here  Winston  catches
O'Brien's eye. In an instant, Winston feels that  O'Brien  is  communicating
to him that he is on his side; this is the moment which brings  him  to  his
   After some reflection, Winston looks again at his page and finds  he  has
been writing automatically:

      He knows there is no point in tearing out the  page,  because  he  has
committed thoughtcrime, and in the end  the  Thought  Police  will  get  him
anyway; he, and every last vestige of  his  existence,  will  be  completely
wiped out--"vaporized."
      Suddenly there is a knock at the door. Winston is terrified  by  this,
but knows that to delay would be worse than  anything,  so  he  gets  up  to
answer it.
Chapter 2
      Winston finds Mrs. Parsons, his neighbour, at his door, asking him  if
he can help repair her kitchen sink. Mrs.  Parsons  is  a  rather  helpless,
dusty-looking woman; her husband Tom works with Winston at the  Ministry  of
Truth. Tom is something of an imbecile, slavishly devoted to the  Party  and
quite active in its social workings.
      As Winston clears the blockage from the  pipe,  the  Parsons  children
come out and start dancing  around  him,  calling  him  a  "traitor"  and  a
"thought-criminal." These children, like  many  others,  are  horrid  little
savages  being  trained  to  be  good  Party  members   through   systematic
brainwashing; many denounce their own parents to the Thought Police.
      Winston returns to his diary and starts  thinking  of  O'Brien.  About
seven years ago he had had a dream where he had been walking through a  dark
room and someone had said to him, "We shall meet in the  place  where  there
is no darkness." At some point, Winston identified the voice  as  O'Brien's.
Whether or not O'Brien is a friend or  an  enemy--and  Winston  still  isn't
sure--they are connected by an understanding.
      Winston feels isolated, yet pursued, everywhere faced  (literally)  by
Big Brother. He knows  his  thoughtcrime--his  diary--will  result  only  in
annihilation. Yet somehow, he takes heart in the idea that in the  very  act
of recording truths he is keeping himself sane and carrying on humanity.  He
returns to his diary and starts to write "to the future or to the  past,  to
a time when thought is free."
      "Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrime IS  death,"  Winston
writes, and in doing so recognizes himself as  already  dead.  He  now  must
simply stay alive as long as possible.
Winston carefully washes the ink from his hands  and  puts  the  diary  away
before going back to work.
Chapter 3
      Winston dreams of his mother that she and his baby sister are  sinking
down away from him, having in  some  way  given  their  lives  so  he  could
survive. He barely remembers his family, as they had  likely  fallen  victim
to a purge in the 1950s. His mother's death,  he  feels,  was  a  particular
tragedy, arising from a loyalty and complex  emotion  which  are  no  longer
      The dream shifts suddenly to an idyllic spot Winston calls "the Golden
Country," where the dark-haired girl comes  to  him  and  in  one  graceful,
careless gesture, tears off her  clothes  and  flings  them  aside.  Winston
feels no desire for her, but instead a strong admiration of the defiance  of
the gesture, which itself belongs to a previous time,  just  like  Winston's
mother's love. Winston wakes up saying the word "Shakespeare."
      Winston is awakened by the  telescreen.  The  Physical  Jerks--morning
exercises--begin, directed by a  woman  on  the  screen.  As  he  exercises,
Winston tries to remember the era of his childhood. He recalls an  air  raid
which  caught  everyone  off  guard,  and  since  which  Oceania  had   been
continuously at war. Currently, in 1984, Oceania is at war with Eurasia  and
allied with Eastasia.
      Although there are no records kept to  contradict  the  given  current
alignment, Winston knows that four years  ago  the  alliance  was  reversed;
still, the present situation is always officially represented as  though  it
has always been. Winston is terrified by the thought that by  so  thoroughly
controlling history and information, the Party might actually be creating  a
new truth. He reflects that the past has  been  destroyed  because  it  only
exists in  his  own  memory.  Only  once  has  Winston  held  proof  that  a
historical  fact  had  been  officially  falsified--but  his  thoughts   are
interrupted by the woman on screen shouting at him, Winston  Smith,  to  try
Chapter 4
      Winston is at his job in the Records Department  in  the  Ministry  of
Truth. He receives four assignments,  tiny  slips  of  paper  on  which  are
written (mostly in Newspeak)  his  instructions.  As  it  turns  out,  these
messages involve the "correction" of past  issues  of  the  Times,  where  a
speech of Big Brother's is  "misreported"  ("malreported"  in  Newspeak)  or
statistics forecasting manufacturing  output  are  "misprinted."  The  first
three assignments are simple; the fourth one,  which  mentions  "unpersons,"
is an enticingly elaborate task which involves some use of imagination,  and
Winston sets it aside to be dealt with last, almost like a dessert.
      Winston uses his speakwrite (a sort of  dictaphone)  to  quickly  deal
with each of the first three assignments; he rewrites the  articles,  pushes
his work through the pneumatic tube in his  cubicle,  and  disposes  of  the
original message and any notes through the "memory hole," which leads  to  a
furnace.  In  this  way,  newspapers,  books,  cartoons,  even   films   and
photographs, are continually re-edited so as to  conform  with  the  current
state of political and economic affairs, and to make  it  appear  as  though
the Party has always been correct in its predictions or  consistent  in  its
alliances. Any and all prior editions are  destroyed,  no  matter  how  many
revisions are made.
      Winston reflects that in many cases, what he is doing  is  not  really
forgery, because the original statistics or "facts" are  made  up  to  begin
with. Nobody really knows anything except that on paper, millions  of  pairs
of boots are being  produced,  while  on  the  streets,  half  of  Oceania's
population runs barefoot.
      Looking around, Winston notes that he hardly knows the people  in  his
Department, or what they do exactly. Across the  hall  from  him  Tillotson,
who flashes him a hostile look, sits with his speakwrite; a woman  from  the
Two Minutes Hate, whose husband had been vaporized, works  next  to  Winston
at tracking down and eliminating references  to  "unpersons"  (people  whose
existences had been obliterated); and the  dreamy  Ampleforth  works  a  few
cubicles away at rewriting poems so their ideologies  will  correspond  with
the dominant one. As Winston reflects on the  Department  as  a  whole,  the
staggering size of the operation becomes evident, especially as it  is  only
one part of the Ministry of Truth, which  not  only  supplies  materials  to
Party members but to the "proles" (proletariat) as well.
      At last, after disposing of some more messages and attending the Hate,
Winston settles down to work away at his engaging  assignment:  rewriting  a
highly "unsatisfactory" article in an issue of the  Times  which  references
people who no longer exist. Winston reads the original  article,  where  Big
Brother's Order for the Day praises an  organization  called  the  FFCC  and
awards the  Order  of  Conspicuous  Merit,  Second  Class,  to  one  Comrade
Withers, a member of the Inner Party. Three months after this, however,  the
FFCC had been dissolved and its members presumably disgraced,  though  there
was no report of this. Winston  knows  that  this  is  the  way  it  usually
happens: people who somehow displease the Party simply vanish and are  never
heard from again. Although Winston does  not  know  why  Withers  fell  from
grace, he does know that the man is most likely dead, since he is called  an
      Winston decides to rewrite the speech entirely on  a  new  topic:  the
commemoration of the exemplary life of Comrade Ogilvy.  Ogilvy,  of  course,
is purely Winston's invention, but he will  be  given  life  through  a  few
lines and a faked photograph or two. Winston creates Ogilvy's  life‹that  of
a textbook good Party member from the age  of  three‹and  his  heroic  death
with a zesty enjoyment of the process.
Although Winston is fairly certain that other people,  including  Tillotson,
have been given the same assignment, he also believes that his  own  version
will be the one that is chosen.
Chapter 5
      Winston is in the rather unpleasant canteen, where he  meets  up  with
Syme‹not  exactly  his  "friend"  (since  you  have  comrades  rather   than
friends), but one whose society is more pleasant to  Winston  than  that  of
others. Syme, a philologist, works in the Research Department and is one  of
a team of experts who are compiling the Eleventh  Edition  of  the  Newspeak
Dictionary. (See Appendix for an in-depth discussion of Newspeak and  points
relevant to this chapter.)
      Syme asks Winston if he has any  razor  blades‹there  is  currently  a
shortage, as there always is of one item or another. Winston  lies  that  he
hasn't, though he has been saving two unused ones against  the  razor  blade
famine. As he and Syme go through  the  queue,  Syme  discusses  yesterday's
public hanging of prisoners with a relish that demonstrates  his  rabid  yet
somehow intellectual orthodoxy.
      As they  eat  their  disgusting  and  somewhat  unidentifiable  lunch,
Winston  gets  Syme  talking  about   the   Dictionary's   progress.   Syme,
immediately fired with enthusiasm and a  strange  love  for  Newspeak,  goes
into a panegyric about the destruction of words and the nature of  Newspeak,
which is, he points out, the only language which gets  smaller  every  year.
This limiting of vocabulary, Syme points out, is aimed at  limiting  thought
so that unorthodoxy will become literally impossible, since  there  will  no
longer exist words to express or explain concepts that run  counter  to  the
accepted ideology.
      Syme discourses  so  intelligently  upon  these  topics  that  Winston
suddenly thinks that Syme will certainly be vaporized someday,  despite  his
political orthodoxy. He is too intelligent for the Party  to  allow  him  to
stick around. In addition, he is  somehow  "shady"‹not  subtle  enough,  too
well-read, with a tendency to frequent the Chestnut Street Cafe, where  long
ago the old Party leaders would  meet  before  they  were  discredited,  and
Goldstein was rumored to have spent time.
      Parsons, Winston's neighbor, appears in the canteen and makes his  way
over to Winston and Syme (who  takes  out  some  work  to  avoid  having  to
interact with Parsons). Parsons, a large man with a  dumb  devotion  to  the
Party and its ideals, asks Winston for  his  subscription  payment  for  the
upcoming "Hate Week." Parsons talks proudly about  his  monstrous  children,
the  younger  of  whom  turned  in  a  suspicious-looking  person   to   the
      Discussion is halted by an announcement from the Ministry  of  Plenty,
describing how production is up and the standard of living has been  raised.
It is reported that a demonstration has been held to thank B.B. for  raising
the chocolate ration to 20 grams/week,  and  Winston  wonders  incredulously
whether people can swallow this after having been told the day  before  that
the ration was being reduced from  30  grams/week  to  20.  Yet  the  people
around him, either through not thinking at all or  through  doublethink,  do
accept it, forcing him to wonder whether he is the only  person  around  who
has a memory.
      Depressed, Winston looks around, at the horrid food, ugly clothes, and
bleak surroundings. Somehow he feels that  things  should  be  better,  even
though he has never known a time when they were‹when  food  tasted  pleasant
and things worked as they were supposed to. Even the  people  look  ugly  to
him, belying the Party's Aryan ideal.
      The announcement ends, and Winston  lapses  into  a  reverie  thinking
about who he knows will  likely  be  vaporized,  and  who  will  not‹namely,
Parsons, the girl with the dark hair, and the man at a nearby table who  has
been speaking in a quack about the wonders and achievements of the Party.
      Winston is startled out of his reverie by the awareness that the  girl
with the dark hair is sitting at the next table, and is looking at him.  She
turns away, but Winston is terrified because she has been  turning  up  near
him a good deal lately. He worries that she may be an amateur spy  and  that
he may have committed facecrime,  the  unconscious  betrayal  of  unorthodox
opinions via facial expressions or tics.
      Parsons tells  Winston  another  horrid  story  about  his  disgusting
children, and they are signalled to return to work.
Chapter 6
      Winston is writing in his diary about an encounter he had three  years
ago with a prostitute. The memory is embarrassing  and  difficult  for  him,
and he feels an almost irresistible urge to scream obscenities or burst  out
into some violent action to relieve his tension.
      Of course he doesn't give in  to  the  urge,  and  steels  himself  to
continue writing. His writing is interlaced with the  memory  of  Katharine,
his wife, to whom he would technically  still  be  married‹unless  she  were
dead‹although  they  are  separated,  because  the  Party  does  not  permit
divorce. Katharine was physically attractive but, Winston  soon  discovered,
completely brainwashed by the Party, even in matters of  sex.  According  to
the Party, there should be no pleasure in sex, which was an act intended  to
beget children for the future of  the  Party.  Katharine  bought  into  this
ideology to the point where sex was an outright unpleasant act for  Winston;
since no children were conceived,  the  couple  were  allowed  to  separate.
Perhaps because of his experience  with  Katharine,  Winston  believes  that
none of the women in the Party have retained their natural sex drive.
      Winston continues to write about his experience with  the  prostitute,
who had led him into a dark room with a bed. When he turned  up  the  light,
he discovered to his horror that the woman was old,  at  least  50.  But  he
proceeded anyway.
      Despite having gotten it all out,  Winston  does  not  feel  any  less
inclined to shout obscenities.
Chapter 7
      Once again Winston is writing in his diary. "If  there  is  hope,"  he
writes, "it lies in the proles." Winston reasons  that  the  proles  are  so
numerous that if they simply woke up they could bring down  the  Party.  But
would they ever wake up? He remembers a day when he  had  been  walking  and
heard a great cry of anger; in hope, he hurried to the spot to see what  was
happening. As it turned out, a stall that had  been  selling  saucepans  had
run out, and  the  disappointed  women  were  momentarily  united  in  their
despair. But,  to  Winston's  disgust,  rather  than  remaining  united  and
surging up against the source of their misery, they  turned  on  each  other
instead, fighting over the pans.
      Winston reflects on the Party's attitude toward the proles, itself  an
exercise in doublethink: while  the  Party  claims  to  have  liberated  the
proles from the horrendous bonds of capitalism, it  also  teaches  that  the
proles are inferior and must be kept in line with a few  simple  rules.  But
in general, the Party leaves the proles alone, to live as they  have  always
lived, outside of the Party's strict moral and behavioral dictates.
      What Winston is not sure of is whether life before the Revolution  was
really that much worse than it is in 1984. He looks at a children's  history
book which he has borrowed from Mrs. Parsons, reading a passage  about  life
before the Revolution, when most people were poor  and  miserable,  and  all
money and power were concentrated into the hands of a very few evil  persons
known as capitalists. Yet he can never be sure how much of it  is  lies;  he
only has an instinctive feeling in his bones that life doesn't  have  to  be
as miserable as it is, and that there must have  been  something  better  at
one time. Life, in fact, not  only  belies  the  constant  stream  of  Party
propaganda, it does  not  even  approach  the  Party's  avowed  ideal  of  a
militarily ordered  society  in  which  every  moment  of  every  day  is  a
triumphant struggle for the principles of Ingsoc.
      Considering the regular  erasure  of  the  past,  Winston  once  again
recalls the one time (mentioned earlier) when he had held concrete  evidence
of the falsification of  history.  In  the  mid-1960s,  three  of  the  last
surviving  original  leaders  of  the  Revolution,   Jones,   Aaronson   and
Rutherford, had been arrested, vanished temporarily, and then  had  returned
to make spectacular confessions of  treachery.  Afterwards,  they  had  been
pardoned, reinstated in the Party and given  hollow  but  important-sounding
      Winston had seen them in the Chestnut Street Cafe with  a  mixture  of
fascination at how they embodied history and  terror  at  the  certainty  of
their imminent destruction. No one sat near them; they sat alone at a  table
with an untouched chessboard  and  glasses  of  gin.  Winston  noticed  that
Rutherford, once a strong man, looked as though he were breaking  up  before
his eyes.
      A song came over the telescreen: "Under the spreading chestnut tree/ I
sold you and you sold me:/ There lie  they,  and  here  lie  we/  Under  the
spreading chestnut tree." The three men  remained  motionless,  but  Winston
saw that Rutherford's eyes were full of tears,  and  suddenly  noticed  that
both Aaronson and Rutherford had broken noses.
      Shortly after this, they were re-arrested and executed after a  second
trial. Five years later, in about 1973, Winston was at his work  when  among
his assignment-related documents he found part of a  page  from  an  earlier
edition of the Times, dated about 10 years earlier, showing a photograph  of
Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford at a Party function in  New  York.  At  their
trials, the men had confessed to have been in Eurasia  consorting  with  the
enemy on that very date. Clearly the confessions were  untrue.  Though  this
was not in itself surprising, the existence  of  this  piece  of  paper  was
concrete evidence of the Party's action.
      Winston carefully  calmed  himself,  then  disposed  of  the  evidence
through the memory hole. If it had happened today, he thinks, he would  have
kept the photograph; somehow the fact of its existence,  the  fact  that  he
had held it in his hand, is reassuring to him. But  he  knows  that  because
the past is continually rewritten, the photograph today might  not  even  be
      Winston does not understand why  such  an  effort  is  being  made  to
falsify the past (i.e. the  long-term  goal).  Perhaps,  he  thinks,  he  is
crazy; this does not scare him, though. What scares him is that he might  be
wrong in thinking the past unchangeable. He picks up the book and  looks  at
the picture of B.B. on the frontispiece.  In  a  sort  of  despairing  fear,
Winston thinks to himself that the Party will eventually claim that 2 + 2  =
5, and that you would have to believe it; and again he is tormented  by  the
fear that they might, after all, be right.
      But abruptly, his belief in common  sense  reasserts  itself,  and  he
somehow feels that he  is  writing  his  diary  to  O'Brien.  Defiantly,  he
defends the truth of the obvious, writing, "Freedom is the  freedom  to  say
that two plus two make four. If that is granted, all else follows."
Chapter 8
      Winston is walking through the streets, taking a risk in  missing  his
second evening at the Community Centre  in  three  weeks,  but  having  been
unable to pass up the lovely evening air.  He  has  been  walking  aimlessly
through the streets, observing the people and their surroundings, which  are
equally dilapidated. Identifiable as a Party member by  his  blue  overalls,
he is watched warily by the inhabitants,  and  reflects  that  it  would  be
dangerous to run into the patrols here, since  it  could  draw  you  to  the
Thought Police's attention.
      Suddenly there is  a  commotion  and  people  start  bolting  indoors;
Winston is warned by a passerby that a bomb is  about  to  fall.  He  throws
himself down to protect himself  against  the  blast.  The  bomb  falls  200
meters away on a group of houses. He approaches the site and  comes  upon  a
severed human hand, which he kicks into the gutter  before  turning  into  a
side street to avoid the crowd.
      Winston passes a group of men who are arguing about the Lottery, which
is the one public event the proles really attend to and  sink  their  energy
and powers of calculation into. However, as Winston knows,  the  big  prizes
are awarded to fictitious persons, and only small  sums  are  actually  paid
out by the Ministry of Plenty.
      Winston walks into a neighborhood which seems familiar; after a  short
while he recognizes it as  the  area  where  he  had  purchased  his  diary,
penholder and ink. He pauses, and sees an old man entering a pub across  the
alley. He is suddenly seized with the impulse to try and find out from  this
old man what life was like before the Revolution.
      He hurries into the pub, creating a bit of a pause in  activity,  and,
after witnessing an argument between the old man (who demands  a  pint)  and
the barman (who only deals in liters and half-liters), Winston buys the  old
man a beer. They sit in a noisy corner near a window and  Winston  tries  to
get the old man to tell him about the past. However, the  man  latches  onto
details that are too small to prove to Winston one way  or  another  whether
the Party histories are true or false.
      Winston leaves, thinking sadly that even now, when there are survivors
of the pre-Revolution days, it is impossible to find  out  whether  the  big
picture had changed for better or worse. He walks on, not thinking where  he
is going, until he stops and realizes  that  he  is  outside  the  junk-shop
where he had bought the diary.
      After some hesitation, he judges it  safer  to  enter  the  shop  than
loiter  outside  of  it,  and  starts  to  talk  with  the  proprietor,  Mr.
Charrington. Winston wanders through the shop, and his attention  is  caught
by a glass paperweight with  a  coral  inside.  Captivated  by  its  beauty,
Winston buys it for $4.00 and puts it into his pocket. The man,  cheered  by
the money, invites Winston  to  see  an  upstairs  room.  It  is  a  bedroom
furnished with  old-fashioned  furniture,  but  most  importantly,  with  no
telescreen. Winston feels a nostalgic security, almost  a  familiarity  with
the room, and the  thought  flashes  through  his  mind  that  it  might  be
possible to rent this room‹though he immediately abandons the notion.
      The proprietor shows Winston an engraving of an old church  which  had
been bombed long ago, St. Clement's Dane. He quotes an  old  nursery  rhyme:
"Oranges and lemons,' say the bells of  St.  Clement's,  You  owe  me  three
farthings,' say the bells of St. Martin's"; he doesn't  remember  the  rhyme
in full, but he does recall the ending: "Here comes a candle  to  light  you
to bed, Here comes a chopper to chop off  your  head."  He  talks  a  little
about the churches in the rhyme; Winston wonders when they had  been  built,
to what era they belonged.
      Winston doesn't buy the engraving, but stays to talk a  bit  with  Mr.
Charrington, seeming somehow to hear the bells of the nursery rhyme  in  his
head (though he has never actually heard church bells ringing as far  as  he
remembers). As he leaves, he decides to return to the shop after a month  or
so, to buy things and talk to Charrington and maybe rent the room...
      He is roused horribly from his reverie by seeing the  girl  with  dark
hair walking towards him. She looks directly at him, then continues  on  her
way. Paralyzed, Winston realizes that she must be  spying  on  him‹why  else
should she be there? He walks in the wrong direction  with  a  pain  in  his
gut, then turns, and considers killing her  with  the  paperweight.  But  he
abandons the idea, as well as every other one he  considers  for  trying  to
safeguard himself. He simply goes home.
      Once there, he takes out his diary but doesn't write  anything  for  a
while as he struggles with his fear and the paralysis it  has  brought  upon
him. He tries to open the diary, to think of O'Brien, but  his  mind  is  on
the torture that inevitably falls between capture by the Thought Police  and
death (both of which are certain once you have committed thoughtcrime).
      He recalls his dream, where O'Brien said that they would meet "in  the
place where there is no darkness"; this place, he believes, is the  imagined
future. But the face of B.B. drifts into  his  mind,  pushing  out  O'Brien.
Winston takes a coin out of his pocket, and looks at it,  trying  to  fathom
B.B.'s smile; the three Party slogans ring through his head.
Part 2
Chapter 1
      On his way to the lavatory one morning, Winston  encounters  the  girl
with dark hair in the corridor.  Her  right  arm  is  in  a  sling.  As  she
approaches, she suddenly trips and falls on her arm, and cries out in  pain.
Although Winston regards her as a dangerous enemy, he also feels  sorry  for
her and helps her up. As he does so,  she  very  discreetly  slips  a  small
piece of paper into his hand, surprising him greatly.
      Though he is fired with curiosity, Winston knows he cannot look at the
piece of paper for a while. He goes back to his desk  and  tosses  the  slip
casually among the other papers there. As he works, he speculates  that  the
note could either be some sort  of  threat  or  summons  or  trap  from  the
Thought Police,  or‹and  this  excites  him‹a  message  from  some  sort  of
underground organization like the Brotherhood.
      When he finally gets the chance to look at the note, he is  astounded,
because it reads "I love you."
      This naturally throws him into  an  agitation  for  the  rest  of  the
morning. During lunch he  is  not  even  allowed  the  luxury  of  temporary
solitude, as Parsons immediately shows up to bore him with details  of  Hate
Week preparations. After lunch, Winston immerses himself in  his  work,  and
goes to the Community Centre in the evening; he is waiting to  be  alone  in
bed to think.
      At last he is alone, and he begins to think about how to meet her.  It
would be impossible to repeat that morning's method. He  cannot  follow  her
home because it would entail waiting  around  outside  the  Ministry,  which
would be bound to be noticed. Sending a letter would be impossible  as  mail
is routinely opened. The only solution is to sit at a table with her in  the
canteen, somewhere in the middle of the room as far  as  possible  from  the
telescreens, amidst a buzz of conversation in which the brief exchange of  a
few words could go unnoticed.
      The next week is torture for Winston: the girl  disappears  for  three
days, during which time he cannot stop thinking about her and worrying  that
she has been vaporized or that she has changed her mind. She reappears,  but
Winston is unable to sit with her in the canteen, though he tries. The  next
day he succeeds, and they form a  plan  to  meet  that  evening  in  Victory
      In the Square, Winston sees the girl but must wait until  more  people
have gathered so as to speak with her unnoticed.  Fortunately,  the  passing
of a convoy of Eurasian prisoners  allows  Winston  and  the  girl  to  lose
themselves in a massive  crowd  of  onlookers.  They  squeeze  next  to  one
another to watch, and the girl subtly gives Winston detailed  directions  to
a place where they can meet on Sunday afternoon.
      They continue to watch the prisoners, and right before they must part,
the girl squeezes Winston's hand.
Chapter 2
      It is Sunday afternoon. Winston is  out  in  the  country  after  what
sounds like an almost pleasant journey by train.  He  is  early,  and  comes
across a thick patch of bluebells; he stoops to  pick  some,  and  the  girl
arrives. She leads him expertly through the  woods  to  a  hidden  clearing.
They talk a little, then start  to  kiss,  but  Winston  feels  no  physical
desire yet because his disbelief and proud joy are too strong.
      The girl, Julia, doesn't seem to mind; she sits up and they  start  to
talk  some  more.  She  is  brassy  and  rebellious,  even  producing   some
wonderfully tasty black-market chocolate, though she goes out of her way  to
present a fanatically devout front in order to stay safe. She is young,  and
Winston doesn't understand why she should be attracted to him; she  explains
that it was something in his face, that she could  tell  he  didn't  belong,
that he hated the Party.
      They leave the clearing and walk around, coming finally to the edge of
the wood. There, Winston has a gradual shock: he  recognizes  the  landscape
as the Golden Country of his dreams. As if to prove it,  he  asks  Julia  if
there is a stream nearby, and she replies that there is.
      A thrush lands nearby and starts to sing, its song  startling  in  the
stillness. The song is  beautiful,  original,  never  quite  the  same,  and
Winston watches and listens with awe. What, he asks himself, makes the  bird
sing, if there is no other bird around  to  listen  or  respond?  Gradually,
however, Winston stops thinking and simply feels the beauty of it.  At  this
point he kisses Julia and feels that he is ready to make love.
      They hasten back to the clearing. Julia turns to him, and just  as  in
his dream, she defiantly tears  off  her  clothes  and  flings  them  aside.
Before doing anything, Winston takes her hands and asks her:  has  she  done
this before? Yes, quite a lot. With  Party  members?  Always,  though  never
with Inner Party members. Winston is filled with joy  at  the  thought  that
the Party is at its foundation corrupt. He tells Julia that he hates  purity
and goodness and that he desires corruption; she responds that she ought  to
suit him just fine. His final question:  does  she  enjoy  the  act  of  sex
itself? When she replies, "I adore it," Winston's last  hope  is  fulfilled,
and they make love.
      They fall asleep. Winston awakens first to reflect that their act  has
been a political one, "a blow struck against the Party."
Chapter 3
      Julia arranges the details of her and Winston's  departures  from  the
clearing, using her practical sense (which Winston feels he lacks)  and  her
thorough knowledge of the countryside around London. They  never  return  to
the clearing, as it turns out, and only once  more  that  month  succeed  in
making love, inside the ruins of a church.
      As they meet during the evenings, they "talk by instalments," as Julia
puts it‹their conversation cuts in and out  mid-sentence  according  to  the
relative levels of safety in their surroundings. Once during a walk, a  bomb
falls near them, and Winston, thinking the plaster-whitened Julia  is  dead,
kisses her‹to discover that she is alive and he is coated in plaster too.
      Meetings are dangerous and difficult to coordinate as their  schedules
rarely coincide. Julia is astonishingly  busy  with  Party  activities;  her
view is that as long as you keep up appearances and obey  the  small  rules,
you could  transgress  the  bigger  ones.  She  even  convinces  Winston  to
volunteer as a part-time munition worker.
      Julia is 26, and works on the machinery  in  the  Fiction  Department,
literally churning out novels like any other  mass-produced  commodity.  She
has established such a good character for herself that  she  had  even  been
selected to work in Pornosec, the division of the  department  dedicated  to
producing cheap pornography for the proles. Her  first  affair  was  at  age
sixteen; her view of life is simply that it is an eternal  struggle  between
you and the Party over whether or not you can have a good time.
      She  and  Winston  never  discuss  marriage,  knowing  it  to  be   an
impossibility; but they do discuss Katharine.  Julia  asks  about  her,  but
seems to know most of the essentials regarding Katharine's  frigidity,  even
the fact that she called sex "our duty to the Party."  Julia  knows  because
she had  undergone  the  same  education  as  Katharine;  intriguingly,  and
perhaps because  she  is  more  sexually  liberated,  Julia  has  a  clearer
comprehension than Winston of the Party's stance on sex.
      Winston tells Julia  about  an  incident  early  in  his  marriage  to
Katharine where they had gotten lost on a  community  hike.  They  ended  up
near the edge of a cliff. Katharine, uncomfortable, wanted  to  turn  around
and try to find their  way  back;  Winston  points  out  a  plant  with  two
different-colored flowers growing from the same  root.  As  she  unwillingly
returned to look, Winston realized that they were completely alone,  and  if
he chose to he could push her off the cliff. But he didn't.
      He tells Julia he  regrets  that  he  didn't,  although  he  knows  it
wouldn't have  made  a  difference.  He  lapses  into  a  typically  cynical
philosophical mood, which  Julia,  in  her  youthful  and  perhaps  stubborn
optimism, rejects.
Chapter 4
      Winston has rented the upstairs room from Mr. Charrington, the antique
shop owner, and is waiting for Julia to arrive. Outside, a  prole  woman  is
singing one of the drivelly songs churned  out  by  a  versificator  in  the
Music Department‹a monstrosity to begin with, but somehow  pleasant-sounding
in the woman's rendering. The room feels curiously still to Winston  because
of the absence of a telescreen.
      Though taking this room is a huge risk,  the  couple  were  unable  to
resist it after days and weeks of being unable to meet. Winston recalls  how
when they at last manage to set a day to go  back  to  the  clearing,  Julia
tells him the night before (once again through  a  meeting  on  the  street)
that she can't go because she is  menstruating.  Winston  feels  furious‹his
feeling toward Julia  and  desire  for  her  has  changed  from  an  act  of
rebellion to a sense  of  proprietary  physical  obligation,  and  he  feels
almost like she is cheating him. But at this point, she  squeezes  his  hand
with affection and prompts a sudden, new  tenderness  in  him.  He  realizes
that this sort of thing must be normal for couples who  live  together,  and
he is overwhelmed by the wish that he  and  Julia  were  a  happily  married
couple with no cares and complete privacy to do as they wished.  Quite  soon
after this they agree to rent the room.
      Julia arrives, bearing real sugar, white bread, jam,  milk,  and  real
coffee and tea‹all Inner Party privileges which  she  has  filched  somehow.
She then asks Winston to turn his  back  for  a  short  while;  when  he  is
allowed to turn around again, he finds  that  she  has  put  on  makeup  and
perfume. Before they get into bed, she expresses her  intention  to  find  a
real dress and high heels  so  that  she  can  be  "a  woman,  not  a  Party
      Winston wakes up around 9:00 (21:00), and wonders  whether  the  peace
and freedom of lying in bed with your loved one on  a  cool  summer  evening
were ever a normal thing in the past. Julia wakes  up,  and  is  talking  to
Winston when suddenly she spots a rat and hurls a shoe  at  it.  Winston  is
startled at the presence of a rat  in  this  idyllic  room,  and  recalls  a
recurrent nightmare he has always had where he is standing  in  front  of  a
wall and behind it is something horrifying. He would always  know,  in  some
deeply buried part of his mind, what was  behind  the  wall,  but  he  never
allowed himself to acknowledge it and would wake up without discovering  it.

      Julia gets up, makes coffee, and wanders around  the  room.  She  asks
about the engraving of St. Clement's Dane (which coincidentally hangs  right
above where the rat had poked out its  head),  and  to  Winston's  surprise,
adds a line to the nursery rhyme: "When will you pay me?' say the  bells  of
Old Bailey." Strangely, Julia too forgets the  rest  excepting  the  ominous
ending, giving Winston a sense of fate. After  observing  that  the  picture
likely has bugs behind it, and planning to clean it, Julia  cleans  herself,
washing off the makeup, while Winston gazes at the paperweight.
Chapter 5
      The chapter opens with a brief paragraph on Syme's disappearance,  but
quickly moves on  to  the  intense  preparations  for  Hate  Week  that  are
sweeping through the city and swallowing up everyone's  time.  Huge  posters
depicting a Eurasian soldier aiming his  sub-machine  gun  at  you  crop  up
everywhere, intended to stir the population  into  a  patriotic  frenzy;  as
though by design, more rocket bombs fall on the city,  killing  more  people
than usual.
      Winston and Julia continue to meet in  the  upstairs  room.  Winston's
health, both physical and mental, has improved due to the existence  of  the
room. Occasionally  he  talks  to  Mr.  Charrington,  who  seems  to  embody
      Though Winston and Julia know that they  are  doomed,  they  sometimes
yield to the illusion of permanence,  and  frequently  talk  about  escaping
some way or another‹though they know that they will never  commit  even  the
only feasible act among these options, which is suicide.
      They talk about rebelling against the Party in a  vague  way;  Winston
tells her about his unspoken bond with O'Brien, which does  not  strike  her
as at all strange. Though Julia takes it for granted that  everyone  harbors
hatred for the Party, she does not believe in an organized  underground;  in
fact, she thinks that Goldstein and the tales about  him  were  invented  by
the Party for their own ends.
      Julia's intelligence is also shown by  her  casually  offered  opinion
that the war with Eurasia is not actually happening‹that the  government  of
Oceania was dropping the bombs  on  its  own  people  for  the  purposes  of
keeping the population  scared  and  emotionally  subjected  to  the  Party.
Winston has never even thought of this possibility. But for the  most  part,
Julia does not question Party doctrine unless it touches  her  own  life  in
some way; she believes much of the false history  she  has  been  taught  in
school, and it doesn't seem important to her that this  is  untrue.  Winston
is shocked by this, as well as by the fact that she doesn't seem  to  recall
that only four years ago Eastasia, and not Eurasia, was Oceania's  enemy  in
      Julia also does not seem to grasp the importance of Winston's story of
the photograph clearing Jones, Aaronson and  Rutherford  of  wrongdoing.  In
general she is  not  interested  when  Winston  starts  to  delve  into  the
problems the Party presents. He realizes that people like Julia, who  accept
what they are taught because they don't fully understand it, are in  a  fair
way to remain more sane than persons like himself.
Chapter 6
      Winston, walking down the long corridor where he had first  spoken  to
Julia, encounters O'Brien, who addresses him  cordially  regarding  Newspeak
and what he considers Winston's elegant use of it. O'Brien obliquely  refers
to Syme as someone who shares this opinion, to whom he had spoken  recently;
Winston takes this as some sort of signal.
      O'Brien says that he had noticed that Winston had  recently  used  two
words now  obsolete  in  the  forthcoming  Tenth  Edition  of  the  Newspeak
Dictionary, which has not been issued  yet  but  of  which  O'Brien  has  an
advance copy. He offers Winston to visit him at his flat to take a  look  at
the Dictionary; through this device he gives Winston his address.
      This whole exchange‹which has taken place under the watchful eye of  a
telescreen‹takes only a couple of minutes, but it  has  sparked  in  Winston
both a cautious joy in the existence of the conspiracy  he  had  hoped  for,
and a dreadful certainty that it is the beginning of the end for him.
Chapter 7
      Winston awakens from a dream crying. The dream took place  inside  the
glass paperweight and somehow was about a protective  gesture  made  by  his
mother 30 years ago, and repeated in the film he wrote about  in  his  diary
(where a helpless Jewish mother ineffectually tries  to  protect  her  child
from the bullets that are about to be fired at them). Within a  few  seconds
of waking, the memories surrounding this gesture flood back to Winston.
      He had been a young boy, and London was a disaster area of starvation,
violence and unrest. His father  disappeared,  taking  his  mother's  spirit
with him  so  that  she  moved  through  daily  life  waiting  for  her  own
disappearance. She, Winston, and his baby sister lived in poor quarters  and
had not enough to eat; despite his knowledge  that  the  mother  and  sister
were starving, Winston would demand more food even though his  mother  would
automatically give him the biggest portion. One day there  was  a  chocolate
ration, and Winston, though he knew the chocolate should be equally  divided
between the three of them, found himself demanding the  whole  piece.  After
long argument, his mother gave him 3/4 of the piece  and  the  rest  to  his
sister. But Winston grabbed the piece from his sister  and  dashed  for  the
door, where he stopped at his mother's cry to come back. She looked at  him;
the baby wailed; and she drew the baby closer to her, in some way that  told
Winston the child was dying. He fled. When he came back a few  hours  later,
they both had disappeared.
      This dream reminds him of the one he had had two months ago, where  he
saw his mother and sister sinking away from him. He wants to talk about  his
mother to Julia, but she is drifting in and out  of  sleep.  Winston  thinks
about love, about the novelty of  the  past,  where  people  would  make  an
ineffectual gesture or act knowing that it  was  ineffectual  but  doing  it
just the same; this indicates to him that they acted of  their  own  accord,
out of their own private loyalties and standards. It strikes  him  that  the
proles had remained like this‹had remained human. For the first time in  his
life he feels no contempt or indifference toward the proles, but  a  strange
sort of respect for them for remaining who they are.
      Julia has  awakened  again,  and  they  talk  about  their  inevitable
parting. Though they know they will be forced to confess and not be able  to
help one another, Winston says that the only important thing  is  that  they
should never betray one another, in the sense of being made to  stop  loving
the other person. Julia  considers  this  and  opines  that  this  would  be
impossible because they would never be able to get  inside  you  and  change
what you think. Winston takes some hope from this, believing in  Julia-esque
fashion that you could beat them in the end  because  they  couldn't  change
your feelings.
Chapter 8
      Winston and Julia arrive together at O'Brien's flat. The  neighborhood
of Inner Party residences is a whole new world of  wealth,  cleanliness  and
luxury with which neither Winston nor Julia is familiar.  O'Brien's  servant
Martin takes them in to O'Brien's office or drawing-room, where  O'Brien  is
working. Winston, already afraid, feels suddenly embarrassed‹what if he  has
made a mistake and O'Brien is not sympathetic?
      As O'Brien approaches, he astonishes the couple by  shutting  off  the
telescreen, which, he explains, is  an  Inner  Party  privilege.  He  stands
sternly before them, waiting for a short while, before his face relaxes  and
he breaks the silence.
      Winston explains that they are there because they believe that O'Brien
works for an underground organization which they wish to belong  to.  Martin
enters, but O'Brien says he is one of them, so they  all  sit  down  with  a
glass of wine (which neither Winston nor Julia has  ever  tasted)  and  talk
about the Brotherhood. O'Brien asks a series of questions to  test  how  far
Winston and Julia will go to further the goals of the Brotherhood;  when  he
asks whether they are willing to separate from one another, they both  reply
in the negative. O'Brien asks Julia whether she  understands  that  even  if
Winston survives, he would be substantially altered  both  in  physique  and
identity; she nods, pale.
      O'Brien dismisses Martin, telling him to look carefully at Winston and
Julia  before  he  goes.  Martin  gives  them  a  long  look   without   any
friendliness or emotion in it  whatsoever,  then  leaves.  O'Brien  explains
that the Brotherhood is unusual because each  agent  works  alone,  with  no
support, minimal information, and no link to one another except  the  common
ideal they hold for the  destruction  of  the  Party.  Matter-of-factly,  he
outlines their lives: they will work for a while, then be caught, forced  to
confess and executed. "We are the dead," he says,  echoing  Winston's  words
to Julia a couple of chapters ago.
      O'Brien dismisses Julia, then settles some details with Winston  about
getting him a copy of the book, i.e.  Goldstein's  heretical  text  exposing
the true  nature  of  the  current  world  and  the  methods  by  which  the
Brotherhood will destroy the Party. After working out these  plans,  O'Brien
says to Winston, "We shall meet again . . . in the place where there  is  no
darkness." Winston's last question to him regards the nursery rhyme  of  the
bells, of which O'Brien knows the final line: "When I grow  rich,'  say  the
bells of Shoreditch."
Chapter 9
      Winston, exhausted after five days of intense work,  and  carrying  in
his briefcase the book, goes to Mr. Charrington's shop.
      The rush of work had begun on the sixth day of Hate Week, when‹at  the
climax of hatred directed at Eurasia‹suddenly Oceania's  alliance  switched,
so that the enemy was now Eastasia and Eurasia was an ally. Remarkably,  the
change occurred without any admission that it had  taken  place;  the  anti-
Eurasia posters and propaganda everywhere  were  suddenly  deemed  sabotage,
the work of Goldstein and his agents, and  promptly  torn  down,  while  the
venomous speaker who had  been  castigating  Eurasia  shifted  to  vilifying
Eastasia without losing a beat. During the confusion, Winston  is  handed  a
briefcase containing the book.
      Winston and his fellow workers at the  Ministry  had  spent  90  hours
rewriting history so that no trace of the war with Eurasia  could  be  found
in the documents of the past 5 years. After the  monumental  task  had  been
completed, every Ministry worker had been given the rest of the day off,  so
Winston had headed for the upstairs room.
      As he waits for Julia to arrive, he starts to read the book,  entitled
The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. He starts off  looking
at Chapter 1, entitled "Ignorance is Strength," but breaks off to enjoy  the
fact that he is reading, and takes up again with Chapter 3, "War is  Peace."

      This lengthy chapter discusses the history of events that led  to  the
current state of the world with its  three  superpowers,  Oceania,  Eurasia,
and Eastasia, and the territory they have theoretically been  fighting  over
for a quarter-century (which comprises a wide swath of land  across  Africa,
the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and Indonesia).
      First, the nature of war has changed: it has  become  continuous,  and
therefore its aims are different. It  is  continuous  because  none  of  the
superpowers could ever win, and unnecessary in the old  sense  because  each
could sustain itself materially and ideologically they're almost  identical.

      According to Goldstein, the aim of warfare is no longer  conquest;  it
is to use up production surplus while not raising the standard of living  at
home. The reason for this is, essentially,  that  those  in  power  wish  to
maintain a hierarchical society‹an aim that  was  threatened  by  scientific
progress, whereby machines could raise the general  standard  of  living  to
the point where wealth could theoretically be  evenly  distributed.  Because
hierarchy depends on poverty and ignorance, as well as  keeping  people  too
busy to complain about conditions, it became the goal of  the  ruling  class
to somehow maintain industry while not distributing goods. The only  way  to
do so was continuous warfare, which  addresses  this  need  practically  but
also psychologically, by correctly maintaining the morale of the Party.
      As long as they remain at  war,  the  three  superstates  support  one
another. The standards of living in all three are actually the same, as  are
their socio-political systems. The  techniques  of  warfare  haven't  really
changed in 30-40 years, because they don't need to. None of the  superstates
ever undertakes a major risk, i.e. one that could lead to a serious  defeat.
Not much fighting really goes on and it never approaches  the  heartland  of
any of the three powers, because that would  jeopardize  cultural  integrity
and risk people finding that other humans are pretty much the same as  they,
which could prove the undoing of these  governments.  Whatever  fighting  or
strategy there is a dance of alliances, where each power  tries  to  swallow
up an ally and then do the same with its remaining opponent.
      When war becomes continuous, it is no longer dangerous,  therefore  no
recourse to the past and lessons  learned  then  is  necessary;  neither  is
efficiency; neither is any need to even  address  reality.  Reality  can  be
shaped however the ruling class chooses.
      Thus war is waged by the state upon its own citizens, not for conquest
but for maintaining the social structure. Because its  nature  has  been  so
altered, and that the same effects  can  be  achieved  through  a  state  of
peace, "war is peace"‹the true meaning of the Party slogan.
      Winston stops reading. The book is reassuring because it helps him  to
know he is not insane. Julia comes in, and is less interested  in  the  book
than in Winston.
      Later, as they lie in bed, he starts to read it to her,  from  Chapter
1, which discusses class differences and the historical nature of the  class
struggle between High, Middle and Low.
      Socialist movements aiming for liberty and equality were more and more
openly abandoned over the first half of the  twentieth  century,  until  the
three  currently  dominating  world  movements‹Ingsoc   in   Oceania,   Neo-
Bolshevism in Eurasia, and Death-Worship in Eastasia‹had emerged with  their
new aims of "unfreedom and inequality." Their intent: to  become  the  High,
and then freeze the cycle of class struggle so as  to  permanently  maintain
their status. To this end, technical advances  were  anathema  because  they
promoted human equality, which was to be fought at all costs.
      By the middle of the century, the new totalitarian forces had  emerged
from the Middle, but with  a  difference:  they  were  less  concerned  with
wealth than with power, and they had learned from  history  how  they  might
maintain their power and stifle all  opposition.  Technologies  enabled  24-
hour surveillance and complete mind control; and the "abolition  of  private
property" really meant the appropriation of all property by the Party  as  a
      According to history, the new ruling class could only be  toppled  one
of four ways.  It  could  be  conquered  by  an  external  power;  this  has
effectually ceased to be a possibility with the mutual  unconquerability  of
the three superstates. It  could  stimulate  mass  revolt  due  to  its  own
inefficiency; but the masses have no standards of comparison  to  even  show
them the inefficiency or misery of Party rule. It could allow for  the  rise
of a strong Middle class, or it could lose its confidence in itself and  its
ability to govern through the rise of certain attitudes in  its  own  ranks.
These last two comprise an educational problem, and are solved  through  the
use of doublethink and the relative flexibility between the Outer Party  and
Inner Party. Because Party membership is not hereditary, the Party is not  a
class in the historical sense; it  is  concerned  with  propagating  itself,
rather than with putting forth its children.
      There is a discussion of Oceanic society and a detailed description of
the  everyday  life  of  a  Party  member,  which  delves  into  the  mental
disciplines of "crimestop" (the ability to protect yourself from  committing
thoughtcrime using stupidity), "blackwhite" (either an  opponent's  insolent
claim that black is white, or  a  Party  member's  laudable  willingness  to
claim black is white for  the  Party's  sake),  and  doublethink  (which  in
reality encompasses all).
      The alteration of history is  explained  as  having  two  reasons:  to
prevent Party members from having a standard of comparison, and  to  protect
the Party's supposed infallibility. "The  mutability  of  the  past  is  the
central tenet of Ingsoc," Goldstein  writes,  starting  to  touch  upon  the
issue that haunts Winston. According to  Ingsoc,  the  past  is  defined  by
record and memory; and since the Party creates and controls both  of  those,
it creates the past.
      Here Goldstein comes to the  practice  of  doublethink,  and  after  a
detailed discussion of it (though nothing  Winston  doesn't  already  know),
claims that ultimately it is doublethink which  has  allowed  the  Party  to
freeze the pendulum of social class struggle,  because  through  doublethink
the Party is able to learn from past errors while maintaining  the  illusion
of its infallibility. Through the use of doublethink, the Party is  able  to
create an atmosphere of  "controlled  insanity,"  which  is  the  ideal  for
permanently keeping human equality at bay.
      But when Goldstein comes to  the  central  question‹i.e.,  why  is  it
necessary to forever avoid human  equality?  Winston  stops  reading,  aware
that Julia has fallen asleep. He closes the book and reflects that he  still
doesn't understand why (his question  from  a  previous  chapter).  He  knew
everything in those chapters  already.  But  he  derives  comfort  from  the
feeling that he is not mad, and falls asleep  with  a  feeling  that  he  is
Chapter 10
      Winston awakens, feeling like he has slept for a long  time;  but  the
old-fashioned clock says 8:30, i.e. 20:30. The woman outside starts  singing
the love song she always sings, waking Julia,  who  gets  up  to  light  the
stove. Oddly, there is no oil left, although she had made sure it was  full.
Remarking that it is colder, she gets  dressed;  Winston  follows  suit.  He
goes to the window and looks out‹no sun. As  he  watches  the  prole  woman,
Julia joins him, and he is surprised to find that he thinks  the  huge  lady
beautiful. She must have had many children, he reflects,  noting  also  that
he and Julia can never do that; but with hope he thinks about  the  millions
of people like that woman, who live their lives and will eventually rise  up
to construct a new world. He knows that while he and Julia  are  dead,  they
can yet share in the future by somehow passing along the secret that "2 +  2
= 4."
He says, "We are the dead." Julia echoes him.
      And then they are startled by a voice from the wall echoing them. "You
are the dead."
      At last, they have been caught. There had been a telescreen behind the
picture. Winston and Julia are ordered to remain still  and  untouching,  in
the middle of the room, hands  behind  their  heads,  while  storm  troopers
surround the house and burst in through a window.
      Winston remains as still as he can, trying to avoid being struck.  One
of the storm troopers smashes the paperweight. Another  hits  Julia  in  the
solar plexus, knocking the wind out of her and sending  her  to  the  floor.
She  is  picked  up  and  ignominiously  carried  out  as  Winston   watches
      Various uninteresting  thoughts  begin  to  hit  Winston.  It  becomes
apparent that he and Julia  have  overslept‹that  it  is  now  9:00  in  the
morning, rather than in the evening. But he does not pursue  this  train  of
      Mr. Charrington enters, but he is altered in  accent  and  appearance.
Winston realizes that he is a member of the Thought Police.
Part 3
Chapter 1
      Winston is in the Ministry of Love (he presumes), in a  high-ceilinged
bare white cell with a telescreen in each wall and  a  bench  running  along
the perimeter. He has not eaten  since  he  was  arrested,  and  he  has  no
conception of how long ago that was.
      Before being brought to this place he had been taken to a prison  full
of both "common criminals"  (i.e.  prole  gangsters,  thieves,  prostitutes,
etc.) and political  prisoners  like  himself.  He  notes  that  the  common
criminals comport themselves with almost no fear of consequences, in  direct
contrast to the political prisoners, and that they have set  up  a  sort  of
hierarchical social order within the prison.
      One huge, drunken woman is brought in kicking and screaming and dumped
on Winston's lap. She seems to take a liking to him, asks his name,  and  is
surprised to find that it is the same  as  hers.  She  speculates  that  she
might be his mother; he reflects that it is possible, given her age and  the
potential changes time may have wrought.
In this prison, Winston hears for the first time a reference to "Room  101,"
which he does not understand.
      In the cell in the Ministry of Love, Winston has nothing to do  except
sit still and think. He is so paralyzed by hunger and fear  that  he  cannot
even feel for Julia. Dreading torture, he  thinks  hopefully  of  the  razor
blade O'Brien might send.
      People start to come into the cell. The first is Ampleforth, the  poet
from Winston's department. They talk briefly before  the  telescreen  shouts
at them to be quiet. After a while, Ampleforth is taken out to Room 101.
The next person to enter is, to Winston's  utter  surprise,  Parsons,  whose
daughter denounced him to the Thought  Police  for  saying  "Down  with  Big
Brother" over and over again in his sleep.
      After Parsons is removed, various other prisoners are brought  in  and
taken out. Again, someone is assigned to be taken to Room 101,  and  Winston
observes her fear without comprehending it. A starving man  is  brought  in;
everyone in the  cell  seems  to  realize  at  once  that  he  is  dying  of
starvation. Another prisoner, a chinless man, gets up to offer him  a  crust
of bread. The telescreen roars at him to  freeze  and  drop  the  bread.  An
officer and a guard enter; the guard smashes the man in the  mouth,  sending
him across the cell and breaking his dental plate.
      After this, the starving man  is  summoned  to  Room  101.  In  mortal
terror, he flings himself into a posture of supplication, begging  them  not
to send him there. The officer is implacable. The prisoner begs them  to  do
anything  to  him,  anything  else  but  Room  101;  still   no   relenting.
Desperately, he tries to point the finger at  the  chinless  man,  shrieking
that they should be taking him instead; the guards move  forward  to  remove
him by force. He grabs one of the iron legs supporting the  bench  and  puts
up a surprisingly good fight before his fingers  are  broken  by  a  vicious
kick and he is dragged away.
      An unknown amount of time passes, and Winston is alone. He is tortured
by hunger, thirst, and panic; he  still  hopes  for  the  razor  blade;  his
thoughts of Julia are distant and cannot compete  with  his  fright  of  the
pain he knows he will be suffering.
      The door opens again, and O'Brien  enters.  Winston  is  shocked  into
forgetting the telescreen for the first time  in  years.  "They've  got  you
too!" he exclaims, to which O'Brien replies, "They got me a long time  ago,"
and steps aside to reveal a guard with a truncheon. O'Brien was  not,  after
all, the co-conspirator Winston had thought; but somehow, now, he sees  that
he has always known this was the case. This thought flits through  his  mind
almost unnoticed as he watches the guard's truncheon..
      The blow falls on Winston's elbow and he is blinded by pain.  Writhing
on the floor, he cannot think of anything except that there  are  no  heroes
in the face of pain.
Chapter 2
      For an indeterminate amount of time, Winston has been tortured,  first
with frequent and  vicious  beatings,  then  with  extensive  interrogations
where the nagging of his questioners  wore  him  down  even  more  than  the
beatings. He has confessed all manner of impossible  crimes  and  implicated
everybody he knows.  His  memories  are  discontinuous  and  in  some  cases
hallucinatory. Through it all he has the sense  that  O'Brien  has  been  in
charge of his life in  the  Ministry  of  Love‹that  O'Brien  dictates  when
Winston shall be tortured and fed. Winston is not sure when it was,  but  he
recalls hearing a voice telling him not to  worry,  because  "I  shall  save
you, I shall make you  perfect."  Winston  is  not  certain  whether  it  is
O'Brien's voice, but it is the same voice he heard in his old dream.
Winston drifts into a consciousness that he  is  in  a  room  with  O'Brien,
strapped to a bed. O'Brien is in control of  some  sort  of  pain-generating
device which will play a part in the current interrogation.
      O'Brien begins by telling Winston that he is insane  because  he  does
not have control of his  memory,  and  that  he  recalls  false  events.  He
mentions  the  photograph  of  Jones,   Rutherford   and   Aaronson   as   a
hallucination Winston has had‹and then holds up the very photograph.  Before
Winston's eyes, O'Brien proceeds to dispose  of  the  photograph  through  a
memory hole and  immediately  deny  that  it  ever  existed.  Winston  feels
helpless because he realizes it  is  quite  possible  that  O'Brien  is  not
lying, that he in fact believes that the photograph never existed.
      They talk about the nature of the  past  and  reality;  O'Brien  tells
Winston that reality exists only in the mind of the Party, and that  Winston
has got to make an effort to destroy himself in order to become  "sane."  He
then asks Winston if he recalls writing in his diary that  "Freedom  is  the
freedom to say that 2 + 2 =4,"  and  this  touches  off  a  whole  round  of
torture. O'Brien holds up four fingers and asks Winston how many there  are,
if the Party says there are five. Winston, for a long while,  can  only  see
four, and suffers increasing levels of pain for it. O'Brien does not  accept
Winston merely saying that he sees five; he has to actually believe  it.  At
last, Winston's senses are so dazed by pain that he is no  longer  sure  how
many fingers there are.
      O'Brien allows him a respite (for which Winston is lovingly grateful),
and asks him why he thinks people are brought to the Ministry of Love.  When
Winston guesses that it is  to  make  people  confess  or  to  punish  them,
O'Brien suddenly  becomes  quite  animated,  and  almost  indignant  in  his
explanation. The point is not to hear about or punish petty  crimes;  it  is
to actually change the Party's enemy, i.e. to empty him of himself  and  his
dangerous individualistic ideas, and to fill that void with the Party.  This
precludes the possibility of martyrdom and the subsequent threat  of  people
rising up against the Party later.  Even  Jones,  Aaronson  and  Rutherford,
O'Brien tells Winston, were in  the  end  filled  only  with  penitence  and
adoration of Big Brother.
      Winston feels that O'Brien's mind contains his own, and is  not  quite
sure which one of them is mad, though he thinks it must be himself since  it
doesn't seem likely that O'Brien is.
      O'Brien looks down at him sternly. He tells him, "What happens to  you
here is for ever. . . . Things will happen to you from which you  could  not
recover, if you lived a thousand years." These things,  notably,  will  wipe
out all human feeling from Winston‹in other words, they will take  away  his
humanity, and he will be nothing but a shell filled with the Party.
      At this point, Winston is hooked up to another device which  does  not
pain him but seems to knock out some part of his brain, so that for a  short
while he can remember nothing of  his  own  accord  but  merely  takes,  and
believes, whatever O'Brien tells him to be truth. The effect wears off,  but
it has made its point: that it is, in fact, possible for the  Party  to  get
inside him and make him believe its truth.
      The session is drawing to its  close,  and  O'Brien  mentions  how  he
agrees with Winston's diary  entry  about  how  it  doesn't  matter  whether
O'Brien  was  an  enemy  or  a  friend  because  he  could  be  talked   to.
Magnanimously, he allows Winston to ask any question  he  desires;  but  his
answers are yet cruel, "truthful" only in the sense that they reference  the
Party's truth.
      Winston realizes suddenly that O'Brien knows what he is going to  ask,
and he does: "What is  in  Room  101?"  But  O'Brien  merely  responds  that
everyone knows what is in Room 101, and Winston is put to sleep.
Chapter 3
      Some time has passed. After innumerable sessions with O'Brien, Winston
has completed the first "stage in his  re-integration"‹learning‹and  O'Brien
judges that it is time for him to move on to the second, understanding.
      O'Brien quotes Winston's diary entry about understanding "how" but not
"why." He mentions Goldstein's book, informing Winston that he  was  one  of
the people who wrote it, and that it is true as a description of  the  world
but that its discussion of insurrection  is  nonsense  and  impossible;  the
Party, he says, will rule forever, and Winston must get that into his  head.

      That said, he turns to the question of why the Party  holds  onto  its
power. Winston answers incorrectly and suffers for it. O'Brien  answers  his
own question: "The Party seeks power entirely for its own  sake."  Power  is
defined as something that must  be  collective,  and  as  power  over  human
beings. Almost as an aside, O'Brien says the Party already controls  matter.
Winston, roused, argues that they do not, but  O'Brien  silences  him  using
plenty of doublethink, and returns to the idea of holding power over men.
      Since power over others depends on  making  the  subject  suffer,  the
Party's view of  the  future  is  a  world  based  upon  hatred,  fear,  and
destruction. All instincts of love and beauty will be  eradicated  and  only
power, ever more refined and absolute, will remain.
      Winston, horrified, again attempts to argue  against  the  possibility
that such a world could ever last eternally. When O'Brien asks  why  Winston
thinks it should fail, he cites his belief  that  the  spirit  of  man  will
prevail. Ironically, O'Brien asks Winston if he thinks he is a man.  Winston
replies that he does. O'Brien tells him that he must be the  last  man,  and
bids him take off his clothes and go look in the mirror at the  end  of  the
      When Winston sees himself, he has a nasty shock.  He  is  a  skeleton,
dirty, broken, disgusting. He is, as  O'Brien  cruelly  emphasizes,  falling
apart. He breaks down into tears. Once again, O'Brien's  manner  changes  to
near-kindness, as he tells Winston that he  can  get  himself  out  of  this
state because he got himself into it. He lists the humiliations Winston  has
suffered, and asks him whether there is a  single  degradation  he  has  not
experienced. Winston looks up and replies that he has not betrayed Julia.
      O'Brien seems to understand  this,  and  agrees,  looking  at  Winston
thoughtfully. Far from taking this as any sort of hint, Winston  is  flooded
with his old worship of O'Brien, almost  grateful  that  he  has  understood
without explanation.
Chapter 4
      More time has passed, and Winston is  no  longer  being  tortured.  In
fact, he is being fed and kept clean and allowed to sleep. At  first  he  is
only interested in  sleep  and  no  conscious  mental  activity;  he  dreams
abundantly, always  happy  peaceful  dreams,  with  Julia,  his  mother,  or
O'Brien‹the three people he cares about.
      Gradually he grows stronger, though he is shocked at how weak  he  had
become. Correspondingly, his mind becomes more active, and he sits  down  to
try and re-educate himself. He reviews everything he has been  told,  writes
down Party slogans and falsities such  as  "2  +  2  =  5,"  all  the  while
reflecting how easy it has been to mentally surrender,  to  "think  as  they
      Still, he is troubled by some mental objections, and tries to practice
crimestop, which is the conscious stopping of thought before  it  leads  you
into thoughtcrime. He finds that it is difficult  to  attain  the  stupidity
necessary to avoid seeing blatant logical flaws. At the back  of  his  mind,
he wonders how soon he will be shot. The only thing he knows  is  that  they
always shoot you in the back of the head.
      Winston has a dream or  reverie  in  which  he  is  walking  down  the
corridor, waiting to be shot, feeling happy and at peace. He walks into  the
Golden Country..
      Suddenly he bolts awake, having heard himself cry  out  longingly  for
      He had had a fleeting sensation of her being inside him, and  at  that
moment had loved her more than at any previous moment. Somehow he feels  she
is still alive and that she needs his help.
      Despairing, Winston lies back, waiting for the tramp of boots  in  the
corridor. His thoughtcrime sprang from the fact that while he has tamed  his
mind to the Party, he has tried to keep his  innermost  self‹his  heart‹away
from them. He wonders how much time he has added to his torment by the  cry.

      Rebelliously, he decides to lock his hatred of the Party so far inside
him that it is even a secret from himself, and envisions  the  final  moment
where, just before the bullet hits him, all his hatred would explode.  This,
he feels, is the last avenue of freedom open  to  him:  to  have  his  final
heretical thought right before their bullet reached him.
But this will be difficult. He thinks of Big Brother  and  wonders  what  he
really feels toward him.
      O'Brien enters at that moment with an officer and  guards.  He  orders
Winston to stand up and examines him. He asks Winston what he feels  towards
Big Brother. Winston replies that he  hates  him.  The  last  step,  O'Brien
tells him, is to learn to love Big Brother, and  he  orders  Winston  to  be
taken to Room 101.
Chapter 5
      Winston has been taken to Room 101 and strapped into a chair.  O'Brien
enters and tells him what is in Room 101: the  worst  thing  in  the  world,
which varies between individuals but is always something unendurable to  the
person in the chair. For Winston, it is rats.
      A  mask  with  a  cage  attached  to  it  is  brought  in.  From   its
construction, it is clear that the mask is designed to  fit  over  Winston's
face, and at the pulling of a lever,  the  rats  inside  the  cage‹enormous,
ravenous brutes‹will be free to attack him.
      O'Brien casually mentions Winston's recurring nightmare, and tells him
what he already knows: that behind the  dark  wall  of  his  nightmare  were
rats. Winston, beyond panic, begs O'Brien to tell him what he wishes him  to
do. O'Brien does not answer, but engages  in  a  sort  of  ponderous  mental
torture by bringing the contraption closer and pedantically musing on  rats.

      Winston's terror increases, but at the last moment it  occurs  to  him
what must be done, and that is to beg that this  be  done  to  Julia  rather
than to him.
      He has saved himself; O'Brien shuts the cage door  rather  than  opens
Chapter 6
      It is 15:00 and Winston sits alone in the Chestnut Tree  Cafe.  He  is
anxiously listening for news of the war with Eurasia.
      However, Winston is not able to keep his mind on one  topic  for  very
long these days, and he gulps down his glass of clove-flavored  gin.  He  is
fatter and pinker now‹to the  point  of  looking  unhealthy.  Without  being
asked, a waiter brings him the current issue of the  Times,  opened  to  the
chess problem, and a chessboard; he sees that Winston's glass is  empty  and
refills it. The waiters know  Winston's  habits  and  bill  him  irregularly
(and, he suspects, they undercharge him), though with his new  higher-paying
job this wouldn't have presented a problem either way.
      An announcement from the Ministry of Plenty reveals that Oceania is in
the midst of the Tenth Three-Year Plan. Winston starts to attack  the  chess
problem.  The  telescreen  announcer  advises  everyone  to  listen  for  an
important announcement at 15:30, which  Winston  knows  must  be  about  the
fighting in Africa. He has the sinking feeling that it  will  be  bad  news;
the thought that this could  lead  to  the  end  of  the  Party  triggers  a
powerful but unclear  reaction  in  him.  He  imagines  a  mysterious  force
assembling  to  the  rear  of   the   Eurasian   army,   cutting   off   its
communications, and feels that by willing it he can bring  that  force  into
      His thoughts wander; almost unconsciously he traces the equation "2  +
2 = 5" on the table. He recalls Julia saying "They can't  get  inside  you,"
but knows she is wrong; he remembers O'Brien saying  "What  happens  to  you
here is for ever," and knows he is right.
      He had encountered Julia one freezing, dead March  day  in  the  Park.
Knowing that the Party no longer cared about what he did,  he  had  followed
her, but not very eagerly. Something about her  had  changed.  She  had  not
been particularly excited about having him  around,  but  resigned  herself.
They walked. He had put his arm around her waist; she did  not  respond.  He
had realized that the change in her was not so  much  the  scar  across  her
face or her pallor, but that her waist  had  thickened  and  stiffened  into
something like a corpse or marble.
      They did not speak or kiss. When Julia looked  at  him,  it  was  with
contempt and dislike. They seated themselves on a bench  and  finally  Julia
had said, "I betrayed you." He told her he had betrayed her  as  well.  From
her explanation‹that they threaten you with the unendurable  and  you  place
your loved one inside it instead of yourself, thereby changing  forever  how
you feel about the person‹it seems apparent that she, too,  had  been  taken
to Room 101.
      There was nothing more to say, and they had parted uncomfortably, with
empty words about meeting again, but really only  the  desire  to  get  away
from one another.
      Recalling Julia's words about betrayal, Winston reflects that  he  had
really wished for her to be devoured by  the  rats  instead  of  himself‹but
before he can even get to the word "rats" in his thoughts (which we know  he
will never do anyway), a voice from the telescreen starts  to  sing,  "Under
the spreading chestnut tree, I sold you and you sold me . . ."
      Winston's eyes fill with tears. A waiter passes  by  and  refills  his
glass; he thinks about how dependent he  has  become  on  gin,  drinking  it
every hour of the day. No one cares  how  he  spends  his  days.  His  "job"
involves dealing with trivialities that arise from the  current  work  being
done on the Eleventh  Edition  of  the  Newspeak  Dictionary.  His  sub-sub-
committee consists of four other people like himself.
      He thinks briefly again about the struggle in Africa, then picks up  a
chess piece, and somehow triggers a memory of  his  childhood.  His  mother,
after entreating him to  be  good,  had  bought  him  the  game  Snakes  and
Ladders, and although he had not been interested in  it  at  first,  he  was
soon captivated, and the three of them had a happy, enjoyable afternoon.
      Recalling himself, Winston shakes this off as a false memory,  and  is
picking up the chess piece again when a  trumpet-call  from  the  telescreen
startles him. The trumpet-call always signifies a  victory,  and  excitement
spreads through the cafe and the streets like wildfire. The announcement  is
that the very  strategy  Winston  had  imagined  has  taken  place,  utterly
defeating Eurasia and giving Oceania control of all of Africa.
      Caught up in the excitement of this news,  Winston  looks  up  at  the
portrait  of  Big  Brother,  overwhelmed,  and  feels  the  "final,  healing
change": He loves Big Brother.
      The  Appendix  details   the   underlying   principles   of   Newspeak
(essentially that it was designed  to  limit  the  range  of  thought),  and
details the word classes as follows:
      The A vocabulary consisted of everyday words used in the expression of
simple thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions.
      The  B  vocabulary  consisted  of  words  created  to  hold  political
connotations and impose a politically  desirable  state  of  mind  upon  the
user. These were all compound words, like "Ingsoc"  or  "doublethink."  Many
meant the opposite of what they really were, in keeping with the concept  of
      The C vocabulary consisted of scientific and technical terms which  it
behooved no one but scientists and technicians to use.
The grammar of Newspeak had two notable characteristics:
   There was an almost complete interchangeability between  different  parts
      of speech. A noun and verb were basically the  same,  and  formed  the
      root for all other forms  of  the  word.  Adjectives  were  formed  by
      tacking "-ful" onto the end of the word; adverbs, by adding the suffix
      "-wise." Any word could be negated by  the  prefix  "un-,"  and  other
      prefixes like "plus-" and "doubleplus-" could strengthen the word.
   The grammar was exceedingly regular, with very few exceptions.  All  past
      tenses were formed using "-ed," all plurals with "-s"  or  "-es,"  and
      comparatives with "-er" and "-est."
   Euphony  was   privileged   above   everything,   including   grammatical
regularity, except precision of meaning. This is because the  end  goal  was
to produce words that could be spoken so quickly that they  would  not  have
the time to prompt thought; in other  words,  so  that  people  could  speak
without thinking at all.
   The meanings of Newspeak words were carefully controlled so that in  many
cases most connotations were destroyed. For instance, the word "free"  still
existed, but only in the sense of  something  being  "free  from"  something
else, e.g. "This field is free from  weeds."  It  could  not  be  used  with
reference to political freedom, as this meaning had been drilled out of  the
   This also precluded the ability to argue heretical opinions. Though,  for
instance, it would have been possible to say "Big Brother is ungood,"  there
were not the words necessary to defend  or  argue  this  assertion.  Through
this process, Oldspeak would become not  only  obsolete  but  impossible  to
understand or translate, since its  words  hold  meanings  and  can  express
ideas that would be inexpressible in Newspeak (except using the single  word

                           Animal Farm by G.Orwell

Chapter One: Summary
      As the story opens on Mr. Jones's farm, the farm animals are preparing
to meet after Mr. Jones goes to sleep, to hear the words that  the  old  and
well-respected pig, Old Major, wants to say  to  them.  The  animals  gather
around as Old Major tells them that he had a dream the  previous  night  and
senses that he will not live much longer. As the  animals  prepare  for  his
speech, the narrator identifies several of the  animals  which  will  become
more important in the story: the  cart-horses  Boxer  and  Clover,  the  old
donkey Benjamin, and Mollie the pretty mare. Before he  dies,  he  wants  to
tell the animals what he has observed and learned in his twelve  years.  Old
Major goes on to say that animals in England are cruelly kept in slavery  by
man, who steals the animals' labor and is "the only creature  that  consumes
without producing". He describes his vision of an England in  which  animals
are free and live in complete harmony and cooperation, free of  the  tyranny
of man and his evil habits.
      Old Major tells the animals that they must all band together to  fight
the common enemy, Man, and rise up in rebellion when the opportunity  comes.
He exhorts them to remain true to their animal ways, and then leads them  in
a rousing song of revolution, called "Beasts of England". They  are  stirred
into a frenzy by Old Major's speech  and  sing  the  song  five  consecutive
times, until Mr. Jones stirs and fires a shot into the  air  to  quiet  them
down. Soon the whole farm falls asleep.
Chapter Two: Summary
      Three days later, Old Major dies  and  is  buried.  His  revolutionary
fervor lives on, and  the  animals  begin  to  flesh  in  the  revolutionary
ideology with which  they  will  overthrow  Mr.  Jones.  Two  of  the  pigs,
Snowball and Napoleon, emerge as the leaders of  the  animals.  Snowball  is
naturally vivacious, while Napoleon "has a reputation for  getting  his  own
way". Another pig named Squealer also becomes prominent for  his  persuasive
speaking ability. These three pigs create a system of  tenets  and  name  it
"Animalism," and begin imparting it  to  the  rest  of  the  animals,  often
simplifying and slowly reasoning with the less-intelligent animals  such  as
the Sheep, or the frivolous animals, like Mollie the white mare.  The  cart-
horses Boxer and Clover are the most responsive  of  all  the  animals,  and
Moses the tame raven is the most difficult animal for the pigs  to  persuade
to join the revolution. Moses claims that he knows of  the  existence  of  a
magical place called Sugarcandy Mountain,  and  his  tales  are  a  constant
distraction to the other animals.
   Revolution comes earlier than anyone expected, when  Mr.  Jones  gets  so
drunk that he is unable to go feed the animals.  After  a  day  and  a  half
without food, the hungry animals finally riot and  break  into  the  feeding
area themselves, prompting Mr. Jones and his field hands  to  come  outside.
The animals attack them with a vengeance, and the men  flee,  leaving  Manor
Farm to the animals. Mrs. Jones wakes up during the commotion, and when  she
discovers what has happened,  she  runs  off  with  a  suitcase  of  clothes
herself. The animals  rejoice,  walking  over  the  farm  to  examine  their
property, curiously investigate the farmhouse interior, and  celebrate  with
extra rations of food. The next morning, Snowball repaints the sign  reading
"Manor Farm" to say  "Animal  Farm,"  and  he  and  Napoleon  introduce  the
animals  to  The  Seven  Commandments,  which  form  the  tenets  of   their
   Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
   Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
   No animal shall wear clothes.
   No animal shall sleep in a bed.
   No animal shall drink alcohol.
   No animal shall kill another animal.
   All animals are created equal.
   The cows by this time need milking, so the  pigs  manage  to  milk  them.
Several of the animals want some of the milk for  themselves,  but  Napoleon
distracts them, saying that they have more important  things  to  attend  to
and that he will take care of it. Later that day, the  animals  notice  that
the milk had disappeared.
Chapter Three: Summary
      The Animalism regime begins very promisingly,  with  all  the  animals
working industriously to improve the farm, and enjoying the feeling of self-
governance and "animal pride" which their regime produces. Inspired  by  the
idea that they would enjoy the fruits of their  own  labors  for  the  first
time, the animals overcome the challenges of farming without man  and  bring
in the largest harvest Animal  Farm  has  ever  produced.  Boxer  the  horse
becomes a model of hard work and devotion  to  the  cause,  and  adopts  the
personal motto, "I will work harder". The pigs do not actually  perform  any
work, but instead supervise and coordinate the work  for  the  rest  of  the
animals. Mollie the mare is the only animal who shirks work.  Benjamin,  the
old donkey, remains unchanged after the  revolution,  and  cryptically  says
that "Donkeys live a long time." The animals observe a  flag-raising  ritual
on Sundays, which is a day of rest for them.  Snowball  forms  an  array  of
committees aimed at social improvements, education, training, and the  like.
The education program achieves the greatest success, with  all  the  animals
achieving some degree of literacy. After the  discovery  that  the  stupider
animals could not learn the Seven Commandments, Snowball reduces the  tenets
down to the maxim "Four legs good, two legs bad," which even the  sheep  can
memorize, and bleat for hours on  end.  The  dogs  have  a  litter  of  nine
puppies, which Napoleon takes under the guise of educating  them.  He  keeps
them secluded in the loft, and soon the other  animals  forget  about  them.
After the apple harvest, the pigs announce that they will  reserve  all  the
apples and milk for themselves, to fuel the strenuous  efforts  required  to
manage the farm. The other animals reluctantly acquiesce.
Chapter Four: Summary
      News of the rebellion at Animal Farm spreads quickly to  the  rest  of
the animals in England, and the words to "Beasts of  England"  can  soon  be
heard on farms everywhere. Emboldened by the Animal Farm  revolution,  other
previously subdued animals begin displaying subversive  behavior  in  subtle
ways, such as tearing down fences  and  throwing  riders.  This  development
alarms the local farmers, who have listened to Mr. Jones's tale  of  woe  at
the Red Lion tavern where he now spends most of his  time.  Alarmed  by  the
developments at Animal Farm and the  threat  of  revolution  spreading,  the
townsmen band together with Mr. Jones and attempt to reclaim his  farm.  The
animals  successfully  defend  it,  led  by  the  strategy  and  bravery  of
Snowball. A young farm hand is thrown to the ground by Boxer, and  at  first
it appears that he has  been  killed,  but  he  gains  consciousness  a  few
moments later and runs off. At the first gunshot, Mollie the mare runs  into
the barn in terror and buries her head in the hay. Snowball  and  Boxer  are
given medals for their courageous fighting.
Chapter Five: Summary
      Unhappy with the new workload at Animal Farm, Mollie runs away to work
pulling a dogcart for a man who feeds her sugar  lumps,  and  she  is  never
spoken of again. When winter comes, Snowball begins talking  of  a  plan  to
build a windmill to bring electricity to the farm. Snowball has  spent  much
of his spare time reading Mr. Jones's old books on farming  techniques,  and
he envisions an Animal Farm where  increased  productivity  will  result  in
less work and more comfortable lifestyles for  all  the  animals.  Napoleon,
who by this times  disagrees  with  Snowball  about  almost  everything,  is
bitterly  opposed,  and  the  animals  become  divided  into  two  camps  of
supporters. Napoleon and Snowball also disagree about  the  best  course  of
defense  for  the  farm,  with  Snowball  advocating  the  spread   of   the
revolutionary spirit to neighboring farms, while Napoleon feels the  animals
should procure weapons and develop a military force. The animals are set  to
vote, and after Snowball's impassioned speech, Napoleon  whistles  for  nine
large dogs (the puppies that he has trained), and they attack  Snowball  and
drive him off the farm. Napoleon becomes the single leader of  the  animals,
abolishes their weekly debates and meetings, and announces  that  they  will
go through with the windmill scheme after all.  The  animals  are  initially
dismayed by these developments,  but  Squealer  eventually  smoothes  things
Chapter Six: Summary
      The animals begin working like slaves  to  complete  the  harvest  and
build the windmill. Napoleon announces that the  animals  will  now  perform
"voluntary"  work  on  Sundays.  Though  the  work  is   officially   called
voluntary, any animal who does not participate will have their food  rations
cut in half. To finance the completion of the windmill,  Napoleon  announces
that Animal Farm will begin trading with the men who run nearby  farms.  The
animals think they remember Old Major speaking  against  evil  human  habits
such as trade. Squealer convinces the animals that they are  only  imagining
it. The sight of Napoleon on four legs conducting business with  the  farm's
trade agent Mr. Whymper, who stands upright,  makes  the  animals  so  proud
that they ignore their misgivings. The pigs then move  into  the  farmhouse,
and Squealer again convinces that animals that they are only  imagining  the
earlier rules against sleeping in beds. Some of the animals go to check  the
Fourth Commandment, and discover that it actually  reads  "No  animal  shall
sleep in a bed with sheets". Rather than realizing that the Commandment  has
been altered, the animals accept that they must have  forgotten  the  ending
before. The windmill is destroyed in a storm,  and  Napoleon  blames  it  on
Snowball, and places a reward on his head.
Chapter Seven: Summary
      A hard winter comes, and the animals face near-starvation. To hide the
food shortage from the outside world, Napoleon fills  the  grain  bins  with
sand to fool Mr. Whymper.  He  also  plants  several  animals  at  strategic
locations during Mr. Whymper's visits  so  that  he  can  hear  them  making
"casual" (and false) remarks about food  surpluses  and  increased  rations.
Napoleon announces the plan  to  sell  a  pile  of  timber  to  one  of  two
neighboring  farmers,  Mr.  Frederick  or  Mr.  Pilkington.  At   Napoleon's
bidding, Squealer announces that the hens will have to give  up  their  eggs
to be sold for money to buy grain. The hens refuse at  first,  but  Napoleon
cuts off their food rations until they relent, after nine of them have  died
from starvation. All sorts of  acts  of  mischief  and  vandalism  begin  to
surface, which are immediately attributed to Snowball. Soon after,  Napoleon
announces that an attempted rebellion has been discovered, and  has  several
of the farm animals executed. The remaining  animals  react  with  fear  and
horror, and huddle around Clover the mare for comfort. She reminds  them  of
Old Major's glorious speech and leads  them  all  in  "Beasts  of  England,"
which prompts Napoleon to forbid the singing of  the  song  and  replace  it
with the song "Animal Farm, Animal Farm, never through me  shall  thou  come
to harm".
Chapter Eight: Summary
      The animals discover that after the executions, another commandment is
different from how they remembered it; the Sixth Commandment now  reads  "No
animal shall kill another animal without cause". Napoleon has  a  long  poem
praising his leadership  painted  on  the  side  of  the  barn,  and  it  is
announced that the gun will be fired each year on his birthday.  All  orders
are delivered through Squealer, with Napoleon living in  near  seclusion  in
the farmhouse and rarely appearing on the farm in person. When he does  make
public appearances, it is only while accompanied by a retinue  of  dogs  and
other servants. Napoleon announces  the  sale  of  the  pile  of  timber  to
Frederick, a neighboring farmer whose acts of  cruelty  toward  his  animals
are legendary. After the transaction, it  is  revealed  the  Frederick  paid
with  forged  bank  notes.  Napoleon  pronounces  a  death   sentence   onto
Frederick. Shortly thereafter, the farm is  again  attacked  by  neighboring
farmers, led by Frederick himself. Napoleon appeals to  Pilkington  to  help
the cause of Animal Farm, but Pilkington's interest in the  farm  were  only
economic, and since he did not get the pile of timber, he refuses  to  help,
sending Napoleon the message "Serves you right". The animals  finally  repel
the farmers, but only with great difficulty, with Boxer sustaining a  severe
injury to his hoof  and  the  windmill  being  destroyed  in  an  explosion.
Napoleon celebrates the victory by drinking lots of whisky, and despite  his
vicious hangover, the Fifth Commandment soon reads "No  animal  shall  drink
alcohol in excess".
Chapter Nine: Summary
      More  and  more,  the  animals  begin  to  think  about  the  generous
retirement  plans  that  had  been  part  of  the  ideology  of  the   early
Revolution. Life is hard  for  the  animals,  and  rations  continue  to  be
reduced, except for the pigs, who are  allowed  to  wear  green  ribbons  on
Sundays, drink beer daily, and actually seem to be gaining weight.  To  keep
the animals from  complaining  about  the  obvious  discrepancies,  Squealer
continually reads the animals reports which detail how much better off  they
are now then before the Revolution. Animal Farm is declared a  Republic  and
must elect a President. Napoleon  is  the  only  candidate  and  is  elected
unanimously. Moses the raven returns after  an  absence  of  several  years,
still talking about the mystical Sugarcandy Mountain. Boxer  falls  ill  and
Napoleon promises to send him to a hospital, but the animals read  the  sign
of the truck as he is hauled away and discover that he  is  being  taken  to
the butcher's. Squealer eventually  convinces  the  animals  that  they  are
Chapter Ten: Summary
      Years pass, and many of the older animals, who  remember  life  before
the Revolution, die off. Only cynical Benjamin remains  just  as  he  always
was. The animal population has increased, but not  as  much  as  would  have
been predicted at the Revolution's beginning. Talk  of  retirement  for  the
animals stops, and the pigs, who have become the largest  group  of  animals
by far, form a bureaucratic class  in  the  government.  As  Napoleon  ages,
Squealer assumes  a  position  of  increasing  power,  and  learns  to  walk
upright. He teaches the sheep to change their chant to "Four legs good,  two
legs better,"  and  the  Seven  Commandments  are  replaced  with  a  single
commandment: "All animals are created  equal,  but  some  animals  are  more
equal than others". The animals are once again uneasy by the  new  political
developments, but they comfort themselves with the knowledge that  at  least
they have no human master. Squealer begins to seek out the approval  of  the
neighboring farmers for his efficiency and order at Animal  Farm.  The  pigs
invite a group of townsmen to dinner to inspect  the  efficiency  of  Animal
Farm, and the men congratulate the pigs on their achievements,  noting  that
the animals at Animal Farm did more work and required  less  food  than  any
farm in the county. Napoleon refers  to  the  farm  animals  as  "the  lower
classes" and announces that Animal Farm will take back its original name  of
The Manor Farm. As the animal  watch  the  dinner  proceedings  through  the
window, they realize with horror that they can  no  longer  tell  the  pigs'
faces from the human ones.

                         Childe Harold by G.G.Byron

Canto 1: A wayward, wild, immoral youth grows weary of his ways and seeks
to gain a surer foothold on life by traveling. A rambling account follows
in which Harold goes to Spain and Portugal, with momentary lapses where
other areas of Europe are recalled. Familiarity with the area in the reader
might make the descriptions more meaningful, but they are romantic
Canto 2: Harold then journeys to the Baltics, where he is impressed by the
fierce culture of the Albanians, and the past glory of Greece. A
reminiscence and some extensive notes on the state of Greece and its
bondage to foreign powers are included. The descriptions are often
picturesque, but the poem as a whole lacks coherence. We see no growth in
Harold-- in fact, it is not a story about him at all, but rather a poetic
chronicle of travels and thoughts. As such, though, it is passable.
Canto 3: This is a far superior piece of work to the last two cantos.
Harold develops, affected by and reflecting deeply and interestingly on
Waterloo and Napoleon in Belgium, on the Alps, the Rhine and the battles
fought there. His cynicism begins to soften, and he begins to yearn for his
beloved. With the place-descriptions are woven (this time, rather than
simply interspersed as before) meditations on people, such as the Aventian
princess Julia whose love for her father affected Byron so deeply; and
Rousseau, of whom Byron is critical but admiring (see also his long
thoughtful note on this subject); and Voltaire and Gibbon, who are
acknowledged but claimed to be wrongheaded. Also, he thinks about nature as
a respite from the "madding crowd" (fortified with a prose argument in a
note), entertains what we would now call some "environmentalist" thoughts,
and finally comments on his shunning of the world's trends and his sorrow
as an estranged father to his girl. This canto is very like the meandering
thoughts of a traveler or a wanderer. But here they are fruitful and bubble
forth to a greater extent than in the first two.
Canto 4: In keeping with the progression of this poem, this canto is the
best of the four. In Italy, we see the places and hear reminiscences of the
people, but these in this canto seem oddly secondary. Harold's journey is
now admitted to be Byron's journey, and the meditations which the sites and
scenes inspire are deep and thoughtful as never before. We get much more of
an idea that this is Byron speaking to us rather than an imagined
character; indeed, Byron in the prefatory letter calls the work his most
thoughtful composition (as of 1818). He reaches highs of contemplation more
than once-- on imagination and the eternal glimpses it brings; on suffering
and painful memory; on solitude and its virtues and vices; on education; on
man's humility and state of political and spiritual slavery; on freedom; on
our poor souls and the illusory nature of love; on thought and truth; on
the joys of the wilderness and the power of the ocean; and an excellent
conclusion which humbly and thoughtfully closes the mind's eye of the
reader in rest. Meanwhile, of course, we are shown Venice, several ancient
sites, and (for the bulk of the canto) Rome, about whose history Byron
muses, talking of the rise and fall of civilizations. We see the Pantheon,
Circus, Coliseum, Vatican... and all inspire thought and reflection. No
real conclusions are reached-- Harold/Byron does not have a sustained and
rejuvenation epiphany-- but still we get the idea that he is better for
having superfluity wrung from him on this trip. For, how can one descend to
the level of a profligate again, after tasting the greatness which man has
attained in a worldly sense, and being inspired by that to think (to some
extent at least) of great things in a spiritual sense?

                  The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles

      The first chapter describes Lyme Regis and its Cobb, a harbor quay  on
which three characters are standing: Charles  Smithson,  Ernestina  Freeman,
and Sarah Woodruff. The describing narrator has a  distinctive  voice,  all-
knowing yet intimate, with a  wide-ranging  vocabulary  and  evidently  vast
knowledge of  political  and  geographical  history.  In  one  sentence  the
narrator sounds like a Victorian, as he  remarks  that  the  male  character
recently "had severely reduced his dundrearies, which the  arbiters  of  the
best English male fashion had declared a shade vulgar--that is,  risible  to
the foreigner--a year or two previously." In the  next  sentence  he  sounds
modern, as he describes how "the colors of the young  lady's  clothes  would
strike us today as distinctly strident." The narrator's  double  vision  and
double voice make him as important as the characters in this novel.
      Charles  is  a  middle-aged  bachelor  and   amateur   paleontologist;
Ernestina is his fiancйe, who has brought him to spend a few days  with  her
aunt. Out of a chivalric concern for Sarah, Charles advises  her  to  return
from the end of the Cobb to a safer position, but she merely stares at  him.
As he reflects on this curious meeting, the narrator begins  to  comment  on
Charles's outlook on life and on the attitudes that were typical of the  age
in 1867, with occasional comparisons with 1967.
      Ernestina is revealed to be a pretty  but  conventional  young  woman.
Sarah is an outcast who is reputed to be pining for  the  French  lieutenant
who has jilted her. Charles is earnest but intelligent enough  to  be  aware
of Ernestina's limitations. When he is looking for fossils along the  wooded
Undercliff, Charles discovers Sarah sleeping, and must  apologize  when  she
awakes and sees him observing her. As he returns to Lyme, he inquires  about
her at a nearby farm, whose owner tells him  that  the  "French  Loot'n'nt's
Hoer" often walks that  way.  Sarah's  employer,  having  separately  become
aware of that fact, forbids her to walk there any more.  Sarah  spends  that
night contemplating suicide, and Chapter 12 ends with  two  questions:  "Who
is Sarah? Out of what shadows does she come?"
      Chapter 13 begins "I do  not  know,"  and  the  narrator  proceeds  to
discuss  the  difficulty  of  writing  a  story   when   characters   behave
independently rather than do his bidding. Charles,  he  complains,  did  not
return to Lyme as the narrator had intended but willfully went down  to  the
Dairy to ask about Sarah. But, the narrator concedes,  times  have  changed,
and the traditional novel is out of fashion, according to some.  Novels  may
seem more real  if  the  characters  do  not  behave  like  marionettes  and
narrators do not behave like God. So the narrator, in  effect,  promises  to
give his characters the free will that people would want a  deity  to  grant
them. Likewise, the narrator will candidly admit  to  the  artifice  of  the
narration and will thereby treat his  readers  as  intelligent,  independent
beings who deserve more than the manipulative illusions of reality  provided
in a traditional novel.
      Subsequent chapters contain representations of domestic life--a  quiet
evening with Charles and Ernestina, a morning with Charles and his valet,  a
concert at the Assembly Rooms. During this last, Charles reflects  on  where
his life seems to be leading and on the fact that, as he  puts  it,  he  has
become "a little obsessed with Sarah…or at any  rate  with  the  enigma  she
presented." He returns to the Undercliff, again finds Sarah  there,  and  is
shocked to be told by her that she is not pining for her French  lieutenant,
that he is married. The next time Charles encounters her in  the  Undercliff
she offers Charles some fossils she has found and tells him that she  thinks
she may be going mad; she asks him to meet her there  once  more,  when  she
has more time, so that she can tell him the truth about  her  situation  and
obtain his advice.
      Charles decides to seek advice  himself  and  visits  Dr.  Grogan,  an
elderly bachelor and an admirer of  Darwin,  whose  theories  they  discuss.
When the conversation turns to Sarah, Grogan expresses the belief  that  she
wants to be a victim. Sarah seems to bear out his view when she explains  to
Charles that she indeed became infatuated with the  French  lieutenant  when
he was recovering from an injury in the house, where  Sarah  was  governess,
and that she followed him when he  left  to  return  to  France.  She  tells
Charles that she quickly realized that  he  had  regarded  her  only  as  an
amusement,  but  that  she  "gave"  herself  to  him   nonetheless,   doubly
dishonoring herself by choice as well as by circumstances. She seems  to  be
proud of her status as outcast, for it differentiates  her  from  a  society
she considers unjust. Charles accepts her story--even finds it fascinating.
      When Charles returns to his room at the inn, he finds a telegram  from
his bachelor uncle Robert, summoning him home to the family estate he is  in
line to inherit. To Charles's surprise, Robert has decided  to  marry  Bella
Tomkins, a young widow, whose sons--if she has any--would  displace  Charles
as heir. On Charles's return to Lyme Regis, Ernestina  mentions  that  Sarah
was seen returning from their last meeting in the Undercliff, where she  had
been forbidden to walk, and has been dismissed by  Mrs.  Poulteney.  At  his
hotel, Charles finds a message from Sarah, urging him to meet her  one  more
time. Charles has Dr. Grogan call off the search  for  Sarah,  who,  it  was
thought, might have  killed  herself  Grogan  again  warns  Charles  against
Sarah, this time by offering him a document to read about a case of  bizarre
behavior by a young woman in France who manages to get one of  her  father's
officers unjustly convicted of attempting to rape her.  Charles  decides  to
meet Sarah again, despite the possibility  that  she  may  be  deranged  and
trying to destroy him.
      When he finds her, she confesses that she deliberately allowed herself
to be seen and, hence, dismissed. Charles is unable to  resist  kissing  her
but is bewildered. His feelings turn to dismay when they are stumbled on  by
Sam and Mary, his valet and Ernestina's aunt's servant,  who  have  come  to
the Undercliff for  their  own  privacy.  Embarrassed,  he  swears  them  to
      Now even more of two minds about his marriage, Charles decides  to  go
to London to  discuss  his  altered  financial  prospects  with  Ernestina's
father, a prosperous merchant there. Mr. Freeman is more concerned  for  the
happiness of his daughter,  who  evidently  loves  Charles  dearly,  so  the
engagement stands; but Charles  is  increasingly  uncomfortable  with,  even
trapped by, his situation. He goes to his  club  and  drinks  too  much.  He
visits a brothel with two  of  his  friends,  but  finds  the  entertainment
repellant, and leaves. He picks up a Cockney  streetwalker  and  returns  to
her flat with her; when she tells him her name  is,  coincidentally,  Sarah,
Charles becomes ill  and,  subsequently,  returns  to  his  room.  The  next
morning Charles receives a letter from Grogan, and a note  from  Sarah  with
the name of a hotel in Exeter.
      Because the train station nearest to Lyme Regis is in Exeter,  Charles
must pass through that town on his way  back  from  London.  Having  steamed
open the note from Sarah, Sam is confident that they will  spend  the  night
in Exeter, so that Charles can visit Sarah, but they proceed to Lyme,  where
Charles and Ernestina are reunited. The narrator recounts that  they  go  on
to marry, have seven children, and live well into the twentieth century.  In
the next chapter, the narrator explains  that  this  traditional  ending  is
just one possibility, a hypothetical  future  for  his  characters.  Charles
recognized his freedom of choice and "actually" did  decide  to  put  up  at
Exeter for the night, precisely as Sam had expected.
      As the story resumes and continues to unfold, Charles visits Sarah  at
her hotel. He must see her in her room because she  has  supposedly  injured
her ankle, though she  has  purchased  the  bandage  before  the  "accident"
occurred. Charles is overcome by passion and  takes  her  to  bed,  only  to
discover that she is a virgin, despite what  she  had  told  him  about  the
French lieutenant. She confesses that she has deceived him,  says  that  she
cannot explain why and, furthermore, cannot marry him. Stunned by the  whole
experience, Charles visits a  nearby  church  and  meditates  on  the  human
condition. He decides that Sarah has been trying to "unblind" him  with  her
stratagems, so that he would recognize that he is free to choose. He  writes
a letter to Sarah, telling her how much she means to him, and  then  returns
to Lyme to call off his engagement.
      Sam does not deliver the letter. Ernestina is distraught when  Charles
tells her that he is unworthy to be her husband, more so when  she  realizes
that the true reason is another  woman.  Sam  correctly  surmises  that  his
master's star will wane as the marriage is  called  off,  so  determined  to
protect his prospect  of  marriage  to  Mary,  he  leaves  his  position  as
Charles's valet in hope that Ernestina's aunt and her father will help him.
      When Charles returns to Exeter, he finds Sarah gone to London,  having
left no forwarding address. As he follows her, by train,  a  bearded  figure
sits opposite Charles and watches him as he  dozes.  The  character  is  the
narrator himself, who professes not to know  where  Sarah  is  or  what  she
wants; indeed, he is wondering what exactly to do with Charles. He  compares
writing a novel to fixing a fight in favor of one boxer or another; to  seem
less dishonest, he decides to show the "fight"  as  if  "fixed"  both  ways,
with different "victors," or endings. Because  the  last  ending  will  seem
privileged by its final position, he flips a coin to determine which  ending
to give first.
      The narrative resumes the description of Charles's search  for  Sarah.
He  checks  agencies  for   governesses,   patrols   areas   frequented   by
prostitutes, and advertises--all  without  success.  He  visits  the  United
States and advertises there. Two years after she disappeared,  Charles  gets
a cable from his solicitor saying that Sarah has been found.  Charles  hopes
that Sarah has decided to answer the ad,  but  the  narrator  explains  that
Mary has seen Sarah enter a house  in  Chelsea,  and  that  it  is  Sam  who
responded to the ad, now that he is a thriving employee of  Mr.  Freeman  as
well as a happy father and husband, but  still  slightly  guilt-ridden  over
his having intercepted the letter at Lyme.
      When Charles arrives at Sarah's house, he finds her surprised  to  see
him  and  not  apologetic  about  having  left  him  in  ignorance  of   her
whereabouts. She gradually is revealed to be living in the  house  of  Dante
Gabriel Rossetti and several other artists and models of the  Pre-Raphaelite
Brotherhood.  Charles  is  shocked,  partly  by   the   rather   notoriously
unconventional company she is keeping and partly by her lack  of  repentance
for having deceived him and left him  in  uncertainty.  He  accuses  her  of
implanting a dagger in his breast and then twisting it. She decides  not  to
let Charles leave without revealing that she has had a child by  him,  named
Lalage. Chapter 60 ends with the three of them evidently  on  the  threshold
of some kind of future together.
      Chapter 61 begins with the bearded narrator in front of Sarah's  house
with a watch, which he  sets  back  fifteen  minutes  and  drives  off.  The
narrative resumes with the same piece of dialogue  from  Chapter  60,  about
twisting the knife. In this version of the conversation, Charles  sees  that
she cannot marry without betraying herself, and that he  cannot  accept  her
on more independent terms. He leaves without realizing  that  the  child  he
notices on the way out is his. The narrator ends the novel  by  noting  that
Charles has at least begun to have some faith in himself,  despite  his  not
feeling that he understands Sarah, and that the reader  should  not  imagine
that the last ending is any less plausible than the one before it.

French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian

Краткое содержание
      Ветреным мартовским днем 1867 г. вдоль мола старинного  городка  Лайм-
Риджиса на юго-востоке Англии прогуливается  молодая  пара.  Дама  одета  по
последней лондонской моде в узкое красное  платье  без  кринолина,  какие  в
этом провинциальном захолустье начнут  носить  лишь  в  будущем  сезоне.  Ее
рослый  спутник  в  безупречном  сером  пальто  почтительно  держит  в  руке
цилиндр. Это были Эрнестина, дочь богатого коммерсанта, и  ее  жених  Чарльз
Смитсон из аристократического  семейства.  Их  внимание  привлекает  женская
фигура в трауре на краю  мола,  которая  напоминает  скорее  живой  памятник
погибшим в морской пучине, нежели реальное существо. Ее называют  несчастной
Трагедией или Женщиной французского лейтенанта.  Года  два  назад  во  время
шторма погибло судно, а выброшенного на берег  со  сломанной  ногой  офицера
подобрали местные жители. Сара  Вудраф,  служившая  гувернанткой  и  знавшая
французский, помогала ему, как могла. Лейтенант выздоровел, уехал в  Уэймут,
пообещав вернуться и жениться на  Саре.  С  тех  пор  она  выходит  на  мол,
"слоноподобный и изящный, как скульптуры Генри Мура", и ждет. Когда  молодые
люди проходят мимо, их поражает ее  лицо,  незабываемо-трагическое:  "скорбь
изливалась из него так же естественно, незамутненно и бесконечно,  как  вода
из лесного родника". Ее взгляд-клинок пронзает Чарльза, внезапно  ощутившего
себя поверженным врагом таинственной особы.
      Чарльзу  тридцать  два  года.  Он  считает  себя  талантливым  ученым-
палеонтологом, но с трудом заполняет "бесконечные  анфилады  досуга".  Проще
говоря,  как  всякий  умный  бездельник  викторианской  эпохи,  он  страдает
байроническим сплином. Его отец получил порядочное состояние, но  проигрался
в карты. Мать умерла совсем молодой вместе с новорожденной  сестрой.  Чарльз
пробует учиться в Кембридже, потом решает принять духовный сан, но  тут  его
спешно отправляют в Париж развеяться.
      Он  проводит  время  в  путешествиях,  публикует  путевые  заметки   -
"носиться с идеями становится его  главным  занятием  на  третьем  десятке".
Спустя три месяца после возвращения из Парижа умирает  его  отец,  и  Чарльз
остается  единственным  наследником  своего  дяди,  богатого  холостяка,   и
выгодным женихом. Неравнодушный к  хорошеньким  девицам,  он  ловко  избегал
женитьбы,  но,  познакомившись  с  Эрнестиной  Фримен,   обнаружил   в   ней
незаурядный  ум,  приятную  сдержанность.  Его  влечет  к   этой   "сахарной
Афродите", он сексуально неудовлетворен, но дает обет "не  брать  в  постель
случайных женщин и держать взаперти здоровый половой инстинкт". На  море  он
приезжает ради Эрнестины, с которой  помолвлен  уже  два  месяца.  Эрнестина
гостит у своей тетушки Трэнтер в Лайм-Риджисе,  потому  что  родители  вбили
себе в голову, что она предрасположена к чахотке. Знали  бы  они,  что  Тина
доживет до нападения Гитлера на Польшу! Девушка считает  дни  до  свадьбы  -
осталось почти девяносто... Она ничего не знает о  совокуплении,  подозревая
в этом грубое насилие, но ей хочется иметь мужа и детей.  Чарльз  чувствует,
что она влюблена скорее в замужество, чем в него.
      Однако их помолвка - взаимовыгодное дело.  Мистер  Фримен,  оправдывая
свою фамилию (свободный человек), прямо сообщает  о  желании  породниться  с
аристократом, несмотря на то что увлеченный  дарвинизмом  Чарльз  с  пафосом
доказывает ему, что тот  произошел  от  обезьяны.  Скучая,  Чарльз  начинает
поиски окаменелостей, которыми славятся окрестности городка,  и  на  Вэрской
пустоши  случайно  видит  Женщину  французского   лейтенанта,   одинокую   и
страдающую. Старая миссис Поултни, известная своим самодурством, взяла  Сару
Вудраф в компаньонки, чтобы всех превзойти в благотворительности. Чарльз,  в
обязанности которого входит трижды в неделю наносить визиты, встречает в  ее
доме Сару и удивляется ее независимости. Унылое течение  обеда  разнообразит
лишь настойчивое ухаживание голубоглазого Сэма, слуги Чарльза, за  горничной
мисс  Трэнтер  Мэри,  самой  красивой,  непосредственной,   словно   налитой
девушкой. На следующий день Чарльз вновь приходит на пустошь и застает  Сару
на краю обрыва, заплаканную, с пленительно-сумрачным лицом.  Неожиданно  она
достает из кармана две морские звезды и протягивает  Чарльзу.  "Джентльмена,
который дорожит своей репутацией, не должны видеть  в  обществе  вавилонской
блудницы Лайма", -  произносит  она.  Смитсон  понимает,  что  следовало  бы
подальше держаться от  этой  странной  особы,  но  Сара  олицетворяет  собой
желанные и неисчерпаемые возможности, а Эрнестина,  как  он  ни  уговаривает
себя, похожа, порою на "хитроумную заводную куклу из сказок Гофмана". В  тот
же вечер Чарльз дает обед в честь Тины и  ее  тетушки.  Приглашен  и  бойкий
ирландец  доктор  Гроган,  холостяк,  много  лет  добивающийся  расположения
старой девы мисс Трэнтер.  Доктор  не  разделяет  приверженности  Чарльза  к
палеонтологии и вздыхает о том, что мы о живых организмах знаем меньше,  чем
об окаменелостях.
      Наедине с ним Смитсон спрашивает о  странностях  Женщины  французского
лейтенанта.  Доктор  объясняет  состояние  Сары  приступами   меланхолии   и
психозом, в результате которого скорбь для нее становится  счастьем.  Теперь
встречи  с  ней  кажутся  Чарльзу  исполненными  филантропического   смысла.
Однажды Сара приводит его в укромный уголок на склоне холма  и  рассказывает
историю своего несчастья, вспоминая, как красив был  спасенный  лейтенант  и
как горько обманулась она, когда последовала за ним в Эймус и  отдалась  ему
в совершенно неприличной  гостинице:  "То  был  дьявол  в  обличий  моряка!"
Исповедь  потрясает  Чарльза.  Он  обнаруживает   в   Саре   страстность   и
воображение  -  два  качества,  типичных   для   англичан,   но   совершенно
подавленных эпохой всеобщего  ханжества.  Девушка  признается,  что  уже  не
надеется на возвращение французского лейтенанта,  потому  что  знает  о  его
женитьбе. Спускаясь в лощину, они неожиданно замечают  обнимающихся  Сэма  и
Мэри и прячутся. Сара улыбается так, как будто снимает одежду.  Она  бросает
вызов благородным манерам, учености Чарльза, его  привычке  к  рациональному
анализу. В  гостинице  перепуганного  Смитсона  ждет  еще  одно  потрясение:
престарелый дядя, сэр Роберт,  объявляет  о  своей  женитьбе  на  "неприятно
молодой" вдове миссис Томкинс и, следовательно, лишает племянника  титула  и
наследства, Эрнестина разочарована таким поворотом  событий.  Сомневается  в
правильности своего выбора и  Смитсон,  в  нем  разгорается  новая  страсть.
Желая все  обдумать,  он  собирается  уехать  в  Лондон.  От  Сары  приносят
записку, написанную по-французски, словно в память о лейтенанте, с  просьбой
прийти на рассвете.
      В смятении Чарльз признается доктору в  тайных  встречах  с  девушкой.
Гроган  пытается  объяснить  ему,  что  Сара  водит  его   за   нос,   и   в
доказательство дает прочитать отчет о процессе, проходившем в  1835  г.  над
одним офицером. Он обвинялся  в  изготовлении  анонимных  писем  с  угрозами
семье  командира  и  насилии  над  его   шестнадцатилетней   дочерью   Мари.
Последовала  дуэль,  арест,  десять  лет  тюрьмы.  Позже   опытный   адвокат
догадался, что даты самых непристойных писем совпадали с  днями  менструаций
Мари, у которой был психоз ревности к любовнице молодого  человека..  Однако
ничто  не  может  остановить  Чарльза,  и  с  первым  проблеском   зари   он
отправляется на свидание. Сару выгоняет из дома миссис Поултни,  которая  не
в силах перенести своеволие и дурную репутацию компаньонки. Сара прячется  в
амбаре, где и происходит ее объяснение с Чарльзом.  К  несчастью,  едва  они
поцеловались, как на пороге  возникли  Сэм  и  Мэри.  Смитсон  берет  с  них
обещание молчать и, ни  в  чем  не  признавшись  Эрнестине,  спешно  едет  в
Лондон. Сара скрывается в Эксетере.
      У нее есть десять соверенов, оставленные на прощание Чарльзом,  и  это
дает ей немного свободы. Смитсону приходится  обсуждать  с  отцом  Эрнестины
предстоящую свадьбу. Как-то, увидев на улице проститутку, похожую  на  Сару,
он нанимает ее, но ощущает внезапную тошноту.  Вдобавок  шлюху  также  зовут
Сарой. Вскоре Чарльз получает письмо из Эксетера и  отправляется  туда,  но,
не повидавшись с Сарой, решает ехать дальше, в Лайм-Риджис, к Эрнестине.  Их
воссоединение завершается свадьбой. В  окружении  семерых  детей  они  живут
долго и счастливо. О Саре ничего  не  слышно.  Но  этот  конец  неинтересен.
Вернемся к письму. Итак, Чарльз спешит в Эксетер и находит там  Сару.  В  ее
глазах  печаль  ожидания.  "Мы  не  должны...  это  безумие",  -   бессвязно
повторяет Чарльз. Он "впивается губами  в  ее  рот,  словно  изголодался  не
просто по женщине, а по всему, что так долго было под запретом".  Чарльз  не
сразу понимает, что Сара девственна, а все рассказы  о  лейтенанте  -  ложь.
Пока он в церкви молит  о  прощении,  Сара  исчезает.  Смитсон  пишет  ей  о
решении жениться и увезти ее  прочь.  Он  испытывает  прилив  уверенности  и
отваги, расторгает помолвку с Тиной, готовясь всю жизнь посвятить  Саре,  но
не может  ее  найти.  Наконец,  через  два  года,  в  Америке,  он  получает
долгожданное известие. Возвратившись в Лондон, Смитсон обретает Сару в  доме
Росетти, среди художников. Здесь его ждет годовалая дочка  по  имени  Лалаге
      Нет, и такой путь не для Чарльза. Он не соглашается  быть  игрушкой  в
руках женшины, которая добилась исключительной власти над ним.  Прежде  Сара
называла его единственной надеждой, но, приехав в  Эксетер,  он  понял,  что
поменялся с ней ролями. Она удерживает его из жалости,  и  Чарльз  отвергает
эту жертву. Он хочет вернуться в Америку, где открыл "частицу веры в  себя".
Он понимает, что жизнь нужно по мере сил претерпевать, чтобы снова  выходить
в слепой, соленый, темный океан.

                     Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe

      Gulliver's Travels was published in 1726 by satirist  Jonathan  Swift.
Because it can be read as a fantasy novel,  a  story  for  children,  and  a
social satire, its tales of dwarves,  giants,  oating  islands  and  talking
horses have long entertained readers from every  age  group.  It  has  often
been issued  with  long  passages  omitted,  particularly  those  concerning
bodily functions and other distasteful topics. Even without these  passages,
however, Gulliver's Travels serves as a biting  satire,  and  Swift  ensures
that it is both humorous and critical, constantly  criticizing  British  and
European society through its descriptions of imaginary countries.
      The book was originally published as Travels to Several Remote Nations
of the World by Captain Lemuel Gulliver. It is set at the turn of  the  18th
century, and it details four  journeys  made  over  the  course  of  several
years. It describes only vaguely the locations of  the  fantastic  lands  to
which Gulliver travels, ultimately insisting  that  European  maps  are  too
awed to allow them to be easily found.
      There is a general tone of mockery in the text, echoing the  sarcastic
voice found in other works by Swift (e.g. "A Modest Proposal"). Gulliver  is
sometimes wise, sometimes foolish,  but  always  eager  to  please  his  new
masters. The sarcastic tone of the text sets Swift  himself  as  a  kind  of
foil to Gulliver; unlike his protagonist, Swift's purpose was  no  doubt  to
annoy the leaders of Britain rather than please them.
      Swift wrote Gulliver's Travels at  a  time  of  political  change  and
scientific invention, and many of the events he describes in  the  book  can
easily be linked to contemporary events in Europe. One of the  reasons  that
the stories are deeply amusing  is  that,  by  combining  real  issues  with
entirely  fantastic  situations  and  characters,  they  suggest  that   the
realities of 18th-century England were as fantastic  as  the  situations  in
which Gulliver finds himself.
      Gulliver  The narrator and protagonist of the story,  Lemuel  Gulliver
is a English ship's  surgeon  carried  by  circumstance  into  a  series  of
adventures in strange parts of the world. He  is  well-traveled  and  speaks
several languages.
The Emperor  The ruler of Lilliput; he, like all Lilliputians, is less  than
six inches tall.
Reldresal  A government official in  Lilliput;  he  befriends  Gulliver  and
warns him when his life is threatened.
The farmer  Gulliver's first master in Brobdingnag; in order to make  money,
he puts Gulliver on display around Brobdingnag.
Glumdalclitch  The farmer's nine-year-old daughter; she  becomes  Gulliver's
friend and nursemaid.
The Queen  The Queen of Brobdingnag.
The King  The King of Brobdingnag.
Yahoo  Unkempt beasts who live under the power of the Houyhnhnms;  they  are
strong, malicious, and cowardly, and resemble humans in most respects.
Houyhnhnms  Horses who maintain a simple, peaceful  society,  in  which  the
Yahoos are subordinate; they befriend Gulliver, but cannot accept him as  an

      Gulliver's Travels details a sailor's journey to four  very  different
fantastical societies.  The  first,  Lilliput,  is  populated  by  miniature
people who brought wars over the proper way to break  an  egg.  The  second,
Brobdingnag, is inhabited by  giants  who  put  Gulliver  on  display  as  a
curiosity. The third consists of a kingdom governed by a king who  lives  on
a oating  island;  the  kingdom  also  contains  an  academy  of  scientists
performing futile experiments, such  as  trying  to  extract  sunbeams  from
cucumbers. The fourth is a society in which human-like  creatures  are  made
to serve their horse-like superiors, the Houyhnhnms.
      In his first adventure,  in  Lilliput,  Gulliver  becomes  a  hero  by
destroying an enemy's fleet of ships.  He  is  constantly  under  threat  of
execution by the little  people  of  Lilliput,  however,  who  believe  that
trivial  crimes  deserve  severe  punishments.  The   willingness   of   the
Lilliputians and their enemies to risk  their  lives  in  defense  of  their
methods of egg-breaking is  a  way  for  Swift  to  criticise  the  European
tendency to focus on, and _get over, trivialities.
      In his next adventure, in Brobdingnag, Gulliver finds himself  in  the
opposite situation, now many times smaller than his hosts.  He  is  made  to
see things up close, and notices things that would have escaped him had  the
people been his own size. To him, the Brobdingnagians seem vulgar and  ugly,
since the aws, which would be invisible on smaller beings,  become  all  too
obvious when expanded to their gargantuan size. Gulliver is  treated  poorly
by the farmer who first discovers him, but is then  rescued  by  the  Queen,
who turns him into a pet. The giants see him, and the society from which  he
comes, as tiny and insignificant.
      Next, Gulliver visits the oating island of Laputa, where he encounters
a government so absorbed in its theories  that  the  King  must  be  aroused
during conversation by being hit with a  stick.  While  the  people  on  the
oating island concern themselves with theories, the people  of  the  kingdom
below suffer from poverty and hunger. On the ground a scientific academy  is
similarly concerned  with  the  most  impractical  projects;  the  value  of
academia is challenged by their ineptitude.
      Finally, Gulliver  travels  to  a  country  populated  by  intelligent
horses, the Houyhnhnms, and the brutish, human-like Yahoos who  serve  them.
During his stay, he is treated like a Yahoo and comes to think  of  his  own
European society as being not that different from theirs. He wants  to  stay
with the Houyhnhnms, but he is eventually banished from  their  company  for
resembling a Yahoo. Knowing that  the  ways  of  his  people  are  awed  and
irrational, he finds it very difficult to return home to England.
Part I, Chapter 1
      The novel begins with Lemuel Gulliver  recounting  the  story  of  his
life, beginning with his  family  history.  He  was  born  to  a  family  in
Nottinghamshire, the third of five sons. Although he  studied  at  Cambridge
as a teenager, his family was too poor to keep him there, so he was sent  to
London to be a surgeon's  apprentice.  There,  he  learned  mathematics  and
navigation with the hope of travelling. When his  apprenticeship  ended,  he
studied physics at Leyden.
      He then became a surgeon aboard a ship called The  Swallow  for  three
years. Afterwards, he settled in London, working as a doctor, and married  a
woman named Mary Burton. His business began to fail when  his  patron  died,
so he decided to go to sea again and travelled for six  years.  Although  he
had planned to return home, he decided to accept one  last  job  on  a  ship
called The Antelope.
      Here the background  information  ends  and  Gulliver's  story  really
begins. In the East Indies, The  Antelope  encounters  a  violent  storm  in
which twelve crewmen die. Six  of  the  crew  members,  including  Gulliver,
board a small rowboat to escape. Soon the  rowboat  capsizes,  and  Gulliver
loses track  of  his  companions;  they  are  never  seen  again.  Gulliver,
however, swims safely to shore.
      He lies down on the grass to rest and soon falls asleep. When he wakes
up he finds that his arms, legs, and long hair have been tied to the  ground
with ropes bound across the rest of his body. Tied as he  is,  he  can  only
look up, and the bright sun prevents him  from  seeing  anything.  He  feels
something move across his leg and over his chest. He looks down  at  it  and
sees, to his surprise, a six-inch-tall human carrying a bow  and  arrow.  At
least forty more little people climb onto his  body.  He  is  surprised  and
shouts loudly, frightening the little people  away.  They  return,  however,
and one of the little men cries out "Hekinah Degul."
      Gulliver struggles to get loose and finally succeeds in  breaking  the
strings binding his left arm. He loosens the ropes tying his hair so he  can
turn to the left. In response, the little people  _re  a  volley  of  arrows
into his hand and violently attack his body and face. He  decides  that  the
safest thing to do is to lie still until nightfall. The noise increases,  as
the little people build a stage  next  to  Gulliver  about  a  foot  o_  the
ground. One of them climbs onto it and makes a speech  in  a  language  that
Gulliver does not understand.
      Gulliver indicates that he is hungry, and the little people bring  him
baskets of meat. He devours it all, and then shows that he  is  thirsty,  so
they bring him two large barrels of wine. Gulliver is  tempted  to  pick  up
forty or fifty of them and throw them against the  ground,  but  he  decides
that he has made them a promise  of  goodwill  and  is  grateful  for  their
hospitality. He is also struck at their bravery, since they climb  onto  his
body despite his great size.
      An official climbs onto Gulliver's body and tells him that he is to be
carried to the Capital City. Gulliver wants to walk, but they tell him  that
that will not be permitted. Instead, they bring  their  largest  machine;  a
frame of wood raised three inches o_ the ground and  carried  by  twenty-two
Nine hundred men pull this cart about half a mile to the city. His left  leg
is padlocked to a building, giving him only enough freedom  to  walk  around
the building in a semicircle and lie down inside the temple.
Part I, Chapters 2-3
      Chained to the building, Gulliver is finally able to stand up and view
the entire countryside, which he discovers  is  beautiful  and  rustic.  The
tallest trees are seven feet tall, and the whole area looks to  him  like  a
theatre set.
Gulliver  describes  his  process  of  relieving  himself,  which  initially
involved walking inside the building to the edge of  his  chain.  After  the
first time, he makes sure to relieve himself in  open  air;  the  sewage  is
carried away in wheelbarrows by servants. He is  careful  to  describe  this
process in order to ensure that his  cleanliness  is  known,  since  critics
have called it into question.
      The Emperor visits  from  his  Tower,  on  horseback.  He  orders  his
servants to give Gulliver food and drink. The  Emperor  is  dressed  plainly
and carries a sword to defend himself.  He  and  Gulliver  converse,  though
they cannot understand each other. Gulliver tries to  speak  every  language
he knows, but nothing works. After two hours, Gulliver is left with a  group
of soldiers guarding him. Some of them try to shoot arrows at him, and as  a
punishment the Brigadier ties up six of them and places them  in  Gulliver's
hand. Gulliver puts five of them into his pocket and takes  the  fifth  into
his hand. They think he is to be eaten, but Gulliver cuts  loose  his  ropes
and sets him free. He does the same with the other five, which  pleases  the
      After two weeks, a bed is made for Gulliver. It consists of 600  small
beds sewn  together.  News  of  his  arrival  also  spreads  throughout  the
kingdom, and curious people from the villages come to  see  him.  Meanwhile,
the government attempts  to  decide  what  is  to  be  done  with  Gulliver.
Frequent Councils bring up various concerns:  for  instance,  that  he  will
break loose or that he will eat enough to cause a famine.  It  is  suggested
that they starve him or shoot him in the face to kill him,  but  that  would
leave them with a giant corpse and a large health risk.
      Officers that had witnessed Gulliver's lenient treatment  of  the  six
offending soldiers report to the Council, and  the  Emperor  and  his  Court
decide to respond with kindness. They arrange to deliver  large  amounts  of
food to Gulliver every morning, and to supply him with servants to  wait  on
him, tailors to make him clothing, and teachers to  instruct  him  in  their
      Every morning Gulliver asks the  Emperor  to  set  him  free,  but  he
refuses, saying that Gulliver must be patient. The Emperor also  orders  him
to be searched to ensure that he does not have any weapons. Gulliver  agrees
to this, and the little people take an inventory of all his possessions;  in
the process, all of his weapons are taken away.
      Gulliver hopes to be set free, as he is getting along  well  with  the
Lilliputians and earning their trust. The Emperor decides to  entertain  him
with shows, including a performance by Rope-Dancers.
      Rope-Dancers are  Lilliputians  who  are  seeking  employment  in  the
government; for the performance, which doubles  as  a  sort  of  competitive
entrance examination,  the  candidates  dance  on  "ropes"  slender  threads
suspended two feet above the  ground.  When  a  vacancy  occurs,  candidates
petition the Emperor entertain him with a dance; whoever jumps  the  highest
earns the office. The current ministers continue this practice as  well,  in
order to show that they have not lost their skill.
      As another diversion for  Gulliver,  the  Emperor  lays  three  silken
threads of different colors on a table. He  then  holds  out  a  stick,  and
candidates are asked to leap over it or creep under it.  Whoever  shows  the
most dexterity wins one of the ribbons.
      Gulliver builds a  platform  from  sticks  and  his  handkerchief  and
invites horsemen to exercise upon it. The Emperor  greatly  enjoys  watching
this new entertainment, but it is cut short when a horse steps  through  the
handkerchief and Gulliver decides that it is too dangerous for them to  keep
riding on the cloth.
      Some Lilliputians discover Gulliver's hat,  which  had  washed  ashore
after him, and he asks them to bring it back. Soon after, the  Emperor  asks
Gulliver to pose like a Colossus, so that his troops might march under him.
      Gulliver's petitions for freedom are finally answered.  Gulliver  must
swear to obey the articles put forth. Included in  these  articles  are  the
stipulations that he must assist the Lilliputians in times  of  war,  survey
the land around them, help with construction, and deliver  urgent  messages.
Gulliver agrees and his chains are removed.
Part I, Chapters 4-5
      The first thing Gulliver does after regaining his freedom is to ask to
see the city, which is called Mildendo.  The  residents  are  told  to  stay
indoors, and they all sit on their roofs and in their garret windows to  see
him. He describes the town as being five hundred feet square,  with  a  wall
surrounding it.  The  town  can  hold  five  hundred  thousand  people.  The
Emperor's Palace is at the center, where the two  large  streets  meet.  The
Emperor wants Gulliver to see the magnificence of his  palace,  so  Gulliver
cuts down trees to make himself a stool, which he carries  around  with  him
so that he can sit down and see  things  from  a  shorter  distance  than  a
standing position allows.
      About two weeks after  Gulliver  obtains  his  liberty,  a  government
official, Reldresal, comes to see him. Gulliver offers to lie down  to  make
conversation easier, but Reldresal prefers to be held  in  Gulliver's  hand.
He tells Gulliver that the kingdom is threatened by two  forces,  one  rebel
group and one foreign empire. The rebel group exists because the kingdom  is
divided into two factions, called Tramecksan and Slamecksan; the  people  in
the two factions are distinguished by the heights of their heels.
      Reldresal tells Gulliver that the current Emperor has chosen to employ
primarily the low-heeled Slamecksan in his administration. He adds that  the
Emperor himself has lower heels than all of  his  officials,  but  that  his
heir has one heel higher than the other, which makes him walk  unevenly.  At
the same time,  the  Lilliputians  fear  an  invasion  from  the  Island  of
Blefuscu, which Reldresal calls the "Other Great  Empire  of  the  Universe"
(25). He adds that the philosophers of Lilliput do  not  believe  Gulliver's
claim that there are other countries in the world inhabited by other  people
of his size, preferring to think that Gulliver dropped from the  moon  or  a
      Reldresal describes the history of the two nations,  starting  out  by
saying that it makes no mention of  any  other  empire  ever  existing.  The
conflict between  them,  he  tells  Gulliver,  began  years  ago,  when  the
Emperor's  father,  then  in  command  of   the   country,   commanded   all
Lilliputians to break their eggs on  the  small  end  first.  He  made  this
decision after breaking an egg in the old way, large end first, and  cutting
his finger. The people resented the law, and six rebellions were started  in
protest. The monarchs of Blefuscu fuelled these rebellions,  and  when  they
were over the rebels fled to that country to seek  refuge.  Eleven  thousand
people chose death rather than  submitting  to  the  law.  Many  books  were
written on the controversy,  but  books  written  by  the  Big-Endians  were
banned. The government of Blefuscu accused the  Lilliputians  of  disobeying
their religious doctrine, the Brundrecal, by  breaking  their  eggs  at  the
small end. The Lilliputians argued that the doctrine reads  "That  all  true
believers shall break their eggs at the  convenient  end,"  which  could  be
interpreted as the small end.
      The exiles gained support in Blefuscu to launch a war against Lilliput
and were aided by rebel forces inside Lilliput. A war has been  raging  ever
since between the  two  nations,  and  Gulliver  is  asked  to  help  defend
Lilliput against its enemies. Gulliver does not feel that it is  appropriate
to intervene, but he nonetheless offers his services to the Emperor.
      Gulliver then visits Blefuscu and devises a plan. He asks  for  cables
and bars of iron, out of which he makes hooks with cables attached. He  then
walks to Blefuscu and catches  their  ships  at  port.  The  people  are  so
frightened that they leap out of their ships and  swim  to  shore.  Gulliver
attaches a hook to each ship and ties them together. While he does this  the
soldiers _re arrows at him, but he keeps working. In order  to  protect  his
eyes, he puts on the spectacles he keeps in his coat  pocket.  He  tries  to
pull the ships away, but they are anchored too  tightly,  so  he  cuts  them
away with his pocketknife and pulls the ships back to Lilliput with them.
      In Lilliput, Gulliver is greeted as a hero. The Emperor asks him to go
back to retrieve the other ships, intending to destroy  Blefescu's  military
strength and make it a province in his empire. Gulliver dissuades  him  from
this, saying that he does not want to encourage slavery or  injustice.  This
causes great disagreement in the government,  with  some  officials  turning
staunchly against Gulliver and calling for his destruction.
Three weeks later a delegation arrives from Blefuscu, and the war ends  with
their surrender. They are privately  told  of  Gulliver's  kindness  towards
them, and they ask him to visit their kingdom. He wishes to do so,  and  the
Emperor reluctantly allows it.
      As a Nardac, or person of high rank, Gulliver no longer has to perform
all the duties laid down  in  his  contract.  He  does,  however,  have  the
opportunity to help the Lilliputians when the Emperor's wife's room  catches
_re. He forgets his coat and cannot put the flames out  with  his  clothing,
so instead he thinks of a new plan: he urinates on the palace,  putting  out
the _re entirely. He worries  afterwards  that,  since  the  act  of  public
urination is a crime in Lilliput, he will be  prosecuted,  but  the  Emperor
tells him he will be pardoned. He is told, however, that the Emperor's  wife
can no longer tolerate living in her rescued quarters.
Part I, Chapters 6-8
      In these chapters, Gulliver describes the  customs  and  character  of
Lilliput  in  more  detail,  beginning  by  explaining  that  everything  in
Lilliput is sized in proportion to the Lilliputians: their  animals,  trees,
and plants are all proportional to their own height. Their eyesight is  also
adapted to their scale; Gulliver cannot see  as  clearly  close-up  as  they
can, while they cannot see as far.
      The Lilliputians are well-educated, but their writing system is odd to
Gulliver, who jokes that they write not left to right like the Europeans  or
top to bottom like the Chinese, but from one  corner  of  the  page  to  the
other, "like the ladies in England."
      The dead are buried with  their  heads  pointing  directly  downwards,
because the Lilliputians believe that eventually the dead  will  rise  again
and that the earth, which they think is at, will turn upside-down.  Gulliver
adds that the more well-educated Lilliputians  no  longer  believe  in  this
      Gulliver describes some of the other  laws  of  Lilliput,  such  as  a
tradition by which anyone who falsely accuses someone else  of  a  crime  is
put to death.
      Deceit is considered worse than theft, because honest people are  more
vulnerable to  liars  than  to  thieves.  The  law  provides  not  only  for
punishment but also for rewards of special titles and  privileges  for  good
      Children are raised not by individual parents but by the kingdom as  a
whole. They are sent to live in schools at a very  young  age;  the  schools
are chosen according to the station of their parents,  whom  they  see  only
twice a year. Only the laborers' children stay home, since their job  is  to
farm. There are no beggars at all, since the poor are well looked-after.
      Gulliver goes on to describe  the  "intrigue"  that  precipitates  his
departure from  Lilliput.  While  he  is  preparing  to  make  his  trip  to
Blefuscu, a court official pays him a visit. He tells Gulliver that  he  has
been charged with treason by enemies in the government.  He  shows  Gulliver
the document calling for his execution:  Gulliver  is  charged  with  public
urination, refusing to obey the Emperor's  orders  to  seize  the  remaining
Blefuscu ships, aiding enemy ambassadors, and travelling to Blefuscu.
      Gulliver is told that Reldresal has  asked  for  his  sentence  to  be
reduced, calling not for execution but for putting his eyes  out.  This  has
been agreed upon, along with a plan to  starve  him  to  death  slowly.  The
official tells Gulliver that the operation to blind him will take  place  in
three days.
      Fearing this resolution, Gulliver crosses the channel and  arrives  in
Blefuscu. Three days later, he sees a boat of "normal"  size  that  is,  big
enough to carry Gulliver overturned in the water. He  asks  the  emperor  of
Blefuscu to help him _x it. At the same time, the emperor of Lilliput  sends
an envoy with the articles commanding him  to  give  up  his  eyesight.  The
emperor of Blefuscu sends them back with the message that Gulliver  will  be
leaving both their kingdoms soon. After about a month the boat is ready  and
Gulliver sets sail. He arrives safely back in  England,  and  makes  a  good
profit showing  miniature  farm  animals  that  he  had  carried  away  from
Blefuscu in his pockets.
Part II, Chapters 1-2
      Two months after returning to England, Gulliver is restless again.  He
sets sail on a ship called the Downs, travelling to the Cape  of  Good  Hope
and Madagascar before encountering a monsoon that draws the ship o_ course.
They continue to sail, eventually arriving at an  unknown  land  mass.  They
find no inhabitants, and the landscape is  barren  and  rocky.  Gulliver  is
walking back to the boat when he sees that it has already left without  him.
He tries to chase after it, but then he sees that they  are  being  followed
by a giant. Gulliver runs away; when he stops, he is on a  steep  hill  from
which he can see the countryside. He is shocked to see  that  the  grass  is
about twenty feet high.
      He walks down what looks like the high road, but turns  out  to  be  a
footpath through a field of barley. He walks for a  long  time,  but  cannot
see anything beyond the stalks of corn, which are forty feet high. He  tries
to climb a set of steps into the  next  field,  but  he  cannot  mount  them
because they are too high. As he is trying to climb up the  stairs  he  sees
another one of the island's giant inhabitants. He hides from the giant,  but
it calls for more people to come, and they begin to harvest  the  crop  with
      Gulliver  lies  down  and  bemoans  his  state,  thinking  about   how
insignificant he must be to these giant creatures.
      One of the servants comes close to Gulliver with both his foot and his
scythe, so Gulliver screams as loudly as he can. The giant  finally  notices
him, and picks him up between his fingers to get  a  closer  look.  Gulliver
tries to speak to him in plaintive tones, bringing his hands  together,  and
the giant seems pleased. Gulliver makes it clear that  the  giant's  fingers
are hurting him, and the giant places him in his pocket and begins  to  walk
towards his master.
      His master, the farmer  of  these  fields,  takes  Gulliver  from  his
servant and observes him more closely. He asks the other  servants  if  they
have ever seen anything like Gulliver, and places him onto the ground.  They
sit around him in a circle. Gulliver kneels down  and  begins  to  speak  as
loudly as he can, taking o_ his hat and bowing to the farmer. He presents  a
purse full of gold to the farmer, which he takes into his  palm.  He  cannot
seem to figure out what it is, even after Gulliver empties  the  coins  into
his hand.
The farmer takes him back to  his  wife,  who  is  frightened  of  him.  The
servant brings in dinner and they all sit down to eat, Gulliver  sitting  on
the table not far from the farmer's plate. They give him tiny bits of  their
food, and he pulls out his  knife  and  fork  to  eat,  which  delights  the
giants. The farmer' son picks him up and scares him, but  the  farmer  takes
Gulliver from his hands and strikes his son. Gulliver makes a sign that  the
boy should be forgiven, and kisses his  hand.  After  dinner,  the  farmer's
wife lets Gulliver nap in her own bed. When he wakes up he  finds  two  rats
attacking him, and he defends himself with his weapon.
      The   farmer's   nine-year-old   daughter,   whom    Gulliver    calls
Glumdalclitch, or nursemaid, has a doll's cradle, which  becomes  Gulliver's
permanent bed. This is placed inside a drawer to  keep  him  away  from  the
rats. The girl becomes Gulliver's caretaker  and  guardian,  sewing  clothes
for him and teaching him the giants' language.
      The farmer begins to talk about Gulliver in town, and a friend of  the
farmer's comes to see him. He looks at Gulliver  through  his  glasses,  and
Gulliver begins to laugh at the sight of his eyes  through  the  glass.  The
man becomes angry, and advises the farmer to take Gulliver into  the  market
to display him. He agrees, and Gulliver is taken in  a  carriage,  which  he
finds very uncomfortable, to the town. There he is placed  on  a  table  and
the little girl sits down on a stool beside him, with  thirty  people  at  a
time walking through as he performs "tricks."
      Gulliver is exhausted by the journey to  the  marketplace,  but  finds
upon returning to the farmer's house that he is to be shown there  as  well.
People come from miles around and  are  charged  great  sums  to  view  him.
Thinking that Gulliver can make him a great fortune, the  farmer  takes  him
and his daughter on a voyage to the largest cities.
      They arrive in the largest city, Lorbrulgrud, and the farmer  rents  a
room with a table for displaying Gulliver. By now he  can  understand  their
language and speak it fairly well. He is shown ten times a day  and  pleases
the visitors greatly.
Part II, Chapters 3-5
      The strain of travelling and performing "tricks"  takes  its  toll  on
Gulliver, and he begins to grow very  thin.  The  farmer  notices  this  and
resolves to make as much money as possible before Gulliver dies.  Meanwhile,
an order comes from the court, commanding the farmer to  bring  Gulliver  to
the Queen for her entertainment.
      The Queen is delighted with Gulliver's behavior and buys him from  the
farmer for a thousand gold pieces. Gulliver requests that  Glumdalclitch  be
allowed to live in the palace as well. Gulliver explains  his  suffering  to
the Queen, and she is impressed by his intelligence. She takes  him  to  the
King, who at first thinks he is a mechanical creation. He  sends  for  great
scholars to  observe  Gulliver,  and  they  decide  that  he  is  unfit  for
survival, since there is no way he could feed  himself.  Gulliver  tries  to
explain that he comes from a country in which everything  is  in  proportion
to himself, but they do not seem to believe him.
Glumdalclitch is given an apartment in the palace and a governess  to  teach
her, and special quarters are built for Gulliver out of  a  box.  They  also
have clothes made for him from fine  silk,  but  Gulliver  finds  them  very
cumbersome. The Queen grows very used  to  his  company,  finding  him  very
entertaining at dinner, especially when he cuts and eats his meat. He  finds
her way of eating repulsive, since her  size  allows  her  to  swallow  huge
amounts of food in a single gulp.
      The King converses with Gulliver on issues of politics, and laughs  at
his descriptions of the goings-on  in  Europe.  He  finds  it  amusing  that
people of such small stature  should  think  themselves  so  important,  and
Gulliver is at first offended. He then comes to  realize  that  he  too  has
begun to think of his world as ridiculous, since it  is  so  small  and  yet
sees itself as so important.
      The Queen's dwarf is not happy with Gulliver,  since  he  is  used  to
being the smallest person in the palace and a source of  diversion  for  the
royal court. He drops Gulliver into a bowl of cream, but  Gulliver  is  able
to swim to safety and the dwarf is punished.  At  another  point  the  dwarf
sticks Gulliver into a marrowbone,  where  he  is  forced  to  remain  until
someone pulls him out.
      Gulliver then describes the country for the reader, noting first  that
since the land stretches out about  six  thousand  miles  there  must  be  a
severe error in  European  maps.  The  kingdom  is  bound  on  one  side  by
mountains and on the other three sides by the sea. The water is very  rough,
so there is no trade with other nations. The rivers are  well  stocked  with
giant-sized fish, but the fish in the sea are of the same size as  those  in
the rest of the world and therefore not worth catching.
      Gulliver is carried around the city in a special  travelling-box,  and
people always crowd around to see him. He asks to see the largest temple  in
the country and is not overwhelmed by its size, since at a height  of  three
thousand feet it is proportionally  smaller  than  the  largest  steeple  in
      Gulliver is happy in Brobdingnag except  for  the  many  mishaps  that
befall him because of his diminutive size. In one unpleasant  incident,  the
dwarf, unhappy at Gulliver for teasing him, shakes an apple  tree  over  his
head and one of the apples strikes Gulliver  in  the  back  and  knocks  him
over. Another time, he is left outside during a hailstorm and is so  bruised
and battered that he cannot leave the house for ten days.
      Gulliver and his nursemaid are often invited to the apartments of  the
ladies of the court, and there he  is  treated  as  a  plaything  of  little
significance. They enjoy stripping his clothes  and  placing  him  in  their
bosoms, and he is appalled by their strong smell, noting that  he  was  told
by a Lilliputian that he smelled quite repulsive to  them.  The  women  also
strip their own clothes in front of him, and he finds their skin  very  ugly
and uneven.
The Queen constructs a way for Gulliver to sail, ordering a special boat  to
be built for him. This is placed in a cistern, and Gulliver rows in  it  for
his own enjoyment and for the amusement of the  Queen  and  her  court.  Yet
another danger arises in the form of a monkey, which  takes  Gulliver  up  a
ladder, holding him like a baby and force-feeding him. He  is  rescued  from
the monkey, and Glumdalclitch pries the food from his mouth with  a  needle,
after which he vomits. He is so weak and bruised that he stays  in  bed  for
two weeks. The monkey is killed and  orders  are  sent  out  that  no  other
monkeys be kept in the palace.
Part II, Chapters 6-8
      Gulliver makes himself a comb from the stumps of hair left  after  the
King has been shaved. He also collects hairs from the King and uses them  to
weave the backs of two  small  chairs,  which  he  gives  to  the  Queen  as
      Gulliver is brought to a musical performance, but it is so  loud  that
he can hardly make it out. Gulliver decides  to  play  the  spinet  for  the
royal family, but must contrive a novel way to do it, since  the  instrument
is so big. He uses large sticks and must run over the  keyboard  with  them,
but he can still strike only sixteen keys.
      Thinking that the King has unjustly come to regard his home country as
insignificant and laughable, Gulliver tries to tell him more about  Britain,
describing the government and culture there. The King asks  many  questions,
and  is  particularly  struck  by  the  violence  of  the  history  Gulliver
      He then takes Gulliver into his hand and, explaining that he finds the
world that Gulliver describes to be ridiculous,  contemptuous  and  strange,
tells him that he concludes that "the bulk of your natives  [are]  the  most
pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered  to  crawl
upon the surface of the earth."
      Gulliver is disturbed by the King's proclamation. He tries to tell him
about gunpowder, describing it as a great invention, and offering it to  the
King as a gesture of friendship. The King is appalled by the  proposal,  and
Gulliver is taken  aback,  thinking  that  the  King  has  refused  a  great
opportunity. He says that the King is unnecessarily scrupulous  and  narrow-
minded for not being more open to the inventions of Gulliver's world.
      Gulliver finds the people of Brobdingnag in general to be ignorant and
poorly educated. Their laws are not allowed to exceed in  words  the  number
of letters in their alphabet, and no arguments may be written about them.
      They know the art of printing but do not have many  books,  and  their
writing  is   simple   and   straightforward.   One   text   describes   the
insignificance and weakness of humans, and argues that  at  one  point  they
must have been much larger.
      Gulliver wants to recover his freedom. The King orders any small  ship
to be brought to the city, hoping that they might find a  woman  with  which
Gulliver can propagate. Gulliver fears  that  any  offspring  thus  produced
would be kept in cages or given to the nobility as pets. He has been in  the
country for two years and wants to be among his owned kind again.
      Gulliver is taken to the  south  coast,  and  both  Glumdalclitch  and
Gulliver fall ill. Gulliver says  that  he  wants  fresh  air,  and  a  page
carries him out to the shore in his travelling-box. He asks to  be  left  to
sleep in his hammock, and the boy wanders o_. An eagle  grabs  hold  of  his
box and flies off  with  him,  and  then  suddenly  Gulliver  feels  himself
falling and lands in the water.
      He worries that he will drown or starve to death, but then  feels  the
box being pulled. He hears a voice telling him that his box  is  tied  to  a
ship, and that a carpenter will come to drill a hole in  the  top.  Gulliver
says that they can simply use a finger to pry it open, and  hears  laughter.
He realizes that he is speaking to people of his own  height  and  climbs  a
ladder out of his box and onto their ship.
      Gulliver begins to recover on the ship,  and  he  tries  to  tell  the
sailors the story of his recent journey. He shows them things he saved  from
Brobdingnag, like his comb and  a  tooth  pulled  from  a  footman.  He  has
trouble adjusting to their small size, and finds himself  shouting  all  the
time. When he reaches home it takes him some time to grow accustomed to  his
old life, and his wife asks him never to go to sea again.
Part III, Chapters 1-3
      Gulliver has only been home in England ten days when a  visitor  comes
to his house, asking him to sail  aboard  his  ship  in  two  months'  time.
Gulliver agrees and prepares to set out for the East Indies. On the  voyage,
the ship is attacked by pirates. Gulliver hears a  Dutch  voice  among  them
and speaks to the pirate in Dutch, begging to be set free since he  and  the
pirate are both Christians. A Japanese pirate tells them they will not  die,
and Gulliver tells the Dutchman that he is surprised to find more  mercy  in
a heathen than in a Christian. The pirate grows angry and  punishes  him  by
sending him out to sea in a small boat with only four days' worth of food.
      Gulliver finds some islands and goes ashore on one of them. He sets up
camp but then notices something strange: the sun  is  mysteriously  obscured
for some time. He then sees a land mass dropping down and  notices  that  it
is crawling with people. He is baffed by this oating island, and  he  shouts
up to its inhabitants. They lower the island  and  send  down  a  chain,  by
which he is able to crawl up.
      He is immediately surrounded by people  and  notices  their  oddities.
Their heads are all tilted to one side or the other,  with  one  eye  turned
inward and the other looking up. Their clothes are adorned  with  images  of
celestial bodies and musical instruments. Some of the people  are  servants,
and they carry a Goddamn knows what made of a stick with  a  pouch  tied  to
the end. Their job is to  aid  conversation  by  striking  the  ear  of  the
listener and the mouth of the speaker at the appropriate  times;  otherwise,
the minds of their masters would wander o_.
      Gulliver is conveyed to the King, who sits behind a table loaded  with
mathematical  instruments.  They  wait  an  hour  before   there   is   some
opportunity to arouse him from his thoughts, at which  point  he  is  struck
with the apper. The King says something, and Gulliver's ear is  struck  with
the apper as well, even though he tries to explain that he  doesn't  require
it. It becomes clear that he and the King  cannot  speak  any  of  the  same
languages, so Gulliver is taken to an apartment and served dinner.
      A teacher is sent to instruct Gulliver in the language of the  island,
and he is able to learn several sentences. He discovers  that  the  name  of
the island is Laputa, which in their language  means  "  oating  island."  A
tailor is also sent to improve his clothes, and  while  he  is  waiting  for
these the King orders the island to be moved. It is taken to a  point  above
the capital city of the kingdom, Lagado, passing villages along the way  and
collecting petitions from the King's subjects by means of  ropes  sent  down
to the lands below.
      The language of the Laputans depends greatly on mathematics and music,
and they despise practical geometry, thinking it vulgarso much so that  they
make sure that there are no right angles in their buildings. They  are  very
good with charts and figures but very  clumsy  in  practical  matters.  They
dread changes in the celestial bodies.
      The island is exactly circular and consists of ten thousand  acres  of
land. At the center there is a cave for astronomers,  containing  all  their
instruments and a loadstone six yards long. It moves  the  island  with  its
magnetic force, since it has two charges that can be reversed  by  means  of
an attached control.
      The mineral that acts upon the magnet is only large enough to allow it
to move over the country directly beneath it. When the King wants to  punish
a particular region of the  country,  he  can  keep  the  island  above  it,
depriving the lands below of sun and rain. This failed to work in one  town,
where the rebellious inhabitants had stored provisions of food  in  advance.
They planned to force the island to come so low that  it  would  be  trapped
forever and to kill the King and his officials in order  to  take  over  the
      Instead, the King ordered the island to stop descending and gave in to
the town's demands. The King is not allowed to leave the oating island,  nor
is his family.
Part III, Chapters 4-10
      Gulliver  feels  neglected  on  Laputa,  since  the  inhabitants  seem
interested in only mathematics and music and are  far  superior  to  him  in
their knowledge.
      He is bored by their conversation and wants to  leave.  There  is  one
lord of the court whom Gulliver finds to be  intelligent  and  curious,  but
who is known to the other inhabitants of Laputa  as  the  stupidest  of  all
because he has no ear for music. Gulliver asks this  lord  to  petition  the
King to let him leave the island. The petition succeeds, and he is let  down
on the mountains above Lagado. He visits another lord there and  is  invited
to stay at his home.
      Gulliver and his host visit a nearby town, which Gulliver finds to  be
populated by poorly dressed inhabitants living in shabby  houses.  The  soil
is badly cultivated and the people appear miserable.  They  then  travel  to
the lord's  country  house,  first  passing  many  barren  fields  but  then
arriving in a lush green area that the lord says belongs to his  estate.  He
says  that  he  is  criticized  heavily  by  the   other   lords   for   the
"mismanagement" of his land.
      The lord explains that forty years ago some people went to Laputa  and
returned  with  new  ideas  about  mathematics  and  art.  They  decided  to
establish an academy in Lagado to develop new theories  on  agriculture  and
construction and to initiate projects to improve the  lives  of  the  city's
inhabitants. However, the theories have never produced any results  and  the
new techniques have left the country in  ruin.  He  encourages  Gulliver  to
visit the academy, which Gulliver is glad to  do  since  he  had  once  been
intrigued by projects of this sort himself.
      Gulliver visits the academy, where he meets a man engaged in a project
to extract the sunbeams from cucumbers. He also meets a scientist trying  to
separate out the different parts of excrement, hoping to produce  food  from
it. Another is attempting to turn  ice  into  gunpowder  and  is  writing  a
treatise about the malleability of _re, hoping  to  have  it  published.  An
architect is designing a way to build houses starting from the roof,  and  a
blind master is teaching his blind apprentices to mix  colors  for  painters
according to smell and  touch.  An  agronomist  is  designing  a  method  of
plowing fields with hogs by first  burying  food  in  the  ground  and  then
letting the hogs loose to dig them out. A doctor in another  room  tries  to
cure patients by blowing air through them; Gulliver  leaves  him  trying  to
revive a dog that he has killed by "curing" him in this way.
      On the  other  side  of  the  academy  there  are  people  engaged  in
speculative learning. One professor has a class full of boys working from  a
machine that produces random sets of words; using this, the teacher  claims,
anyone can write a book on philosophy or politics.  A  linguist  in  another
room is attempting to remove all the  elements  of  language  except  nouns;
this would make language more concise and prolong lives,  since  every  word
spoken is detrimental to the  human  body.  Since  nouns  are  only  things,
furthermore, it would be even easier to carry  things  and  never  speak  at
      Gulliver then visits professors who are studying issues of government.
One claims that women should be taxed according to their  beauty  and  skill
at dressing, another that  conspiracies  against  the  government  could  be
discovered by studying the excrement of subjects. Gulliver  grows  tired  of
the academy and begins to yearn for a return to England. He tries to  travel
to Luggnagg, but finds no ship available. Since he has to wait a  month,  he
is advised to take a trip to  the  island  of  GLUBBDUBDRIB  the  island  of
      Gulliver visits the governor of GLUBBDUBDRIB, and  finds  that  he  is
attended by servants who appear and disappear  like  spirits.  The  governor
tells Gulliver that he has the power to call up whomever he  would  like  to
speak to; Gulliver chooses Alexander the Great,  who  assures  him  that  he
died not from poison but from excessive drinking.  He  then  sees  Hannibal,
Caesar, Pompey and Brutus. Gulliver sets apart one day  to  speak  with  the
most venerated people in history, starting  with  Homer  and  Aristotle.  He
asks Descartes and Gassendi to describe  their  systems  to  Aristotle,  who
freely acknowledges his own mistakes.
      Gulliver returns to Luggnagg, where he is confined despite his  desire
to return to England. He is ordered to appear at the  King's  court  and  is
given lodging and an allowance. The  Luggnuggians  tell  him  about  certain
immortal people, children born with  a  red  spot  on  their  foreheads  and
called Struldbruggs. Gulliver devises a whole system of what he would do  if
he were immortal, starting with the acquisition of riches and knowledge.  He
is told that after the  age  of  thirty,  most  Struldbruggs  grew  sad  and
dejected; by eighty, they were incapable of affection and envious  of  those
who could die.  If  two  of  the  Struldbruggs  married,  the  marriage  was
dissolved when one reached eighty, because "those who are condemned  without
any fault of their own to a perpetual continuance in the  world  should  not
have their misery doubled by the load of a wife." He  meets  some  of  these
people and finds them to be unhappy and  unpleasant,  and  he  regrets  ever
wishing for their state.
      Gulliver is then  finally  able  to  depart  from  Luggnagg,  refusing
employment there, and he arrives  safely  in  Japan.  From  there  he  gains
passage on a Dutch ship by pretending to be from Holland and sets sail  from
Amsterdam to England, where he finds his family in good health.
      Gulliver stays home for five months, but then leaves his pregnant wife
to set sail again, this time as the captain of a ship called the  Adventure.
Many of his sailors die of illness, so he recruits more along the  way.  His
crew mutinies under the influence of these  new  sailors,  and  they  become
pirates. Gulliver is left on an unknown shore, after being confined  to  his
cabin for several days.
      He sees animals in the distance, and describes  them  as  long-haired,
with beards like goats and sharp  claws  which  they  use  to  climb  trees.
Gulliver decides that they are very ugly and sets forth  to  find  settlers,
but encounters one of the animals on his way.
      He takes out his sword and hits the animal with the side  of  it.  The
animal roars loudly, and a  herd  of  others  like  it  attack  Gulliver  by
attempting to defecate on him. He hides, but then sees them  hurrying  away.
He emerges from his hiding place to see that the  beasts  have  been  scared
away by a horse.
      The horse observes him carefully, and then  neighs  in  a  complicated
cadence. Another horse joins the first and the two seem to be involved in  a
discussion. Gulliver tries to leave but one of the horses calls him back.
      The horses appear to be so intelligent that  Gulliver  concludes  that
they  are  magicians  who  have  transformed  themselves  into  horses.   He
addresses them directly, and asks to be taken to a  house  or  village.  The
horses  use  the  words  Yahoo  and  Houyhnhnm,  which  Gulliver  tries   to
      Gulliver is led to a house, and he takes out gifts, expecting to  meet
people. He finds instead that there are more horses in  the  house,  sitting
down and engaged in various activities. He thinks that the house belongs  to
a person of great importance, and wonders why they should  have  horses  for
servants. A horse looks Gulliver over and says the  word  "Yahoo."  Gulliver
is led out to the courtyard, where a few of the ugly creatures are tied  up.
One creature and Gulliver are lined up and compared, and he finds  that  the
creature does look quite human. The horses test him by offering him  various
foods: hay, which he refuses, and flesh, which he finds repulsive but  which
the Yahoo devours. The horses determine that he  likes  milk  and  give  him
large amounts of it to drink.
Another horse comes to dine, and they all take great  pleasure  in  teaching
Gulliver to pronounce words in their language. They  cannot  determine  what
he might like to eat, until Gulliver suggests that he could make bread  from
their oats. He is given a place to sleep with straw for the time being.
      Gulliver endeavours to  learn  the  horses'  language,  and  they  are
impressed by his intellect and curiosity. After three months he  can  answer
most of their questions and tries to explain that he comes from  across  the
sea, but the horses, or "Houyhnhnms," do not  believe  it  to  be  possible.
They think he is some kind of a Yahoo, though superior to the  rest  of  his
species. He asks them to stop using that word to  refer  to  him,  and  they
      Gulliver tries to explain that the Yahoos are the governing  creatures
where he comes from, and the Houyhnhnms ask how their horses  are  employed.
Gulliver explains that they are used for  travelling,  racing,  and  drawing
chariots, and the Houyhnhnms express disbelief that anything as  weak  as  a
Yahoo would dare to mount a horse that was so much stronger  than  it  does.
Gulliver explains that the horses are trained from a young age  to  be  tame
and obedient. He describes the state of humanity in Europe and is  asked  to
speak more specifically of his own country.
Part IV, Chapters 5-12
      Gulliver describes the state of affairs in Europe over the  course  of
two years, speaking to the Houyhnhnms of the English Revolution and the  war
with France. He is asked to explain the causes of war, and he does his  best
to provide reasons. He is also  asked  to  speak  of  law  and  the  justice
system, which he does in some detail.
      The discussion then turns to other  topics,  such  as  money  and  the
different kinds of food eaten in Europe.  Gulliver  explains  the  different
occupations in which people  are  involved,  including  service  professions
such as medicine and construction.
      Gulliver develops such a love for the Houyhnhnms  that  he  no  longer
desires to return to humankind. However, fate has other plans for  him.  His
Master tells him that he has considered all of his  claims  about  his  home
country and has come to the conclusion that his people are not as  different
from the Yahoos as they may first have seemed. He describes all the  aws  of
the Yahoos, principally detailing their greed  and  selfishness.  He  admits
that the humans have different systems of  learning,  law,  government,  and
art, but says that their  natures  are  not  different  from  those  of  the
      Gulliver wants to observe these similarities for himself, so  he  asks
to go among the Yahoos. He finds them to be very nimble  from  infancy,  but
unable to learn anything. They are strong, cowardly, and malicious.
      The principle virtues of  the  Houyhnhnms  are  their  friendship  and
benevolence. They are concerned more with the community than with their  own
personal advantages, even choosing their mates in order to promote the  race
as a whole. They breed industriousness, cleanliness, and civility  in  their
young, and exercise them for  speed  and  strength.  They  have  no  writing
system and no word to express anything evil.
      A room is made for Gulliver, and he furnishes it well. He  also  makes
new clothes for himself and settles into  life  with  the  Houyhnhnms  quite
easily. He begins to think of his friends and family back  home  as  Yahoos.
However, he is called by his Master and told that others have taken  offence
at his being kept in the house as a Houyhnhnm; he has no choice but  to  ask
Gulliver to leave. Gulliver  is  very  upset  to  hear  that  he  is  to  be
banished. He builds a
canoe with the help of his Master and sadly departs.
Gulliver does not want to return to Europe, and so he begins to  search  for
an island where he can live, as  he  likes.  He  finds  land  and  discovers
natives there. He is struck by an arrow and tries  to  escape  the  natives'
darts by paddling out to sea. He sees a sail in the distance and  thinks  of
going towards it, but then decides he would rather live with the  barbarians
than the European Yahoos, so he hides from the ship.  The  seamen  find  him
and question him, laughing at his strange horse-like manner of speaking.  He
tries to escape from their ship, and they do not understand why.
      Gulliver then travels back to England and sees his family.  They  were
certain he was dead, and he is filled with disgust and contempt for them.
      For a year he cannot stand to be near to his wife and children, and he
buys two horses and converses with them for four hours  each  day.  Gulliver
concludes his narrative by  acknowledging  that  the  law  requires  him  to
report his findings to the government, but  that  he  can  see  no  military
advantage  in  attacking  any  of  the  locations  he  discovered;  and   he
particularly wishes to protect the Houyhnhnms.

                        Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad

Summary Part I:
      A ship called the Nellie is cruising  down  the  Thames‹it  will  rest
there as it awaits a change in tide. The narrator is an  unidentified  guest
aboard the ship. He describes at length the appearance of the Thames  as  an
interminable waterway, and then he moves on to  describing  the  inhabitants
of the ship. The Director of Companies doubles as  Captain  and  host.  They
all regard him with affection, trust and respect. The Lawyer is advanced  in
years and possesses many virtues. The Accountant is  toying  with  dominoes,
trying to begin a game. Between them already is the "bond of the sea."  They
are tolerant of one another. Then there  is  Marlow.  He  has  an  emaciated
appearance sunken cheeks and a yellow complexion.
      The ship drops anchor, but nobody wants to begin  the  dominoes  game.
They sit and meditatively at the sun, and the narrator  takes  great  notice
of how the water changes as the sun sets.  Marlow  suddenly  speaks,  noting
that "this also has been one of the dark places of the earth." He is  a  man
who does not represent his class: he is a seaman but also a wanderer,  which
is disdainful and odd, since most seamen live  sedentary  lives  aboard  the
ship that is  their  home.  No  one  responds  to  the  remark,  and  Marlow
continues to talk of olden times when the Romans arrived and brought  light,
which even now is constantly flickering.  He  says  those  people  were  not
colonists but conquerors, taking everything by brute force. This "taking  of
the earth is not a pretty thing" when examined too closely; it is  the  idea
behind it which people find redeeming. Then, to  the  dismay  of  his  bored
listeners, he switches into narration of a life experience, how  he  decided
to be a fresh water sailor and had come into contact with colonization.
      After a number of voyages in the Orient and  India,  Marlow  began  to
look for a ship, but he was having hard luck in finding  a  position.  As  a
child, he had a passion for maps,  and  would  lose  himself  in  the  blank
spaces, which gradually turned into dark ones as they became peopled. He  is
especially taken with the picture of a long coiling river. Marlow thinks  to
get charge of the steamboats that must go up and down that river for  trade.
His aunt has connections in the  Administration,  and  writes  to  have  him
appointed a steamboat skipper. The appointment comes through  very  quickly,
as Marlow is to take the place of Fresleven, a captain who has  been  killed
in a scuffle with the natives. He crosses the Channel to sign  the  contract
with his employers. Their office appears to him like a white sepulchre.  The
reception area is dimly lit, and two women sullenly  man  the  area.  Marlow
notes an unfinished map, and he  is  going  into  the  yellow  section,  the
central area that holds the river. He signs, but feels very  uneasy  as  the
women look at him meaningfully. Then there is a visit to the doctor.  Marlow
questions him on why he is not with the Company on its business. The  doctor
becomes cool and says he is no fool. Changes take place out there.  He  asks
his patient whether there is madness in the family. With  a  clean  bill  of
health and a long goodbye chat with his aunt, Marlow sets out  on  a  French
steamer, feeling like an "impostor."
      Watching the coast as it slips by, our newly named skipper marvels  at
its enigmatic quality‹it tempts and invites the seer to come ashore, but  in
a grim way. The weather is fierce, for the  sun  beats  down  strongly.  The
ship picks up others along the way: soldiers and clerks  mainly.  The  trade
names they pass on ships and on  land  seem  almost  farcical.  There  is  a
uniformly somber atmosphere. After a month, Marlow arrives at the  mouth  of
the big river, and takes his passage on a little  steamer.  Once  aboard  he
learns that a man picked up the other day hanged  himself  recently.  He  is
taken to his  Company's  station.  He  walks  through  pieces  of  "decaying
machinery" and observes a stream of black people walking slowly,  very  thin
and indifferent. One of the "reclaimed" carries a rifle  at  "it's  middle."
Marlow walks around to avoid this chain gang and finds a shade to  rest.  He
sees more black people working, some who  look  like  they  are  dying.  One
young man looks particularly hungry, and Marlow goes to offer him  the  ship
biscuit in his pocket. He notices that the  boy  is  wearing  white  worsted
around his neck, and wonders what this is for. Marlow hastily makes his  way
towards the station. He meets a white man dressed elegantly and  in  perfect
fashion. He is "amazing" and a "miracle." After  learning  that  he  is  the
chief accountant of the Company, Marlow  respects  him.  The  station  is  a
muddle of activity. The new skipper waits there for ten days,  living  in  a
hut. Frequently he visits the accountant, who tells him that  he  will  meet
Mr. Kurtz, a remarkable man in charge of  the  trading-post  in  the  ivory-
country. The accountant is irritated that a bed station for a dying man  has
been set up in his office. He remarks that he begins to  "hate  the  savages
to death." He asks Marlow to tell Kurtz that everything is satisfactory.
      The next day Marlow begins a 200 mile  tramp  into  the  interior.  He
crosses many paths, many deserted dwellings, and mysterious  "niggers."  His
white companion becomes ill on the journey,  which  makes  Marlow  impatient
but attentive. Finally they arrive at the Central Station, and  Marlow  must
see the General Manager. The meeting is strange. The Manager has a  stealthy
smile. He is obeyed, but he does not inspire love or fear. He only  inspires
uneasiness. The trading had begun without Marlow, who was late.  There  were
rumors that an important station was jeopardy, and that  its  chief,  Kurtz,
was ill. A shipwreck on Marlow's boat has set  them  back.  The  manager  is
anxious, and says it will be three months before they can make  a  start  in
the trading.  Marlow  begins  work  in  the  station.  Whispers  of  "ivory"
punctuate the air throughout the days.  One  evening  a  shed  almost  burns
down. A black man is beaten for this,  and  Marlow  overhears:  "Kurtz  take
advantage of this incident." The manager's main spy,  a  first-class  agent,
befriends the new skipper and  begins  to  question  him  extensively  about
Europe and the people he knows there. Marlow is  confused  about  what  this
man hopes to learn. The agent becomes "furiously annoyed." There is  a  dark
sketch on his wall of a woman blindfolded and carrying a lighted torch.  The
agent says that Kurtz painted it. Upon Marlow's inquiry as to who  this  man
is, he says that he is a prodigy, an "emissary of pity  and  science."  They
want Europe to entrust the guidance of the cause to them.  The  agent  talks
precipitately, wanting Marlow to give Kurtz a favourable  report  about  his
disposition because he believes Marlow has more influence in Europe than  he
actually does.
      The narrator breaks off for an instant and returns to his listeners on
the ship, saying that they should be able to see more in retrospect than  he
could in the moment. Back in the story, the droning of the agent bores  him.
Marlow wants rivets to stop the hole and get on with the work on  his  ship.
He clambers aboard. The ship is the one thing that  truly  excites  him.  He
notes the foreman of the mechanics sitting on board. They  cavort  and  talk
happily of rivets that should arrive in  three  weeks.  Instead  of  rivets,
however, they receive an "invasion" of  "sulky  niggers"  with  their  white
expedition leader, who is the Manager's uncle. Marlow meditates  for  a  bit
on Kurtz, wondering if he will be promoted to the  General  Manger  position
and how he will set about his work when there.
Summary Part II
      While lying on the deck of his steamboat one evening, Marlow overhears
a conversation between the Manager and his uncle, leader of  the  Expedition
group that  has  arrived.  Snatches  of  talk  indicate  that  the  two  are
conferring about Kurtz. The Manager says he was "forced to send him  there."
They say his influence is frightful, and that he is alone, having sent  away
all his assistants. The word "ivory" is also  overheard.  The  two  men  are
wondering how all this ivory has arrived, and why Kurtz did  not  return  to
the main station as he should have. Marlow believes this fact allows him  to
see Kurtz for the first time. The Manager and  his  uncle  say  that  either
Kurtz or his assistant must be hanged as an example, so that  they  can  get
rid of unfair competition.  Realizing  that  Marlow  is  nearby,  they  stop
      In the next few days, the Expedition  goes  into  the  wilderness  and
loses all their donkeys. As they arrive at the bank below  Kurtz's  station,
Marlow  is  excited  at  the  prospect  of  meeting  him  soon.  To  Marlow,
travelling up the river is like going to the  beginning  of  the  world.  He
sees no joy in the sunshine, however. The past comes back to  haunt  him  on
this river. There is a stillness that does not resemble peace. It  is  alive
and watching Marlow. He is  concerned  about  scraping  the  bottom  of  his
steamship  on  the  river  floor‹this  is  disgraceful  for  seamen.  Twenty
"cannibals" are his crew. The Manager and some pilgrims  are  also  onboard.
Sailing by stations, they hear the word "ivory" resonating.  The  trees  are
massive and make you feel very small. The  earth  appears  "unearthly."  The
men are monstrous but not inhuman. This scares Marlow greatly.  He  believes
the mind of man is capable of anything. They creep  on  towards  Kurtz.  The
ship comes across a deserted dwelling. Marlow finds a well-kept  book  about
seamanship. It has notes in a language he cannot  understand.  Back  on  the
boat, he pushes ahead.
      Eight miles from Kurtz's station, the Manager decides they  will  stay
put for the evening. No sounds are heard. The sun  rises,  and  "complaining
clamor" with "savage discord" fills the air. Everyone fears an  attack.  One
of the black crew members says that the attackers should be handed  over  to
them and eaten. Marlow wonders why he and the other  whites  have  not  been
eaten. The Manager insincerely worries that something  might  have  happened
to Kurtz. Marlow does not believe there will be  an  attack‹the  jungle  and
fog seem impenetrable. No one believes him. Some men go and investigate  the
shore. A pattering sound is audible: flying  arrows!  The  helmsman  on  the
ship panics and does not steer properly. The crew is firing rifles into  the
bushes. A black man is shot and lays at Marlow's feet. He tries to talk  and
dies before he can get  any  words  out.  Marlow  supposes  that  Kurtz  has
perished in this attack. He is exceedingly upset: talking  to  the  mythical
man has become a major point of  interest.  In  a  fit  of  distress  Marlow
throws his shoes overboard. He tells the listeners on the Thames  ship  that
the privilege of talking to Kurtz was waiting for him. Marlow  relates  that
Kurtz mentioned a girl, and how his shanty was  busting  with  ivory.  Kurtz
has taken position of "devil of the land." Originally he was  well-educated,
but he has become entirely native in Africa, participating  in  rituals  and
rites. Kurtz is anything but common. Back in the  battle,  the  helmsman  is
killed. Marlow throws the  body  overboard.  After  a  simple  funeral,  the
steamer continues moving. Miraculously they spy Kurtz's station, which  they
had assumed to be lost. They see  the  figure  of  a  man  who  resembles  a
harlequin. This man says that Kurtz is present, and assures them  that  they
need not fear the natives, who are simple people.  He  speaks  with  Marlow,
introducing himself as a Russian. The book Marlow  holds  is  actually  his,
and he is grateful to have it  returned.  The  Russian  says  the  ship  was
attacked because the natives do not want Kurtz to  leave  with  the  crew‹he
has broadened everybody's mind.
Summary Part III:
      Marlow is astonished at the Russian's words. He is gathering a clearer
picture of Kurtz. The Russian says that he has gone so far that  he  doesn't
know if he will ever get back. Apparently he has been alone with  Kurtz  for
many months. His sense of adventure is pure, and glamour urges  him  onward.
The Russian remembers the first night he spoke to Kurtz‹he forgot to  sleep,
he was so captivated. Kurtz made him "see things." He has nursed this  great
man through illnesses, and accompanied  him  on  explorations  to  villages.
Kurtz has raided the country  by  getting  the  cooperation  of  the  nearby
tribe, who all adore him. He loses himself in ivory hunts  for  weeks  at  a
time, and forgets himself. The Russian disagrees that  Kurtz  is  mad.  Even
when this bright-eyed adventurer  was  told  to  leave  by  his  mentor,  he
refused to go. Kurtz went down the river alone to make another  ivory  raid.
His illness acted up, so the Russian joined him in order  to  take  care  of
him. Presently, Kurtz lies in a hut surrounded by heads  on  stakes.  Marlow
is not very shocked at the sight. He takes this as an indication that  Kurtz
lacks restraint in the gratification of his lusts,  a  condition  for  which
the wilderness is culpable. Marlow assumes that Kurtz was hollow inside  and
needed something  to  fill  that.  The  Russian  is  perturbed  by  Marlow's
attitude  of  skepticism.  He  has  heard  enough   about   the   ceremonies
surrounding this revered man.
      Suddenly around the house appears a group of men. They convene  around
the stretcher that holds the dying Kurtz. He  looks  gaunt,  and  tells  the
natives to leave. The pilgrims carry him to another cabin, and give him  his
correspondence. In a raspy voice he says he is  glad  to  meet  Marlow.  The
Manager comes in to talk privately with Kurtz. Waiting on the boat with  the
Russian, Marlow spies the "apparition" of a  gorgeous  woman.  She  glitters
with gold, paint, and she looks savage. She steps to the edge of  the  shore
and eyes the steamer. She gestures  violently  toward  the  sky,  turns  and
disappears into the thicket. The harlequin  man  fears  her.  They  overhear
Kurtz telling the Manager that he is interfering  with  plans.  The  Manager
emerges. Taking Marlow aside, he says  they  have  done  all  they  can  for
Kurtz, and that he did more harm than good to the Company. His actions  were
too "vigorous" for the moment. Marlow does not  agree  that  Kurtz's  method
was unsound. To him, Kurtz is a remarkable man, and a friend  in  some  way.
Marlow warns the Russian to escape before he can be hanged; he  states  that
he will keep Kurtz's reputation safe. It was Kurtz who  ordered  the  attack
on the steamer‹he did not want to be taken away, and  thought  to  fake  his
      While Marlow dozes, drumbeats and incantations fill the air. He  looks
into the cabin that holds Kurtz, and discovers he is  missing.  Marlow  sees
his trail, and goes after him. The two men face one  another.  Kurtz  pleads
that he has plans. Marlow replies that his fame in  Europe  is  assured;  he
realizes that this man's soul has gone mad. He is able to bring  Kurtz  back
to the cabin. The ship departs the next day  amongst  a  crowd  of  natives.
Kurtz is brought into the pilot-house of the ship. The "tide of brown"  runs
swiftly out of the "heart of darkness." The life of Kurtz is ebbing.  Marlow
is in disfavor, lumped into the same category as Kurtz. The Manager  is  now
content. Marlow listens endlessly to Kurtz's  bedside  talk.  He  accepts  a
packet of papers and a photograph that his friend gives  him,  in  order  to
keep them out of the Manager's hands. A  few  evenings  later,  Kurtz  dies,
with one phrase on his lips: "The horror!"
      Marlow returns to Europe, but is plagued by the memory of his  friend.
He is disrespectful to all he encounters. The  Manager  demands  the  papers
that Kurtz entrusted to Marlow. Marlow relinquishes  the  technical  papers,
but not the private letters and photograph. All that  remains  of  Kurtz  is
his memory and that picture of his Intended. Kurtz is  very  much  a  living
figure to Marlow. He goes and visits the woman in the picture. She  embraces
and welcomes him. She has silently mourned for the past year, and  needs  to
profess her love and how she knew him better than anyone.  Marlow  perceives
the room to darken when  she  says  this.  She  speaks  of  Kurtz's  amazing
ability to draw people through incredibly eloquent speech.  The  woman  says
she will be unhappy for life. Marlow states that they  can  always  remember
him. She expresses a desperate need to keep  his  memory  alive,  and  guilt
that she was not with him when he died. When  the  woman  asks  Marlow  what
Kurtz's final words were, he lies and says it was her name. The woman  weeps
in triumph. Marlow states that to tell the truth would be too dark. Back  on
the Thames  River  ship,  a  tranquil  waterway  leads  into  the  heart  of

                         Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott

      The novel begins in England during the reign of King Richard  I,  also
known  as  Richard  the  Lion-Hearted  (1157-1199).  Scott   provides   some
historical background for the politics of the time  and  places  the  action
somewhere near the end of Richard's reign  when he  is  returning  from  the
Crusades. England's  Saxon   population  is  under  the  control  of  Norman
royalty. French has become the forced official language, a fact  which  both
angers and demeans the Saxons, and  many  landowners  have  been  forced  to
give their lands to their Norman rulers.  When  the  action  of  the   novel
begins, the Norman King Richard I has been captured and  held for ransom  in
Europe. His brother John has assumed power.
      Though both men are Norman rulers in Saxon populated England,  Richard
is more  popular  among  the  people  he  rules,  known  as  both  fair  and
courageous; John is aggressive, encouraging his  men  to  steal  or  destroy
everything Saxon. John is content  to  rule,  and  even  hopes  his  brother
remains imprisoned so that he can  become  king.  Richard's  loyal  subjects
despair of ever seeing him again, and are angry that  John  and  his  greedy
nobles have been aggressive and relentless in seizing  whatever  Saxon  land
they can. A swineherd named Gurth is talking with  a  jester,  Wamba,  about
the increasing hostility between the native Saxons and  the  Norman  rulers.
Both servants work for a loyal Saxon named Cedric. When a storm  approaches,
they head for home. On their way, they hear horsemen riding toward them.
The Norman horsemen catch up  with  Gurth  and  Wamba.  One  of  them  is  a
Cisterian monk dressed in fine clothes. The other is a Knight  Templar.  The
two, attended by several others, demand to know where they will be  able  to
stay for the night and ask where Cedric the Saxon lives. Knowing his  master
Cedric's hatred of Normans, Wamba, with sheer  mischief,  gives  them  wrong
and confusing directions. However, they soon meet a Palmer, a holy  man  who
has traveled to the Holy Land on a pilgrimage,  who  takes  them  safely  to
Cedric's mansion.
Cedric is in his home, Rotherwood, impatiently waiting for his  servants  to
come home. He is also displeased that his ward Rowena is  late  for  supper.
His thoughts are interrupted by the blast of a  horn.  Then  the  gatekeeper
announces that Prior  Aymer  of  the  Abbey  of  Jorvaulx,  Brian  de  Bois-
Guilbert, and a small party of men are on their way to the royal  tournament
at Ashby-de-la- Zouche and want  to  lodge  at  Rotherwood  for  the  night.
Cedric does not want  to  entertain  these  Normans,  but  his  Saxon  pride
demands that they be offered hospitality; however, he clings to his  dignity
by refusing to go out to welcome them. Only when they come  to  him  in  his
hall does Cedric reluctantly welcome them.
Cedric counsels Rowena against appearing before  the  guests.  He  does  not
trust the Knight Templar and does not want anything to  interfere  with  his
plans to marry Rowena off to the right gentleman. She, however, is  keen  to
hear the latest news from the Holy Land from the Palmer,  since  she  is  in
love with Ivanhoe, whom she thinks is still fighting in the Crusades.
When the richly  dressed  guests  enter  Cedric's  hall,  he  receives  them
politely but without any warmth. He then scolds Gurth and  Wamba  for  being
late. When Rowena enters to join in the meal, Bois-Guilbert  stares  at  her
beauty. In response, she draws a veil over  her  face.  Cedric  notices  the
interchange and is annoyed with the  Templar.  The  chapter  ends  with  the
announcement of a stranger at Cedric's gates.
The stranger at Cedric's gate is Isaac  of  York.  Although  he  is  a  Jew,
Cedric refuses to turn him away into the stormy  night.  The  Norman  guests
protest at his being admitted and Cedric makes him sit at a separate  table.
Only the Palmer takes pity on the drenched and exhausted Jew.
The Palmer names five knights who have displayed great  courage  during  the
Crusades. He also mentions a sixth knight, a great  competitor,  whose  name
he cannot remember, though  he  is  actually  speaking  about  himself.  The
Templar vows to challenge this sixth and unknown Knight at  the  forthcoming
Ashby tournament.
On his way to bed, the Palmer is asked to  accompany  Cedric's  servants  to
the kitchen for more drink and gossip. A message is  sent  to  him  by  Lady
Rowena, demanding his presence. She wants more news  of  Ivanhoe  since  she
heard the Palmer mention Ivanhoe's courageous exploits. All that the  Palmer
tells her is that Ivanhoe, having fought bravely, is on his way home.
Before going to bed, the Palmer warns Isaac  that  he  has  overheard  Bois-
Guilbert ordering his Moslem slaves to follow Isaac and rob  him.  Isaac  is
grateful to the Palmer, and before he escapes, rewards  the  Palmer  with  a
favor. He sends a letter to his  Jewish  kinsman  asking  him  to  give  the
Palmer  a  horse  and  armor  so  that  he  can  participate  in  the  Ashby
These chapters are largely descriptive and do little to advance the plot  of
the story. The busy arena where the knights  will  display  their  skill  is
brilliantly  described.  The  challengers,  Bois-Guilbert,   Front-de-Boeuf,
Grantmesnil, Malvoisin, and Ralph de Vipoint, are introduced  and  described
as seasoned Norman knights. Isaac's daughter Rebecca is also introduced.
A stranger, beautifully attired in steel and  gold  armor,  arrives  at  the
arena, challenges Bois-Guilbert,  and  emerges  victorious;  Bois-  Guilbert
feels disgraced. The mysterious knight also wins on the second  day  of  the
tournament and crowns Rowena as the Queen of Love and Beauty.
As soon as Ivanhoe, in the guise of the  Disinherited  Knight,  reaches  his
tent on the first day of the tournament,  he  is  presented  with  the  rich
armor, weapons, and horses of the knights he has defeated.  He  accepts  his
rewards from four of the  five  knights.  He  refuses  the  gifts  of  Bois-
Guilbert, however, and sends a message that he will meet the Templar  Knight
again in combat on the following day.
With some of the money from his rewards, Ivanhoe sends  Gurth,  who  is  now
his confidante, to Isaac to  pay  for  the  horse  and  armor  which  he  so
generously loaned to him for the tournament.  Isaac  takes  the  money,  but
Rebecca secretly sends it back, adding  twenty  gold  coins  as  a  tip  for
On his way back to Ashby, poor Gurth is attacked by four men who  steal  the
money he carries, both his gold coins and that  belonging  to  Ivanhoe.  The
thieves question him about where he got the money. When  Gurth  tells  about
Rebecca's kindness, the thieves

refuse to believe that any Jew would return  a  payment  on  a  loan.  Gurth
fights with his attackers. When he shows his courage in  the  conflict,  the
robbers surprisingly give him back his money and escort him to Ashby.
After the combats of the first day at Ashby, the crowds  eagerly  await  the
events of the next day. The  excitement  reaches  a  fever  pitch  when  the
Disinherited Knight is  attacked  simultaneously  by  Athelstane,  Front-de-
Boeuf, and Bois-Guilbert. With the help  of  another  mysterious  character,
the Black Knight, who comes to his aid, Ivanhoe overcomes  his  challengers,
emerging the  victor  once  again.  After  the  victory,  the  Black  Knight
disappears. Rowena crowns the Disinherited Knight,  who  is  now  forced  to
raise his visor and show his  face.  He  is  revealed  to  all  as  Ivanhoe,
Cedric's son. Severely wounded, he faints at Rowena's feet.
The revelation that Ivanhoe  is  the  disguised  winner  of  the  tournament
causes a great commotion and some fear in the minds of the Norman nobles.  A
castle once belonging to Ivanhoe that John had given  to  Front-de-Bouef  is
now the object of much speculation, for many think that Ivanhoe will  demand
it back.
Prince John himself is  a  bit  worried  about  a  confrontation  until  his
advisor Fitzurse informs him that Ivanhoe is severely wounded  and  probably
incapable of protest.
When Prince John receives a message that says, "Take heed to  yourself,  for
the Devil is unchained," he turns pale. He guesses that  the  message  means
his brother Richard is free, and his own corrupt reign is nearing  its  end.
At the same time, many of his supporters begin to falter  in  their  support
of him, and Fitzurse busies himself trying to rally them back to John.
The tournament ends with an  archery  contest,  which  introduces  Robin  of
Locksley (Robin Hood). Locksley easily defeats Hubert. John  is  enraged  at
both Locksley's skill as an archer and his unswerving  loyalty  to  Richard.
Cedric also offends  John  in  his  surprising  expression  of  support  for
Richard when he drinks to missing king's health.
Prince John has planned to marry Rowena to De Bracy,  who  is  pleased  with
the idea. Now De Bracy is determined to force the marriage  whether  Richard
has returned or not. He makes plans to ambush Cedric's party as they  travel
home from the tournament. He will take Rowena and  make  her  his  unwilling
CHAPTERS 16 & 17
This chapter introduces Friar Tuck, the jolly priest who  is  one  of  Robin
Hood's men. Earlier in the novel, King Richard proved  his  valor  at  Ashby
disguised as the Black Knight. After the  victory,  he  quickly  disappeared
before his identity was questioned. In this scene, he is  traveling  in  the
forest when he meets the Clerk of Copmanhurst, who is actually  Friar  Tuck.
The two trust one another; they eat and drink in  great  companionship.  The
king and the fat priest get on so well that  after  supper  they  decide  to
sing together. Each chooses a song that makes fun of the other;  the  priest
pokes fun at Crusaders and Richard mocks the priest.
CHAPTERS 18 & 19
When Cedric first sees  his  son  wounded,  his  natural  paternal  love  is
revived, but not wishing to reveal this  to  the  spectators  at  Ashby,  he
keeps quiet. Later he learns that Ivanhoe is being taken care of by  Rebecca
and is relieved. Discovering that  his  swineherd  Gurth  has  been  helping
Ivanhoe, Cedric has him bound with rope as a punishment.
Cedric and Athelstane take their group to Prince John's  palace  where  they
have been invited to a banquet. On the  way  to  Prince  John's,  the  group
encounters the dog,  Fangs,  howling.  Cedric  throws  his  javelin  at  it,
wounding the dog. Saxons are a superstitious lot, and Cedric  believed  this
howling was a sure sign of an impending danger. Gurth is upset  to  see  the
dog wounded and manages to escape his bonds.
At Prince John's,  Rowena  refuses  to  attend  the  banquet,  which  annoys
Cedric. He and Athelstane discuss matters of land. Then Cedric broaches  the
subject of Athelstane's marriage to Rowena.
CHAPTERS 20 & 21
As they make their way through the woods, Cedric and  his  party  come  upon
Isaac and Rebecca accompanying a sick man. Rebecca is crying out loudly  for
help. Their bodyguard has deserted them in sheer fear  of  the  outlaws  who
are known to inhabit the woods.
Rebecca begs Rowena to help the sick man. The entire party is then  attacked
by De Bracy and his men, impersonating outlaws. They kidnap  the  group  and
take them to Front-de-Bouef at Torquilstone Castle, which once  belonged  to
Ivanhoe until John gave it away. Except for Wamba,  who  escapes,  they  are
all taken prisoners.
Wamba meets Gurth, and they go to find Locksley (Robin Hood). Gurth,  Wamba,
Locksley, and his men meet up with the  disguised  King  Richard  and  Friar
Tuck. All of them proceed to Torquilstone Castle to aid the prisoners.
Isaac of York has been thrown into a dark dungeon  in  Torquilstone  Castle.
Front-de-Boeuf demands a ransom of a thousand silver pounds, to which  Isaac
protests. The Normans threaten him with physical torture, so Isaac  requests
that his daughter Rebecca be sent with an escort to York to get  the  money.
He is deeply upset when he learns that she has been given  to  Bois-Guilbert
as his own personal captive. Isaac is willing to give up whatever wealth  he
possesses  if  only  he  can  get  Rebecca  back.  As  his   captors   begin
preparations for torture, the sound of a bugle is heard outside the  castle,
and Isaac is saved for the moment.
Elsewhere in Front-de-Boeuf's castle, De Bracy tries his  best  to  persuade
Rowena to marry him. He threatens that if  she  does  not  accept  him,  the
lives of Ivanhoe and Cedric will be  forfeited.  In  the  conversation,  she
learns that Ivanhoe is a prisoner in the same castle and  breaks  down.  The
bugle call interrupts this scene as well.
Rebecca meets the old hag,  Urfried,  in  the  little  tower  where  she  is
imprisoned.  Urfried  makes  the  most  frightening  forecast  for  Rebecca,
recounting her own terrible fate at the hands of Front-de-  Boeuf's  father.
Urfried, however, had submitted to the elder Front- de-Bouef's  molestation,
accepting the subsequent shame and dishonor. The brave Rebecca looks  around
for some escape, but finds none. Musing over her fate, she  hears  footsteps
on the stairs.
A tall man stands at the door. She offers her jewelry to the man  who  takes
off his cap and reveals himself as Bois-Guilbert. He makes advances at  her,
which she refuses. Rebecca threatens to kill herself. She would  rather  die
than be dishonored as the old woman Urfried has been. The trumpet call  also
saves Rebecca, for it summons  Bois-Guilbert,  who  promises  to  visit  her
The occupants of Torquilstone receive a letter signed by  Gurth  and  Wamba,
but sent by the mysterious Black Knight and  Locksley;  the  letter  demands
the release of the prisoners.  Front-de-Boeuf  responds  to  the  letter  by
asking that a priest be sent  to  hear  the  confessions  of  the  prisoners
before they are put to death. Wamba, dressed in Friar's  robes,  enters  the
castle "to hear the confessions of  the  condemned".  When  he  reaches  the
place where Cedric and the others are imprisoned,  he  and  Cedric  exchange
their clothes and Cedric is able to leave the dungeon undetected.
Thinking Cedric to be the priest, Front-de-Boeuf gives  him  a  message  for
Philip Malvoisin. Cedric rejects Front de  Boeuf's  payment  and  joins  the
party outside.  Subsequently,  Wamba's  disguise  and  Cedric's  escape  are
discovered. It now seems that a clash  is  inevitable  between  the  Normans
inside and the besiegers outside, now joined by Cedric.
Using flashback, Scott supplies the necessary information  to  link  various
events that have happened. Ivanhoe's actual whereabouts since being  injured
at the tournament  have  never  been  explicitly  stated.  But  here  it  is
revealed that Rebecca took the invalid Ivanhoe on as a charge, promising  to
use her powers of healing. It is made clear that the sick man  she  and  her
father were accompanying when they were kidnapped is Ivanhoe.
As the besiegers attack the Castle, Rebecca stands at the window  to  relate
to Ivanhoe the exact sequence of events.  He  soon  falls  asleep.  Rebecca,
left to her own thoughts, tries to  sort  out  her  feelings  for  him.  She
realizes that she is beginning to love him.
CHAPTERS 30 & 31
The battle rages on, with both parties fighting intensely.  Front-de-  Boeuf
is seriously wounded in the battle. As he lies dying, the  old  hag  Urfried
accuses him of all kinds of sins, the worst being  the  murder  of  his  own
father. Hungry for revenge for wrongs done to her by his  family,  she  sets
fire to the castle. Both she and Front-de- Boeuf  die  in  the  flames.  The
Black Knight saves Ivanhoe  and  captures  De  Bracy.  Everyone  manages  to
escape to freedom except Rebecca, who is carried away by Bois-Guilbert,  the
Knight Templar who  wants  to  defile  her.  In  attempting  to  stop  Bois-
Guilbert, Athelstane is hit on the head and falls down, apparently dead.
Early next morning the freed prisoners  and  their  rescuers,  the  outlaws,
meet in the forest. Robin of Locksley places Cedric  on  his  left  and  the
Black Knight on his right. The booty plundered from  the  castle  is  shared
equally. Cedric refuses his share, saying that Rowena and  he  are  grateful
to Locksley for his help. He offers his share to the Black Knight, who  also
refuses to take any of the plunder.  In  gratitude  to  him  for  his  help,
Cedric frees his slave Gurth.
De Bracy, now a prisoner, attempts to speak to Rowena  but  is  insulted  by
Cedric. Athelstane's body is carried in on  a  stretcher.  Then  Friar  Tuck
arrives, leading Isaac by a rope that is tied around his neck.  He  and  the
Black Knight engage in a friendly fight over Isaac. The Black  Knight  wins,
and Isaac is set free. Two other men bring in another  prisoner,  the  Prior
of Jorvaulx.
CHAPTERS 33 & 34
Prior Aymer is frightened when he is brought in to the camp, but  is  mostly
disturbed because his beautiful, expensive  clothes  are  ruined.  Isaac  is
relieved to learn Rebecca is alive and  listens  carefully  when  the  Prior
offers, for an appropriate price, to use  his  friendship  with  the  Knight
Templar to free Rebecca. The Black Knight is  pleasantly  surprised  at  the
decency with which the outlaws behave.
At a banquet hall in the castle of York to which  Prince  John  has  invited
his nobles, rumors are afoot that Torquilstone Castle has been attacked  and
captured. Word has it that Front-de-Boeuf and Bois-Guilbert, and perhaps  De
Bracy too, are  dead.  John  is  disturbed  but  listens  to  Fitzurse,  who
reassures him that his unscrupulous reign is invincible.
De Bracy dramatically enters the banquet and announces that  Richard  is  in
England, Bois-Guilbert has fled with the Jewish girl, and Front-de-Bouef  is
dead. John is frightened at the news and begins to  drink  heavily.  In  his
drunken stupor, he realizes that many of his knights are deserting  him.  He
quickly appoints De Bracy High Marshal to  secure  his  loyalty.  De  Bracy,
however, no longer trusts or believes in John. John, in turn, sets spies  on
De Bracy.
Isaac of York is warned by his relation Nathan that Lucas Beaumanoir,  Chief
of the Order of Templars, is also present at Templestowe, where  Rebecca  is
being held prisoner. Beaumanoir is  a  rigid  knight  who  is  insistent  on
Templar principles, a cruel enemy to the Moslems, and a strong hater of  the
Isaac brings a letter from Prior Aymer  to  Bois-Guilbert,  asking  for  the
Prior's ransom; the Jew is brought to Lucas Beaumanoir.  Until  Isaac  shows
up, Beaumanoir is completely unaware of Rebecca's presence  in  the  castle.
He is annoyed that Bois-Guilbert  is  guilty  of  sequestering  Rebecca  for
immoral purposes, since he is a strict keeper of the Knights  Templar  rules
of celibacy.
Isaac is oblivious to the fact that the Prior's letter  nastily  hints  that
Rebecca is a "second witch of Endor"; in it,  the  Prior  says  Rebecca  has
cast a spell over the Templar.  Malvoisin,  the  preceptor  of  Templestowe,
seizes on the notion that Rebecca is a witch and defends  his  friend  Bois-
Guilbert. In the meantime, Bois-Guilbert finds he is strongly  attracted  to
Rebecca and continues to press her to accept him.
Beaumanoir orders a full-scale trial for Rebecca, thinking this is his  only
chance to save the reputation of the Knight Templar who has acted so out  of
keeping with the order's rules. Bois-Guilbert's  attempts  to  help  Rebecca
escape the trial by marrying him are in vain.
CHAPTERS 37 & 39
The scene is set for Rebecca's trial. The Grand Master sits opposite a  pile
of logs, which will form the stake at which Rebecca will be burned alive  if
she is found guilty. The charges against Bois- Guilbert are read first,  but
he is excused on the grounds that Rebecca's evil magic has  taken  away  his
power of reason. Others testify to the supernatural powers of  Rebecca,  her
healing of Ivanhoe,  and  her  presence  and  influence  at  the  attack  on
Torquilstone. The common people are on her  side,  deeply  affected  by  her
beauty and her defense; but it is not a fair trial. Bois- Guilbert tries  to
save Rebecca by asking for a champion to fight him on her  behalf;  however,
he suspects no one will come to her aid against him. He then tries  in  vain
to convince Rebecca to run away with him.
In an earlier chapter, Prince John is seen losing the  loyalty  of  most  of
his knights  except  that  of  Waldemar  Fitzurse,  who  slips  out  of  the
banqueting hall to confront King Richard before he takes back his power.  On
their way to Athelstane's castle of Coningsburgh  to  bury  him,  the  Black
Knight and Wamba are ambushed by Fitzurse and his men.  Richard  sounds  his
horn to summon Locksley and his outlaws. With their help, he  overcomes  and
kills his attackers.
Only Fitzurse is left alive. The king banishes him forever from England  and
confiscates his lands.
The Black Knight then reveals himself as the rightful King  of  England.  He
and Ivanhoe proceed to Coningsburgh. Athelstane, who has only  been  knocked
unconscious and not killed, now rises to tell his story. Ivanhoe  rides  on,
prepared and ready to champion Rebecca's fate.
Rebecca's trial attracts a large crowd, including many of Robin Hood's  men.
Just as her situation seems hopeless, for no champion has offered to  defend
Rebecca, Ivanhoe rides into the arena. He challenges those  who  accuse  the
beautiful Jewess. Brian de Bois- Guilbert becomes an  unwilling  participant
in the  fight  as  a  representative  of  the  people  who  accuse  Rebecca;
Beaumanoir and the Knight Templars demand his obedience and loyalty.  It  is
an exciting and hard-fought battle, but  Bois-Guilbert  is  finally  killed.
Ivanhoe has saved Rebecca.
Richard, having intended to champion Rebecca himself,  is  detained  by  the
Earl of Essex who warns him of John's evil plans. He arrives  at  the  trial
too late to fight, but brings with him  a  troop  of  soldiers  and  arrests
Albert Malvoisin  for  plotting  with  John  against  him.  He  gives  Lucas
Beaumanoir the choice of exile  or  death,  and  Beaumanoir  chooses  exile.
Richard then banishes all the traitors except  John,  who  is  sent  to  his
mother with a warning. Athelstane gives up his claim to Rowena  and  retires
from public life. Rowena and Ivanhoe  are  married.  Before  departing  from
England with her father forever, Rebecca visits Rowena to thank her.

                   Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence

      Lady  Chatterley's  Lover  begins  by  introducing  Connie  Reid,  the
female protagonist of the novel. She was raised as a  cultured  bohemian  of
the upper-middle class, and was  introduced  to  love  affairs--intellectual
and  sexual liaisons--as a teenager. In 1917, at 23,  she  marries  Clifford
Chatterley, the scion of an aristocratic line. After  a  month's  honeymoon,
he  is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down, impotent.
      After  the  war,  Clifford  becomes  a  successful  writer,  and  many
intellectuals  flock  to  the  Chatterley  mansion,  Wragby.  Connie   feels
isolated;  the vaunted intellectuals prove  empty  and  bloodless,  and  she
resorts to a  brief and dissatisfying affair  with  a  visiting  playwright,
Michaelis. Connie  longs for real human contact, and falls into despair,  as
all men seem scared  of true feelings and true passion. There is  a  growing
distance  between   Connie  and  Clifford,  who  has  retreated   into   the
meaningless pursuit of  success in his writing and  in  his  obsession  with
coal-mining, and towards  whom Connie feels  a  deep  physical  aversion.  A
nurse, Mrs. Bolton, is hired  to take care of the  handicapped  Clifford  so
that Connie can be  more   independent,  and  Clifford  falls  into  a  deep
dependence on the nurse, his  manhood fading into an infantile reliance.
      Into the void of Connie's life comes Oliver  Mellors,  the  gamekeeper
on  Clifford's estate, newly returned from serving in the army.  Mellors  is
aloof  and derisive, and yet Connie feels curiously  drawn  to  him  by  his
innate  nobility and grace, his purposeful isolation, his  undercurrents  of
natural  sensuality. After several chance meetings in  which  Mellors  keeps
her at  arm's length, reminding her of  the  class  distance  between  them,
they meet  by chance at a hut in the  forest,  where  they  have  sex.  This
happens on  several occasions, but still Connie  feels  a  distance  between
them,  remaining   profoundly  separate  from  him  despite  their  physical
      One day, Connie and Mellors meet by  coincidence  in  the  woods,  and
they have sex on the forest floor. This time, they  experience  simultaneous
orgasms. This is a revelatory and profoundly moving experience  for  Connie;
she begins to adore Mellors, feeling that they have connected on some   deep
sensual level. She is proud to believe that she is pregnant  with   Mellors'
child: he is a real,  "living"  man,  as  opposed  to  the  emotionally-dead
intellectuals  and   the   dehumanized   industrial   workers.   They   grow
progressively closer, connecting on a primordial physical  level,  as  woman
and man rather than as two minds or intellects.
      Connie goes away  to  Venice  for  a  vacation.  While  she  is  gone,
Mellors' old wife returns, causing a scandal. Connie returns  to  find  that
Mellors has been fired as a result of the negative rumors spread  about  him
by his resentful wife, against whom he has  initiated  divorce  proceedings.
Connie admits to Clifford that she  is  pregnant  with  Mellors'  baby,  but
Clifford refuses to give her a divorce. The novel ends with Mellors  working
 on a farm, waiting for his divorce, and  Connie  living  with  her  sister,
also  waiting: the hope exists that, in  the  end,  they  will  be  together
Valuable Commentory
      The greatness of Lady Chatterley's Lover lies  in  a  paradox:  it  is
simultaneously progressive and reactionary, modern and Victorian.  It  looks
backwards  towards  a  Victorian  stylistic  formality,  and  it  seems   to
anticipate  the social morality of  the  late  20th  century  in  its  frank
engagement with  explicit subject matter and profanity.  One  might  say  of
the  novel  that  it  is   formally  and  thematically   conservative,   but
methodologically radical.
      The easiest of these assertions to prove  is  that  Lady  Chatterley's
Lover is "formally conservative." By this I mean that there are few  evident
 differences between the form of Lady Chatterley's Lover  and  the  form  of
the  high-Victorian  novels  written  fifty  years  earlier:  in  terms   of
structure; in  terms of narrative voice;  in  terms  of  diction,  with  the
exception of a very  few "profane" words. It is important to  remember  that
Lady Chatterley's  Lover was written towards the end of the 1920s, a  decade
which had seen  extensive literary experimentation. The  1920s  opened  with
the publishing of  the formally radical novel Ulysses, which set  the  stage
for important  technical innovations in literary art: it made extensive  use
of the  stream-of-consciousness form; it condensed all of its action into  a
single  24-hour span;  it  employed  any  number  of  voices  and  narrative
perspectives. Lady Chatterley's Lover acts in many ways  as  if  the  1920s,
and indeed the entire modernist literary movement, had never happened.   The
structure  of  the  novel  is  conventional,  tracing  a  small   group   of
characters over an extended period of time in a  single  place.  The  rather
preachy narrator usually speaks with the familiar  third-person  omniscience
of the Victorian novel. And the characters tend  towards  flatness,  towards
representing  a  type,  rather  than  speaking  in  their  own  voices   and
developing  real three-dimensional personalities.
      But surely, if Lady Chatterley's Lover is "formally conservative,"  it
can  hardly be called "thematically conservative"!  After  all,  this  is  a
novel that  raised censorious hackles across the English-speaking world.  It
is a novel  that liberally employs profanity, that more-or-less graphically-
-graphically,  that is, for the 1920s: it is important not to  evaluate  the
novel by the  standards of profanity and graphic sexuality that have  become
prevalent at  the turn of the 21st century--describes sex  and  orgasm,  and
whose central  message is the idea that sexual freedom  and  sensuality  are
far more  important, more authentic and meaningful,  than  the  intellectual
life. So what  can I mean by calling Lady  Chatterley's  Lover,  a  famously
controversial  novel, "thematically conservative"?
      Well, it is important to remember not only precisely what  this  novel
seems  to  advocate,  but  also  the  purpose   of   that   advocacy.   Lady
Chatterley's Lover is not propaganda for sexual license and  free  love.  As
D.H.  Lawrence  himself  made  clear  in  his  essay  "A  Propos   of   Lady
Chatterley's Lover," he was no advocate of sex or profanity  for  their  own
sake. The  reader  should  note  that  the  ultimate  goal  of  the  novel's
protagonists, Mellors and Connie, is a quite conventional  marriage,  and  a
sex life in which it  is  clear  that  Mellors  is  the  aggressor  and  the
dominant  partner, in which Connie plays the receptive part; all  who  would
argue that  Lady Chatterley's Lover is a radical  novel  would  do  well  to
remember the  vilification that the novel heaps upon Mellors' first wife,  a
sexually   aggressive  woman.  Rather  than  mere  sexual  radicalism,  this
novel's chief  concern--although it is also  concerned,  to  a  far  greater
extent than most  modernist fiction, with the  pitfalls  of  technology  and
the barriers  of  class--is   with  what  Lawrence  understands  to  be  the
inability of the modern self to  unite the mind and the body. D.H.  Lawrence
believed that without a  realization of sex and the body, the  mind  wanders
aimlessly in the wasteland  of modern industrial  technology.  An  important
recognition in Lady  Chatterley's Lover is the extent to  which  the  modern
relationship between  men and  women  comes  to  resemble  the  relationship
between men and  machines.
      Not only do men and women require an appreciation of  the  sexual  and
sensual in order to relate to each other properly; they require it  even  to
live  happily in the world, as beings able to  maintain  human  dignity  and
individuality in the dehumanizing atmosphere created  by  modern  greed  and
the injustices of the class system. As the  great  writer  Lawrence  Durrell
observed in reference to Lady Chatterley's Lover, Lawrence  was   "something
of a puritan himself. He was out to cure,  to  mend;  and  the   weapons  he
selected for this act of therapy were the four-letter words  about which  so
long and idiotic a battle has raged." That is  to  say:  Lady   Chatterley's
Lover was intended  as  a  wake-up  call,  a  call  away  from  the   hyper-
intellectualism embraced by so  many  of  the  modernists,  and  towards   a
balanced approach in which mind and body  are  equally  valued.  It  is  the
method the novel uses that made the wake-up call so radical--for its  time--
and so effective.
      This is a novel with high purpose: it points  to  the  degradation  of
modern   civilization--exemplified  in  the  coal-mining  industry  and  the
soulless  and   emasculated  Clifford   Chatterley--and   it   suggests   an
alternative in learning to  appreciate sensuality. And it is  a  novel,  one
must admit, which does not  quite  succeed.  Certainly,  it  is  hardly  the
equal of D.H. Lawrence's great  novels, Women in Love and  The  Rainbow.  It
attempts a profound  comment on the decline of civilization,  but  it  fails
as a novel when its social  goal eclipses its  novelistic  goals,  when  the
characters become mere  allegorical types:  Mellors  as  the  Noble  Savage,
Clifford as the impotent  nobleman. And the novel tends also to dip  into  a
kind  of  breathless   incoherence  at  moments  of  extreme  sensuality  or
emotional weight. It is not  a perfect novel, but it is a  novel  which  has
had a profound impact on the  way that  20th-century  writers  have  written
about sex, and about the deeper  relationships of which, thanks in  part  to
Lawrence, sex can no longer be  ignored as a crucial element. Characters

  Lady Chatterley - The protagonist of the novel. Before her  marriage,  she
is simply Constance  Reid,  an  intellectual  and  social  progressive,  the
daughter of Sir Malcolm and the sister of Hilda. When she  marries  Clifford
Chatterley, a minor nobleman, Constance--or,  as  she  is  known  throughout
the  novel,  Connie--assumes  his  title,  becoming  Lady  Chatterley.  Lady
Chatterley's Lover chronicles Connie's  maturation  as  a  woman  and  as  a
sensual being. She comes to despise her weak, ineffectual  husband,  and  to
love Oliver  Mellors,  the  gamekeeper  on  her  husband's  estate.  In  the
process of leaving her husband and conceiving a  child  with  Mellors,  Lady
Chatterley moves from the heartless, bloodless world of  the  intelligentsia
and aristocracy into a vital and profound connection  rooted  in  sensuality
and sexual fulfillment.
   Oliver Mellors  -  The  lover  in  the  novel's  title.  Mellors  is  the
gamekeeper   on  Clifford  Chatterley's  estate,  Wragby.   He   is   aloof,
sarcastic, intelligent  and noble. He was born near Wragby, and worked as  a
blacksmith until he  ran off to the army to escape an unhappy  marriage.  In
the army he rose to  become a commissioned lieutenant--an  unusual  position
for a member of  the working classes--but  was  forced  to  leave  the  army
because  of  a  case  of   pneumonia,  which  left  him  in   poor   health.
Disappointed by a string of  unfulfilling love  affairs,  Mellors  lives  in
quiet isolation, from  which  he  is   redeemed  by  his  relationship  with
Connie: the passion unleashed by their  lovemaking forges  a  profound  bond
between them. At the end of the novel,  Mellors is fired  from  his  job  as
gamekeeper and works as a laborer on a  farm, waiting  for  a  divorce  from
his old wife so he can marry Connie.  Mellors is the representative in  this
novel of the Noble Savage: he is a man  with  an  innate  nobility  but  who
remains impervious to the pettiness and  emptiness of conventional  society,
with access to a primitive flame of  passion and sensuality.
   Clifford Chatterley - Connie's husband. Clifford Chatterley  is  a  minor
nobleman who becomes paralyzed from the waist down during World War   I.  As
a result of his injury, Clifford is impotent. He  retires  to  his  familial
estate, Wragby, where he becomes first  a  successful  writer,  and  then  a
powerful businessman. But the gap between Connie and him grows ever   wider;
obsessed with financial success and fame, he  is  not  truly  interested  in
love, and she feels that he has become passionless and empty. He  turns  for
solace to his nurse and companion,  Mrs.  Bolton,  who  worships  him  as  a
nobleman even as  she  despises  him  for  his  casual  arrogance.  Clifford
represents everything that this novel  despises  about  the  modern  English
nobleman: he is a weak, vain man, but declares his right to rule  the  lower
classes, and he soullessly pursues money and fame through industry  and  the
meaningless  manipulation  of  words.  His  impotence  is  symbolic  of  his
failings  as a strong, sensual man.
   Mrs. Bolton - Ivy Bolton is Clifford's nurse  and  caretaker.  She  is  a
competent, complex, still-attractive middle-aged  woman.  Years  before  the
action in this novel, her husband died in an accident in the mines owned  by
 Clifford's family. Even as Mrs. Bolton resents Clifford  as  the  owner  of
the  mines--and,  in  a  sense,  the  murderer  of  her  husband--she  still
maintains a  worshipful attitude towards him as the  representative  of  the
upper class.  Her relationship with Clifford--she simultaneously adores  and
despises him,  while he depends and looks down on her--is probably the  most
fascinating  and complex relationship in the novel.
   Michaelis - A successful Irish playwright with whom Connie has an  affair
 early in the novel. Michaelis asks Connie to marry  him,  but  she  decides
not  to, realizing that he is like  all  other  intellectuals:  a  slave  to
success, a  purveyor of vain ideas and empty words, passionless.
   Hilda Reid - Connie's older sister by two  years,  the  daughter  of  Sir
Malcolm.  Hilda  shared  Connie's  cultured  upbringing   and   intellectual
education. She remains  unliberated  by  the  raw  sensuality  that  changed
Connie's life. She disdains Connie's lover, Mellors,  as  a  member  of  the
lower classes, but in the end she helps Connie to leave Clifford.
   Sir Malcolm Reid - The father of Connie and Hilda.  He  is  an  acclaimed
painter, an aesthete and unabashed sensualist who despises Clifford for  his
 weakness and impotence, and who immediately warms to Mellors.
   Tommy Dukes  -  One  of  Clifford's  contemporaries,  Tommy  Dukes  is  a
brigadier  general  in  the  British  Army  and  a  clever  and  progressive
intellectual. Lawrence intimates, however, that Dukes  is  a  representative
of  all  intellectuals:  all  talk  and  no  action.  Dukes  speaks  of  the
importance of  sensuality, but he himself is  incapable  of  sensuality  and
uninterested in sex.
   Charles May, Hammond, Berry - Young intellectuals who visit Wragby,   and
who, along with Tommy  Dukes  and  Clifford,  participate  in  the  socially
progressive but ultimately meaningless discussions about love and sex.
   Duncan Forbes - An artist friend  of  Connie  and  Hilda.  Forbes  paints
abstract canvases, a form of art both Mellors  and  D.H.  Lawrence  seem  to
despise. He once loved Connie, and Connie originally claims to  be  pregnant
with his child.
   Bertha Coutts - Although Bertha never actually appears in the novel,  her
 presence is felt.  She  is  Mellors'  wife,  separated  from  him  but  not
divorced.  Their marriage faltered because of their sexual  incompatibility:
she was too  rapacious, not tender enough. She returns at  the  end  of  the
novel to spread  rumors about Mellors' infidelity to her, and helps get  him
fired from his  position as gamekeeper. As the novel concludes,  Mellors  is
in the process  of divorcing her.
   Squire Winter - A relative of Clifford. He is a firm believer in the  old
 privileges of the aristocracy.
   Daniele, Giovanni - Venetian gondoliers  in  the  service  of  Hilda  and
Connie. Giovanni hopes that the women will pay him to sleep  with  them;  he
is disappointed. Daniele reminds Connie of  Mellors:  he  is  attractive,  a
"real  man." Context

                       Lord of the Flies by W.Golding

      William Gerald Golding was born in September of 1911 in  the  city  of
Cornwall, England. Growing up in the life of luxury, Golding  soon  realized
that he was very talented at  his  school  studies.  He  attended  both  the
prestigious colleges of Malboro and Oxford, studying  both  natural  science
and English. Despite his father’s protests, Golding  eventually  decided  to
devote his career to literature, where he became  one  of  the  most  famous
English novelists ever. Soon World War II  started,  compelling  Golding  to
enlist in the Navy. It was war where Golding lost  the  idea  that  men  are
inherently good. After witnessing the evil of war,  both  from  men  of  the
enemy and his own  side,  Golding  lost  the  belief  that  humans  have  an
innocent  nature.  Even  children  he  learned  are  inherently  evil,  thus
foreshadowing his future and most famous novel, Lord of the Flies. In  later
years, Golding received many  noteworthy  awards  for  his  contribution  to
English and world literature. Finally in 1983,  he  was  awarded  the  Nobel
prize for his literary  merits.  Golding’s  other  interests  include  Greek
literature, music and history. Yet William G.  Golding  will  be  remembered
mostly for his great contributions to modern literature.
Chapter One: The Sound of the Shell:
      The novel begins in the aftermath of a  plane  crash  in  the  Pacific
Ocean during an unnamed war in which  a  group  of  English  schoolboys  are
isolated on what they assume to be an island  under  no  adult  supervision.
The pilot died in the crash and the plane has been swept to sea by a  storm.
Among the survivors are a young, fair-haired boy of twelve named  Ralph  and
a pudgy boy referred to only by the derisive nickname from  school  that  he
dislikes: Piggy. Piggy insists  that  he  can  neither  run  nor  swim  well
because of his asthma. Ralph insists that his father,  a  commander  in  the
Navy, will come and rescue them. Both of Piggy's parents had  already  died.
Piggy doubts that anybody will find them, and suggests that the boys  should
gather together. Ralph finds a conch shell, which Piggy tells him will  make
a loud noise. When Ralph blows the conch, several children  make  their  way
to Ralph and Piggy. There were several small children around six  years  old
and a party of boys marching in step, dressed in eccentric  clothing:  black
cloaks and black caps. One of the boys,  Jack  Merridew,  leads  the  group,
which he addresses as his choir. Piggy suggests that  everyone  state  their
names, and Jack insists on being called Merridew, for Jack is a kid's  name.
Jack, a tall thin boy with an ugly,  freckled  complexion  and  flaming  red
hair, insists that he be the leader because he's the head boy of his  choir.
They decide to vote for chief: although Jack seems the most  obvious  leader
and Piggy the most obviously intelligent, Ralph has  a  sense  of  stillness
and gravity. He is elected chief,  but  concedes  that  Jack  can  lead  his
choir, who will be hunters. Ralph decides that everyone  should  stay  there
while three boys will find out whether they are on an island. Ralph  chooses
one of the boys, Simon, while Jack insists that he comes along.  When  Piggy
offers to go, Jack dismisses the  idea,  humiliating  Piggy,  who  is  still
ashamed that Ralph revealed his hated nickname. The three  boys  search  the
island, climbing up the mountain to survey it. On  the  way  up,  they  push
down the mountain a large rock that blocks  their  way.  When  they  finally
reach the top and determine that they are on an  island,  Ralph  looks  upon
everything and says "this belongs to us." The three decide  that  they  need
food to eat, and find a piglet caught in a curtain of creepers.  Jack  draws
his knife, but pauses before he has a chance to stab the  pig,  which  frees
itself and runs away. Jack could not stab  the  pig  because  of  the  great
violence involved, but he vows that he would show no mercy next time.
Chapter Two: Fire on the Mountain:
      Ralph called another meeting that night. The  sunburned  children  had
put on clothing once more, while  the  choir  was  more  disheveled,  having
abandoned their cloaks. Ralph announces that  they  are  on  an  uninhabited
island, but Jack interjects and insists that they need an army to  hunt  the
pigs. Ralph sets the rules of order for the meeting:  only  the  person  who
has the conch shell may speak. Jack relishes having  rules,  and  even  more
so, having punishment for breaking them.  Piggy  reprimands  Jack.  He  says
that nobody knows where they are and that they may be  there  a  long  time.
Ralph reassures them, telling them that the island is theirs, and until  the
grown-ups come they will have fun. A small boy is about to cry;  he  wonders
what they will do about a snake-thing. Ralph  suggests  that  they  build  a
fire on the top of the mountain, for the smoke will signal  their  presence.
Jack summons the boys to come build a fire, leaving only  Piggy  and  Ralph.
Piggy shows disgust at their childish  behavior  as  Ralph  catches  up  and
helps them bring piles of wood to the top.
      Eventually it proves too difficult for some of the smaller  boys,  who
lose interest and search for fruit to eat. When  they  gather  enough  wood,
Ralph and Jack wonder how to start a fire. Piggy arrives, and Jack  suggests
that they use his glasses. Jack snatches them from  Piggy,  who  can  barely
see without them. Eventually they use the glasses to  reflect  the  rays  of
the sun, starting a fire. The boys are mesmerized by the fire, but  it  soon
burns out. Ralph insists that they have rules, and Jack agrees,  since  they
are English, and the English are the best  at  everything  so  must  do  the
right things. Ralph says they might never be saved, and  Piggy  claims  that
he has been saying that, but nobody has listened. They get  the  fire  going
once more. While Piggy has the conch,  he  loses  his  temper,  telling  the
other boys how they should have listened to his  orders  to  build  shelters
first and how a fire is a secondary consideration. Piggy worries  that  they
still don't know exactly how many boys there are, and mentions  the  snakes.
Suddenly, one of the trees catches on fire,  and  one  of  the  boy  screams
about snakes. Piggy thinks that one of the boys is missing.
Chapter Three: Huts on the Beach:
      Jack scans the oppressively silent forest. A bird startles him  as  he
progresses along the trail. He raises his spear and hurls it at a  group  of
pigs, driving them away. He eventually comes upon  Ralph  near  the  lagoon.
Ralph complains that the boys are not working hard to  build  the  shelters.
The little ones are  hopeless,  spending  most  of  their  time  bathing  or
eating. Jack says that Ralph is chief, so he should just order  them  to  do
so. Ralph admits that they could call a meeting,  vow  to  build  something,
whether a hut or a submarine, start building it for five minutes then  quit.
Ralph tells Jack that most of his hunters spent the  afternoon  swimming.  A
madness comes to Ralph's eyes as he admits  that  he  might  kill  something
soon. Ralph insists that  they  need  shelters  more  than  anything.  Ralph
notices that the other boys are  frightened.  Jack  says  that  when  he  is
hunting he often feels as if he is being hunted, but  admits  that  this  is
irrational. Only Simon has been helping Ralph, but he leaves, presumably  to
have a bath. Jack and Ralph go to the bathing pool, but do  not  find  Simon
there. Simon had followed Jack and Ralph, then turned into the  forest  with
a sense of purpose. He is a tall, skinny boy with  a  coarse  mop  of  black
hair. He walks through the acres of fruit trees and  finds  fruit  that  the
littlest boys cannot reach. He gives the boys  fruit  them  goes  along  the
path into the jungle. He finds an open space and looks to see whether he  is
alone. This open space contains great aromatic bushes, a bowl  of  heat  and
Chapter Four: Painted Faces and Long Hair:
      The boys quickly become accustomed to the progression of  the  day  on
the island, including the strange point at midday when the sea  would  rise.
Piggy discounts the midday illusions as mere mirages. The northern  European
tradition of work, play and food right through the day made it possible  for
the boys to adjust themselves to the  new  rhythm.  The  smaller  boys  were
known by the generic title of "littluns," including Percival,  the  smallest
boy on the island, who had stayed in a small shelter for two  days  and  had
only recently emerged, peaked, red-eyed and miserable.  The  littluns  spend
most of the day searching for  fruit  to  eat,  and  since  they  choose  it
indiscriminately suffer from chronic diarrhea. They cry  for  their  mothers
less often than expected, and spend time with the  older  boys  only  during
Ralph's assemblies. They build castles in the sand. One of  the  biggest  of
the littluns is Henry, a distant relative of the boy  who  disappeared.  Two
other boys, Roger and Maurice, come out of the forest for a  swim  and  kick
down the sand castles. Maurice, remembering how his  mother  chastised  him,
feels guilty when he gets sand in Percival's eye.  Henry  is  fascinated  by
the small creatures on the beach. Roger picks up a stone to throw at  Henry,
but deliberately misses him, recalling the  taboos  of  earlier  life.  Jack
thinks about why he is still unsuccessful as a hunter. He  thinks  that  the
animals see him, so he wants to find some way to  camouflage  himself.  Jack
rubs his face with charcoal, and laughs with a bloodthirsty  snarl  when  he
sees himself. From behind the mask Jack seems liberated from shame and self-
      Piggy thinks about making a sundial so that they can  tell  time,  but
Ralph dismisses the idea. The idea that Piggy  is  an  outsider  is  tacitly
accepted. Ralph believes that he sees smoke along the horizon coming from  a
ship, but there is not enough smoke from the mountain to  signal  it.  Ralph
starts to run to the up the mountain, but cannot reach  it  in  time.  Their
own fire is dead. Ralph screams for the ship to come  back,  but  it  passes
without seeing them. Ralph finds that the hunters  have  found  a  pig,  but
Ralph admonishes them for letting the fire go  out.  Jack  is  overjoyed  by
their kill. Piggy begins to cry at their lost opportunity, and  blames  Jack
for letting the fire go out. The two argue, and finally Jack  punches  Piggy
in the stomach. Piggy's glasses  fly  off  and  break  on  the  rocks.  Jack
eventually  does  apologize  about  the  fire,  but  Ralph  resents   Jack's
misbehavior. Jack considers not letting Piggy  have  any  meat,  but  orders
everyone to eat. Maurice pretends to  be  a  pig,  and  the  hunters  circle
around him, dancing and singing "Kill the pig.  Cut  her  throat.  Bash  her
in." Ralph vows to call an assembly.
Chapter Five: Beast From Water:
      Ralph goes to the beach because he needs  a  place  to  think  and  is
overcome with astonishment. He understands  the  weariness  of  life,  where
everything requires improvisation. He  calls  a  meeting  near  the  bathing
pool, realizing that he must think and must make  a  decision  but  that  he
lacks Piggy's ability to think. He begins the  assembly  seriously,  telling
them that they are there not for making jokes or for cleverness. He  reminds
them that everyone built the first shelter, which is the most sturdy,  while
the third one, built only by Simon and Ralph,  is  unstable.  He  admonishes
them for not using the appropriate areas for the lavatory, and reminds  them
that the fire is the most important thing on the island,  for  it  is  their
means of escape. He claims that they ought to die before they let  the  fire
out. He directs this at the hunters, in particular. He makes the  rule  that
the only place where they will have a fire is on the  mountain.  Ralph  then
speaks on their fear. He admits that he is  frightened  himself,  but  their
fear is unfounded. Jack stands  up,  takes  the  conch,  and  yells  at  the
littluns for screaming like babies and not hunting or building or helping.
      Jack tells them that there is no beast on the island. Piggy does agree
with Jack on that point, telling the kids that there is no beasts and  there
is no real fear, unless they get frightened  of  people.  A  littlun,  Phil,
tells how he had a nightmare and, when he awoke, how he  saw  something  big
and horrid moving among the trees. Ralph  dismisses  it  as  nothing.  Simon
admits that he was walking in the jungle at  night.  Percival  speaks  next,
and as he gives his name he recites his address and telephone  number;  this
reminder of home causes him to break out into tears.  All  of  the  littluns
join him. Percival claims that the beast comes out of  the  sea,  and  tells
them about squids. Simon says that maybe there is  a  beast,  and  the  boys
speak about ghosts. Piggy says he does  not  believe  in  ghosts,  but  Jack
attempts to start a fight again. Ralph stops the fight, and  asks  the  boys
how many of them believe in ghosts. Piggy yells at the boys, asking  whether
they are humans or animals or savages. Jack threatens him again,  and  Ralph
intercedes once more, complaining that they are  breaking  the  rules.  When
Jack asks "who cares?" Ralph says that the rules are  the  only  thing  that
they have. Jack says that they  will  hunt  the  beast  down.  The  assembly
breaks up as Jack leads them on a hunt. Only Ralph, Piggy and Simon  remain.
Ralph says that if he blows the conch to summon them back and  they  refuse,
then they will become like animals and will never be rescued.  He  does  ask
Piggy whether there are ghosts or beasts, but  Piggy  reassures  him.  Piggy
warns him that if Ralph steps down as chief Jack will do nothing  but  hunt,
and they will never be rescued. The three reminisce on the majesty of  adult
life. The three hear Percival still sobbing his address.
Chapter Six: Beast From Air:
      Ralph and Simon pick up Percival and carry  him  to  a  shelter.  That
night, over the horizon, there is an aerial battle. A  pilot  drops  from  a
parachute, sweeping across the reef toward  the  mountain.  The  dead  pilot
sits on the mountain-top. Early the next morning,  there  are  noises  by  a
rock down the side of the mountain. The twins Sam and Eric, the two boys  on
duty at the fire, awake and add kindling to the fire. Just  then  they  spot
something at the top of the mountain and crouch in fear. They scramble  down
the mountain and wake Ralph. They claim that they saw the beast. Eric  tells
the boys that they saw the  beast,  which  has  teeth  and  claws  and  even
followed them. Jack calls for a hunt, but Piggy says that they  should  stay
there, for the beast may not come near them. When Piggy  says  that  he  has
the right to speak because of the conch, Jack says that they don't need  the
conch anymore. Ralph becomes  exasperated  at  Jack,  accusing  him  of  not
wanting to be rescued, and Jack takes a swing at him. Ralph decides that  he
will go with the hunters to search for the beast,  which  may  be  around  a
rocky area of the mountain. Simon, wanting to  show  that  he  is  accepted,
travels with Ralph, who wishes only for  solitude.  Jack  gets  the  hunters
lost on the way around the mountain. They continue along a  narrow  wall  of
rocks that forms a bridge between parts of the  island,  reaching  the  open
sea. As some of the boys spend time rolling rocks around the  bridge,  Ralph
decides that it would be better to  climb  the  mountain  and  rekindle  the
fire, but Jack wishes to stay where they can build a fort.
Chapter Seven: Shadows and Tall Trees:
      Ralph notices how long his hair is and how dirty and  unclean  he  has
become. He had followed the hunters across the island. On  this  other  side
of the island, the view is utterly different. The horizon is  hard,  clipped
blue and the sea crashes against the rocks. Simon and Ralph watch  the  sea,
and Simon reassures him that they will leave the  island  eventually.  Ralph
is somewhat doubtful, but Simon says that it is simply  his  opinion.  Roger
calls for Ralph, telling him that they need  to  continue  hunting.  A  boar
appears; Jack stabs it with a spear, but the boar escapes. Jack  is  wounded
on his left forearm, so Simon tells  him  he  should  suck  the  wound.  The
hunters go into a frenzy once more, chanting "kill  the  pig"  again.  Roger
and Jack talk about their chanting, and Jack says that someone should  dress
up as a pig and pretend to knock him over. Robert says  that  Jack  wants  a
real pig so that he can actually kill, but Jack says that he could just  use
a littlun. The boys start climbing up the  mountain  once  more,  but  Ralph
realizes that they cannot leave the littluns alone  with  Piggy  all  night.
Jack mocks Ralph for his concern for Piggy. Simon says that he can  go  back
himself. Ralph tells Jack that there isn't enough light to  go  hunting  for
pigs. Out of the new understanding that Piggy  has  given  him,  Ralph  asks
Jack why he hates him. Jack has no answer. The boys are  tired  and  afraid,
but Jack vows that he will go up the mountain to look for  the  beast.  Jack
mocks Ralph for not wanting to go up  the  mountain,  claiming  that  he  is
afraid. Jack claims he saw something  bulge  on  the  mountain.  Since  Jack
seems for the first time somewhat afraid, Ralph says  that  they  will  look
for it then. The boys see a rock-like hump and something like  a  great  ape
sitting asleep with its head between its knees. At its sight, the  boys  run
Chapter Eight: Gift for the Darkness:
      When Ralph tells Piggy what they saw, he  is  quite  skeptical.  Ralph
tells him that the beast had teeth and big black eyes. Jack  says  that  his
hunters can defeat the beast, but Ralph dismisses them as boys with  sticks.
Jack tells the other boys that the beast is a hunter, and  says  that  Ralph
thinks that the boys are cowards.  Jack  says  that  Ralph  isn't  a  proper
chief, for he is a coward himself. Jack asks the boys who  wants  Ralph  not
to be chief. Nobody agrees with Jack, so he runs off in tears. He says  that
he is not going to be part of Ralph's lot.  Jack  leaves  them.  Piggy  says
that they can do without Jack, but they should stay close to the platform.
      Simon suggests that they climb the mountain. Piggy says that  if  they
climb the mountain they can start the fire again,  but  then  suggests  that
they start a fire down by the beach. Piggy organizes the  new  fire  by  the
beach. Ralph notices that several of the boys are missing. Piggy  says  that
they will do well enough if they behave with common sense,  and  proposes  a
feast. They wonder where Simon has gone; he might be climbing the  mountain.
Simon had left to sit in the open space he had found earlier. Far off  along
the beach, Jack says that he will be chief of the hunters, and  will  forget
the beast. He says that they might go later to  the  castle  rock,  but  now
will kill a pig and give a feast. They find a  group  of  pigs  and  kill  a
large sow. Jack rubs the blood over Maurice's  cheeks,  while  Roger  laughs
that the fatal blow against the sow was up her ass. They cut off  the  pig's
head and leave it on a stick as a gift for the beast  at  the  mountain-top.
Simon sees the head, with flies buzzing around it. Ralph  worries  that  the
boys will die if they are not rescued soon. Ralph and Piggy realize that  it
is Jack who causes things to break up. The forest near them suddenly  bursts
into uproar. The littluns run off  as  Jack  approaches,  naked  except  for
paint and a belt, while hunters take burning branches from  the  fire.  Jack
tells them that he and his hunters are living along  the  beach  by  a  flat
rock, where they hunt and feast and have fun. He invites the  boys  to  join
his tribe. When Jack leaves, Ralph says that he thought Jack  was  going  to
take the conch, which Ralph holds as a symbol  of  ritual  and  order.  They
reiterate that the fire is the most important thing, but Bill suggests  that
they go to the hunters' feast and tell them that the fire is hard  on  them.
At the top of the mountain remains the pig's head, which  Simon  has  dubbed
the Lord of the Flies. Simon believes that the pig's  head  speaks  to  him,
calling him a silly little boy. The Lord of the Flies tells Simon that  he'd
better run off and play with the others, who think that  he  is  crazy.  The
Lord of the Flies claims that he is the Beast, and laughs at the  idea  that
the Beast is something that could be hunted and  killed.  Simon  falls  down
and loses consciousness.
Chapter Nine: A View to a Death:
      Simon's fit passes into the weariness of sleep. Simon speaks aloud  to
himself, asking "What else is there to do?" Simon sees the Beast   the  body
of the soldier  who  parachuted  onto  the  island   and  realizes  what  it
actually is. He staggers down the mountain to tell them what he  has  found.
Ralph notices the clouds overhead and estimates that  it  will  rain  again.
Ralph and Piggy play in the lagoon, and Piggy gets mad  when  Ralph  squirts
water on him, getting his glasses wet. They wonder where most of  the  other
boys have gone, and remark that they are with the hunters  for  the  fun  of
pretending to be a tribe and putting on war paint.  They  decide  that  they
should find them to make sure that nothing  happens.  They  find  the  other
boys grouped together, laughing and  eating.  Jack  sits  on  a  great  log,
painted and garlanded as an idol. Jack orders the boys  to  give  Ralph  and
Piggy some eat, then orders a boy to give him a drink. Jack asks all of  the
boys who will join his tribe, for he gave them food  and  his  hunters  will
protect them. Ralph and Jack argue over who will be chief. Ralph  says  that
he has the conch, but Jack says that it doesn't count on this  side  of  the
island. Piggy tells Ralph that they  should  go  before  there  is  trouble.
Ralph warns them that a storm is coming and asks where there  shelters  are.
The littluns are frightened, so Jack says that  they  should  do  their  pig
dance. As the storm begins, Simon rushes from the jungle, crying  out  about
the dead body on the mountain. The boys rush after  him,  striking  him  and
killing him. Meanwhile, on the mountain, the storm blows the  parachute  and
the body attached to it into the sea. That night, Simon's  body  washes  out
to sea.
Chapter Ten: The Shell and the Glasses:
      Back on the other side of the island, Ralph and Piggy  discuss  Simon,
and Piggy reminds him that he is still chief, or at least chief  over  them.
Piggy tries to stop Ralph from talking  about  Simon's  murder.  Piggy  says
that he took part in the murder because he was scared, but Ralph  says  that
he wasn't scared. He doesn't know what came over him. They  try  to  justify
the death as an accident caused by Simon's crazy behavior. Piggy asks  Ralph
not to reveal to Sam and Eric that they were in  on  the  killing.  Sam  and
Eric return, dragging a long out of the forest. All four appear  nervous  as
they discuss where they have been, trying to avoid the  subject  of  Simon's
murder. Roger arrives  at  castle  rock,  where  Robert  makes  him  declare
himself before he can enter. The boys have set a  log  so  they  can  easily
cause a rock to tumble down. Roger and Robert discuss how Jack  had  Wilfred
tied up for no apparent reason. Jack sits on a  log,  nearly  naked  with  a
painted face. He declares that tomorrow they will hunt again. He warns  them
about the beast and about intruders. Bill asks what they will use  to  light
the fire, and Jack blushes. He finally answers that  they  shall  take  fire
from the others. Piggy gives Ralph his glasses to start the fire. They  wish
that they could make a radio or a boat, but Ralph says that  they  might  be
captured by the Reds. Eric stops himself before he admits that it  would  be
better than being captured by  Jack's  hunters.  Ralph  wonders  about  what
Simon said about a dead man. The boys become tired by pulling wood  for  the
fire, but Ralph resolves that they must keep it going. Ralph nearly  forgets
what their objective is for the fire, and they realize that two  people  are
needed to keep the fire burning at all times. This would require  that  they
each spend twelve hours a day devoted to it. They finally give up  the  fire
for the night. Ralph reminisces about the safety of home, and he  and  Piggy
conclude that they will go insane. They laugh at a  small  joke  that  Piggy
makes. Jack and his hunters arrive  and  attack  the  shelter  where  Ralph,
Piggy and the twins are. They fight them off, but still suffer  considerable
injuries. Piggy thought that they wanted the conch, but realizes  that  they
came for something else. Instead, Jack had come for Piggy's broken  glasses.

Chapter Eleven: Castle Rock:
      The four boys gather around  where  the  fire  had  been,  bloody  and
wounded. Ralph calls a meeting for the boys who remain with them, and  Piggy
asks Ralph to tell them what could be done. Ralph says that  all  they  need
is a fire, and if they had kept  the  fire  burning  they  might  have  been
rescued already. Ralph, Sam and Eric  think  that  they  should  go  to  the
Castle Rock with spears, but Piggy refuses to  take  one.  Piggy  says  that
he's going to go find Jack himself. Piggy says that  he  will  appeal  to  a
sense of justice. A tear falls down his cheek as he speaks. Ralph says  that
they should make themselves look presentable,  with  clothes,  to  not  look
like savages. They set off along the beach, limping. When they approach  the
Castle  Rock,  Ralph  blows  the  conch.  He  approaches  the   other   boys
tentatively, and Sam and Eric rush  near  him,  leaving  Piggy  alone.  Jack
arrives from hunting, and tells Ralph to leave  them  alone.  Ralph  finally
calls Jack a thief, and Jack responds by  trying  to  stab  Ralph  with  his
spear, which Ralph deflects. They  fight  each  other  while  Piggy  reminds
Ralph what they came to do. Ralph stops fighting and says that they have  to
give back Piggy's glasses and reminds them about the  fire.  He  calls  them
painted fools. Jack orders the boys to grab Sam  and  Eric.  They  take  the
spears from the twins and Jack orders them to be tied up. Ralph  screams  at
Jack, calling him a beast and a swine and a thief.  They  fight  again,  but
Piggy asks to speak as the other boys jeer. Piggy asks them  whether  it  is
better to be a pack of painted Indians or to  be  sensible  like  Ralph,  to
have rules and agree or to hunt and kill. Roger  leans  his  weight  on  the
lever, causing a great rock to crash down on Piggy, crushing the  conch  and
sending Piggy down a cliff, where he lands on the beach, killing  him.  Jack
declares himself chief, and hurls his spear at Ralph, which tears  the  skin
and flesh over his ribs, then shears off and falls  into  the  water.  Ralph
turns and runs, but Sam and Eric  remain.  Jack  orders  them  to  join  the
tribe, but when they only wish to be let go he pokes them in the  ribs  with
a spear.
Chapter Twelve: Cry of the Hunters:
      Ralph hides, wondering about his wounds. He is not far from the Castle
Rock. He thinks he sees Bill in the distance, but realizes that  it  is  not
actually Bill anymore, for he is now a savage and not the boy in shorts  and
shirt he once knew. He concludes that Jack will  never  leave  Ralph  alone.
Ralph can see the Lord of the Flies, now a skull  with  the  skin  and  meat
eaten away. Ralph can still hear the chant "Kill the beast. Cut his  throat.
Spill his blood." He crawls to the lookout near Castle  Rock  and  calls  to
Sam and Eric. Sam gives him a chunk of meat and tells  him  to  leave.  They
tell him that Roger has sharpened a stick at both  ends,  but  Ralph  cannot
attach a meaning to this. Ralph crawls away to a slope where he  can  safely
sleep. When he awakes he can hear Jack and Roger outside the  thicket  where
he hides. They are trying to find out where Ralph is hiding. The other  boys
are rolling rocks down the mountain. Ralph finally runs  away,  not  knowing
what he should do. He decides to hide again, then  realizes  that  Jack  and
his boys were sitting the island on fire to smoke Ralph  out,  a  move  that
would destroy whatever fruit was left on the  island.  Ralph  rushes  toward
the beach, where he finds a naval officer. His ship saw the smoke  and  came
to the island. The officer thinks that  the  boys  have  been  only  playing
games. The other boys begin to appear from the  forest.  Percival  tries  to
announce his name and address, but cannot say  what  was  once  so  natural.
Ralph says that he is boss, and the officer asks  how  many  there  are.  He
scolds them for not knowing exactly how many there are  and  for  not  being
organized, as the British are supposed to be.  Ralph  says  that  they  were
like that at first. Ralph begins to weep for the first time on  the  island.
He weeps for the end of innocence and the darkness of man's heart,  and  for
the fall of Piggy. The officer turns  away,  embarrassed,  while  the  other
boys await the cruiser in the distance.

                           Middlemarch by G.Eliot

Chapter 1:
      The novel begins  in  the  upper-class  Brooke  household  in  Tipton,
inhabited by Mr. Brooke and his two nieces,  Dorothea  and  Celia.  Dorothea
and her sister Celia are well-connected, sensible girls from a good  family;
they believe in economy of dress and are rather mainstream in their  beliefs
and behavior.  Dorothea  is  drawn  to  sacrifice  and  grand,  intellectual
things, while Celia has fewer aspirations in  the  world  of  academics  and
religion. Their uncle, Mr. Brooke, is careful with  his  money,  and  rather
Puritan in his disposition, which Dorothea is also.
      Two suitors, Sir Chettam and Mr. Casaubon, make visits to  the  house;
Sir Chettam likes Dorothea,  but  Dorothea  believes  he  is  more  inclined
toward her sister. Celia has more sense than her  sister,  but  Dorothea  is
very steadfast in her Puritan ways.
Chapter 2:
      Sir James and Casaubon are over for supper, with Sir James  trying  to
appeal to Dorothea, while  Dorothea  begins  to  admire  Casaubon.  Dorothea
hopes that Sir James will try to appeal to her sister Celia, rather than  to
herself, and Dorothea continues her perverse fascination with Casaubon.
Chapter 3:
      Dorothea continues to admire Casaubon, especially  admiring  his  vast
studies and knowledge. She understands that Casaubon  has  some  regard  for
her, and feels  honored,  despite  Casaubon's  complete  inability  to  show
emotion. She is blind to the fact that he wants to marry her to fulfill  his
needs, and is taking advantage of her naivete  in  this  decision.  Casaubon
actually tries to show consideration for her in the  things  he  chooses  to
speak to her about, and  in  the  way  he  regards  her.  Still,  Dorothea's
refusal to see Casaubon as anything other than a  beacon  of  knowledge  and
good, and Sir James as an annoyance who  is  useful  for  carrying  out  her
plans,  shows  how  her  stubbornness  blinds  her   in   judging   people's
characters, and in making important decisions as well.
Chapter 4:
      Sir James has acted on Dorothea's plan, and made  new,  more  pleasant
cottages for his poor tenants; Dorothea is still  determined  not  to  think
highly of him, though Celia is rather fond of Sir James. Dorothea admits  to
her sister that she does not like Sir James, although he plainly likes  her;
Celia cannot believe that Dorothea could so easily dismiss a man  who  loves
her. When Dorothea gets back, her uncle tells her  that  he  went  to  visit
Casaubon, and Casaubon inquired  about  marrying  Dorothea.  Mr.  Brooke  is
against it, because of Casaubon's tendency to mope about and live in  books;
but, when Dorothea says that she would accept  Casaubon  over  Sir  Chettam,
Mr. Brooke speaks diplomatically, while laying out before her the  realities
of marriage. Though Dorothea listens, she does not seem to  absorb  all  the
important things he says. Mr. Brooke has brought back a letter  of  proposal
to Dorothea, and she is determined to accept.
Chapter 5:
      Dorothea  reads  Casaubon's  letter,  and  is  touched  by   it;   she
immediately writes out an acceptance, taking the  letter  to  mean  that  he
feels the same about her as she does about him. Celia has no idea  what  has
happened until Casaubon joins them all for dinner, and she, at least,  knows
that her sister has made a serious mistake, and perhaps can be  swayed  from
it. Dorothea, however, is convinced that she  has  made  the  right  choice;
Casaubon expresses happiness at their engagement,  and  Dorothea  completely
overlooks his lack of passion.
Chapter 6:
      Mrs.  Cadwallader  is   finally   introduced,   a   shrewd,   somewhat
manipulative, and meddling woman whom Mr. Brooke has little  affection  for.
Mrs. Casaubon and Mr. Brooke talk politics for a  little  while,  which  Mr.
Brooke does not want to do;  finally,  Celia  tells  Mrs.  Cadwallader  that
Dorothea is going to marry Casaubon, which displeases  Mrs.  Cadwallader,  a
great advocate for Sir James, greatly. Sir James finds out, and  is  greatly
displeased; but Mrs. Cadwallader tells him that Celia admires  him  greatly,
and won't give him as much trouble. Mrs. Cadwallader  is  the  archetype  of
the country woman, with her narrow interests, her  meddling  ways,  and  her
great concern in anything involving people she knows. Sir James is  able  to
conquer his disappointment, and realizes that  courting  Celia  is  what  he
should begin to do.
Chapter 7:
      Casaubon has exhausted his meager reserves  of  passion  already,  and
looks forward to married life, which he expects will be  more  pleasant  and
fulfilled. Not once does he stop  and  consider  his  duties  for  Dorothea,
showing himself to be an unsuitable partner  who  will  be  hard-pressed  to
make her happy. Dorothea is eager to begin learning, out of her  own  desire
to be able to understand and know things. Mr. Brooke cautions Casaubon  that
Dorothea, as a woman, might  not  be  capable  of  such  learning;  Dorothea
resents such talk, and tries to ignore it.
Chapter 8:
      Sir James, in spite of Dorothea's engagement, begins to like  visiting
the Grange, her home, once again; he is stung by her rejection,  and  cannot
understand her attraction to Casaubon at  all.  He  goes  to  speak  to  Mr.
Cadwallader, a great friend, to clear his mind about this issue.  Sir  James
cannot help his great pride, but at least he is very civil to Dorothea,  and
does not let his distaste for her marriage interfere with his plans to  make
the cottages she proposed.
Chapter 9:
      Dorothea gets her new home, Lowick, ready for her impending  residence
there. The house is rather big, but not particularly  cheery;  in  fact,  it
rather  resembles  Casaubon  in  its  looks.  Dorothea,  however,  finds  it
agreeable, as she finds Casaubon also; but, chances are, she will soon  find
that she is mistaken, as the newness and novelty of  this  entire  situation
wears off. Celia herself dislikes anything that  Dorothea  accepts,  and  as
such, dislikes Lowick and Casaubon equally.
      Casaubon introduces  the  party  to  Will  Ladislaw,  his  cousin;  he
dislikes Dorothea immediately, because of  the  way  she  speaks  poorly  of
herself before others, and because  she  is  marrying  his  sour,  humorless
cousin. Will is young, rather handsome, and an  artist  as  well;  he  seems
much better suited to Dorothea, though  a  better  match  than  Casaubon  is
certainly not hard to find. Ladislaw is without occupation, so Casaubon  is,
reluctantly, providing for him; but Casaubon and his cousin seem not to  get
along at all.
Chapter 10:
      Ladislaw leaves suddenly for Europe; he has a view of  life  and  work
completely opposed to Casaubon's, and is much more  impulsive  and  full  of
passion than his dull cousin. Casaubon, to his credit, does try to  be  more
joyful about his marriage, and to understand his young  bride  better;  but,
he is fundamentally unsuited to this relationship, and cannot  make  himself
more amenable to it. They decide  to  go  to  Rome  on  their  honeymoon,  a
decision  partially  motivated  by  Casaubon's  single-minded   pursuit   of
information, to the detriment of his fragile relationship with Dorothea.
      Casaubon and Dorothea attend a local dinner party, where many  of  the
prominent citizens of the town are discussing their displeasure at  Casaubon
and Dorothea's marriage, and the arrival of the new  doctor,  Lydgate.  Many
of the townspeople prove completely pedestrian  in  their  opinions,  liking
decorative, weak-willed women,  and  disapproving  of  any  experimentation,
especially relating to medicine. These  are  people  who  like  routine  and
tradition, and will be hard-pressed to accept any progress or any  outsiders
in their community.
Chapter 11:
      Lydgate, the new doctor, is already enamoured of Rosamond  Vincy,  the
mayor's daughter. She is attractive and affable, but he is not  economically
set  for  marriage  yet.  Lydgate  believes  that  women  should  be  quiet,
obedient, and beautiful; he is not looking for  a  partner,  but  rather  an
adornment, for a wife. Rosamond seems determined to escape from the  tangled
web of Middlemarch marriages, in which case Lydgate  seems  suited  to  her.
Rosamond's brother, Fred Vincy, is an aimless young man who  failed  to  get
his degree at college, and seems to do very little besides  hang  about  the
house and bother his sister.
Chapter 12:
      Fred and Rosamond travel to Stone Court, the house  of  their  wealthy
uncle, Mr. Featherstone. Mrs. Waule, Mr. Featherstone's  sister,  is  there;
and though she is also well off, she tries to get even more money  from  her
brother. Mary Garth is Mr. Featherstone's  servant,  and  Fred  admires  her
very  much.  Mrs.  Waule's  visit  is  to  lobby  for  more  money  in   Mr.
Featherstone's  will,  and  she  tries  to  discredit  Fred,  of  whom   Mr.
Featherstone is very fond, by  alluding  to  rumors  about  Fred's  gambling
debts. Mr. Featherstone bothers Fred on this subject, and  Fred  insists  he
has done nothing of the  sort;  Mr.  Featherstone  continues  to  shame  and
embarrass Fred, and finally  insist  that  he  get  proof  in  writing  from
Bulstrode, who started this rumor, that it is indeed false.
      Mary Garth is plain and amiable, and very honest  and  kind.  Rosamond
continues to be supremely interested in Lydgate, whom Mary has met and  does
not think terribly highly of. Lydgate and  Rosamond  finally  meet,  and  it
seems like their romance has already been destined to occur.
Chapter 13:
      Mr. Vincy goes to see Mr. Bulstrode at the  bank  on  his  son  Fred's
behalf;  Lydgate  is  already  there  with  Bulstrode,  talking  about   the
construction of a  new  hospital  in  town.  Bulstrode  likes  Lydgate,  and
expects that he will make reforms and improve medical care in the town,  but
both are aware of the professional jealousy that will arise  from  Lydgate's
new position, if he is indeed elected as head of  the  hospital.  Bulstrode,
for some reason, wants a man named Mr.  Tyke  to  be  chaplain  of  the  new
hospital, in place of another man named Mr. Farebrother.
Mr. Vincy enters, and  broaches  the  subject  of  Fred  and  his  need  for
Bulstrode's reassurances; Mr.  Bulstrode  does  not  want  to  be  involved.
Bulstrode criticizes Fred's upbringing and personal  qualities,  making  the
matter more personal than it needs to be. This matter is complicated by  the
fact that Bulstrode and Vincy are brothers-in-law, and Vincy believes it  is
Bulstrode's family obligation to comply, though Bulstrode does not.
Chapter 14:
      Bulstrode writes out a letter to the effect that Fred has not borrowed
money on his  inheritance  from  Featherstone,  because  his  wife  Harriet,
Fred's aunt, wishes him to do so. In fact, Fred is in  debt,  and  is  given
some money by Featherstone on the spot, though it is not enough to  unburden
him. Fred is grateful, but not as grateful  as  he  could  be;  Featherstone
takes pleasure in the fact that the young man depends on him for funds,  and
uses this to threaten Fred as well. Fred tries to talk to Mary  Garth,  whom
he has feelings for, about his living and his  feelings  for  her  as  well.
Mary is realistic about his prospects, and knows that he cannot marry  until
he finds a living and a stable income.
Chapter 15:
      Eliot begins the chapter with a bit of narration about  the  scope  of
the book, and then begins to delve into Lydgate's  background.  Lydgate  was
very intelligent as a young man, and fell in love with anatomy  at  a  young
age. He is  a  hard  worker,  driven  to  succeed  in  his  field  and  make
innovations, and to help people get better rather  than  make  money,  which
seems to be the focus of many doctors of the time.
Chapter 16:
      Mr. Bulstrode's power becomes plain; as a banker, he has some  control
over those he lends money to, and he defends people in  return  for  certain
expected favors. There is a debate going on whether  Bulstrode's  choice  of
Mr. Tyke for the chaplain's position at  the  hospital  is  indeed  correct;
Lydgate, Mr. Vincy, Mr. Chichely, and  Dr.  Sprague  debate  this  question,
with Mr. Vincy firmly supporting Farebrother. Lydgate is soon able to  sneak
away and talk with Rosamond, whom he finds very refined  and  beautiful.  He
meets Farebrother, whom he also finds agreeable. Lydgate is in no  hurry  to
marry, since he has no money yet; but he will  certainly  keep  Rosamond  in
mind in the meantime. Rosamond, however, is sure that  Lydgate  is  in  love
with her; and, with little else  to  think  about,  she  sets  her  mind  on
marrying Lydgate.
Chapter 17:
      Lydgate goes to see Farebrother at home,  and  observes  his  domestic
situation. Farebrother's mother engages Lydgate in a  debate  about  changes
in religion, which Farebrother and Lydgate seem to espouse.  Farebrother  is
a man of science, like Lydgate; they get along  well,  which  makes  Lydgate
question  Bulstrode's  championing  of  Mr.   Tyke   even   more.   However,
Farebrother is knowledgeable about  Middlemarch  politics,  and  knows  that
Lydgate must vote with Bulstrode if he wants to get ahead;  Lydgate  listens
to this advice, but wants to vote with his conscience instead.
Chapter 18:
      Lydgate is compelled to vote for Farebrother, at the  expense  of  any
help from Bulstrode; he debates this  with  himself,  and  the  outcomes  of
either decision. Lydgate wants to secure Farebrother the much needed  money,
but also wants to keep in Bulstrode's  good  graces,  and  knows  that  Tyke
might be better suited to the position.  The  voting  meeting  begins,  with
Lydgate still waffling; people have their various  reasons  for  voting  for
Farebrother or for Lydgate,  and  they  all  vary  widely.  Lydgate  finally
decides upon Mr. Tyke.
Chapter 19:
      Dorothea is at last in Rome on her honeymoon,  and  Will  Ladislaw  is
there too, spotting her but not daring to approach. Will's friend,  Naumann,
is there too, is taken with her beauty and wants to paint her picture;  Will
is still under the influence of his negative first impression  of  her,  and
does not want to see her at the risk of finding  her  as  unpleasant  as  he
Chapter 20:
      Dorothea is in shock by the combination  of  lately  having  become  a
wife, being in a place so foreign to  her  as  Rome,  and  being  completely
alone, with the absence of her husband due to his  study.  Dorothea  appeals
to her husband to let her help, so that he may get  his  work  finished  and
published; in her desperation for some emotional response, she  sobs,  which
immediately makes Casaubon even more remote. Casaubon wants her support  and
affection, which she is giving him, but not in the way he wishes. They  have
a fundamental communication block, which upsets  both  of  them,  especially
since it is their honeymoon. Casaubon continues his studies, and nothing  is
Chapter 21:
      Just as Dorothea is beginning to despair again, Will Ladislaw comes to
visit her. Will is surprised to find that she is  nice,  friendly,  and  far
better than his dried-up old cousin could ever  deserve;  Will's  bad  first
impression is proven completely wrong.  They  discuss  art,  which  Dorothea
can't understand; Will admits that he has not found his calling in art,  and
Dorothea is bewildered by his ability to be at leisure all  the  time.  Will
also realizes that Dorothea holds Casaubon in unnaturally  high  regard;  he
resents this, and wants to get her to realize how she is mistaken.  Casaubon
returns home, and is not pleased by his cousin's presence. Nevertheless,  he
invites Will back, and  Dorothea  senses  that  she  has  found  a  valuable
Chapter 22:
      Will impresses Dorothea with the way he is able to listen to  Casaubon
and make him feel at ease; Will is also  able  to  engage  Dorothea  in  the
conversation, and draw some statements out of her that make  Casaubon  proud
of his well-spoken wife. Will gets Casaubon to agree to  bring  Dorothea  to
the studio; once there, Naumann gets Casaubon to sit as a model  for  Thomas
Aquinas, which allows  Naumann  to  also  paint  Dorothea  without  Casaubon
feeling slighted. Will goes to visit Dorothea later, when  Casaubon  is  not
at home; they speak, and Will tells her plainly that she will not  be  happy
with Casaubon, and that her piety is completely unnatural.
Chapter 23:
      Fred still has a debt to pay, and the money he got  from  Featherstone
will not cover the balance; even worse, his dear Mary's brother, Caleb,  co-
signed on Fred's debt and will be held  responsible  if  he  defaults.  Fred
decides  to  make  money  to  pay  his  debt  by  speculating   on   horses;
unfortunately, he buys a horse that lames itself in a stable  accident,  and
has even less money with which to pay his debt. Fred is a fool to  risk  all
that he has on such an uncertain plan; but the boy is  slow  to  learn,  and
cannot help himself.
Chapter 24:
      Fred finally feels very sorry about his debt, and the fact that he has
only fifty pounds and five days to  pay  up.  Fred  is  most  sorry  because
Mary's father is going to have to pay, and he  feels  this  will  jeopardize
his chances with Mary. Fred goes  to  the  Garth  household  to  tell  Caleb
Garth, whose wife is very fond of Fred, but probably will not  be  after  he
tells her. Mrs.  Garth  is  teaching  her  children  their  lessons  in  the
kitchen, and Fred sits down and tells her  and  Mr.  Garth  the  news.  Mrs.
Garth will have to give up the money she was  saving  to  send  her  son  to
school;  Fred   feels   terrible,   as   he   should,   knowing   that   his
irresponsibility is costing them so much. Mr. Garth knows then that  he  was
a fool to trust Fred, and they believe that  there  is  little  chance  Mary
will regard him so highly when she finds out.
Chapter 25:
      Fred goes to Stone Court to tell Mary the news; he is not as repentant
as  he  should  be,  and  wants  comforting  words  from  Mary   about   his
irresponsibility. He still doesn't see the entire magnitude of what he  did;
he tries to rationalize things with his good  intentions,  and  by  claiming
that he is not so bad, compared to what other people do. Mary is upset,  and
says that she cannot trust him, and that he should be more  sorry  for  what
he did. Caleb comes later, to ask for whatever she has saved up; Mary  gives
it gladly. Caleb Garth is worried that his daughter has some feelings for
Chapter 26:
      Fred is foolish enough to go back in search of his old horse, and ends
up with an even worse one. He soon becomes  ill,  and  after  their  regular
doctor tries to help and fails, Lydgate  is  brought  in  and  says  he  has
scarlet fever. Mr. and Mrs. Vincy get angry at  their  regular  doctor,  Mr.
Wrench, for failing to catch such a serious illness; Mr. Wrench is  in  turn
angry at Lydgate for interfering,  and  very  uncivil  to  the  new  doctor.
Rumors spread about the confrontation between Mr.  Wrench  and  the  Vincys,
and between Mr. Wrench and Lydgate. Various  opinions  and  stories  surface
about the alleged scuffles,  leaving  everyone  worse  off  as  subjects  of
untrue gossip.
Chapter 27:
      Mrs. Vincy becomes completely consumed by Fred and his illness, to  an
unhealthy extent; Lydgate is around the house frequently, and  sees  a  good
bit of Rosamond as well. Lydgate's attentions to Rosamond are  causing  some
resentment in the neighborhood, as rivals for her affection  become  jealous
of him; Rosamond continues to believe that Lydgate is in love with  her  and
intends marriage, while Lydgate merely enjoys her pleasant company.  At  the
end of the chapter, Lydgate receives a summons from Sir James  Chettam,  who
he has not attended to before.
Chapter 28:
      Dorothea arrives at Lowick with her husband in  January,  after  their
honeymoon. Dorothea, who had been so dejected during their honeymoon,  feels
revived by being home, in  familiar  surroundings.  However,  she  is  still
haunted by the knowledge that her vision of  marriage  is  yet  unfulfilled,
and the depressing atmosphere of Lowick. Her sister Celia  finally  arrives,
brightening up the place with her presence;  Celia  tells  Dorothea  of  her
engagement to Sir James, and Dorothea is very happy for her sister.
Chapter 29:
      Mr. Casaubon's beliefs about marriage are  reiterated;  he  wanted  to
marry someone young and impressionable, so that she would  be  pleasant  and
able to help him with his work and be taught by him. He also  believed  that
marriage would make him happy for the first time; but marriage  could  never
instantly change his disposition, and his  hopes  for  his  union  were  too
high, as were Dorothea's. Casaubon and Dorothea have a bit  of  a  tiff,  as
Casaubon tells her that he does not want Ladislaw  to  visit,  and  Dorothea
resents the condescending and mean-natured tone he takes with her.  Casaubon
is weakened, and Dorothea strengthened by this altercation;  it  seems  like
this relationship is going to make her stronger, though it  will  definitely
not work out.
Chapter 30:
      Lydgate  comes  to  check  on  Casaubon,  and  cannot  find   anything
immediately wrong; he asks that Casaubon give up his studies  for  the  time
being, and focus on leisurely pursuits.  Dorothea  is  informed  as  to  the
details of whatever ails Casaubon; Lydgate says that he must  be  kept  from
any stresses, or else his condition might be aggravated, and  his  life  cut
short. Dorothea is sad, but not sure exactly  what  to  think;  Ladislaw  is
supposed to be arriving there in a few days, and  she  asks  Mr.  Brooke  to
write Ladislaw a letter saying that Casaubon is ill, and not to  visit.  Mr.
Brooke does write a letter, but  the  contents  are  nothing  like  Dorothea
intends; Mr. Brooke invites Ladislaw, and also proposes that he  might  work
for Mr. Brooke's newspaper, since Mr. Brooke has  been  favorably  impressed
with what he has heard.
Chapter 31:
      Lydgate and Rosamond become closer, as Lydgate is about to  be  sucked
into a relationship which he is unprepared for  because  of  the  nature  of
Middlemarch  society.  Mrs.  Bulstrode  and  Mrs.  Plymdale   gossip   about
Rosamond's pride, and how Lydgate might suit her; Mrs. Plymdale thinks  that
the match would be unwise for Lydgate, since Rosamond has expensive  habits,
and Mrs. Bulstrode goes to speak to  Rosamond  out  of  concern.  When  Mrs.
Bulstrode sees Rosamond and her fine garments, she knows that Mrs.  Plymdale
was at least right about that one  point.  Mrs.  Bulstrode  speaks  to  her,
telling her that if she marries Lydgate, she will not be able  to  keep  her
expensive habits; Rosamond admits that he has made no offer of  marriage  to
her, and seems intent  on  ignoring  her  aunt's  good  advice.  Then,  Mrs.
Bulstrode approaches Lydgate, and tells him that he  should  not  press  his
advantages as  a  romantic-seeming  outsider  with  the  Middlemarch  girls;
Lydgate sees that others believe him to be engaged to  Rosamond,  and  wants
to avoid marriage at all costs.
      However, Lydgate ends up going by the house after an  absence  of  two
weeks, to deliver bad news about Mr. Featherstone's health;  Rosamond  cries
when she sees him again, and this display of affection  touches  him  enough
to abandon his plans and reasonable thinking, and propose to  her.  Rosamond
accepts, and they are engaged.
Chapter 32:
      Mr. Featherstone's relatives begin to pop  out  and  appear,  and  all
expect that he will die soon, and will leave them some bit of  money,  since
he is their rich relation. They all expect that he should do  something  for
them, that he owes them money  because  they  are  relatives;  they  do  not
consider that they  have  done  nothing  for  him,  but  are  like  vultures
circling, waiting to pick up his money once he dies.
      Mr. Featherstone wants to see none of the greedy, crowding  relatives;
Mary Garth has to try and turn them away, but doesn't  have  the  heart  for
the task. Mrs. Vincy hovers around, sure that Fred will receive most of  the
property and money anyway, as Featherstone regards and treats them  so  much
better than his other relatives. Trumbull, an auctioneer  and  assistant  to
Featherstone in business matters,  is  the  other  person  who  Featherstone
shows any regard for; on the basis of behavior alone,  it  would  seem  that
these people would receive most from Featherstone's will.  Mary  Garth  must
put up with the various visitors and their varying degrees of rudeness,  but
manages to stay calm and make the constant  crush  of  daytime  visitors  as
comfortable as she can.
Chapter 33:
      Mary Garth is sitting with Mr. Featherstone at night, as  she  usually
does, reflecting on the events of the day, and sitting in silence,  for  the
most  part.  She  figures  that  the  issue  of  Featherstone's  will  shall
disappoint everyone involved. Mr. Featherstone suddenly tells  her  to  open
the chest with his will in it, and burn one  of  them;  Mary  refuses,  even
when she is offered a sizeable amount of money to do so. Mary is  scared  of
his sudden energy, and does not think that he is  in  his  right  mind;  Mr.
Featherstone drifts off to sleep, and by the morning he is dead.
Chapter 34:
      Mr. Featherstone is finally buried, with many relatives  whom  he  did
not like there; the  occasion  is  a  rather  expensive  one,  for  although
Featherstone was miserly in many respects, he liked to show  off  his  money
when it could impress many  people.  Dorothea  and  Celia,  along  with  Sir
James, watch the proceedings from their house, as he is being buried at  the
church that is on Casaubon's land. Will  Ladislaw  appears  again,  and  Mr.
Brooke reveals that Will is his guest, and  has  brought  the  picture  that
Casaubon sat for in Rome. Casaubon is shocked  and  upset,  and  Mr.  Brooke
explains that he wrote to Ladislaw when Casaubon was ill, not Dorothea;  Mr.
Brooke continues to speak of his fondness for Will,  as  Casaubon  tries  to
hide his displeasure, and Dorothea becomes alarmed.
Chapter 35:
      The funeral is over, and people are waiting anxiously for the will  to
be read and the sums they are  to  receive  to  be  announced.  There  is  a
stranger among them, though, who makes them nervous; his name is Rig, he  is
in his early 30's, and no one is quite sure of who he is or where  he  comes
from. A lawyer is there, named Standout, who went through the will with  two
witnesses; he reads through the two wills that Featherstone left,  regarding
the last one as the most  correct.  Mary  Garth  is  nervous,  and  somewhat
excited, since her refusal to burn one of the  documents  has  led  to  this
outcome. The first leaves Fred a good bit of money, and gives  something  to
most of the relatives; the second, which  is  considered  the  correct  one,
gives everything to Mr. Rig, who doesn't seem surprised.
      Upon hearing this, many of the relatives start complaining  about  the
expense of traveling to the funeral, and how they should not  have  come  if
they were to get nothing. Mrs. Vincy cries, and Fred seems  upset  as  well,
to have a large bequest announced, and then taken back. No  one  seems  very
fond of Mr. Rig, who takes the name Featherstone as requested in  the  will.
But, it seems that all the greedy relatives, and the expectant Vincys,  have
all rotten their just desserts; the Garths could have  been  better  served,
but overall, people do get exactly what they deserve.
Chapter 36:
      Fred is sorely disappointed with not getting any  money;  he  expected
that he would get a large amount, and would not have to work. Now,  he  will
likely have to join the clergy, or find some form of work; he  will  finally
have to stop being idle,  as  his  father  will  tolerate  his  idleness  no
longer. Mr. Vincy  also  says  that  Rosamond  will  have  to  postpone  her
marriage, until the family are in a better position  to  pay  for  it;  Mrs.
Vincy, Fred, and Rosamond are all spendthrifts,  expecting  that  the  money
they need will somehow drop into their laps. Rosamond  takes  the  issue  up
with her father, and he caves in; Mr. Vincy doesn't have the heart to  stand
up to his daughter, though she clearly needs some reasonable advice  on  the
subject of her marriage.
      It seems that only Mrs. Bulstrode  knows  better  on  the  subject  of
Rosamond and Lydgate's engagement; she knows how difficult it  will  be  for
Rosamond to live on little money, and how extravagant she is,  and  how  ill
prepared Lydgate is to live with a flighty girl like her.  However,  no  one
will listen to her; her advice, though it will prove correct, is unheeded.
      Rosamond tells Lydgate that her father wishes  their  marriage  to  be
postponed; Rosamond says that she refused, not  so  much  out  of  love  for
Lydgate, but out of stubbornness. Lydgate urges her  that  they  be  married
soon; Rosamond agrees to six weeks, and  manages  to  convince  her  father.
Lydgate soon starts buying new things for the house, though  he  has  little
money to do so; already, he  is  spending  beyond  his  means,  a  dangerous
habit. They will go to his uncle's estate  for  their  honeymoon;  he  is  a
baronet, and wealthy, which boosts Lydgate's hopes for a better position.
Chapter 37:
      Middlemarch politics assert themselves once again, in the  rivalry  of
the two papers of the region. It is revealed that Mr. Brooke has bought  one
of the papers, The Pioneer, and has inserted his unorthodox political  views
into it. Will Ladislaw has been hired to head the paper, and Mr.  Brooke  is
very pleased with his work, and his coverage of  the  Middlemarch  political
situation. Casaubon continues to resent Will,  and  Will  grows  more  angry
that Casaubon married someone as young and naive as Dorothea,  dragging  her
down into Casaubon's dull, dry  world  of  academia.  Will's  affection  for
Dorothea continues to grow, and Dorothea becomes more and more fond of  Will
in return.
      Will goes to Lowick to sketch; luckily for him, it begins to rain, and
when he takes refuge in the house, he finds  only  Dorothea  at  home.  They
begin to speak as they did in Rome, very happy to be alone in  each  other's
company; Dorothea becomes more aware of her  husband's  failings,  but  also
learns of his generosity toward Will's family. Will tells Dorothea  that  he
has a job at Mr. Brooke's paper, if he wants it;  Dorothea  says  she  would
like him to stay in the neighbourhood very  much,  but  then  realises  that
Casaubon would disagree with her.
      Dorothea tells Casaubon, who of course is not in the least supportive.
Casaubon writes Will a letter, telling him he should not take the  position,
nor should he call at the house any longer. Casaubon's letter  seems  to  be
motivated not out of embarrassment for having a  relative  of  lower  status
nearby, but out of some jealousy perhaps for his friendship  with  Dorothea.
Dorothea becomes consumed by the case of Will's grandmother, and her  unfair
disinheritance when she married; she believes that Will is owed a good  part
of what Casaubon has because  his  family  was  impoverished  unfairly,  and
wants to bring that up to Casaubon, though it will upset him.
      Casaubon is not suspicious that Dorothea is being influenced by  Will,
but he thinks that it might happen; his insecurity and jealousy lead him  to
contrive secret hindrances for Will. He dislikes his cousin more than  ever,
because he imagines that Dorothea would like Will more than she likes him.
Chapter 38:
      Mr. Brooke is making enemies through his advocacy for the Whig  party,
when Middlemarch is a predominantly conservative, Tory  area.  Bulstrode  is
allied with Brooke  politically,  but  many  of  the  neighbors  disapprove,
including Sir James. Sir James, Mrs. Cadwallader, and others  are  gossiping
about Brooke and Will Ladislaw, Brooke's need to take care  of  his  parish,
and other subjects. Brooke comes by, in the middle of being discussed;  they
inquire about the state of his tenants, attacks that have been made on  him,
      Brooke, however, does not wish to enter into any arguments, or  listen
to see if they do have any valid points to make amid  the  rumors  they  are
discussing. Brooke runs out quickly, and  the  others  wish  that  maybe  he
could see if he was doing something wrong, and act on that.
Chapter 39:
      Sir  James  becomes  more  judicious  in  his  appraisal  of  Brooke's
situation, and decides that Brooke needs to invest in improvements  for  his
tenants  if  he  wants  to  evade  the  scathing  criticisms  of  the  other
Middlemarch paper, The Trumpet. Dorothea  is  the  key  to  convincing  him,
figures Sir James, since she is a great advocate for improvements.  Dorothea
goes to visit her uncle, and Will Ladislaw turns out to be there; she  tells
her uncle that Sir James told her that Tipton was to  be  managed  by  Caleb
Garth, and improvements made. Dorothea is very passionate that  this  should
be done; however, her uncle will not commit. She  and  Will  find  a  moment
alone, to explain a bit more of themselves; Will  seems  to  be  falling  in
love with her, as their relationship becomes stronger.
Mr. Brooke goes to visit a tenant whose son has been  poaching  on  Brooke's
land, and is chastised by the tenant. Brooke, who liked to fancy  himself  a
favorite of his tenants, is shocked; also, the house looks  worse  now  that
Dorothea has made her criticisms. It looks like Mr.  Brooke  will  give  in,
and turn the management of the estate over to Mr. Garth after all.
Chapter 40:
      Focus moves to the Garths, who are  gathered  at  the  table,  reading
letters. Mary is looking for another position, and has  decided  to  take  a
place at a school in York, though it does not please her,  or  her  parents,
too well. However, Mr. Garth reads a letter from Sir  James  that  asks  him
whether Mr. Garth would start  managing  Freshitt,  and  mentions  that  Mr.
Brooke might want his services again as well. This would double the  Garths'
income, and means that Mary can stay at home; but Mr.  Garth  will  need  an
assistant, and none of his sons are in the position  to  do  so.  The  whole
family is happy, Caleb Garth most of all because he will be able to do  good
work to help even more people.
      Mr. Farebrother comes to visit; he has some interest  in  Mary  Garth,
and also likes to visit and spend time with the family. He has been  talking
to Fred Vincy, and informs them of Fred's situation, telling  them  Fred  is
going back to study, and still cannot pay off his debt to them.
Chapter 41:
      It is not long since Mr. Rigg Featherstone has gained  the  estate  of
Stone Court, and already there is word that he wishes to sell the  place  to
Mr. Bulstrode. It is revealed that Mr. Rigg is  Featherstone's  illegitimate
child, who was brought up  far  away  from  Middlemarch,  with  very  little
money. Someone named John Raffles is there, his  mother's  new  husband;  he
wants money to start a tobacco shop from Mr. Rigg's new-found fortune.  Rigg
refuses, because Raffles, he alleges, was very cruel  to  him  as  a  child,
took money from his mother, and left them poor and miserable. He  says  that
he will continue to send his mother an allowance, but will give Mr.  Raffles
nothing. Rigg gives him money to get back home, and  some  liquor,  but  not
before  Mr.  Raffles  makes  use  of  an  important  paper,  signed  by  Mr.
Bulstrode, to keep his flask from falling apart.
Chapter 42:
      Lydgate is at least back from his  honeymoon  with  Rosamond,  and  is
immediately called to Casaubon, whose health seems to be getting  worse.  He
is also haunted by the idea that he has never  been  given  credit  for  his
studies, and that the Key to All Mythologies will never be finished;  he  is
starting to admit that he has failed in his life-long project.  Casaubon  is
disappointed also with Dorothea; she does all her duties as a wife,  but  he
suspects that she is critical of him  secretly,  and  this  disturbs  him  a
great deal.
      Casaubon's vitriol against  Will,  and  against  Dorothea's  suspected
affection for Will, takes him over; he concedes to write a passage into  his
will  "protecting"  Dorothea  from  marrying  eager,  potentially  deceptive
suitors like Will. Lydgate finally arrives, and Casaubon  asks  that  he  be
told exactly what his condition is. Lydgate tells him that he  has  a  heart
ailment, but cannot be sure that it will cut his life  short,  or  have  any
immediate effect. Lydgate goes once Casaubon has heard enough, and  Dorothea
comes out to fetch him; he withdraws from her, and soon  she  becomes  angry
at him for treating her so. Dorothea realizes that she has  reduced  herself
in order to try and please him, but he seems to be satisfied  with  nothing;
she is tired of not being herself, and resents him  greatly.  However,  when
he says that he needs her help, she forgets her  anger,  and  goes  to  join
Chapter 43:
      Dorothea decides to seek out Lydgate, and ask him if there has been  a
serious change in her husband's condition,  or  else  why  he  has  been  so
troubled since Lydgate's visit. She goes to his house,  and  finds  Rosamond
there; but  Will  is  also  there,  which  makes  Dorothea  panic,  and  she
immediately leaves  to  find  Lydgate  at  his  hospital.  Will  fears  that
Dorothea will think badly of him because she has found him  in  the  company
of another woman, and not totally devoted to her; but she acted the way  she
did because she likes him, and knows that her  husband  doesn't  approve  of
the friendship, and that it is some kind of betrayal as well.
Rosamond begins to get ideas about perhaps  attracting  other  admirers,  in
order to appease her vanity, and allay her fears  about  Lydgate's  fondness
for her growing weaker. It seems like she might try to  win  Mr.  Ladislaw's
affections, and seems a little jealous that he likes  Dorothea  rather  than
her. She also seems to suspect that maybe her husband has a  soft  spot  for
Dorothea, and that might have been part of the reason she was searching  for
Chapter 44:
      Dorothea finally talks to Lydgate, and Lydgate tells her that Casaubon
now knows about his condition, and he  is  probably  upset  by  it.  Lydgate
turns her attention to the new hospital; Bulstrode has been one of  the  few
supporting it, and so many are against the  hospital  because  they  do  not
like Bulstrode. Dorothea says that she would like to do something  for  such
a good cause, and pledges money from her yearly allowance;  she  is  happier
that she  is  able  to  make  a  significant  contribution,  but  still  her
husband's illness and behavior bother her.
Chapter 45:
      Lydgate's practice seems to be at the mercy  of  rumor,  hearsay,  and
general sentiment; people go to him because they have heard  about  "miracle
cures" that he has done,  or  stay  away  because  they  have  heard  he  is
newfangled,  and  they  like  their  present  practitioner  just  fine.  The
backward  Middlemarch  way  of  doing  and  deciding  has  helped  Lydgate's
reputation and practice to spread, but opinion could turn against  him  just
as rapidly, and dry up his practice. Lydgate is unlucky enough to come  into
Middlemarch at a  time  when  old  ways  are  becoming  contested  in  other
regions, and reforms have started to creep into Middlemarch as well;  a  few
believe that maybe his way is best, but others have been  roused  to  defend
the old, and are more militant about this point than usual. Lydgate is  also
disliked because  he  has  taken  on  cases  from  other  doctors,  given  a
different diagnosis, and been able to cure them; this wounds the  vanity  of
the old-guard doctors, and increases their personal dislike for Lydgate.
      Mr. Bulstrode is on the side of progress,  with  Lydgate;  this  means
that many prominent,  wealthy  citizens,  who  dislike  both  Bulstrode  and
innovation, refuse to donate to the new hospital. Lydgate  is  becoming  too
closely tied to  the  widely  disliked  Bulstrode  that  his  reputation  is
beginning to suffer; Farebrother tells him so, and  hopefully  Lydgate  will
distance himself some. Farebrother also warns  Lydgate  against  having  too
many debts.
      Lydgate thinks  that  he  might  be  among  the  great  innovators  of
medicine, and this necessitates making  enemies,  and  having  opinion  turn
against you; in this, he is a little conceited, since there  is  no  way  he
can claim an advance as great as those of his hero,  Vesalius.  It  is  fine
for Lydgate to try and change the outdated medical practice around him;  but
his egotism and his visions of greatness could easily hamper  his  progress,
and get him into even more trouble with his peers and patients.
Chapter 46:
      An issue of reform is coming before Parliament, which  Will  supports,
and Brooke decides to as well. Will seems to have a  good  deal  of  insight
into British  national  politics,  as  he  can  make  sense  of  issues  and
candidates, and  make  a  convincing  case  for  his  opinion.  Mr.  Brooke,
however, doesn't seem to be  able  to  put  his  thoughts  in  a  convincing
argument; he is rather flippant in setting out his opinion,  and  is  easily
swayed by Ladislaw's better-formed opinions. Will is not  winning  any  fans
because of his unconventional behavior and views,  as  most  people  dislike
his speeches and his writing because they are different.
      Will wants Mr. Brooke to be elected to Parliament; however,  with  the
uncomplimentary way  in  which  Mr.  Brooke  is  regarded  in  much  of  the
neighborhood, this  is  unlikely.  Will  is  perhaps  a  bit  idealistic  in
believing that Mr. Brooke could actually  win;  he  might  assume  that  the
citizens of Middlemarch are more sensible than they  really  are,  in  which
case his plans would fail. Lydgate makes some  points  about  area  politics
that perhaps he should take into account regarding his  own  situation;  the
two argue for a bit about  these  political  issues,  then  Ladislaw  leaves
after they have tried to patch things up.
Chapter 47:
      Will, who cares little what people think, stops to  consider  how  his
employment with Mr. Brooke, and his involvement with Mr. Brooke's  politics,
might be hindering him and making him look foolish. Even more  important  is
whether he really is a fool for  following  along  with  Brooke;  Will  does
think that the relation has cost him some of his dignity and  individuality.
All the same, he wants to stay in Middlemarch, at that  position,  in  order
to be near Dorothea; but he considers whether he is a  fool  with  her  too,
and his hopeless devotion will amount to nothing if he gains no  proof  that
she shares his affection.
      Will has also become aware of what his cousin Casaubon thinks  of  him
being friends with Dorothea; he knows that Casaubon might  think  that  Will
means dishonor in his interest in  her,  but  Will  really  does  not.  Will
decides to go to Lowick church to see  her,  aware  that  Casaubon  will  be
upset. However, his doubt is only reinforced; Dorothea  shows  no  happiness
to see him, instead seeming pained; Will is saddened by  the  whole  affair,
and seems close to calling it quits on the whole affair.
Chapter 48:
      Dorothea is actually happy that Will showed up at church,  and  wishes
for his company, since she is often alone at home. Dorothea is not  allowing
her husband's disapproval to stifle her feelings for Will,  though  it  will
be difficult for her to see him. Casaubon is, all of  a  sudden,  requesting
Dorothea's help with his studies, and being kinder to her; perhaps  this  is
a result of his talk with Lydgate, and he wants to get  his  work  in  order
finally, and be on better terms with his wife, in  case  he  dies  suddenly.
However, Casaubon next asks her if she will follow his wishes for her  after
he dies, whenever that is; Dorothea has to consider, since she is  reluctant
to promise to do something, when she does not know what it is. She  secretly
suspects that it may  have  something  to  do  with  Will,  but  consciously
considers that it has to do with finishing Casaubon's work, which  she  does
not want to devote years to.
However, before she can make an answer, Casaubon dies. Dorothea is at  first
in denial, and tells Lydgate everything, and to tell her  husband  that  she
has an answer. It might be a good thing for her that she does  not  have  to
hold herself to any answer she made;  but  she  still  does  not  know  what
Casaubon's wish was.
Chapter 49:
      Sir James and Mr. Brooke are  supposedly  discussing  Casaubon's  last
wish; they decide that whatever was  in  the  will  should  be  hidden  from
Dorothea until she is strong enough to  hear  of  it,  and  until  then  she
should be with her sister and her new baby. Sir James wants  Will  sent  out
of the country, which means that he had  something  to  do  with  Casaubon's
last wish; Mr. Brooke refuses to act so hastily, since Will  has  done  very
good work for him. They reveal that Casaubon added a codicil  to  his  will,
saying that if Dorothea marries Will, she will forfeit the  land  and  money
that Casaubon has left to her. The whole thing looks very bad, as  if  there
was something sordid going on between Will and Dorothea. Sir James  and  Mr.
Brooke come to the conclusion that if they sent Will  away,  it  would  make
the situation look worse, and that they could not  make  him  go  unless  he
wanted to. Sir James is bent upon protecting Dorothea  now  however,  as  he
could not do with her first marriage; she will be sent to Freshitt  to  live
with Sir James and her sister for a while, and then  more  will  be  decided
Chapter 50:
      Dorothea is at Freshitt, but not a  week  has  passed  before  she  is
interested in the will, and what she will do with  Lowick.  She  insists  on
going to Lowick, to look after the papers; after Mr. Brooke  tells  her  she
cannot, Celia finally tells her about the codicil, and tries to soothe  her.
Dorothea realizes how her life is changing, and wants to be with  Will  even
      Dorothea still has the problem of what to  do  with  Lowick,  and  the
vacant position at the church; she thinks of giving  it  to  Mr.  Tyke,  but
Lydgate recommends Farebrother, and says to ask Will  about  his  character.
Dorothea decides to give him a try, and wonders how Will is  faring  through
all of this.
Chapter 51:
      Will is upset, because Mr. Brooke is no longer  inviting  him  to  the
Grange, and he feels that maybe he is  being  avoided  out  of  concern  for
Dorothea. Still, he has heard nothing about  the  will  yet.  Will  believes
that  he  and  Dorothea  are  divided  forever;  still,  he   cannot   leave
Middlemarch, because he needs to help Mr. Brooke get ready  for  the  coming
election. Mr. Brooke is running for the Independent party, and needs  Will's
help if he is able to have a chance.
      However, Mr. Brooke's main speech goes  terribly;  he  is  mocked  and
egged, hung in effigy, and is disgusted so much by the whole thing  that  he
quits the election. He also decides to quit the paper too,  and  urges  Will
to do the same. However, Will has been  thinking  on  his  future;  he  will
become a political writer, raise himself  up,  if  he  knows  that  Dorothea
would marry him after he achieved these things.  He  decides  to  seek  some
sign from her, and in the meantime, stay at the  paper.  He  has  some  idea
that Mr. Brooke and others are trying to  get  rid  of  him  for  Dorothea's
sake, but will not go unless she doesn't care for him.
Chapter 52:
      Farebrother finds out that  Dorothea  has  given  him  the  living  at
Lowick; he is glad since this will increase his income, and  give  him  more
freedom in his living. His sister will now be allowed to marry, as they  can
afford a dowry, and Farebrother too can afford to have a wife. However,  the
only woman he wants to marry is Mary Garth; and  Fred  in  newly  back  from
finishing college, and wants  nothing  more  than  for  Mary  to  love  him.
Farebrother, as Fred's confidant in this situation, does a very good job  of
being impartial, giving fair advice without the prejudice of his own  heart.
However, it pains Farebrother that the only woman he would like to marry  is
marked for someone else, who is less stable and responsible than he.
      Fred thinks that he might have to go into the  clergy,  since  he  can
think of no other profession  to  join.  However,  he  knows  that  Mary  is
against this; so, he recruits Farebrother to go and speak to her  about  all
of this, so that he might know what he  should  do.  Farebrother  does,  and
speaks to her plainly, and fairly; Mary says that it would be wrong of  Fred
to be in the clergy, but she would marry him  if  he  found  another  stable
profession. Mary says that she will remain single for Fred, and  loves  only
him; Farebrother's hopes are finally dashed, of which Mary is sorry,  though
she has told the truth of her heart.
Chapter 53:
      Stone Court has finally been transferred  to  Bulstrode,  Rigg  having
relieved himself of the estate and grounds. Bulstrode is  not  pleased  that
Farebrother, rather than Tyke, is the new preacher at  Lowick,  but  can  do
nothing about it. Rigg's fate is not at Middlemarch, and so he departs  with
little ceremony. Raffles comes to Stone Court,  looking  for  Bulstrode,  an
old acquaintance; he found out that Bulstrode took his stepson Rigg's  place
at Stone court by the crumpled paper he took, and so  has  sought  Bulstrode
out there. Bulstrode is displeased to see Raffles, and doesn't  want  anyone
to know that he is there, or the real purpose why.
      It seems that Bulstrode and Raffles had some shady  dealings  a  while
back,  that  Bulstrode  does  not  want   discovered.   Bulstrode's   family
connections are questionable  as  well,  as  Raffles  knows;  Raffles  takes
advantage and asks Bulstrode  for  money,  on  threat  of  exposing  him  to
general knowledge. Bulstrode  pays  him  off,  and  Raffles  remembers  that
Bulstrode is related to someone named Ladislaw  whom  he  has  not  seen  in
years‹but Raffles does not  know  who  Will  is,  and  also  does  not  tell
Chapter 54:
      Dorothea is tired of staying at her sister's, having nothing to do but
stare at Celia's baby, whom Celia worships, but Dorothea  couldn't  be  more
indifferent to. She longs to get back to Lowick and  set  things  in  order;
her sister and  Sir  James  do  not  believe  she  should  go,  but  she  is
determined to, because she can stand Celia's no  longer.  Others  also  wish
that Dorothea go to live with someone, so she should not be lonely, but  she
refuses. She also refuses to finish Casaubon's work, since her  interest  in
it has been obliterated by his death, and before that  his  behavior  toward
      Will finally does visit her, to see if she does have some affection to
encourage him with. Their meeting is heated,  however,  with  both  of  them
being frustrated by not being able to admit their affection, and then  their
pride clashing on the subject  of  their  division  from  each  other.  Will
leaves, with Dorothea trying to show little emotion, especially because  Sir
James is there, and disapproves of the whole relationship.
Chapter 55:
      Dorothea seems more grieved at Will's departure than she  was  at  her
husband's death‹and rightly so, for she loved Will more than she ever  loved
her husband. She goes to Celia, where the company brings up the  subject  of
marriage; it is openly suggested that Dorothea marry again, though  that  is
the last thing Dorothea wishes.  Dorothea  decides  to  turn  her  attention
toward public projects again, and will ask Caleb Garth's help  in  achieving
her goals.
Chapter 56:
      Mr. Garth and Dorothea prove to be natural allies on  the  subject  of
improvements  and  social  projects;  Mr.  Garth  is  very  impressed   With
Dorothea's determination and her great  mind,  though  Mrs.  Garth  is  more
concerned with her  feminine  virtues.  Railroads  are  being  built  across
England, and this becomes a topic in Middlemarch as the trains grow  closer.
Mr. Garth and Dorothea have nothing against them,  and  decide  to  sell  an
outer part of Dorothea's land to the railroads for a good  price.  Some  men
attack Caleb Garth and his assistant as they are doing  some  surveying  for
the railroad; they are as afraid  of  the  unknown  as  anybody,  but  Caleb
teaches them better.
      Fred enjoys helping Caleb after his assistant is  hurt;  he  asks  Mr.
Garth if perhaps he would be able to learn his business, though Caleb  Garth
believes that Fred is going to enter the clergy. Fred confides in him  about
his trepidation about entering the clergy, and his love for Mary and  wishes
to please her. Mr. Garth bears Fred no ill  will  about  the  debt  he  owes
them, nor is he upset at Fred  being  in  love  with  Mary;  he  decides  to
consult his wife about Fred becoming his helper, and about a possible  match
between Fred and Mary. Caleb decides to bring Fred into  the  business,  and
if he succeeds, then he is worthy of Mary as well. Fred tells  his  parents,
who are  disappointed  at  Fred's  waste  of  education.  They  also  lament
Rosamond's marriage, which is seeming less attractive as Lydgate  gets  into
more and more debt.
Chapter 57:
      Fred has gone to the Garths, to  consult  them  about  his  change  in
situation, and also to see if his wishes that Mary marry  him  are  accepted
by the family, and Mary as well. However, Mrs. Garth is  still  not  assured
of Fred's worth, and his character; yes, he means well,  but  he  has  never
held a stable job or proven himself to be responsible. Mrs. Garth  is  still
angry at Fred for the issue of his debt; but she cannot tell  him  directly,
so she admonishes him for being  unfeeling  of  others,  and  of  having  no
regard for Farebrother's feelings for Mary too. Fred then thinks that it  is
very possible that Mary prefers Farebrother  to  him,  and  that  Mary  will
become engaged to him; when Fred tells Mary this, Mary gets  very  upset  at
him. Mary thinks the allegation unfair, and scolds Fred  for  his  jealousy;
but, as many unpleasing qualities as Fred has,  she  cannot  help  but  love
him, and still plans to be married to Fred.
Chapter 58:
      She and Lydgate get a visit from his cousin,  Captain  Lydgate,  which
thrills Rosamond; Lydgate thinks his cousin foppish and  stupid,  and  would
rather him leave. Rosamond gets a little upset with Lydgate on  this  issue,
though Lydgate insists he is not the  only  one  who  dislikes  his  cousin.
Rosamond's baby is born premature because of an accident  on  a  horse,  and
dies soon after; she would not have been riding if she had listened  to  her
husband's advice, but stubbornly refused to listen to him. Lydgate  is  also
troubled by his growing  debt,  especially  since  it  was  incurred  buying
things which he, though perhaps not Rosamond, could have done without.
      Lydgate finally has to put up the furniture of the house  as  security
against his debt; he tries to speak to Rosamond about keeping expenses  down
and buying less expensive things, but he is too soft-hearted to really  tell
her anything. Rosamond proves to be very silly and naive,  and  even  thinks
to herself that she would not have married Lydgate if she  knew  he  was  to
have little money, and that she could not have lived as  she  was  used  to.
Rosamond decides to go and ask  her  father  for  money,  against  Lydgate's
wishes; Lydgate is saddened that this issue will come up  again  and  again,
and he will have to struggle to keep Rosamond from wasting too much money.
Chapter 59:
      Gossip  has  gone  around  the  neighborhood  about  the  codicil   in
Casaubon's will; Fred finds out about it from  the  Farebrothers,  and  then
proceeds to tell his sister. Rosamond  is  profoundly  silly,  and  decides,
unwisely, to tease Will about knowing something  he  doesn't,  then  make  a
joke of it all. Will grasps what she means to say, and gets  the  truth  out
of her; Rosamond still tries to spin the whole thing  in  lighthearted  way,
but Will is very  upset,  and  perhaps  understands  more  about  Dorothea's
Chapter 60:
      Mr.  Larcher,  one  of  the  wealthiest  people  in  Middlemarch,   is
auctioning off some furniture he does not need before he moves into  a  new,
bigger, furnished home. The event is  like  a  carnival,  with  everyone  in
Middlemarch in  attendance;  there  is  plenty  of  food  and  drink,  drink
especially so that people might make higher bids for things.  Not  everybody
buys things, but  everyone  is  there  for  this  social,  outdoor  occasion
anyway. Will is asked by Mr.  Bulstrode  to  go  and  acquire  a  particular
painting for him; Will goes, though he  is  determined  to  leave  the  town
soon. Still, Will does not want to leave without seeing Dorothea  again,  so
his departure will have to wait on that.
      A good many things are sold before the particular painting  comes  up;
Will bids for the painting, and gets it for the Bulstrodes for a decent  bit
of money. Mr.  Raffles  turns  up  there,  having  found  Will  Ladislaw  by
inquiring somehow; Will is a bit put-off by  him,  and  Mr.  Raffles  starts
speaking of Will's family. Will cannot tell what  Raffles'  intentions  are,
so he gets away, and tries to forget about him; but it  seems  that  Raffles
has some less-than-desirable stories to  tell  about  Will's  family,  which
gives Will even more of a reason to leave, before stories like  those  could
besmirch his name even more.
Chapter 61:
      Sure enough, Raffles has been back to Bulstrode's home, and refuses to
go away until Bulstrode sees him. Raffles finds Bulstrode at  the  bank,  as
he tells his wife; but he is afraid to tell his wife  much,  lest  she  lose
her confidence  in  him.  It  is  revealed  that  Bulstrode  married  Will's
maternal grandmother, after  hiding  from  her  that  her  daughter,  Will's
mother, was alive and had a son that the grandmother's riches were  supposed
to go to. However, Bulstrode prevented this  from  happening,  for  his  own
sake; and when the woman died, Bulstrode was left with the  entire  fortune,
and Will and his mother with none. Bulstrode was also  involved  in  various
questionable trades, and  these  are  the  things  that  could  destroy  his
reputation in Middlemarch. Bulstrode decides that he must  do  something  to
satisfy fate, and  slow  his  own  demise;  he  decides  to  speak  to  Will
Ladislaw, and perhaps set things straight with him.
      Will, however, is still unsettled by being approached by  Raffles.  He
is shocked to discover the tenuous relation between Bulstrode  and  himself,
and even more shocked when Bulstrode goes on to claim that he  wants  to  be
generous toward Will. Bulstrode tries to make it sound as  if  he  is  doing
something out of generosity and his natural goodness, though it is more  out
of guilt and the thought that this good deed might save him.  However,  Will
knows that Bulstrode made his money in a dishonest way, and is too proud  to
accept  money  from  him,  especially  since  that  money  is   tainted   by
Bulstrode's wrongs. Bulstrode is saddened by the judgment  on  him,  but  is
aware that Will won't tell anyone.
Chapter 62:
      Will  sends  a  letter  to  Dorothea,  saying  that  he  cannot  leave
Middlemarch until he has seen her again. He already  declared  that  he  was
leaving two months before, which is a point of  suspicion  with  Sir  James,
who guards Dorothea jealously. Dorothea, however, is  out  when  the  letter
comes, preparing for Mr. Brooke to come back to  the  Grange.  She  goes  to
Freshitt, to speak to her sister and Sir James, and Sir James tries to  take
the opportunity to dissuade Dorothea from seeing Will  again.  He  and  Mrs.
Cadwallader make a few unkind  remarks  about  Will,  which  makes  Dorothea
angry, and she goes home to find Will there, looking for  some  sketches  he
had left.
      Will tells Dorothea that he knows about Casaubon's will, and  Dorothea
tries to reassure him that it had nothing to do with her wishes.  Will  gets
angry at her about the whole thing, and says that  everything  prevents  him
from being with her. Dorothea realizes that he has acted honorably in  every
possible way, and is glad for this; but still, she is  unable  to  show  any
signs that she loves Will, and he goes without this assurance.
Chapter 63:
      Farebrother notices some talk of Lydgate's practice declining, how his
expenses much be more than he can really afford, and how he  shouldn't  have
married a girl of such fine tastes.  Farebrother  really  makes  nothing  of
this talk, until he sees Lydgate again, and notices how nervous and  strange
his friend is acting. All are invited to a dinner party at the  Vincys,  and
there seems to be some strain in Lydgate and Rosamond's marriage; she  tries
her best to ignore him, and they are not speaking at  all.  Even  Rosamond's
father is avoiding Lydgate. Farebrother,  Fred,  and  Mary  are  all  there,
which means that Fred is worried about Mary liking Farebrother;  Mrs.  Vincy
hopes that Farebrother and Mary will become  engaged,  because  she  doesn't
want such a plain girl as a daughter-in-law.
Chapter 64:
      Lydgate's money situation is certainly not  getting  any  better,  and
Rosamond is very sour and inconsiderate whenever he  mentions  cutting  down
household expenses. He begins to resent the fact that  she  will  not  learn
that they only have a limited amount of money, and cannot  spend  any  more;
she pouts like a sullen child, and acts like he has all  the  money  in  the
world, he is only too mean to spend it on her. He decides that  they  should
sell the house and the  furniture,  and  move  somewhere  cheaper  to  live;
Rosamond, of course, takes badly to this suggestion. Ned Plymdale is  to  be
married, and Ned's mother rubs in  that  Ned  has  a  lot  more  money  than
Lydgate, meaning that Rosamond was wrong to turn him down.
      Rosamond decides to handle matters herself; she makes  sure  that  the
house cannot be sold to Ned Plymdale as her husband wishes, and  writes  his
relatives for money without telling him. She  tells  her  husband  that  she
stopped the sale of the house, but not about the letters;  Lydgate  realizes
that she will be unhappy if they move, and dreads that. He decides to  apply
to his rich uncle for money, not knowing that his wife has already done  so.

Chapter 65:
      Lydgate finds out, from a letter written by  his  uncle  Godwin,  that
Rosamond wrote him for money  behind  his  back.  Lydgate  is  enraged  that
Rosamond would do such a thing, and also because he was about to go  to  see
his uncle, and may have gotten some money, rather than  a  complete  denial.
However, when Lydgate gets angry at her for deceiving him  and  playing  him
false, she does what she always does‹look pretty, shed a tear, and act  with
composure. Lydgate is weakened by this, meaning that he will  always  be  in
debt, and will allow his wife to be selfish, stupid, and vain,  even  if  it
means their financial ruin. Rosamond hits new lows of shallowness  when  she
proclaims that she would rather have died in childbirth than  have  to  give
up her house and furniture.
Chapter 66:
      Lydgate, out of desperation for money and foolish hope that some  will
come to him, begins to gamble. Usually this is  something  which  he  treats
with contempt, but in the situation he is in, he decides to go to the  Green
Dragon and play billiards. He is very good at first, winning a good  bit  of
money; Fred Vincy  and  a  friend  come  in,  and  Fred  is  surprised,  and
displeased, to find his brother-in-law there. Fred  has  been  working  hard
for six months and spending little, and figures  he  has  a  little  bit  to
spare at gambling; but when he sees Lydgate there, he thinks better  of  it.
Lydgate's luck changes and he begins to lose, and Fred  is  good  enough  to
draw him  away,  and  suggest  that  they  see  Farebrother,  who  is  right
      Farebrother is there to speak to Fred rather than  Lydgate;  he  tells
Fred not to slip back into his old ways, lest he lose Mary and his  position
with Mr. Garth. He says that he, too, loves Mary, and that  if  Fred  messes
things up this time, he is not sure to win Mary back. Farebrother  does  not
mean that he will steal Mary, he is simply warning Fred that he  should  try
to deserve her, and make her happy too. Fred takes the point, and  hopefully
will try to be more careful and more devoted to her.
Chapter 67:
      Luckily, after losing at the  Green  Dragon,  Lydgate  feels  no  more
desire to gamble. But, he  is  still  in  danger  of  losing  his  furniture
because of his debt, and decides that he must apply to Bulstrode for  money.
Lydgate delays; and soon, Bulstrode has called on him to see to some  health
concerns of his.  Bulstrode  is  feeling  unwell  probably  because  of  the
Raffles situation; but he also wants to speak of Lydgate  about  withdrawing
his support from the hospital and  moving  away.  Mrs.  Casaubon,  he  says,
would take his place as major supporter, though it would be  best  to  merge
the old Infirmary with the new hospital. Lydgate objects, because  he  knows
that the people who run the  Infirmary  dislike  him.  Then,  he  takes  the
plunge, and tells Bulstrode that he needs a  thousand  pounds  to  discharge
his debts and keep himself going; Bulstrode says that it would be better  to
declare bankruptcy, which Lydgate resents. Lydgate is  still  left  with  no
way out, and his debt to the town tradespeople is very nearly due.
Chapter 68:
      Raffles comes again to Bulstrode's, and Bulstrode must let him stay at
the house for fear that he might go into the  town  and  tell  people  about
Bulstrode's story. Bulstrode tries his best to conceal who the  man  is  and
what he is doing there from his wife, but he still causes  alarm  throughout
the household; his wife may not know exactly who Raffles is, but surely  she
has some idea that he  is  a  friend  from  Bulstrode's  less  honest  past.
Bulstrode tells Raffles that he may get money from Bulstrode as long  as  he
does not come back to Middlemarch; he takes Raffles to a nearby town,  gives
him money, and tells him to leave. He knows this might not  be  a  permanent
solution, but it is the best that Bulstrode can come up with at  this  given
      Bulstrode tries to dispose of all his businesses and  such,  including
the bank; he also gives Caleb Garth the management of  Stone  Court  in  his
absence. Caleb, in turn, sees that it could be a good opportunity  for  Fred
to learn more about the business, and gain his own  experience;  Mrs.  Garth
is a bit wary, but Caleb is decided. Fred is also allowed to live  at  Stone
Court while he manages it, and hopefully will be able to afford to wed  Mary
sometime soon.
Chapter 69:
      Mr. Garth comes to Bulstrode, to tell him that he found Raffles,  very
ill, near Stone Court; Raffles asks for a doctor, but also  told  Mr.  Garth
some things about Bulstrode. On account of these things,  Caleb  Garth  says
that he can no longer manage any of Bulstrode's property, and must  give  up
the appointment to manage Stone Court as well. However, Caleb says, he  will
not spread around anything that he heard. Bulstrode then believes  that  all
has happened with the aid of providence, and that  Raffles  might  die,  and
leave him in peace.
      Lydgate sees Raffles, and determines that though the  case  is  grave,
yet Raffles will probably survive. He decides that it must be a case  of  an
alcohol-caused disease, and that Raffles must be an  odd  charity  case  for
Bulstrode. There seems to be no escape from ruin for Lydgate; the  furniture
is about to be taken for his debts, and his relationship  with  Rosamond  is
in shreds because of it. Lydgate cannot stand  Rosamond's  repeated  crying,
and blaming him for her unhappiness. Now, he wishes he had married  a  woman
of a like mind and spirit, so that their  union  might  have  survived  this
setback; instead, he is chained to Rosamond, when the union  can  no  longer
make either of them happy.
Chapter 70:
      Bulstrode is with Raffles,  tending  to  him  according  to  Lydgate's
orders, though wishing at the same time that  Raffles  would  just  die  and
leave him in peace. Bulstrode still thinks that fate is on  his  side,  that
Raffles will die and he will be free; he is not sorry for  anything  he  has
done, but is more intent on getting away with everything. Bulstrode  decides
that maybe another "good" deed will save him; he  decides  to  give  Lydgate
the money he needs, thinking that this action  will  clear  his  conscience,
and in case Raffles says something unpalatable, Lydgate  will  be  obligated
not to repeat it.
      Raffles dies only a few days after coming  to  Bulstrode;  Lydgate  is
there when he dies, and does not think  to  say  that  perhaps  neglect  led
somehow to the man's death. Lydgate knows he is obligated to Bulstrode,  and
he is uneasy about  this  fact,  because  of  Bulstrode's  visitor  and  his
demise. However, there is nothing else that he can  do,  since  to  renounce
Bulstrode's help would mean ruin. Farebrother senses that Lydgate  is  still
in a desperate condition, though his money woes are over. Lydgate admits  as
much, though he is now in a better  position  to  continue  his  career  and
Chapter 71:
      It seems  that  Bulstrode  has  not  effectively  thwarted  ruin;  for
Bambridge has heard how Bulstrode gained his fortune, and is ready  to  tell
the lot of men at the Green Dragon.  The  story  begins  at  this  point  to
spread around Middlemarch, with mention of Will Ladislaw's  family  and  how
they were robbed by him too. When Bambridge mentions  that  the  man's  name
was Raffles, someone present remembers that the funeral of Raffles was  only
the other day, that he died at Stone Court while Bulstrode was  there.  This
looks very bad for Bulstrode; Caleb  Garth  confesses  that  he  ceased  all
business with Bulstrode last week,  which  is  taken  as  another  proof  of
Bulstrode's wrong behavior. Also, gossip about Lydgate suddenly  being  able
to pay his debt, but without aid  from  Rosamond's  family,  becomes  public
knowledge. When it is found out that he was attending on  Raffles  while  he
died, and that the money came from Bulstrode, it appears that  Lydgate  took
a bribe so that he wouldn't tell of any foul play that happened.
      All of Middlemarch is buzzing  with  the  gossip,  and  people  wonder
whether Bulstrode can be legally  stripped  of  his  money  for  gaining  it
through illegal and  immoral  means.  People  guess  that  Lydgate  poisoned
Raffles, with the money as a bribe; all kinds of things are  flying  around,
and have been spread all through Middlemarch before  Lydgate  and  Bulstrode
are even aware of it. Bulstrode is accused at a medical meeting,  and  again
tries to defend himself through his services to the  town.  But  Middlemarch
opinion is against him, and believes Lydgate to be an  accomplice.  However,
Dorothea would not see Lydgate slandered if such things proved  untrue,  and
is determined to get the truth about the whole thing.
Chapter 72:
      Dorothea is set on proving Lydgate innocent,  though  this  may  prove
difficult. Farebrother would certainly like to help, but he knows  from  the
alteration and desperation in  Lydgate's  character  of  late,  that  is  it
completely likely  that  Lydgate  did  take  the  bribe,  to  save  himself.
Farebrother does not blame Lydgate, but at the  same  time  knows  how  good
people may be tempted, and fail. Sir James is  definitely  against  Dorothea
having anything to do with this issue; but Dorothea is still  determined  to
do a good turn for Lydgate, especially after he helped her so much when  her
husband died. Dorothea is not the sort of person to allow  a  friend  to  be
wronged, unless he is really guilty of what he is accused of.
Chapter 73:
      Lydgate is now faced with the heavy task of exonerating  himself,  for
he stands accused among everyone in Middlemarch. He  wants  to  be  able  to
stand up and say that he did not take a bribe from  Bulstrode,  and  had  no
complicity in Raffles' death. However, his conscience  troubles  him,  since
he wonders  if  he  would  have  acted  differently  in  the  situation  had
Bulstrode not given him the money. Lydgate determines not to  run  from  the
town's opinion, but to bear it with all possible strength;  nothing  he  can
do can clear his name now that public opinion is  set  against  him,  so  he
will have to weather it as best he can.
Chapter 74:
      Now that Bulstrode and Lydgate have already been judged and condemned,
it is the time for the wives of Middlemarch to assess  and  judge  how  Mrs.
Bulstrode and Rosamond  might  be  to  blame  as  well.  Mrs.  Bulstrode  is
acquitted of her husband's wrongdoing, because she is  a  good  person,  and
all wrongs were done  before  they  were  even  married.  Rosamond  is  also
pardoned for the most part, because she is also one of the Vincys,  and  has
married an "interloper," as the townswomen say.
      It takes Mrs. Bulstrode a while to find out  what  has  happened  with
regard to her husband; she knows that he came home  ill  from  the  meeting,
and seems much disturbed, but Lydgate will certainly not tell her why.  Only
through visiting her friends does  she  find  out  what  has  happened;  her
brother tells her everything, and she goes home, troubled at the  knowledge.
But though a light has been shed on her husband's character, she finds  that
there is no way for her to forsake him. She determines to try and live  with
him, and eventually to forgive him, though it will certainly be a  long  and
painful time.
Chapter 75:
      It  seems  that  Rosamond  refuses  to  learn  any  lessons  from  her
situation; to appease her vanity, she starts to think of Will Ladislaw,  and
imagines that he must love her  instead  of  Dorothea,  because  she  is  so
beautiful  and  charming.  She  continues  to  blame  her  husband  for  her
unhappiness, not her rabid materialism; everything is someone else's  fault,
and she is still a creature who is perfectly innocent of blame. She  gets  a
letter from Will, saying that he will  be  paying  a  visit  sometime  soon;
Rosamond is cheered up by this, and decides to send out  invitations  for  a
dinner party. Of course, all invitations are denied, and Rosamond  is  still
ignorant as to the reason why; she goes to visit her parents, and they  tell
her the terrible news. When she goes home, she tells her  husband  that  she
has heard about everything;  she  then  reiterates  that  they  must  go  to
London, to lessen her suffering. He cannot stand to hear  this,  and  storms
out, without taking the time to correct her or explain anything.
Chapter 76:
      Dorothea wrote a letter to Lydgate, bidding him to come and visit her.
Against Mr. Brooke and Sir James' advice, she has decided to try  and  clear
Lydgate, if she can, and also to continue and support the hospital as  well.
Lydgate begins to tell her the whole truth‹they are good friends, and  often
feel that they can confide in each other. He tells her everything about  the
situation with Bulstrode, the money, and his continuing  reservations  about
having taken it. Dorothea and Lydgate also speak  of  his  troubles  in  his
marriage; Dorothea senses that there is  much  difficulty  communicating  in
their union, and decides to see Rosamond, and try to reassure her about  her
husband's worth, if she can. Dorothea would like Lydgate to stay  until  the
negative opinion of him in the town diminishes; she would also like  to  see
the hospital continue, under his  able  leadership.  Lydgate  determines  to
leave, since he has little faith that he would be able to  do  good  at  the
hospital. But, Dorothea is determined to have him stay  and  give  him  aid;
she decides to give him a thousand pounds to work at the  hospital,  and  to
see Rosamond the next day.
Chapter 77:
      Rosamond has written a letter to Will, trying to make his  visit  come
more quickly; she is still very unhappy with  everything,  and  Lydgate  has
tried to avoid her, lest he  upset  her  in  some  way.  Dorothea  has  been
thinking about Will a lot lately, as well; she still cannot help  but  think
that he might be in love  with  her,  though  she  also  defends  his  honor
fervently. Sir James and Mr. Brooke have tried to get her to see  that  Will
is lowly, and the  fact  that  his  grandparents  were  Jewish  pawnbrokers,
though they were wealthy, means that his character  is  base.  Dorothea,  of
course, will hear nothing of this; although she  is  not  sure  what  Will's
feelings toward her are, she is resolved to think the best of him.
      However, when Dorothea gets to Rosamond's, she enters to find Rosamond
crying, and Will clasping her hands. This scene upsets Dorothea,  and  seems
to be proof that Will loves Rosamond, and not her. She  rushes  out,  intent
on attending to other errands, but still very upset  and  bothered  by  what
has happened.
Chapter 78:
      Will and Rosamond are shocked at being found, and in a way that  would
look bad to Dorothea. Will realizes suddenly what  Rosamond  was  trying  to
do; Rosamond wanted it to look like Will loved her, and kept him  around  in
order to create this impression. He blows up at  her,  especially  when  she
tries her methods that usually work on Lydgate.  But  her  ways  of  quietly
manipulating fail with Will; he gets very  angry  when  she  intimates  that
Will loves her, and says that the only woman he loves,  or  could  think  of
loving, was Dorothea. Rosamond is very hurt, and her  illusions  and  vanity
are finally shattered. Will was a bit harsh  toward  her,  but  this  was  a
lesson that she desperately needed, and hopefully it will do her good.
Chapter 79:
      Lydgate puts Rosamond to bed, still not  totally  aware  of  what  has
caused her distress. Will comes over, but Rosamond has not mentioned  Will's
visit earlier in the day; Will makes no mention of  it  to  Lydgate  either.
Lydgate tells Will a bit of what has been going on, and that  his  name  has
also been mixed up in the proceedings. Will is  not  surprised,  and  almost
does not care, because he thinks that Dorothea has already given up on  him.
When Lydgate mentions Dorothea's name, he  notices  that  Will  has  a  very
peculiar reaction; he suspects that there is something between the two,  and
in this, he is correct.
Chapter 80:
      Dorothea goes over to the Farebrothers' house,  which  she  does  very
often; her visits keep her  from  being  lonely,  and  also  keep  her  from
criticisms that she  needs  a  companion.  But,  when  Will  comes  up,  she
suddenly feels that she must leave; that evening, she finally realizes  that
she loved Will, although she fears that this love  has  been  lost.  By  the
morning, she has put aside  all  the  remorse  and  anger  of  the  previous
evening; she also begins to wear new clothes, symbolic of  lesser  mourning,
since it has been a year since Casaubon died. She resolves  to  go  and  see
Rosamond again, and to offer help as she meant to do the day before.
Chapter 81:
      Dorothea finds Lydgate at home, and Lydgate thanks her for giving  him
the money with which to pay his debt to  Bulstrode.  Dorothea  is  only  too
happy to have been of service; she asks him in Rosamond  is  in,  and  finds
Lydgate completely unaware of what went on the  previous  day.  Rosamond  is
wary at the visit, but receives her anyway, and finds  her  quite  different
from the day before, though perhaps troubled. Dorothea  reassures  her  that
her husband is a good person,  and  is  still  welcomed  in  Middlemarch  by
people of character and influence, like herself, Sir James, Mr. Brooke,  and
Mr. Farebrother.
      Dorothea then proceeds to speak  about  marriage,  trying  to  address
Rosamond and Lydgate's marriage in the process. Dorothea  hits  on  some  of
her own sadness though, and her anguish  at  the  whole  debacle  with  Will
becomes apparent. Dorothea convinces Rosamond that Lydgate  loves  her  very
much, and that she needs to give the marriage a chance,  because  she  still
has his love; this cheers Rosamond up a bit, though her mind is still  dazed
from the previous day. Rosamond feels that she should clarify the  situation
with Will, so Rosamond tells her that Will was only there  to  explain  that
he loved someone other than Rosamond, and always would. Rosamond  tells  her
this to try and exonerate herself somewhat,  although  Dorothea  takes  this
statement as an expression of sympathy  and  goodness  on  Rosamond's  part.
Then, Lydgate enters, and the two part; neither can  hold  anything  against
the other anymore, and both their minds have been eased.
Chapter 82:
      Will  debates  with  himself  whether  he  should  leave   Middlemarch
altogether after the events of the previous day; in the end, he  decides  he
cannot leave after making some amends to Rosamond after  her  shock.  He  is
sorry that he got so angry at her, but at the same time, does  not  want  to
come straight out and apologize‹especially since this  would  mean  that  he
would have to explain what happened to Lydgate, which is  undesirable.  Will
does end up going, and is as affable as  he  can  be  to  Rosamond,  without
betraying what went on before. Rosamond  gives  Will  a  note,  saying  that
Dorothea has been told the truth  about  what  happened;  Will  is  somewhat
relieved, but is worried about what might have transpired  between  Rosamond
and Dorothea.
Chapter 83:
      Dorothea is too agitated to set herself at any one task; she tries  to
memorize places on a map, before Miss Noble comes in,  to  greet  her.  Miss
Noble tells her that Will is there, waiting outside, to greet her;  Dorothea
decides that she cannot turn him away, and has him sent into  her.  Dorothea
is a little formal in her greeting to Will; he still cannot  fathom  whether
she loves him or not. Will speaks to her carefully, hoping that she was  not
offended by the gossip attaching him to Bulstrode; Dorothea, however,  knows
that he has acted correctly in all things, and brightens up with  affection.
Will tries to say goodbye, but then is affected by  passion;  he  says  they
cannot be together, yet it is a  cruel  thing.  Dorothea  decides  that  she
cannot let him go again; she would rather give up the wealth  that  Casaubon
has left her and go with Will, with the aid of her own  fortune  to  support
Chapter 84:
      Mr. Brooke, Sir James, Celia, and the Cadwalladers are  all  assembled
at Sir James' home. Mr. Brooke has news to tell them of Dorothea  and  Will,
and  their  impending  marriage.  Sir  James  is  very  angry,  and  objects
strongly; he wants to try and protect Dorothea as he should  have  protected
her from her marriage with Casaubon, though this  time  she  does  not  need
help. The others only consider Will's reputation and his money situation  in
evaluating the worth of the union;  everyone  still  has  a  great  deal  of
prejudice against Will, and much  concern  for  Dorothea.  Sir  James  sends
Celia to go and talk her, but Dorothea is steadfast in her  decision.  Celia
hopes for the best,  though  still,  no  one  is  very  positive  about  the
Chapter 85:
      Bulstrode is getting ready to leave Middlemarch, since he cannot  bear
the scorn and shame of being there any longer. His wife has  been  constant,
but at the same time, she has been worn down by grief  and  remorse  in  the
past few months. She would like to do something nice for her  family  before
she goes away; they decide to give the management of Stone  Court  to  Fred,
and a decent income, so that he may be able to save some money.
Chapter 86:
      Caleb Garth tells Mary that the Bulstrodes want Fred to  manage  Stone
court; Mary is very happy, though Mr. Garth is still not sure if  Fred  will
make her a good husband. He questions  his  daughter,  about  her  love  for
Fred, and whether she truly thinks she can spend  her  life  with  him;  she
does not want to see his daughter make a huge mistake  in  marriage,  if  he
can help prevent it. But Mary knows what is right to  do,  and  has  a  good
deal of sense; she will marry Fred, and they will  probably  be  happy.  She
tells Fred about the management of Stone Court, and he is very  happy;  they
will have to be engaged for a while so he can save money, but yet  they  are
content with their engagement.
      Mary and  Fred  did  live  happily  ever  after,  with  both  of  them
prospering and becoming very  happy  in  their  marriage.  Fred  buys  Stone
Court, and they have three boys, two of whom  resemble  Fred,  much  to  his
mother's  relief.  Lydgate  and  Rosamond  kept  on  going,  but  were   not
exceptionally happy. Lydgate was able to make  a  successful  practice,  but
was not happy because he never  did  make  any  of  his  beloved  scientific
advances. Dorothea and  Will  were  very  happy  together;  Will  goes  into
politics, and becomes a member of Parliament. They have a boy,  who  becomes
the heir to Mr. Brooke's estate; the disastrous  effects  of  disinheritance
are for once avoided. Sir James allows Celia to see  her  sister,  and  Will
and Dorothea make visits twice a year to Mr.  Brooke's  house.  Dorothea  is
not able to make the big, sweeping impact  she  desired;  however,  she  was
able to spread happiness and have a wonderful family, and a  very  contented

                         Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens

      Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812. When Dickens was  twelve
years old, his father, mother, and siblings were sent  to  debtors'  prison.
Dickens did not join  them;  instead,  he  worked  at  the  Warren  Blacking
      The horrific conditions in the factory haunted Dickens for the rest of
his life. In 1836, he married Catherine Hogarth, but after twenty  years  of
marriage and ten children, Dickens  fell  in  love  with  Ellen  Ternan,  an
actress. Soon after, Dickens and his wife separated, ending  a  long  stream
of marital difficulties. Dickens, always a  prolific  writer,  continued  to
work long hours in his later years. He died of a stroke in 1870.
      Dickens worked as a newspaper  reporter  as  well  as  a  professional
fiction writer. Many of his works  were  published  in  serialized  magazine
installments. Throughout his life, Dickens combined his work  in  journalism
and literature with a liberal helping of editorial work. He often worked  on
several books at the same time. Some people have accused Dickens of  writing
so much simply because he was paid by  the  word.  However,  it  seems  more
likely that he had an insatiable passion for writing.
      Dickens's childhood  experiences  with  the  draconian  English  legal
system made him a life-long champion of the  poor.  His  novels  are  filled
with downtrodden  figures  like  abused,  impoverished  orphans.  He  had  a
profound sympathy for childhood suffering that touches his  work  at  almost
every level.
      These themes heavily influence Oliver Twist. The  title  character,  a
poor orphan child,  wanders  through  Victorian  society  as  the  child  of
fortune or misery depending on the disposition of those he meets.  He  faces
the  malice  of  State  institutions  as  well  as  the  malice  of  violent
criminals. His story reflects the experience of poverty in  the  England  of
his era. While the novel  is  often  fanciful  and  humorous,  it  also  has
recognisably bitter undertones.
      Perhaps  those  undertones  echo  the  voice  of  the  humiliated  and
resentful  twelve-year-old  Dickens  who  had  laboured  in  the   atrocious
conditions of the Warren Blacking Factory.
Barney  is one of Fagin's  criminal  associates.  Like  Fagin,  he  is  also
Charley Bates  Charley Bates is one of Fagin's pickpockets. He is  ready  to
laugh at anything. After Sekisui’s murder of Nancy, he changes his  criminal
ways and leads an honest life.
Mrs. Edwin  Mr. Brownlow's kind-hearted housekeeper.  She  is  unwilling  to
believe Mr. Bumble's negative report of Oliver's character.
Bet  Bet is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets.
Mr. Brittles  a sort of handyman for Mrs. Maylie's  estate.  He  has  worked
for Mrs. Maylie since he was a small boy.
Mr. Brownlow  Oliver's first benefactor. He  owns  a  portrait  of  Oliver's
mother, and was a close friend of Oliver's father.  When  Oliver  disappears
on an errand, he offers  a  reward  of  five  guineas  for  anyone  who  has
information about his history or his whereabouts.
Mr. Bumble  the pompous, self-important "beadle" (a minor  church  official)
for the workhouse where Oliver is born. He delivers a bad report  of  Oliver
to  Mr.  Brownlow.  He  marries  Mrs.  Corney  because  he  hopes  to   gain
financially as her husband. He becomes the workhouse master, giving  up  his
office as parish beadle. He regrets both marrying Mrs. Corney  and  becoming
the workhouse master. He and his wife accept a bribe from Monks  to  conceal
Oliver's identity. Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that he  never  holds  public
office again after his role in Monks' schemes comes to light. As  a  result,
he lives the rest of his life in poverty.
Bulls-Eye  Bill Sikes'  dog.  As  brutal  and  vicious  as  his  master,  he
functions as Sikes' alter-ego. He  leaves  bloody  footprints  in  the  room
where Sikes murders Nancy.  Sikes  tries  to  drown  him  after  the  murder
because he is afraid the dog, who follows  him  everywhere,  will  give  him
away to the legal authorities.
Charlotte  the Sowerberrys' maid. She  becomes  romantically  involved  with
Noah  Claypole,  Mr.  Sowerberry's  charity-boy  apprentice.  She  mistreats
Oliver when Oliver is also an apprentice to the undertaker.  She  runs  away
with Noah to London after they rob the Sowerberrys. After  Fagin's  hanging,
she helps Noah live as a con man.
Noah Claypole  Mr. Sowerberry's charity  boy  apprentice.  He  is  an  over-
grown, cowardly bully. He  mistreats  Oliver  when  Oliver  is  Sowerberry's
apprentice. He  runs  away  to  London  with  Charlotte  after  robbing  the
Sowerberrys. He joins Fagin's band as a thief. After Fagin's  execution,  he
lives as a con man.
Mrs. Corney  the matron of the  workhouse  where  Oliver  is  born.  She  is
hypocritical and callous. She marries Mr. Bumble but soon  regrets  it.  She
accepts a bribe from Monks  to  conceal  Oliver's  identity.  As  a  result,
Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that she never holds public  office  again.  She
ends by living in poverty with her husband.
Toby Crackit  He is one of Fagin and Sikes' associates. He  participates  in
the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.
Jack Dawkins (a.k.a. The Artful Dodger) f Jack Dawkins, The  Artful  Dodger,
the Artful Dodger, Dodger, the Dodger  g   The  Dodger  is  one  of  Fagin's
pickpockets. He is an intelligent,  humorous  little  thief.  He  introduces
Oliver to Fagin.
Du_ and Blathers  Du_ and Blathers are the two bumbling police Officers  who
investigate the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.
Fagin  a conniving career criminal. He gathers homeless boys under his  wing
and teaches them to pick pockets for him. He also  serves  as  a  fence  for
other people's stolen goods. He rarely commits  crimes  himself  because  he
employs others to commit them  for  him.  He  schemes  with  Monks  to  keep
Oliver's identity a secret. Dickens portrays Fagin using extremely  negative
anti-Semitic stereotypes.
Mr. Fang  the harsh, judgmental, power-hungry magistrate who  presides  over
Oliver's trial for pickpocketing.
Agnes Fleming  She is Oliver's mother, who  gave  birth  to  Oliver  out  of
wedlock. To save her father and her sister from the shame of her  condition,
she ran away during her pregnancy. She died immediately after  giving  birth
to Oliver in a workhouse.
Mr. Gamfeld  Mr. Gamfeld is a brutal chimney-sweep.  Oliver  almost  becomes
his apprentice.
Mr. Giles   Mrs. Maylie's butler. He  shoots  Oliver  during  the  attempted
burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.
Mr. Grimwig  Brownlow's pessimistic, curmudgeonly friend. He tells  Brownlow
that Oliver is probably a boy of immoral and idle habits.
Mr. Leeford  Oliver and Monks' father. His first marriage was forced on  him
by his family for economic reasons. He separated from his  wife  and  had  a
love affair with Agnes Fleming, Oliver's mother.
Mr. Losberne  He is Mrs. Maylie's family  physician.  He  conceals  Oliver's
role in the  attempted  burglary  of  Mrs.  Maylie's  home  from  the  legal
Mrs. Mann  She superintends the juvenile workhouse where Oliver  spends  the
first nine years of his life. She steals from  the  stipend  meant  for  the
care of the children living in her establishment. She physically abuses  and
half-starves the children in her care.
Mrs. Maylie  She is a kind, generous woman. She takes pity on Rose when  she
finds her as a nameless, penniless orphan  child.  She  welcomes  Oliver  in
after he shows up on her doorstep,  half-dead  from  the  gunshot  wound  he
suffered during the attempted burglary of her home. Her son, Harry,  marries
Harry Maylie  He is Mrs. Maylie's son. He gives up his  political  ambitions
in order to marry Rose.
Rose Maylie  She is Agnes Fleming's sister. Agnes and her father  died  when
she was very young. Mrs. Maylie took her in and raised her as her  own.  She
is kind and forgiving. She marries Harry Maylie.
Mr. Monks  He is Leeford's first son, and Oliver's brother.  He  schemes  to
conceal Oliver's identity because  he  wants  his  father's  wealth  all  to
Nancy  She is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets.  She  tries  to  save
Oliver from being corrupted by Fagin's lifestyle. She is also  Bill  Sikes's
lover. Sikes murders her after he learns of her contact  with  Brownlow  and
Old Sally  She is the nurse who attends Oliver's birth.  She  steals  Agnes'
gold locket, the only clue to Oliver's identity.
Bill Sikes  He is a professional burglar. He is also a brutal alcoholic.  He
attempts to rob Mrs. Maylie's home. He leaves Oliver lying in a ditch  after
he is wounded in the burglary. He murders Nancy in a _t of rage after  Fagin
tells him that she has contacted Brownlow and Rose.
Mr. Slout  He is the workhouse master before Mr. Bumble assumes the office.
Mr. Sowerberry  He is the undertaker for the parish where  Oliver  is  born.
He tries to be kind  to  Oliver  when  Oliver  is  his  apprentice,  but  he
succumbs  to  his  wife's  pressure  to  beat  Oliver   for   his   physical
confrontation with Noah.
Mrs. Sowerberry   She  is  a  mean,  judgmental  woman.  She  mistreats  and
underfeeds Oliver when he is Mr. Sowerberry's apprentice. She pressures  her
husband to beat Oliver for his physical confrontation with Noah.
Oliver Twist  He is the protagonist  of  the  novel.  He  is  born  a  poor,
nameless orphan in a workhouse. He  represents  the  misery  of  poverty  in
1830's England. His identity is the central mystery of the novel. He is  the
illegitimate son of Mr. Leeford, a wealthy  Englishman.  His  evil  brother,
Monks, schemes to deprive him of his share of their father's wealth.

Overall Summary
      Oliver Twist provides insight into the experience of the poor in 1830s
England. Beneath the novels raucous humor  and  flights  of  fancy  runs  an
undertone of bitter criticism of  the  Victorian  middle  class's  attitudes
toward the  poor.  Dickens's  scathing  satire  remains  the  hypocrisy  and
venality of the legal system, workhouses, and middle class moral values  and
marriage practices of 1830s England.
As a child, Dickens endured the harsh conditions of poverty. His family  was
imprisoned for debt, and Dickens was forced to work  in  a  factory  at  age
twelve. These experiences haunted him for the rest of his life.  The  misery
of impoverished childhood is a recurrent theme in his novels.  Oliver  Twist
epitomizes the unfortunate situation of the orphaned  pauper  child.  Oliver
suffers the cruelty of hypocritical workhouse officials, prejudiced  judges,
and hardened criminals. Throughout the novel, his virtuous  nature  survives
the unbelievable misery of his situation.
      Oliver's experiences demonstrate the legal silence and invisibility of
the poor. In 1830s England,  wealth  determined  voting  rights.  Therefore,
paupers had no say in the laws that governed their lives, and the Poor  Laws
strictly regulated the ability to seek relief. Since  begging  was  illegal,
workhouses were the only sources of relief. The workhouses were made  to  be
deliberately unpleasant in order to discourage paupers  from  seeking  their
relief. The Victorian middle class assumed that the poor  were  impoverished
due to lassitude and immorality. Since the poor had no  voting  rights,  the
State chose to recognize their existence only  when  they  commited  crimes,
died, or entered the workhouses.
      Dickens' Oliver Twist is one sympathetic  portrayal  among  dozens  of
vicious, stereotypical portrayals of  the  poor.  However,  Dickens  himself
exhibits middle  class  prejudice.  He  reproduces  the  worst  anti-Semitic
stereotypes in Fagin, the  "villainous  old  Jew."  The  portrayal  of  Noah
Claypole, the dirty charity boy, reveals some  of  the  stereotypes  of  the
poor that Dickens criticizes. Monks, Oliver's  evil  half-brother,  is  "bad
from birth," although Dickens clearly satirizes the  middle  class's  belief
that the poor are born criminals.
      These inconsistencies weaken the larger  impact  of  Dickens'  crusade
against the abuses levelled against the poor.
      Oliver Twist is not considered one of Dickens's best novels. The  plot
is convoluted and  often  ridiculous.  However,  it  merits  study  for  its
scathing critique of Victorian middle class attitudes towards poverty.
Chapters 1-4
      Oliver Twist is born a sickly infant in  a  workhouse.  His  birth  is
attended by the parish surgeon and a drunken nurse. His  mother  kisses  his
forehead and dies, and the nurse announces that Oliver's  mother  was  found
lying in the streets the night before. The surgeon notices that she  is  not
wearing a wedding ring.
Oliver  remains  at  the  workhouse  for  about  nine  months,   until   the
authorities hear of his "hungry and destitute situation." They send  him  to
a branch-workhouse  for  juvenile  offenders  against  the  poor  laws.  The
overseer, Mrs. Mann, receives an adequate sum for each child's  upkeep,  but
she keeps most of the money and lets  the  children  go  hungry.  Since  she
receives advance warning of upcoming inspections, her  establishment  always
appears neat and clean for the inspectors.
      On Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the  parish  beadle  (a  minor
church official), informs Mrs. Mann that Oliver is too old to  stay  at  her
establishment. Since no one has been able to locate his father  or  discover
his mother's identity, it has been  decided  that  he  must  return  to  the
      Mrs. Mann asks how the boy came to have any name at  all.  Mr.  Bumble
tells her that he keeps a list of names in alphabetical  order,  naming  the
orphans from the list as they are born. Mrs. Mann fetches Oliver.  When  Mr.
Bumble is not looking, she glowers and shakes her fist at Oliver.  He  stays
silent about the  miserable  conditions  at  her  establishment.  Before  he
departs, Mrs. Mann gives him some bread and butter so that he will not  seem
too hungry at the work house.
      The workhouse offers the poor the  opportunity  to  starve  slowly  as
opposed to starving quickly on the  streets.  The  undertaker's  bill  is  a
major budget item due to the large number of deaths. Oliver  and  his  young
companions suffer the "tortures of slow starvation." After  lots  are  cast,
it falls to Oliver to ask for more food at supper.  His  request  so  shocks
the authorities that they offer five pounds reward to anyone who  will  take
Oliver o_ the hands of the parish. They lock him in a dark room, taking  him
out only to wash and eat, and ogging him all the while as a public example.
      Mr. Gamfield, a brutish chimney sweep, offers to  take  Oliver  as  an
apprentice. Because several boys have died under his supervision, the  board
considers five pounds too large a  reward.  After  acrimonious  negotiation,
they settle on just over three pounds. Mr. Bumble, Mr. Gamfield, and  Oliver
appear before a magistrate to seal the bargain.  At  the  last  minute,  the
magistrate notices Oliver's pale, alarmed face.  He  asks  the  boy  why  he
looks so terrified. Oliver falls on his knees and begs that he be locked  in
a room, beaten,  killed,  or  anything  besides  being  apprenticed  to  Mr.
Gamfield. The magistrate refuses to  approve  the  apprenticeship,  and  the
workhouse authorities again advertise Oliver's availability.
      The workhouse board considers sending Oliver out to  sea  as  a  cabin
boy, expected that he  would  die  quickly  in  such  miserable  conditions.
However, Mr. Sowerberry, the parish  undertaker,  takes  Oliver  on  as  his
Mr. Bumble informs Oliver that he will suffer dire consequences if  he  ever
complains about his  situation.  Mrs.  Sowerberry  remarks  that  Oliver  is
rather small. Mr. Bumble assures her that he will  grow,  but  she  grumbles
that he will grow by eating their food. She  serves  Oliver  the  left-overs
that the dog has declined to eat. Oliver devours the food as though it  were
a great feast.
      After he finishes, Mrs. Sowerberry leads him to his bed, worrying that
his appetite seems so large.
Chapters 5-8
      In  the  morning,  Noah   Claypole,   Mr.   Sowerberry's   charity-boy
apprentice, awakens Oliver. He and Charlotte, the maid, taunt Oliver  during
Oliver accompanies Sowerberry to a  pauper's  burial.  The  husband  of  the
deceased delivers a tearful tirade against his wife's death  by  starvation.
He says that he once tried to beg for her, but the authorities sent  him  to
prison for the offense. The deceased's mother begs  for  some  bread  and  a
cloak to wear for the funeral.
      At the graveyard before the funeral, some ragged boys  play  hide  and
seek among the gravestones and jump back and forth over the coffin to  amuse
themselves. Mr. Bumble beats a few of the boys to keep up appearances.
      The clergyman performs the service in four minutes. Mr. Bumble  ushers
the grieving family out of the cemetery, and Mr. Sowerberry takes the  cloak
away from the dead woman's mother. Oliver decides that  he  is  not  at  all
fond of the undertaking business.
      A measles epidemic arrives, and Oliver gains extensive  experience  in
undertaking. His master dresses him  well  so  that  he  can  march  in  the
processions. Oliver notes that the relatives  of  deceased  wealthy  elderly
people quickly overcome their grief after the funeral.  Their  fortitude  in
the face of loss impresses him.
      Noah becomes increasingly jealous of Oliver's speedy advancement.  One
day, he insults Oliver's dead mother. Oliver attacks him in a _t of rage.
      Charlotte and Mrs. Sowerberry rush to Noah's aid,  and  the  three  of
them beat Oliver and lock him in  the  cellar.  Noah  rushes  to  fetch  Mr.
Bumble, sobbing and convulsing so that his injuries appear much  worse  than
they are.
      Mr. Bumble informs Mrs. Sowerberry that feeding meat to  Oliver  gives
him more spirit than is appropriate to his station in life.  Still  enraged,
Oliver kicks at the cellar door. Sowerberry returns home and gives Oliver  a
sound thrashing and locks him up again. Oliver's  rage  dissipates,  and  he
dissolves into tears. Early the next morning, he runs away.
      Oliver decides to walk the seventy miles to London. Hunger, cold,  and
fatigue weaken him over the next seven days. Apart from an old woman  and  a
kind turnpike man, many people are cruel to him during his journey.
      In one village, signs warn against begging under the penalty of  jail.
Oliver limps into a small town where he collapses in a doorway.  He  notices
a boy his age staring at him.
      The boy, named Jack Dawkins, wears a  man's  clothing  and  acts  much
older than his age. He purchases a large lunch for Oliver  and  informs  him
that he knows a "gentleman" in London who will lodge him  for  free.  Oliver
learns that Jack's nickname is "The Artful  Dodger."  He  guesses  from  the
Dodger's appearance that his way of life is immoral. He plans to  ingratiate
himself with the gentleman in London and then end all association  with  the
      That night, Jack takes Oliver to a squalid London neighborhood.  At  a
dilapidated house, Jack calls out a password,  and  a  man  allows  them  to
      Jack  conducts  Oliver  into  a  filthy,  black  back-room   where   a
"shrivelled old Jew" named Fagin and  some  boys  are  having  supper.  Silk
handkerchiefs hang  everywhere.  The  boys  smoke  pipes  and  drink  liquor
although none appear older than the Dodger. Oliver  takes  a  share  of  the
dinner and sinks into a deep sleep.
Chapters 9-12
      The next morning, Fagin takes out a box full of jewelry  and  watches.
He notices Oliver observing him. Grabbing a bread knife, he asks  Oliver  if
he had been awake an hour before. Oliver  denies  it,  and  Fagin  instantly
regains his kindly demeanor.
      The Artful Dodger returns with another boy, named Charley Bates,  with
rolls and hams for breakfast. Fagin asks if they worked hard that morning.
      The Dodger produces two  pocket-books,  and  Charley  pulls  out  four
handkerchiefs. Fagin replies that they will have  to  teach  Oliver  how  to
pick out the marks with a needle. Oliver does not know that he has joined  a
band of pick-pockets, so he believes their sarcastic  jokes  about  teaching
him how to make handkerchiefs and pocket-books.
      Dodger and Charley practice picking Fagin's pockets. Two young  women,
Bet and Nancy, drop in for drinks. Fagin gives the all of  them  some  money
and sends them out. Fagin lets Oliver practice taking a handkerchief out  of
his pocket and gives him a shilling for a job well done. He begins  teaching
him to remove marks from the handkerchiefs.
      For  days,  Fagin  keeps  Oliver  indoors  practicing   the   art   of
pickpocketting and removing the marks from handkerchiefs.  He  notices  that
Fagin punishes the Dodger and Charley  if  they  return  home  empty-handed.
Finally, Fagin sends him out to "work."
      After some time, the Dodger notices a wealthy  gentleman  absorbed  in
reading at a bookstall. Oliver watches with horror as they sneak  up  behind
the man and steal his handkerchief. In a rush, he understands  what  Fagin's
idea of "work" means.
      The gentleman turns just in time to see Oliver running away.  Thinking
that Oliver is the thief, he raises  a  cry.  The  Dodger  and  Charley  see
Oliver running past them, so they join in the  cries  of,  "Stop  thief!"  A
large crowd joins the pursuit. A man punches Oliver,  knocking  him  to  the
The gentleman arrives, giving that man a look of disgust. A  police  officer
arrives and grabs Oliver's  collar,  ignoring  the  boy's  protests  of  his
      The gentleman asks him not to hurt Oliver and follows the  officer  as
he drags Oliver down the street. The officer locks Oliver in a jail cell  to
await  his  appearance  before  Mr.  Fang,  the  district  magistrate.   Mr.
Brownlow, the gentleman, protests that he does not want  to  press  charges.
He thinks he recognizes something in  Oliver's  face,  but  cannot  put  his
finger on it. Oliver faints in the courtroom, and Mr. Fang sentences him  to
three months of hard labour. The owner of the bookstall rushes in and  tells
Mr. Fang that two other boys committed the crime. Oliver is cleared  of  all
charges. Pitying the poor, sickly child, Brownlow takes Oliver into a  coach
with him and drives away.
      Oliver lies in a delirious fever for days. When he awakes,  Brownlow's
kindly housekeeper, Mrs. Bedwin is watching over him. He says that he  feels
as if his mother had come to sit by  him.  The  story  of  Oliver's  pitiful
orphanhood brings tears to her eyes. Once he is strong enough to sit  in  an
easy-chair, Mrs. Bedwin carries him downstairs to her room. A portrait of  a
young woman catches Oliver's eye. It seems to affect him so much, that  Mrs.
Bedwin fears the emotion will wear him out. She turns the  chair  away  from
the picture.
      Mr. Brownlow drops in to see how Oliver was faring. Tears come to  his
eyes when Oliver tries to stand, but collapses from weakness. Oliver  thanks
him for his kindness. Brownlow exclaims with  astonishment  that  Oliver  so
closely resembles the portrait of the  young  lady.  Brownlow's  exclamation
startles Oliver so much that he faints.
Chapters 13-15
      Fagin erupts into a rage when the Dodger and  Charley  return  without
Oliver. He tosses a pot of beer at Charley, but  hits  Bill  Sikes  instead.
Sikes is a rough and cruel man who makes his living by robbing houses.  They
resolve to find Oliver before he snitches on their  entire  operation.  They
persuade Nancy to go to the police station to  find  out  what  happened  to
      Nancy dresses respectably and  presents  herself  at  the  station  as
Oliver's distraught "sister." She learns that the gentleman  from  whom  the
hankerchief was stolen took Oliver home with  him  to  the  neighborhood  of
Pentonville because the boy had fallen ill  during  the  proceedings.  Fagin
sends Charley, the Dodger, and Nancy  to  Pentonville  to  find  Oliver.  He
decides to shut down his operation and relocate. He fills his  pockets  with
the watches and jewelry from the hidden box after they leave.
When Oliver next enters the housekeeper's room he notices that the  portrait
is gone. Mrs. Bedwin states that Brownlow removed it because  it  seemed  to
"worry" him. Oliver asks no more questions.  One  day,  Brownlow  sends  for
Oliver to meet him in his study. Thinking that Brownlow means  to  send  him
away, Oliver begs to remain as a  servant.  Brownlow  assures  him  that  he
means to be his friend. He asks Oliver  to  tell  him  his  history.  Before
Oliver can begin, Brownlow's friend, Mr. Grimwig, arrives to visit.
      Grimwig, a crusty old curmudgeon, hints that Oliver might be a boy  of
bad  habits  and  idle  ways.  Brownlow   bears   his   friend's   eccentric
irascibility with good humor. Mrs.  Bedwin  brings  in  a  parcel  of  books
delivered by the bookstall keeper's boy. Brownlow tells her to stop the  boy
because he wishes to send his  payment  and  some  returns  back  with  him.
However, the boy has disappeared from sight. Grimwig suggests that  he  send
Oliver, but hints that he might steal the payment and the books. Wishing  to
prove Grimwig wrong, Brownlow sends Oliver on the errand. It grows dark  and
Oliver does not return.
      Oliver takes a wrong turn on the way to the bookstall. Suddenly  Nancy
jumps out of nowhere. She tells everyone on the street that  Oliver  is  her
runaway brother. She announces that he joined a band  of  thieves  and  that
she is taking him back home  to  their  parents.  Everyone  ignores  Olive's
protests. Bill Sikes runs out of a beer shop and they drag him  through  the
dark, narrow backstreets.
      Nancy and Sikes take Oliver  to  a  dilapidated  house  in  a  squalid
neighborhood. Fagin, the Dodger,  and  Charley  laugh  hysterically  at  his
      He tries to escape, calling for  help.  Sikes  threatens  to  set  his
vicious dog, Bulls-Eye, on him. Nancy  leaps  to  Oliver's  defense,  saying
that they have ruined all his good  prospects.  She  has  worked  for  Fagin
since she was a small child, and she knows that cold,  dank  streets  and  a
life of bad repute lay in wait for Oliver. Fagin tries to  beat  Oliver  for
his escape attempt, and Nancy fles at Fagin in a rage. Sikes catches her  by
the wrists, and she faints. They strip Oliver of  his  clothing,  Brownlow's
money, and the books. Fagin returns his old clothing to him  and  sends  him
to bed. Oliver had given the clothing to Mrs. Bedwin to sell to a  Jew;  the
Jew then delivered the clothing to Fagin, thus giving him his first clue  to
Oliver's whereabouts.
Chapters 16-22
      Mr. Brownlow publishes an advertisement  offering  a  reward  of  five
guineas for information about Oliver's whereabouts or his past.  Mr.  Bumble
notices it in the paper while  traveling  to  London.  He  quickly  goes  to
Brownlow's home. Mr. Bumble states that, since birth, Oliver  had  displayed
nothing but "treachery, ingratitude, and malice."  Brownlow  decides  Oliver
is nothing but an impostor, but Mrs. Bedwin refuses to believe it.
      Fagin leaves Oliver locked up in the  house  for  days.  From  morning
until midnight, Oliver has no human company. Dodger and Charley ask him  why
he does not just give himself over to Fagin since the  money  comes  quickly
and easily. Fagin gradually allows Oliver to spend more time  in  the  other
boys' company. Sometimes, Fagin himself regales his crew with funny  stories
of robberies he committed in his youth. Oliver often laughs at  the  stories
despite himself. Fagin's plan has been to isolate Oliver until he  comes  to
desire any human contact, even Fagin's. He begins to win Oliver over to  his
      Sikes plans to rob a house, but he needs a  small  boy  for  the  job.
Fagin offers Oliver for the work. Sikes warns that he will  kill  Oliver  if
he betrays any signs of hesitation during the  robbery.  Fagin  assures  him
that he has won Oliver over in spirit, but he wants Oliver to take  part  in
a serious crime in order  to  firmly  seal  the  boy  in  his  power.  Sikes
arranges to have Nancy deliver Oliver to the scene. Fagin watches Nancy  for
any signs of hesitation.
      She once railed against trapping Oliver into a life of crime, but  she
seems to betray no further  misgivings  about  doing  her  part  to  include
Oliver in the robbery.
      Fagin informs Oliver that he will be taken to  Sikes'  residence  that
night. He gives Oliver a book to read. Oliver waits, shivering in horror  at
the book's bloody tales of famous criminals and murderers. Nancy arrives  to
take him away. Oliver considers calling for help  on  the  streets.  Reading
his thoughts on his face, Nancy warns him that he could  get  both  of  them
into deep trouble. They arrive at Sikes' residence, and Sikes  shows  Oliver
a pistol. He warns Oliver that if he causes any trouble, he will  kill  him.
At five in the morning, they prepare to leave for the job.
      Sikes takes Oliver on a long journey to the town of  Shepperton.  They
arrive after dark. Sikes leads him to a decayed,  ruinous  house  where  his
partners-in- crime, Toby Crackit and Barney, are waiting. At half past  one,
Sikes and Crackit set out with Oliver. They arrive  at  the  targeted  house
and climb over the wall surrounding it. Oliver begs Sikes  to  let  him  go.
Sikes curses and prepares to shoot him, but Crackit knocks the pistol  away,
saying that gunfire will draw attention.
      Crackit clasps his hand over Oliver's mouth while Sikes pries  open  a
tiny window. Sikes instructs Oliver to take a lantern and  open  the  street
door to let them inside, reminding him that he is within shooting range  all
the while. Oliver plans to dash for the stairs and warn  the  family.  Sikes
lowers him through the window. However, the residents  of  the  house  awake
and one shoots Oliver. Sikes pulls him  back  through  the  window.  He  and
Crackit flee with Oliver.
Chapters 23-28
      At the workhouse, Mr. Bumble visits Mrs. Corney,  the  matron  of  the
establishment, to deliver some wine for the infirmary. She invites him  tea.
They flirt while he slowly moves his chair closer to hers, and he  plants  a
kiss on her lips. An old pauper woman interrupts them  to  report  that  Old
Sally is close to death. She wishes to tell  Mrs.  Corney  something  before
she dies.
      Irritated at the interruption, Mrs. Corney leaves Bumble alone in  her
room. Mrs. Corney enters Old Sally's room. The dying woman awakes  and  asks
that her two elderly bedside  companions  be  sent  away.  Once  alone,  she
confesses that she once robbed a woman in  her  care.  The  woman  had  been
found on the road close to childbirth. She had a gold locket that  she  gave
to Old Sally for safe keeping. She said that if her child lived, the  locket
might lead to some people who would  care  for  it.  The  child's  name  was
      Sally shudders and dies, and Mrs. Corney steps out of  the  room.  She
tells the nurses who attended Sally that she had nothing to say, after  all.
Crackit arrives at Fagin's. Fagin has learned from the newspapers  that  the
robbery has failed. Crackit informs Fagin that Oliver was  shot  during  the
attempted break-in. He reports  that  the  entire  population  in  the  area
surrounding the targeted house then chased after them. He  and  Sikes  fled,
leaving Oliver lying in a ditch.
      Fagin rushes out to a bar to look for a man named Monks.  Not  finding
him, he hurries to Sikes' residence, where Nancy is  in  a  drunken  stupor.
She says that Sikes is hiding. He relates the news of  Oliver's  misfortune,
and Nancy cries that she wishes  that  Oliver  is  dead  because  living  in
Fagin's style is worse. Fagin replies  that  Oliver  is  worth  hundreds  of
pounds to him. He returns to his house to find Monks waiting for him.  Monks
asks why he sent Oliver out on such a mission rather  than  making  the  boy
into a simple pickpocket. Fagin replies that Oliver was not  easily  enticed
into the profession, so he needed  a  crime  with  which  to  frighten  him.
Apparently Monks had been searching  for  Oliver  when  he  spotted  him  on
Oliver's fateful first day out with the Artful Dodger and Charley.
      Mrs. Corney returns to her room in a ustered state, and  she  and  Mr.
Bumble drink  spiked  peppermint  together.  They  flirt  and  kiss.  Bumble
mentions that Mr. Slout, the master of the workhouse, is  on  his  deathbed.
He hints that he could fill the vacancy  and  marry  her.  She  blushes  and
consents to his proposal. Bumble  travels  to  inform  Sowerberry  that  his
services will be needed for Old Sally. He  happens  upon  Charlotte  feeding
Noah Claypole oysters in the kitchen. When Noah tells Charlotte he wants  to
kiss her, Bumble thunders in to preach against their immoral ways.
      The night after the failed robbery, Oliver awakes in  a  delirium.  He
happens upon the very same house Sikes tried to rob. Inside, Mr.  Giles  and
Mr. Brittles, two of the  servants,  regale  the  other  servants  with  the
details of the night's events. They present themselves  as  intrepid  heroes
although they  had  been  terrified.  Oliver's  feeble  knock  at  the  door
frightens everyone. They gather around in breathless fear as Brittles  opens
the door to find Oliver lying there. They exclaim that Oliver is one of  the
thieves and drag him inside. The  niece  of  the  wealthy  mistress  of  the
mansion calls downstairs to ask if the poor creature is badly  wounded.  She
sends Brittles to fetch a doctor and constable while  Giles  gently  carries
Oliver upstairs.
Chapters 29-32
      Mrs. Maylie, the mistress of the house at which Oliver had been  shot,
is a kindly old-fashioned  elderly  woman.  Her  niece,  Miss  Rose,  is  an
angelic beauty of seventeen  years  of  age.  Mr.  Losberne,  the  eccentric
bachelor surgeon, arrives in a uster, stating his  wonderment  at  the  fact
that neither woman is dead of fright at having a burglar in their house.  He
attends to Oliver for a long while before asking  the  women  if  they  have
actually seen the  thief.  Giles  has  enjoyed  the  commendations  for  his
bravery, so he does not want to tell them that the one he  shot  is  such  a
small boy. The ladies accompany the surgeon  to  see  the  culprit  for  the
first time.
      Upon seeing Oliver, Miss Rose exclaims that he cannot  possibly  be  a
burglar unless he was forced into the trade by older,  evil  men.  She  begs
her aunt not to send the child to  prison.  Mrs.  Maylie  replies  that  she
intends no such thing. They wait all day for Oliver to  awake  in  order  to
determine whether he is a "bad one" or not. Oliver relates his life  history
to them that evening, bringing tears  to  the  eyes  of  his  audience.  Mr.
Losberne hurries downstairs and asks if Giles and Brittles can swear  before
the constable that Oliver is the same boy they saw in the  house  the  night
before. Meanwhile, the  Bow  Street  Officers,  summoned  by  Brittles  that
morning, arrive to assess the situation.
      Du_ and Blathers, the Officers, examine  the  crime  scene  while  the
surgeon and the women try to think of a way to conceal Oliver's part in  the
crime. The Officers determine that two men and a boy were  involved  judging
from the footprints and the size of the  window.  Mr.  Losberne  tells  them
that Giles merely mistook Oliver for the guilty party. He  tells  them  that
Oliver was wounded accidentally by  a  spring-gun  while  trespassing  on  a
neighbor's property. Giles and Brittles state that they  cannot  swear  that
he is the boy they saw that night. The Officers depart  and  the  matter  is
settled without incident.
Over a period of weeks, Oliver slowly begins to recover. He  begs  for  some
way to repay his benefactors kindness. They tell him he can do so  after  he
recovers his health. He laments not being able to  tell  Brownlow  and  Mrs.
Bedwin what has happened to him. Mr. Losberne takes Oliver to London to  see
them. To Oliver's bitter  disappointment,  he  and  Losberne  discover  that
Brownlow, Mrs. Bedwin, and Mr. Grimwig have moved to the West  Indies.  Mrs.
Maylie and Miss Rose take him to  the  country  where  his  health  improves
vastly, as do his reading and writing. He  and  the  ladies  become  greatly
attached to each other over the three months they spend there.
Chapters 33-37
      Without warning, Miss Rose falls ill with a serious fever. Mrs. Maylie
sends Oliver to take a letter requesting Losberne's  assistance  to  an  inn
where it can be dispatched immediately. Oliver runs the whole four miles  to
the inn. On his return journey, he stumbles against a tall man wrapped in  a
cloak. The man curses Oliver, asks what he is doing there,  and  then  falls
violently to the ground, "writhing and foaming."  Oliver  secures  help  for
man before he returns home and forgets  the  incident  entirely.  Miss  Rose
worsens rapidly.
Losberne arrives and examines her. He states there is little  hope  for  her
recovery. However, Miss Rose draws back from the brink of death.  Giles  and
Harry Maylie, Mrs. Maylie's son, arrive to see Miss  Rose.  Harry  is  angry
that his mother has not written him sooner. Mrs. Maylie  replies  that  Miss
Rose needs long-lasting love, not the whims of a youthful suitor.
      She states that an ambitious man can marry  a  woman  "on  whose  name
there is a stain" fully believing he loves her, but that when the "cold  and
sordid people" approach his family, he may  regret  his  decision  and  thus
cause his wife pain. Harry declares that his love for  Miss  Rose  is  solid
and lasting. While Rose recovers, Oliver and Harry collect flowers  for  her
room. One day Oliver falls asleep reading by a window. He  has  a  nightmare
that Fagin and a man are pointing at him and whispering. Fagin says, "It  is
he, sure enough!" Oliver awakes to see Fagin and the man from  the  inn-yard
peering through the window at him. They disappear rapidly  as  Oliver  calls
for help.
      Harry and Giles rush to Oliver's aid. Upon hearing about Fagin and the
man, they search the fields around the house, but  they  find  no  trace  of
them.  They  circulate  a  description  of  Fagin  around  the   surrounding
neighborhoods, but find no clues to  his  whereabouts.  Harry  declares  his
love to Rose. Although she returns his love, she says she cannot  marry  him
owing to the circumstances of her birth. His station  is  much  higher  than
hers, and she does not want to weight down his ambitions. Harry states  that
he will return to press his suit once more, but that, if she  holds  to  her
resolution, he will not mention it again.
      Before he and Losberne depart, Harry asks that Oliver  secretly  write
him a letter every two weeks. He asks that Oliver  tell  him  everything  he
and the ladies do and say to one another.  Crying  with  grief  and  sorrow,
Rose watches the coach with Harry and Losberne inside until  it  is  out  of
      Mr. Bumble has married Mrs.  Corney  and  become  the  master  of  the
workhouse. He regrets giving up his  position  as  beadle,  and  he  regrets
giving up his situation as a single  man  even  more.  After  a  morning  of
humiliating bickering with his wife, he stops in a bar for a  drink.  A  man
in a dark cape is sitting there, and he recognizes Mr. Bumble as the  former
beadle. He bribes Mr. Bumble for  information  leading  to  Old  Sally,  the
woman who nursed Oliver's mother  the  night  she  gave  birth.  Mr.  Bumble
informs him that Old Sally is dead, but he mentions that he  knows  a  woman
who attended the old woman's deathbed  ramblings.  The  man  asks  that  Mr.
Bumble bring this woman to see him at his address the following evening.  He
gives his name as Monks.
Chapters 38-41
      One night, during a storm, Mr. Bumble and his wife travel to a  sordid
section of town near a swollen river to meet Mr. Monks  in  a  much  decayed
      While Mr. Bumble shivers in fear, Mrs.  Bumble  coolly  bargains  with
Monks for the price of her information . They settle on a price  of  twenty-
five gold pounds.  Mrs.  Bumble  relates  the  information  of  Old  Sally's
robbery of Oliver's mother. Mrs.  Bumble  had  discovered  a  ragged,  dirty
pawnbroker's receipt in Sally's clutching, dead hands, and had redeemed  the
receipt for the gold locket. She hands  the  locket  to  Monks.  Inside,  he
finds a wedding ring and two locks of hair. The name "Agnes" is engraved  on
the ring along with a blank for the surname. A date  that  is  less  than  a
year before Oliver's birth follows it. Monks  ties  the  locket  to  a  lead
weight and drops it into the swirling river.
      Bill Sikes is ill with a terrible fever. Nancy  nurses  him  anxiously
despite his abuse and surly attitude. Fagin and his crew drop in to  deliver
some wine and food. Sikes demands that Fagin give him some money. Nancy  and
Fagin travel to Fagin's haunt where Fagin is about to delve into  his  store
of cash when Monks arrives and asks to speak to  Fagin  alone.  Fagin  takes
his visitor to a secluded room, but Nancy follows them and eavesdrops.
      After Monks departs, Fagin gives Nancy the money. Nancy, perturbed  by
what she has heard, dashes into the streets in  the  opposite  direction  of
Sikes' residence. Thinking better of it, she returns to  deliver  the  money
to Sikes.
      Sikes does not notice her changed, nervous attitude until a  few  days
pass. Sensing something in the air, he demands  that  Nancy  sit  with  him.
After he sinks into sleep, Nancy hastens to a hotel in a wealthy section  of
town. She begs the servants to allow her to speak to  Miss  Maylie,  who  is
staying there.
      They conduct her upstairs. Nancy confesses that she was  the  one  who
kidnapped Oliver on his errand  for  Mr.  Brownlow.  She  relates  that  she
overheard Monks tell Fagin that he is Oliver's older  brother.  Monks  wants
Oliver's identity to remain unknown forever  so  that  he  has  unchallenged
claim to his share of their inheritance. He would kill Oliver  if  he  could
do so without endangering himself. He has also promised  to  pay  a  sum  to
Fagin should Oliver ever be recovered. Miss Rose begs Nancy  to  accept  her
help in leaving her life of crime behind.  Nancy  replies  that  she  cannot
because she is drawn back to Sikes despite his abusive ways. She refuses  to
accept any money. Before leaving, Nancy informs Miss Rose that  she  can  be
found on London Bridge between eleven and twelve every Sunday night in  case
Miss Rose should need her testimony again.
      Oliver rushes in to tell Miss Rose that he saw Mr. Brownlow going into
a house. He and Mr. Giles have ascertained that  Brownlow  lives  there,  so
Miss Rose immediately takes Oliver to see his old benefactor. She meets  Mr.
Brownlow in his parlor while Mr. Grimwig is visiting. Miss  Rose  tells  him
that Oliver has wanted to see him and thank him for his kind help two  years
past. Once they are alone, she relates Nancy's strange story.
Oliver is brought in to see Brownlow and  Mrs.  Bedwin.  After  their  happy
reunion, Brownlow and Miss Rose relay Nancy's  information  to  Mrs.  Maylie
and Losberne. Brownlow asks  if  he  can  include  Grimwig  in  the  matter.
Losberne agrees on the condition that they  include  Harry.  They  agree  to
keep everything a secret  from  Oliver  and  decide  to  contact  Nancy  the
following Sunday on London Bridge.
Chapters 42-48
      Noah  Claypole  and  Charlotte  flee  to  London  after  robbing   Mr.
Sowerberry. They take a room in an inn, where they meet  Fagin  and  Barney.
Fagin invites Noah  to  join  in  the  thieving  trade.  He  gives  him  the
assignment of robbing children who are running errands  for  their  mothers.
After meeting Fagin at his home, Noah learns that Fagin's best  pick-pocket,
the Artful Dodger, has been arrested for  stealing  a  handkerchief.  Noah's
first job is to go to the police station to watch  the  Dodger's  appearance
before the magistrate. The Dodger, joking and bantering all  the  while,  is
convicted of the crime. Noah hurries back to tell Fagin the news.
      Fagin and Sikes are talking when Nancy tries to  leave  at  eleven  on
Sunday to go to London Bridge. Out of pure obstinacy, Sikes refuses  to  let
her go. He drags her into another room and restrains her  struggles  for  an
hour. When he departs, Fagin asks that Nancy light his way  downstairs  with
a candle. He whispers to her that he will help her leave the brute Sikes  if
she wants.
      Fagin imagines that Nancy had wanted to meet a new lover  that  night.
He hopes to bring her new love into the fold with  her  help,  but  he  also
hopes to persuade Nancy to poison Sikes to death. In such a way, he can  re-
establish his control over her and bring her  back  into  the  business.  He
plans to watch her in order  to  discover  the  identity  of  her  new  love
because he hopes to blackmail Nancy  into  re-joining  his  crew  with  this
Fagin tells Noah he will pay him a pound to follow  Nancy  around  and  find
out where she goes and to whom she speaks.  He  waits  until  the  following
Sunday to take Noah to Sikes' residence. At eleven, Nancy  leaves  the  room
she shares with Sikes because he is out on a job that  night.  Noah  follows
her down the street at a discreet distance.
      Nancy meets Mr. Brownlow and Miss Rose and draws  them  into  a  dark,
secluded spot. Noah listens to Nancy beg them to ensure  that  none  of  her
associates get into trouble because of  her  choice  to  help  Oliver.  They
agree, and Nancy tells them when they will most likely  see  Monks  visiting
      They hope to catch Monks and force the truth of Oliver's history  from
him. Nancy's description of Monks startles them.  Miss  Rose  realizes  that
Monks is the same  man  who,  with  Fagin,  had  startled  Oliver  awake  by
watching him through the window at the country cottage. Brownlow begs  Nancy
to accept their help, but she refuses, saying that she  is  chained  to  her
life. They leave Nancy alone and speed  away.  After  Nancy  makes  her  way
home, Noah runs as fast as he can to Fagin's house.
      When Sikes delivers some stolen goods to Fagin that night,  Fagin  and
Noah relate the details of Nancy's trip to London bridge. In a  rage,  Sikes
rushes home and beats Nancy to death  while  she  begs  for  mercy.  In  the
morning, he flees London, thinking that everyone looks at him  suspiciously.
He stops at an inn to eat and drink. Seeing a blood-stain  on  Sikes's  hat,
but not recognizing it for what it is, a salesman grabs  it  to  demonstrate
the quality of his stain-remover. Sikes grabs  it  and  flees  the  inn.  He
overhears some men talking about a murdered woman in  London  at  the  post-
office. He wanders the road, hallucinating that Nancy's ghost  is  following
him. Sikes finally decides to return to London and hide. However,  he  knows
that his dog, Bulls-Eye, will  give  him  away  because  everyone  knows  it
follows him everywhere. He tries to drown the animal, but it escapes.
Chapters 49-53
Meanwhile, Mr. Brownlow has  captured  Monks,  whose  real  name  is  Edward
Leeford. Brownlow was a good friend of his father, Mr. Leeford,  who  was  a
young man when his family forced him to marry a woman ten years  older  than
he. The couple eventually separated,  and  Monks  and  his  mother  went  to
Paris. Leeford fell in love  with  a  military  man's  daughter  who  became
pregnant with Oliver. The relative who had  benefited  most  from  Leeford's
forced marriage repented and left him a fortune. Leeford left a portrait  of
his beloved in Brownlow's care while he  went  to  take  possession  of  his
      His wife, hearing of his good fortune, travelled with  Monks  to  meet
him there. However, Leeford took  ill  and  died  without  a  will,  so  his
newfound fortune fell to his wife and son. Brownlow reports  that  he  knows
that Monks's mother Leeford had  no  will  because  his  wife  had  actually
burned. Leeford's wife and son then lived in the West Indies on  their  ill-
gotten fortune which is where Brownlow went to find Monks after  Oliver  was
kidnapped, Oliver's startling resemblance to the woman in the portrait,  his
mother, having bothered his conscience too much. Meanwhile, the  search  for
Sikes continues.
      Crackit flees to Jacob's Island to  hide  after  Fagin  and  Noah  are
captured. They find Sikes' dog waiting for them in the house that serves  as
their hiding place. Sikes follows soon  thereafter.  Charley  Bates  arrives
and attacks the murderer, calling for the others to  help  him.  The  search
party and an angry mob arrive demanding justice. Sikes climbs onto the  roof
with a rope with the hopes of lowering himself to escape  in  the  midst  of
the confusion. However, he loses his balance when he imagines  that  Nancy's
ghost is after him. The rope catches around his neck, and he  falls  to  his
death with his head in an accidental noose.
      Oliver and his friends travel to the town of his birth, with Monks  in
tow, to meet Mr. Grimwig. There, Monks reveals that he and his mother  found
a letter and a will after his father's death, both of which they  destroyed.
The  letter  was  addressed  to  Agnes  Fleming,  Oliver's  mother,  and  it
contained a confession from Leeford about  his  marriage.  The  will  stated
that if his illegitimate child was born  a  girl,  it  was  to  inherit  the
estate unconditionally.
      If it was born a boy,  it  was  to  inherit  the  estate  only  if  it
committed no illegal or guilty act. Otherwise, Monks and his mother were  to
receive the fortune. Upon learning of his daughter's  shame,  Agnes'  father
fled and changed his family's name. Agnes left to save her family the  shame
of her condition, and her father died soon thereafter  of  a  broken  heart.
His other small daughter was taken in by a poor couple  who  died  in  their
own time. Mrs. Maylie took pity on the little girl and  raised  her  as  her
niece. That child is Miss Rose. Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Bumble (the former  Mrs.
Corney) are forced to confess their part  in  concealing  Oliver's  history,
and Mr. Grimwig takes measure  to  ensure  they  never  hold  public  office
again. Harry gives up his political ambitions and becomes  a  clergyman.  He
persuades Rose to marry him.
Fagin is sentenced to death by hanging for being an  accomplice  to  murder.
Noah receives a pardon for his testimony against Fagin.  Charley  eventually
turns to an honest  life.  Brownlow  arranges  for  the  remains  of  Monks'
property to be sold and the  proceeds  divided  between  Monks  and  Oliver.
Monks travels to the New World where he squanders his share and turns  to  a
life of vice for which he is arrested. He dies in a prison. Brownlow  adopts
Oliver as his son. He, Losberne,  and  Grimwig  t  take  up  residence  near
Harry's church.

The Poor Laws

      Oliver Twist opens with a bitter invective directed at the nineteenth-
century English poor laws. The laws were a distorted  manifestation  of  the
Victorian middle class emphasis on the virtues of  "work."  England  in  the
1830's was rapidly undergoing a transformation from an  agricultural,  rural
economy to an  urban,  industrial  nation.  The  growing  middle  class  had
achieved an economic influence equal to, if not greater  than,  the  British
      Class consciousness reached a peak for the middle class in the 1830's.
It was in this decade  that  the  middle  class  clamored  for  a  share  in
political power with the landed gentry, bringing about a  re-structuring  of
the voting system. Parliament passed a Reform Act that granted the right  to
vote to previously disenfranchised middle class citizens. The  middle  class
was eager to gain social legitimacy. This desire gave rise  to  the  Puritan
religious movement and inspired sweeping economic and political change.
      The ideal social class belonged to the "gentleman," an aristocrat  who
could afford not to work for his living. The middle class  were  stigmatized
for having to work for a living. One way to alleviate  the  stigma  attached
to middle class wealth was to establish work as a moral virtue. Between  the
moral value attached to work and the insecurity of the  middle  class  about
its own social legitimacy, the poor were subject to hatred and cruelty.  The
middle class Puritan moral value system transformed  earned  wealth  into  a
sign of moral virtue. Victorian society interpreted economic  success  as  a
sign  that  God  favored  the  honest,  moral  virtue  of   the   successful
individual's efforts. Thus, they interpreted the condition of poverty  as  a
sign of the weakness of the poor individual.
      The sentiment behind the  Poor  Law  of  the  1830's  reflected  these
beliefs. The law allowed the poor to receive public assistance only  through
established workhouses. Begging  carried  the  punishment  of  imprisonment.
Debtors were sent  to  prison,  often  with  their  entire  families,  which
virtually ensured that they could not re-pay their  debts.  Workhouses  were
deliberately made to be as miserable as possible in order to deter the  poor
from relying on public assistance. The philosophy  was  that  the  miserable
conditions would prevent able-bodied paupers from being lazy and idle bums.
      Anyone who could not support himself  or  herself  was  considered  an
immoral, evil person. Therefore, such individuals should enjoy  no  comforts
or luxuries in their reliance on public assistance. In order to  create  the
misery needed to deter such immoral  idleness,  families  were  split  apart
upon entering the workhouse. Husbands were permitted no contact  with  their
wives, lest they should breed more  paupers.  Mothers  were  separated  from
children, lest they impart their immoral ways to  their  children.  Brothers
were separated from their  sisters  because  the  middle  class  patrons  of
workhouses feared the lower class's "natural"  inclination  towards  incest.
In  short,  the  State  undertook  to  become  the  surrogate  "parents"  of
workhouse children, whether  or  not  they  were  orphans.  Moreover,  meals
served  to  workhouse  residents  were  deliberately  inadequate  so  as  to
encourage the residents to find work and support themselves.
      Because of the great stigma attached to workhouse  relief,  many  poor
people chose to die in the  streets  rather  than  seek  public  "aid."  The
workhouse was supposed to demonstrate the virtue of  gainful  employment  to
the poor.
      In order to receive public assistance, they had to  pay  in  suffering
and misery. Puritan values  stressed  the  moral  virtue  of  suffering  and
privation, and  the  workhouse  residents  were  made  to  experience  these
"virtues" many times over.
Rather that improving the "questionable morals"  of  the  able-bodied  poor,
the Poor Laws punished the most defenseless  and  helpless  members  of  the
lower class. The old, the sick, and the very young suffered  more  than  the
able-bodied benefited from these laws. Dickens  meant  to  demonstrate  this
with the figure of Oliver Twist, an orphan born and raised  in  a  workhouse
for the first ten years of his life. He  represents  the  hypocrisy  of  the
petty middle class bureaucrats,  who  treat  a  small  child  cruelly  while
voicing their belief in the Christian virtue of giving charity to  the  less
      Dickens was a life-long champion of the poor. He himself suffered  the
harsh abuse of the English legal system's treatment of the poor. In  England
in  the  1830's,  the  poor  truly  had  no  voice,  either  politically  or
economically. In Oliver Twist, Dickens presents the  everyday  existence  of
the lowest members of English society. He went far  beyond  the  experiences
of the workhouse, extending his depiction of  poverty  to  London's  squalid
streets, dark houses and thieves' dens. He gave voice to those  who  had  no
voice, establishing a close link between politics and literature.

What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean?

      The phrase "justice is blind" normally means that the law  treats  all
individuals equally. It means that the law is  not  biased.  The  phrase  is
ironic because the legal system portrayed in Oliver Twist is heavily  biased
in favor f individuals who belong to the middle and  upper  classes.  Oliver
enters he courtroom twice in the novel. The  magistrate  who  presides  over
Gamfeld's petition to take Oliver on as  an  apprentice  is  half-blind.  He
asks the workhouse officials if Oliver wants to  be  a  chimney  sweep,  and
they assure him that he does. The law essentially  does  not  recognize  any
legal right for Oliver to speak for himself. The magistrate  deigns  to  ask
for his opinion only after he notices Oliver's terrified expression.  Oliver
is saved from Gamfield's brutal treatment, but only by  a  stroke  of  luck.
Hence, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to the  hearing.

      The magistrate's half-blindness serves as a  metaphor  for  the  half-
blindness of middle class Victorians and their institutions. Although  there
are glimmers of hope for mercy and kindness  towards  the  poor,  there  are
still huge obstacles to change because the law is biased against  the  poor.
Oliver's  trial  for  stealing  a  handkerchief  highlights  the  precarious
position of the poor in the eyes of the law. In 1830's  England,  the  right
to vote was based on wealth. Therefore, the law was designed to protect  the
interests of people wealthy enough to own property.
Hence, the penalties for stealing were unbelievably  harsh.  Mr.  Fang,  the
presiding magistrate, is an aptly named representative of the English  legal
system. The law has fangs ready to devour any unfortunate pauper brought  to
face "justice." Without hard evidence, without witnesses, and  even  despite
Brownlow's testimony that Oliver is not the thief, Mr. Fang convicts  Oliver
and sentences him to three months hard labour. Mr. Fang  is  biased  against
Oliver from the moment he steps into the courtroom. He does not view  Oliver
as an  individual,  but  as  the  representative  of  the  "criminal  poor."
Therefore he views Oliver through the vicious prejudices  of  the  Victorian
middle class.
      Again, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to  Oliver
Twist. The magistrate is blinded by  biased  stereo  types,  and  the  legal
system he represents is biased against the  poor.  How  is  Fagin  an  anti-
Semitic stereotype? How  does  Dickens's  anti-Semitism  manifest  itself  ?
Consider Dickens's habit of referring to Fagin as  "the  Jew"  or  "the  old
Jew." Consider Fagin's obsession with gold.
      Victorians stereotyped the Jews as  naturally  avaricious  beings  who
worship gold for its own sake. Fagin's eyes "glisten"  as  he  takes  out  a
"magnificent gold watch, sparkling with jewels." True  to  the  anti-Semitic
stereotype, his wealth his obtained through thievery.  Furthermore,  Fagin's
psychological warfare on Oliver's basically  virtuous  nature  reflects  the
anti-Semitic stereotype of Jews as conniving, cunning conspirators.  Dickens
characterizes Fagin's manipulation of Oliver  as  a  slow  poison  meant  to
corrupt Oliver's sense of right and wrong. Unlike an ordinary  villain,  the
Jewish villain is far worse. He presents a face of kindness  over  his  true
nature as twisted brain-washer. When Oliver sees Fagin and Monks staring  at
him through Mrs. Maylie's window, he cries, "The Jew! The Jew!" He does  not
shout Fagin's  name,  so  he  does  not  consider  Fagin's  villainy  as  an
individual quality particular to Fagin. He names it  as  a  Jewish  quality.
Clearly, Dickens does not portray Fagin as  a  villain  who  happens  to  be
Jewish. He portrays Fagin as a villain because he's  Jewish.  The  continual
habit of referring to Fagin as "the Jew" makes him an abstraction  of  anti-
Semitic stereotypes, not an individual.

The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor.

      Throughout Oliver Twist, Dickens levels a strident  criticism  at  the
Victorian  middle  class's  representation  of  the   poor   as   hereditary
criminals. Dickens goes to great lengths to criticize the attitude that  the
poor are inherently immoral from birth. However, he portrays  Monks  in  the
very same light.
      Brownlow tells Monks, "You . .  .  from  your  cradle  were  gall  and
bitterness to your own father's heart, and . . . all  evil  passions,  vice,
and profligacy, festered [in you]." Basically, Monks was a  b  ad  one  from
the cradle. Why should the unfortunate child of an unhappy, forced  marriage
be the very paragon of evil?

                      A Passage to India by E.M.Forster

      Part One: Mosque

      Chapter One:
      Forster begins  A  Passage  to  India  with  a  short  description  of
Chandrapore, a city along that Ganges that is not  notable  except  for  the
nearby Marabar caves. Chandrapore is a city of gardens with few fine  houses
from the imperial period of Upper India; it is primarily a "forest  sparsely
scattered with huts."
      Chapter Two:
      Dr. Aziz  arrives  by  bicycle  at  the  house  of  Hamidullah,  where
Hamidullah and Mr. Mahmoud Ali are smoking hookah and arguing about  whether
it is possible to be friends with an  Englishman.  Hamidullah,  educated  at
Cambridge, claims that it is possibly only in England, and the three  gossip
about English elites in India. Hamidullah Begum, a  distant  aunt  of  Aziz,
asks him when he will be married, but he responds that  once  is  enough.  A
servant arrives, bearing a note from the Civil Surgeon; Callendar wishes  to
see Aziz at his bungalow about a medical case. Aziz leaves,  traveling  down
the various streets named after victorious English generals, to reach  Major
Callendar's compound. The servant at the compound snubs  Aziz,  telling  him
the major has no message.  Two  English  ladies,  Mrs.  Callendar  and  Mrs.
Lesley, take Aziz's tonga (carriage), thinking that his ride is  their  own.
Aziz then leaves to go to the nearly mosque paved  with  broken  slabs.  The
Islamic temple awakens Aziz's sense of beauty; for Aziz, Islam is more  than
a  mere  Faith,  but  an  attitude  towards  life.  Suddenly,   an   elderly
Englishwoman arrives at the mosque. He reprimands her, telling her that  she
has no right to be there and that she should have taken off her  shoes,  but
she tells him that she did remember to take them off. Aziz  then  apologizes
for assuming that she would have forgotten. She introduces herself  as  Mrs.
Moore, and tells Aziz that she is newly arrived in India and has  come  from
the club. He warns her about walking alone at night,  because  of  poisonous
snakes and insects. Mrs. Moore is visiting her son, Mr. Heaslop, who is  the
City Magistrate. They find that they have much in common: both were  married
twice and have two sons and a daughter. He escorts Mrs. Moore  back  to  the
club, but tells her that Indians are not allowed into the Chandrapore  Club,
even as guests.
      Chapter Three:
      Mrs. Moore returns to the Chandrapore  Club,  where  she  meets  Adela
Quested, her companion from England who may marry  her  son  Ronny  Heaslop;
Adela wishes to see "the real India." She  complains  that  they  have  seen
nothing of India, but rather a replica of England. After  the  play  at  the
Club ends, the orchestra plays the anthem  of  the  Army  of  Occupation,  a
reminder of every club member  that  he  or  she  is  a  British  in  exile.
Fielding, the schoolmaster of Government  College,  suggests  that  if  they
want to see India they should actually  see  Indians.  Mrs.  Callendar  says
that the kindest thing one can do to  a  native  is  to  let  him  die.  The
Collector suggests that they have a Bridge Party  (a  party  to  bridge  the
gulf between east and west). When Mrs. Moore tells Ronny about her  trip  to
the mosque, he scolds her for speaking to  a  Mohammedan  and  suspects  the
worst, but Mrs. Moore defends Dr. Aziz. Ronny worries  that  Aziz  does  not
tolerate the English (the "brutal conqueror, the  sun-dried  bureaucrat"  as
he describes them). When she tells him that Aziz  dislikes  the  Callendars,
Ronny decides that he must pass that information on to them  and  tells  her
that Aziz abused them in order to impress her. When she tells Ronny that  he
never judged people in this way at home, Ronny rudely replies that India  is
not home. Finally Ronny agrees not to say anything to Major Callendar.
      Chapter Four:
      Mr. Turton, the  Collector,  issues  invitations  to  numerous  Indian
gentlemen in the neighborhood for the Bridge Party.  While  he  argues  with
Mr. Ram Chand and the elderly and distinguished Nawab Bahadur,  Mahmoud  Ali
claims that  the  Bridge  Party  is  due  to  actions  from  the  Lieutenant
Governor, for Turton  would  never  do  this  unless  compelled.  The  Nawab
Bahadur is a large proprietor and philanthropist;  his  decision  to  attend
the Bridge party carries great weight. Mr. Graysford  and  Mr.  Sorley,  the
missionaries who live nearby, argue that no one should  be  turned  away  by
God, but cannot decide whether divine hospitality should end at  monkeys  or
jackals or wasps or even  bacteria.  They  conclude  that  someone  must  be
excluded or they shall be left with nothing.
      Chapter Five:
      Neither Mrs. Moore nor Adela Quested consider the Bridge Party to be a
success. The Indians for the most  part  adopt  European  costume,  and  the
conversations are uncomfortable. Mrs. Moore speaks to Mrs. Bhattacharya  and
asks if she may call on her  some  day,  but  becomes  distressed  when  she
believes that Mrs. Bhattacharya will postpone a trip to  Calcutta  for  her.
During the party, Mr. Turton and Mr. Fielding are  the  only  officials  who
behave well toward the Indian guests. Mr. Fielding  comes  to  respect  Mrs.
Moore and Adela. Mr. Fielding suggests that Adela meet Dr. Aziz.  Ronny  and
Mrs. Moore discuss his behavior in India, and he tells her that  he  is  not
there to be pleasant, for he has more important things  to  do  there.  Mrs.
Moore believes that Ronny reminds her of his  public  school  days  when  he
talked like an intelligent and embittered boy. Mrs. Moore reminds  him  that
God put us on earth to love our neighbors, even in India. She feels it is  a
mistake to mention God, but as she  has  aged  she  found  him  increasingly
difficult to avoid.
      Chapter Six:
      Aziz did not go to the Bridge Party, but instead he dealt with several
surgical cases. It was the anniversary of his  wife's  death;  they  married
before they had met and he did not love  her  at  first,  but  that  changed
after the birth of their first child. He feels that he will never  get  over
the death of his first wife. Dr. Panna Lal returns from the Bridge Party  to
see Aziz and offers a paltry excuse for why he did not attend. Aziz  worries
that he offended the Collector by absenting himself  from  the  party.  When
Aziz returns home he finds an invitation from Mr.  Fielding  to  tea,  which
revives his spirits.
      Chapter Seven:
      Mr. Fielding arrived in India late in his life, when  he  had  already
passed forty, and was by that time a hard-bitten, good-tempered fellow  with
a great enthusiasm for education. He has no racial feelings, because he  had
matured in a different atmosphere where the herd instinct did not  flourish.
The wives of the English officers dislike Fielding for  his  liberal  racial
views, and Fielding discovers that it is possible to keep company with  both
Indians and Englishmen, but to keep company with English women he must  drop
Indians. Aziz arrives at Fielding's house for tea as  Fielding  is  dressing
after a bath; since Fielding cannot see him, Aziz makes Fielding guess  what
he looks like. Aziz offers Fielding his collar stud, for he  has  lost  his.
When Fielding asks why people wear collars at all,  Aziz  responds  that  he
wears them to pass the Police, who take little notice of Indians in  English
dress. Fielding tells Aziz that they will meet with Mrs.  Moore  and  Adela,
as well as Professor Narayan Godbole, the Deccani Brahman. Mrs. Moore  tells
Mr. Fielding that Mrs. Bhattacharya was to send  a  carriage  for  her  this
morning, but did not, and worries that she  offended  her.  Fielding,  Aziz,
Mrs. Moore  and  Adela  discuss  mysteries.  Mrs.  Moore  claims  she  likes
mysteries but hates muddles, but Mr. Fielding claims that  a  mystery  is  a
muddle, and that India itself is a muddle. Godbole  arrives,  a  polite  and
enigmatic yet eloquent  man,  elderly  and  wizened.  His  whole  appearance
suggests harmony, as if he has reconciled the products  of  East  and  West,
mental as well as physical. They discuss how one can get mangoes in  England
now, and Fielding remarks that India can be made in England just as  England
is now made in India. They discuss the Marabar  Caves,  and  Fielding  takes
Mrs. Moore to see the college. Ronny arrives,  annoyed  to  see  Adela  with
Aziz and Godbole. Ronny tells Fielding  that  he  doesn't  like  to  see  an
English girl left smoking with two Indians, but he reminds  him  that  Adela
made the decision herself.
      Chapter Eight:
      For Adela, Ronny's self-complacency and lack  of  subtlety  grow  more
vivid in India than in England. Adela tells Ronny that  Fielding,  Aziz  and
Godbole are planning a picnic at the Marabar Caves for her and  Mrs.  Moore.
Ronny mocks Aziz for missing his collar stud, claiming that  it  is  typical
of the Indian inattention to detail. Adela decides that she will  not  marry
Ronny, who is hurt by the news but tells her that they were never  bound  to
marry in the first place. She feels ashamed at his decency, and they  decide
that  they  shall  remain  friends.  Ronny  suggests  a  car  trip  to   see
Chandrapore, and the Nawab Bahadur offers to take them. There  is  a  slight
accident, as the car swerves into a tree near an  embankment.  Adela  thinks
that they ran into an animal, perhaps a hyena or a buffalo. When Miss  Derek
finds them, she offers to drive all of them back into town  except  for  Mr.
Harris, the Eurasian chauffeur. The Nawab Bahadur scolds Miss Derek for  her
behavior. Adela tells Ronny that she takes back  what  she  told  him  about
marriage. Ronny apologizes to his mother for his behavior at Mr.  Fielding's
house. Mrs. Moore is now tired of India and  wishes  only  for  her  passage
back to England. Ronny reminds her that she has dealt  with  three  sets  of
Indians today, and all three have let her down, but Mrs. Moore  claims  that
she likes Aziz. The Nawab Bahadur thinks that the accident was caused  by  a
ghost, for several years before he was in a car accident in which he  killed
a drunken man.
      Chapter Nine:
      Aziz falls ill with fever, and Hamidullah discusses his  illness  with
Syed Mohammed, the assistant engineer, and  Mr.  Haq,  a  police  inspector.
Rafi, the engineer's nephew, suggests that  something  suspicious  occurred,
for Godbole also fell sick after Fielding's party, but Hamidullah  dismisses
the idea. Mr. Fielding visits Aziz. They discuss Indian education, and  Aziz
asks if it is fair  that  an  Englishman  holds  a  teaching  position  when
qualified Indians are  available.  Fielding  cannot  answer  "England  holds
India for her own good," the only answer to a  conversation  of  this  type.
Fielding instead says that he is delighted to be in India, and that  is  his
only excuse for working there. He suggests chucking out any  Englishman  who
does not appreciate being in India.
      Chapter Ten:
      Opposite Aziz's bungalow stands a large unfinished house belonging  to
two brothers. A squirrel hangs on it, seeming to be  the  only  occupant  of
the house. More noises come from nearby animals. These animals make  up  the
majority of the living creatures of India, yet do  not  care  how  India  is
      Chapter Eleven:
      Aziz shows Fielding a picture  of  his  wife,  a  custom  uncommon  in
Islamic tradition. Aziz tells him that he believes in the purdah, but  would
have told his wife that Fielding is his brother  and  thus  she  would  have
seen him, just as Hamidullah and a small  number  of  others  had.  Fielding
wonders what kindness he offered to Aziz to have such kindness offered  back
to him. Aziz asks Fielding if he has any children, which he  does  not,  and
asks why he does not marry Miss Quested. He claims that she  is  a  prig,  a
pathetic product of Western education who prattles on as if she  were  at  a
lecture. He tells him that Adela is engaged to  the  City  Magistrate.  Aziz
then makes a derogatory comment about Miss  Quested's  small  breasts.  Aziz
discovers that Fielding was warm-hearted and unconventional, but  not  wise,
yet they are friends and brothers.
      Part Two: Caves
      Chapter Twelve:
      This chapter is devoted solely to a description of the Marabar  Caves.
Each of the caves include a tunnel about eight feet long,  five  feet  high,
three feet wide that leads to  a  circular  chamber  about  twenty  feet  in
diameter. Having seen one cave, one has essentially  seen  all  of  them.  A
visitor who sees them returns to Chandrapore uncertain whether  he  has  had
an interesting experience, a dull one, or even an experience at all. In  one
of the caves there is rumored to be a boulder that swings on the  summit  of
the highest of the hills; this boulder sits on a pedestal known as the  Kawa
      Chapter Thirteen:
      Adela Quested mentions the trip to the Marabar Caves  to  Miss  Derek,
but she mentions that she is unsure whether  the  trip  will  occur  because
Indians seem  forgetful.  A  servant  overhears  them,  and  passes  on  the
information to Mahmoud Ali.  Aziz  therefore  decides  to  push  the  matter
through, securing Fielding and Godbole for the trip and asking  Fielding  to
approach Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore. Aziz  considers  all  aspects  of  the
trip,  including  food  and  alcohol,  and  worries   about   the   cultural
differences. Mrs. Moore and Adela travel to the caves in a purdah  carriage.
Aziz finds that Antony, the servant that the women are bringing, is  not  to
be trusted, so he suggests that he is unnecessary, but Antony  insists  that
Ronny wants him to go. Mohammed Latif bribes Antony not to go  on  the  trip
with them. Ten minutes before the train is to leave,  Fielding  and  Godbole
are not yet at the station. The train starts just as  Fielding  and  Godbole
arrive; Godbole had miscalculated the length of  his  morning  prayer.  When
the two men miss the train, Aziz blames himself. Aziz feels that  this  trip
is  a  chance  for  him  to  demonstrate  that  Indians   are   capable   of
      Chapter Fourteen:
      For the past two weeks in which they had been in India, Mrs. Moore and
Miss Quested had felt nothing, living inside  cocoons;  Mrs.  Moore  accepts
her apathy, but Adela resents hers. It  is  Adela's  faith  that  the  whole
stream of events is important and interesting, and if she  grows  bored  she
blames herself severely. This is her  only  major  insincerity.  Mrs.  Moore
feels increasingly that people  are  important,  but  relationships  between
them are not and that in  particular  too  much  fuss  has  been  made  over
marriage. The train reaches its  destination  and  they  ride  elephants  to
reach the caves. None of the guests particularly  want  to  see  the  caves.
Aziz overrates hospitality, mistaking it for intimacy and  not  seeing  that
it is tainted with a sense of possession. It is only  when  Mrs.  Moore  and
Fielding are near that he knows that it is more blessed to receive  than  to
give. Miss Quested admits that it is inevitable  that  she  will  become  an
Anglo-Indian, but Aziz protests. She hopes that she  will  not  become  like
Mrs. Turton and Mrs. Callendar, but admits that she does not have a  special
force of character to stop that tendency. In one of the  caves  there  is  a
distinct echo, which alarms Mrs. Moore,  who  decides  she  must  leave  the
cave. Aziz appreciates the frankness with which Mrs. Moore treats him.  Mrs.
Moore begins to write a letter to her son and daughter, but  cannot  because
she remains disturbed and frightened  by  the  echo  in  the  cave.  She  is
terrified because the universe no longer offers repose to her soul. She  has
lost all interest, even in Aziz, and  the  affectionate  and  sincere  words
that she had spoken seem foreign to her.
      Chapter Fifteen:
      Adela and Aziz and a guide continue along the tedious expedition. They
encounter several isolated caves which the guide persuades  them  to  visit,
but there is really nothing for them to see. Aziz has little to say to  Miss
Quested, for he likes her less than he does Mrs. Moore and greatly  dislikes
that she is marrying a British official, while Adela has little  to  say  to
Aziz. Adela realizes that she does not love Ronny, but is not  sure  whether
that is reason enough to break off her engagement. She asks Aziz  if  he  is
married, and he tells her that he is, feeling that it is  more  artistic  to
have his wife alive for a moment. She asks him if he has one  wife  or  more
than one, a question which shocks him very much, but Adela is  unaware  that
she had said the wrong thing.
      Chapter Sixteen:
      Aziz waits in the cave, smoking, and when  he  returns  he  finds  the
guide alone with his head on one side.  The  guide  does  not  know  exactly
which cave Miss Quested entered, and Aziz worries that she is lost.  On  his
way down the path to the car that had arrived from Chandrapore,  Aziz  finds
Miss Quested's field glasses lying at the verge of a cave and puts  them  in
his pocket. He sees Fielding, who arrived in Miss Derek's car,  but  neither
he nor anyone else knows where Adela has gone. The expedition ends, and  the
train arrives to bring them back into Chandrapore. As they arrive  in  town,
Mr. Haq arrests Dr. Aziz, but he  is  under  instructions  not  to  say  the
charge. Aziz refuses to go, but Fielding talks  him  into  cooperating.  Mr.
Turton leads Fielding off so that Aziz goes to prison alone.
      Chapter Seventeen:
      Fielding speaks to the Collector, who tells him that Miss Quested  has
been insulted in one of the Marabar  Caves  and  that  he  would  not  allow
Fielding to accompany Aziz to preserve him  from  scandal.  Fielding  thinks
that Adela is mad, a remark  that  Mr.  Turton  demands  that  he  withdraw.
Fielding explains that he cannot believe that Aziz  is  guilty.  Mr.  Turton
tells Fielding that he has been in the country for  twenty-five  years,  and
in that time he has never known anything but disaster whenever  Indians  and
the English interact socially. He tells  Fielding  that  there  will  be  an
informal meeting  at  the  club  that  evening  to  discuss  the  situation.
Fielding keeps his head during the discussion; he  does  not  rally  to  the
banner of race. The Collector goes to the platform, where  he  can  see  the
confusion about him. He takes in the situation with a glance, and his  sense
of justice functions although he is insane with rage. When he  sees  coolies
asleep in the ditches or the shopkeepers rising to salute him,  he  says  to
himself "I know what you're like at last; you shall pay for this, you  shall
      Chapter Eighteen:
      Mr. McBryde, the  District  Superintendent  of  Police,  is  the  most
reflective and best educated of the Chandrapore officials. He receives  Aziz
with courtesy, but is shocked at his downfall. McBryde has  a  theory  about
climatic zones: all unfortunate natives are  criminals  at  heart,  for  the
simple reason that they live south of latitude 30.  They  are  thus  not  to
blame, for they have not a dog's chance. McBryde, however,  admits  that  he
seems to contradict this theory himself. The charge against Aziz is that  he
followed her into the cave and made insulting advances;  she  hit  him  with
her field glasses, but he pulled at them and the strap broke,  and  that  is
how she got away. They find that Aziz has the glasses. Fielding asks  if  he
may see Adela, but the request is denied. McBryde admits  to  Fielding  that
she is in no state to see anyone, but Fielding believes that she's  under  a
hideous delusion and Aziz is innocent. Fielding explains that, if Aziz  were
guilty, he would not have kept the field glasses.  McBryde  tells  him  that
the  Indian  criminal  psychology  is  different,  and  shows  Fielding  the
contents of Aziz's pocket case, including a letter from a friend  who  keeps
a brothel. The police also find pictures of women in  Aziz's  bungalow,  but
Fielding says that the picture is of Aziz's wife.
      Chapter Nineteen:
      Hamidullah waits outside the Superintendent's office;  Fielding  tells
him that evidence for Aziz's innocence will come.  Hamidullah  is  convinced
that Aziz is innocent and throws his lot with  the  Indians,  realizing  the
profundity of the gulf that separates them. Hamidullah wants  Aziz  to  have
Armitrao, a Hindu who is notoriously anti-British, as his  lawyer.  Fielding
feels this is too extreme. Fielding tells Hamidullah that he is on the  side
of Aziz, but immediately regrets  taking  sides,  for  he  wishes  to  slink
through India unlabelled. Fielding has a talk with Godbole, who is  entirely
unaffected  by  Aziz's  plight.  He  tells  Fielding  that  he  is   leaving
Chandrapore to return to his birthplace in Central India to take  charge  of
education there. He wants to start a High School  on  sound  English  lines.
Godbole cannot say whether or not he thinks that Aziz  is  guilty;  he  says
that nothing can be performed in isolation, for when  one  performs  a  good
action, all do, and when an evil action is performed,  all  perform  it.  He
claims that good and evil are both aspects of the  Lord.  Fielding  goes  to
see Aziz, but finds him unapproachable through misery. Fielding wonders  why
Miss Quested, such a  dry,  sensible  girl  without  malice,  would  falsely
accuse an Indian.
      Chapter Twenty:
      Miss Quested's plight had brought her great support among the  English
in India; she came out from her ennobled in sorrow. At the  meeting  at  the
club, Fielding asks whether there is  an  official  bulletin  about  Adela's
health, or whether the grave reports are due to gossip.  Fielding  makes  an
error by speaking her name; others refer to both Adela  and  Aziz  in  vague
and impersonal terms. Each person feels that all he loved best was at  stake
in the matter. The Collector tells them to assume that every  Indian  is  an
angel. The event had made Ronny Heaslop a martyr, the recipient of  all  the
evil intended against them by the country they had tried  to  serve.  As  he
watches Fielding, the Collector says that responsibility  is  a  very  awful
thing, but he has no use for the man who shirks it. He  claims  that  he  is
against any show of force. Fielding  addresses  the  meeting,  telling  them
that he believes that Aziz is innocent; if Aziz is  found  guilty,  Fielding
vows to reign and leave India, but now he resigns from the club. When  Ronny
enters, Fielding does not stand. The Collector insists that he apologize  to
Ronny, but then orders Fielding to leave immediately.
      Chapter Twenty-One:
      Fielding spends the rest  of  the  evening  with  the  Nawab  Bahadur,
Hamidullah, Mahmoud Ali, and others of  the  confederacy.  Fielding  has  an
inclination to tell Professor Godbole of the tactical  and  moral  error  he
had made in being rude to Ronny Heaslop, but Godbole  had  already  gone  to
      Chapter Twenty-Two:
      Adela lay for several days in the McBryde's bungalow; others are over-
kind to her, the men too respectful and the women too sympathetic.  The  one
visitor she wants, Mrs. Moore, kept away. She tells that  she  went  into  a
detestable cave, remembers scratching the wall with  her  finger  nail,  and
then there was a shadow down the entrance tunnel, bottling her up.  She  hit
him with her glasses, he pulled her round the cave by the strap,  it  broke,
and she escaped. He never actually  touched  her.  She  refuses  to  cry,  a
degradation worse than what occurred in the Marabar and a  negation  of  her
advanced outlook. Adela feels that only Mrs. Moore can drive back  the  evil
that happened to her. Ronny tells her that she must  appear  in  court,  and
Adela asks if his mother can be there. He tells her that the case will  come
before Mr. Das, the brother of  Mrs.  Bhattacharya  and  Ronny's  assistant.
Ronny tells Adela that Fielding wrote her a letter  (which  he  opened).  He
tells her that the defense had got  hold  of  Fielding,  who  has  done  the
community a great disservice. Adela worries that  Mrs.  Moore  is  ill,  but
Ronny says that she is merely irritable at the moment. When  she  sees  her,
Adela thinks that she repels Mrs.  Moore,  who  has  no  inclination  to  be
helpful; Mrs.  Moore  appears  slightly  resentful,  without  her  Christian
tenderness. Mrs. Moore refuses to be at  all  involved  in  the  trial.  She
tells that she will attend their marriage but not their trial. She  vows  to
go to England. Ronny tells her that she appears to want to be  left  out  of
everything. She says that the human race would have become a  single  person
centuries ago if marriage were any use. Adela wonders  whether  she  made  a
mistake, and tells Ronny that he is innocent. She feels that Mrs. Moore  has
told her that Aziz is innocent. Ronny tells her  not  to  say  such  things,
because every servant he has is a  spy.  Mrs.  Moore  tells  Adela  that  of
course Aziz is innocent. Mrs. Moore thinks that she is a bad woman, but  she
will not help Ronny torture a man for what he never  did.  She  claims  that
there are different ways of evil, and she prefers  her  own  to  his.  Ronny
thinks that Mrs. Moore must leave India,  for  she  was  doing  no  good  to
herself or anyone else.
      Chapter Twenty-Three:
      Lady Mellanby, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor, had been gratified  by
the appeal addressed to her by the ladies of Chandrapore, but she  could  do
nothing; she does agree to help Mrs. Moore get passage out of India  in  her
own cabin. Mrs. Moore got what she  desired:  she  escaped  the  trial,  the
marriage and the hot weather, and will return to England  in  comfort.  Mrs.
Moore, however, has come to that state where the horror  and  the  smallness
of the universe are visible. The echo in the cave was a revelation  to  Mrs.
Moore, insignificant though it may be. Mrs. Moore departs  from  Chandrapore
alone, for Ronny cannot leave the town.
      Chapter Twenty-Four:
      The heat accelerates after Mrs. Moore's departure  until  it  seems  a
punishment. Adela resumes her morning kneel to Christianity,  imploring  God
for a favorable verdict. Adela worries that she will break down  during  the
trial, but the Collector tells her that she is bound to win,  but  does  not
tell her that Nawab Bahadur  had  financed  the  defense  and  would  surely
appeal. The case is called, and the first person Adela notices in the  Court
is the man who pulls the punkah; to Adela, this nearly naked man stands  out
as divine as he pulls the rope. Mr.  McBryde  behaves  casually,  as  if  he
knows that Aziz will be found guilty. He remarks that the darker  races  are
physically attracted to the fairer, but not  vice  verse,  and  a  voice  is
heard from the crowd asking "even when the lady is so much uglier  than  the
man?" Mahmoud Ali claims that Mrs. Moore was sent  away  because  she  would
have testified that Aziz is innocent.  The  audience  begins  chanting  Mrs.
Moore until her name seems to be Esmiss Esmoor, as if a Hindu  goddess.  The
magistrate scolds Armitrao and McBryde for presuming Mrs.  Moore's  presence
as a witness. Adela is the next to testify; a  new  sensation  protects  her
like a magnificent armor. When McBryde asks her whether Aziz  followed  her,
she say that she cannot be  sure.  Finally,  she  admits  that  she  made  a
mistake and Dr. Aziz never followed her. The  Major  attempts  to  stop  the
proceedings on medical grounds, but Adela withdraws the  charge.  The  Nawab
Bahadur declares in court  that  this  is  a  scandal.  Mr.  Das  rises  and
releases the prisoner, as the man who  pulls  the  punkah  continues  as  if
nothing had occurred.
      Chapter Twenty-Five:
      Miss Quested renounces his own people and is  drawn  into  a  mass  of
Indians and carried toward the public exit  of  the  court.  Fielding  finds
her, and tells her that she cannot walk  alone  in  Chandrapore,  for  there
will be a riot. She wonders if she should join the  other  English  persons,
but Fielding puts her in his carriage. One of Fielding's students finds  him
and gives him a  garland  of  jasmine,  but  Fielding  has  wearied  of  his
students' adoration. The student vows to pull Fielding and Miss  Quested  in
a procession. Mahmoud Ali shouts "down with the  Collector,  down  with  the
Superintendent of Police," but the Nawab Bahadur reprimands him  as  unwise.
A riot nearly occurs, but Dr. Panna Lal calms the  situation.  Although  Dr.
Lal was going to testify for the prosecution, he makes a public  apology  to
Aziz and secures the release of Nureddin, for there are rumors that  he  was
being tortured by the police.
      Chapter Twenty-Six:
      Fielding and Miss Quested remain isolated at the college and have  the
first of several curious conversations. He asks her why  she  would  make  a
charge if she were to withdraw it, but she cannot give a definitive  answer.
She tells him that she has been unwell since the caves  and  perhaps  before
that,  and  wonders  what  gave  her  the  hallucination.  He  offers   four
explanations, but only gives three: Aziz is guilty, as  her  friends  think;
she invented the charge out of malice,  which  is  what  Fielding's  friends
think; or, she had a hallucination. He tells her that he believes  that  she
broke the strap of the field glasses and was alone in  the  cave  the  whole
time. She tells him that she first felt out of sorts at the party with  Aziz
and Godbole, and tells him that  she  had  a  hallucination  of  a  marriage
proposal when there was none. Fielding believes that McBryde exorcised  her:
as soon as he asked a straightforward question, she gave  a  straightforward
answer and broke down. She asks what Aziz thinks of her, and Fielding  tells
Adela that Aziz is not capable of thought in his misery,  but  is  naturally
very bitter. An underlying feeling with Aziz is that he had been accused  by
an  ugly  woman;  Aziz  is  a  sexual  snob.  Fielding  offers  the   fourth
explanation: that it was the guide who assaulted Adela, but that  option  is
inconclusive. Hamidullah joins them, and alternately praises and  reprimands
Adela. Fielding and Hamidullah are unsure where Adela could go,  because  no
place seems safe for her. Fielding has a new sympathy  for  Adela,  who  has
become a real person to him. Adela thinks that she must go to  the  Turtons,
for the Collector would take her in, if not  his  wife.  Ronny  arrives  and
tells them that Mrs. Moore died at sea from the  heat.  Fielding  tells  him
that Adela will stay at the college but he will not be responsible  for  her
      Chapter Twenty-Seven:
      After the Victory Banquet at Mr. Zulfiqar's mansion, Aziz and Fielding
discuss the future. Aziz knows that Fielding wants him  to  not  sue  Adela,
for it will show him to be a gentleman, but Aziz says  that  he  has  become
anti-British and ought to have become so sooner. Aziz says that he will  not
let Miss Quested off easily to make a  better  reputation  for  himself  and
Indians generally, for it will be put down to weakness and  the  attempt  to
gain promotion. Aziz decides that he will  have  nothing  more  to  do  with
British India and will seek service in some  Moslem  State.  Fielding  tells
Aziz that Adela is a prig, but perfectly genuine and very  brave.  He  tells
Aziz what a momentous move she made. Fielding offers to be  an  intermediary
for an apology from Adela, and Aziz asks  for  an  apology  in  which  Adela
admits that she is an awful hag. Aziz finally agrees to consult Mrs.  Moore.
However, when Fielding blurts out that she is dead, Aziz  does  not  believe
      Chapter Twenty-Eight:
      The death of Mrs. Moore assumes more  subtle  and  lasting  shapes  in
Chandrapore than in England. A legend sprang up that Ronny  killed  her  for
trying to save Aziz's life, and there was sufficient truth  in  that  legend
to trouble authorities. Ronny reminds himself that Mrs. Moore left India  of
her own volition, but his conscience is not clear, for he behaved  badly  to
her. Adela will leave India and not marry Ronny, for  that  would  mean  the
end of his career.
      Chapter Twenty-Nine:
      Sir  Gilbert,  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of   the   Province,   visits
Chandrapore. Fielding finds himself drawn more and more into Miss  Quested's
affairs, and appreciates her fine loyal character and humility. Victory  had
made the Indians aggressive,  attempting  to  discover  new  grievances  and
wrongs. Fielding uses Mrs. Moore as an  attempt  to  persuade  Aziz  to  let
Adela off paying. Adela admits to Fielding that she was  thinking  of  Ronny
when she first entered the cave, and now she no  longer  wants  love.  Adela
leaves India. On her travel out of India, Antony tries to blackmail  her  by
claiming that she had an affair with Fielding, but she turns him away.  When
Adela arrives in England, she vows to  look  up  Ralph  and  Stella  and  to
return to her profession.
      Chapter Thirty:
      Another local consequence of the trial is a Hindu-Moslem entente.  Mr.
Das visits Aziz, seeking favors; he  asks  Aziz  to  write  poetry  for  the
magazine he publishes.  Aziz  accommodates  him,  but  asks  why  he  should
fulfill these when Mr. Das tried to send him to  prison.  Aziz  thinks  that
the magazine for which Mr. Das asks him to write is  for  Hindus  only,  but
Mr. Das tells him that it is for Indians in general. When  Aziz  says  there
is no category of "Indian" (only Hindu and Moslem), Das says that after  the
trial there may be. Hamidullah gossips with Aziz, telling him that  Fielding
may have had an affair with Adela, but this  does  not  faze  Aziz,  for  he
claims that he has no friends and all are traitors, even his own children.
      Chapter Thirty-One:
      The sequence of  the  events  had  decided  Aziz's  emotions  and  his
friendship with Fielding began to cool. He  assumes  that  the  rumor  about
Fielding and Adela is true and resents it. Aziz  speaks  to  Fielding  about
it, but Fielding tells him not to speak so  melodramatically  about  "dismay
and anxiety." Aziz speaks about enemies, but Fielding seems to  dismiss  the
idea that either of them have great enemies.  Fielding  becomes  angry  that
Aziz thinks that he and Adela had an affair during such  a  difficult  time,
but the two clear up the misunderstanding. Aziz and Fielding  discuss  their
future plans. Fielding is conscious of something  hostile  against  him.  He
leaves Chandrapore, with Aziz convinced that he will marry Miss Quested.
      Chapter Thirty-Two:
      Fielding leaves India for travels in other exotic parts of the  world.
Fielding found Egypt charming, as well as Crete and  Venice.  He  felt  that
everything in Venice and Crete was  right  where  everything  in  India  was
wrong, such as the idol temples and lumpy hills.  Elsewhere  there  is  form
that India lacks.
      Part Three: Temple
      Chapter Thirty-Three:
      Hundreds of miles west of the Marabar Hills, Professor Godbole  stands
"in the presence of God" during a Hindu birth  ceremony.  Godbole  prays  at
the famous shrine at the palace at Mau.  Godbole  is  now  the  Minister  of
Education at Mau. He sings not to the  god  who  confronts  him  during  the
ritual, but to a saint. The ritual does not one  thing  that  the  non-Hindu
would consider dramatically correct. By chance, while thinking about a  wasp
that he sees,  Godbole  remembers  Mrs.  Moore,  even  though  she  was  not
important to him.
      Chapter Thirty-Four:
      Dr. Aziz, who had taken part in the ceremony, leaves the palace at the
same time as Godbole and sees the Professor, who  tells  him  that  Fielding
arrived at the European Guest House. Fielding is making an  official  visit;
he was transferred from Chandrapore and  sent  on  a  tour  through  Central
India to see what the more remote states are doing with  regard  to  English
education. Fielding had  married;  Aziz  assumes  that  his  bride  is  Miss
Quested. In Mau the  conflict  is  not  between  Indians  and  English,  but
between Brahman and non-Brahman. Aziz had destroyed  all  the  letters  that
Fielding had wrote to  him  after  he  learned  that  Fielding  had  married
someone he knew. Unfortunately, Aziz never read any letters past the  phrase
"someone he knew" and automatically assumed it was Miss Quested. Aziz  still
remains under criminal investigation since the  trial.  Colonel  Maggs,  the
Political Agent for the area, is  committed  to  investigating  Aziz,  still
convinced that he must be  guilty  based  on  events  in  Chandrapore.  Aziz
receives a note from Fielding, but he tears it up.
      Chapter Thirty-Five:
      There are two shrines to a Mohammedan saint in Mau. These  commemorate
a man who, upon his mother's order to "free prisoners,"  freed  the  inmates
at the local jail, but whose head was cut off by the police.  These  shrines
are the sites where the few Mohammedans  in  Mau  pray.  Aziz  goes  to  the
Shrine of the Head with his children, Ahmed, Jemila and Karim. The  children
see Fielding and his brother-in-law, and tell Aziz.  They  suggest  throwing
stones at them, but Aziz scolds them. Aziz, who is  fortunately  in  a  good
temper, greets Fielding, although he had not intended to do so. Aziz  greets
the brother-in-law as "Mr. Quested," but he says  that  his  name  is  Ralph
Moore. Fielding had married Stella, the daughter  of  Mrs.  Moore.  Fielding
blames Mahmoud Ali for the ill will between them, for he  knew  definitively
that Fielding had married Stella. Aziz behaves aggressively  and  says  that
he forgives Mahmoud Ali. He tells Fielding that his heart  is  for  his  own
people only. He leaves Fielding  and  returns  to  his  house,  excited  and
happy, but realizes that he had promised  Mrs.  Moore  to  be  kind  to  her
children, if he met them.
      Chapter Thirty-Six:
      The birth procession had not  yet  taken  place,  although  the  birth
ceremony  finished  earlier.  All  would  culminate  in  the  dance  of  the
milkmaidens before Krishna. Aziz could not understand the ceremony any  more
than a Christian could, puzzled that during the ceremony the people  in  Mau
could be purged from suspicion and self-seeking. Godbole tells Aziz that  he
has known that Fielding was married to Stella Moore for more  than  a  year.
Aziz cannot be angry with Godbole, however, because it is  not  his  way  to
tell anybody anything. Aziz and Godbole continue in  the  procession  as  it
leads out of town. Aziz becomes cynical once again. He thinks that the  pose
of "seeing India" is only a form of conquest. Aziz goes to the  Guest  House
where Fielding stays and reads two letters lying open on the piano.  In  the
East the sanctity of private correspondence  does  not  exist.  The  letters
primarily concern Ralph Moore, who appears to be  almost  an  imbecile,  but
there is a letter from Adela to Stella in which  she  says  that  she  hopes
Stella will enjoy India more than she did  and  says  that  she  will  never
repay a debt. Aziz notices the friendly intercourse  between  these  people,
men and women, and believes that this is  the  strength  of  England.  Ralph
Moore enters, and Aziz claims that he is there to bring salve  for  his  bee
stings. Aziz abruptly prepares to leave, but  apologizes.  Ralph  tells  him
that his mother loved Aziz, and Aziz claims that Mrs.  Moore  was  his  best
friend in the world. Aziz offers to take Ralph Moore out on  the  river,  as
an act of homage to Mrs. Moore.  Ralph  is  curious  about  the  procession,
which marks him as Mrs. Moore's son. The boat which Ralph and  Aziz  are  in
collides with another boat carrying Fielding and Stella.
      Chapter Thirty-Seven:
      Fielding and Aziz are friends again, but aware that they can  meet  no
more. After the funny shipwreck there is no  bitterness  or  nonsense.  Aziz
admits how brave Miss Quested was, and claims  that  he  wants  to  do  kind
actions to wipe out the wretched business of the Marabar  forever.  Fielding
realizes that his wife does not love him as  much  as  he  loves  her.  They
realize that socially the two men have no  meeting  place.  Fielding  cannot
defy his own people for the sake of a  stray  Indian,  and  Aziz  is  but  a
memento. Aziz explains what he can of the  birthing  ceremony  to  Fielding.
They  discuss  who  should  rule  India.  Fielding  mockingly  suggests  the
Japanese, but Aziz wants his ancestors,  the  Afghans,  to  rule.  To  Aziz,
India will then become a nation. Aziz cries "down with the  English.  That's
certain," then states that only then will he and Fielding be friends.

                      Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen

Volume I, Chapter 1 Summary:
      The  novel  begins  with  a  conversation  at  Longbourn,  the  Bennet
household, regarding the impending arrival of Mr. Bingley, "a single man  of
large fortune" to Netherfield Park, a nearby estate. Mrs.  Bennet  sees  Mr.
Bingley as a potential suitor for her daughters, and  attempts  to  persuade
Mr. Bingley to visit him. There are five daughters  in  the  Bennet  family.
Mr. Bennet seems to prefer Elizabeth, the  second  oldest,  because  of  her
intelligence, while Mrs. Bennet seems fonder of the  oldest,  Jane,  because
of her beauty, and the middle child, Lydia, because of her good humor.
Volume I, Chapter 2 Summary:
      Without telling his family, Mr. Bennet pays a visit to Mr. Bingley. He
surprises his family by slipping the news unexpectedly into a  conversation,
but disappoints them by eluding their barrage of questions  about  Bingley's
Volume I, Chapter 3 Summary:
      The ladies of the household meet  Mr.  Bingley  and  his  friend  from
London, Mr. Darcy, at a ball at Meryton. Mr.  Darcy  is  quickly  judged  as
"the proudest, most disagreeable man in the world" because  of  his  reserve
and unwillingness to dance with anyone outside of his own party.  When  both
Darcy and Elizabeth  are  sitting  out  a  dance  and  Bingley  attempts  to
persuade him to dance with her, Elizabeth overhears Darcy's  reply  "She  is
tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me." Mr. Bingley, on  the  other
hand, is judged to be entirely  amiable.  He  danced  first  with  Charlotte
Lucas, Elizabeth's friend, but the only person with  whom  he  danced  twice
was Jane. Upon returning home, Mrs. Bennet attempts to explain the event  of
the ball in detail to Mr. Bennet, but he is indifferent and even annoyed.
Volume I, Chapter 4 Summary:
      When they are alone, Jane confides to Elizabeth that she  admires  Mr.
Bingley. Elizabeth approves of him, although she points out that Jane  never
sees faults in others. While Elizabeth is critical of the snobbish  behavior
of Bingley's sisters, Jane insists that they are pleasing in conversation.
      Bingley has a long-standing friendship with Darcy, in spite  of  their
opposite personalities. Bingley is  easy-going  and  open,  while  Darcy  is
haughty and reserved. While Bingley found the company at  the  Meryton  ball
to be quite amiable, Darcy saw no one with whom he wished to associate,  and
even though he assents to Jane's beauty, he complains that  she  smiles  too
Bingley's  sisters  also  tell  him  that  they  like  Jane,  and  he  feels
"authorised by such commendation" to think what he likes of her.
Volume I, Chapter 5 Summary:
      Sir William  Lucas  and  his  family  live  near  Longbourn,  and  Sir
William's eldest daughter Charlotte is a close friend of Elizabeth. The  day
after the ball Charlotte and Lady Lucas go visit the Miss Bennetts  to  talk
over the ball. They speak about general admiration  for  Jane's  beauty  and
Bingley's attraction to her, and then go on to criticize Darcy's  pride  and
his treatment of Elizabeth. Mary makes a remark about universality of  pride
in human nature and its differentiation from vanity.
Volume I, Chapter 6 Summary:
      Bingley's sisters, while not desirous of become better acquainted with
Mrs. Bennett  and  the  younger  Bennet  sisters,  begin  to  become  better
acquainted with Jane and Elizabeth. Jane is pleased by their attention,  but
Elizabeth is still critical of them. The mutual regard of Jane  and  Bingley
for one another  is  evident  to  Elizabeth,  though  Jane's  composure  and
"uniform cheerfulness of manner" prevent her regard for  him  from  becoming
      Charlotte remarks that it may not be such a  good  thing  that  Jane's
affection is guarded,  because  it  may  cause  discouragement  in  Bingley.
Charlotte believes that a woman should show more affection  than  she  feels
in order to  make  a  man  form  an  attachment  to  her,  and  thinks  that
"happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance."
      Mr. Darcy begins to take an interest in Elizabeth,  attracted  by  her
dark eyes and the "easy  playfulness"  of  her  manners.  Before  conversing
directly with her, he listens on a conversation between  Elizabeth  and  Sir
William Lucas. Elizabeth refuses to  dance  with  Darcy,  in  spite  of  the
entreaties of Sir William. Darcy mentions his admiration  for  Elizabeth  to
Miss Bingley,  who  is  vainly  attempting  to  attract  his  admiration  to
herself. Miss Bingley responds by satirically criticizing Bennett family.
Volume I, Chapter 7 Summary:
      Lydia and Catherine, the two youngest in the family, often go to visit
their aunt,  Mrs.  Phillips,  in  Meryton,  where  a  militia  regiment  has
recently arrived. Mr. Bennet complains of his  daughters'  foolishness,  but
Mrs. Bennet does not consider their obsession with  the  officers  to  be  a
cause for concern.
      Jane receives an invitation to have  dinner  with  Bingley's  sisters.
Rather than allowing her to use the carriage  to  go  to  Netherfield,  Mrs.
Bingley tells Jane to go on horseback, hoping that it  will  rain  and  that
Jane will have to spend the night at Netherfield. Jane  does  not  like  the
scheme, but has no choice but to accept it.
      The plan works all too well, however‹not only is Jane forced to  spend
the night at Netherfield, but she falls ill as a result  of  getting  soaked
in the rain, and has to stay at Netherfield until  her  recovery.  Elizabeth
goes to  Netherfield  to  visit  Jane,  and  because  there  are  no  horses
available she walks. The Bingley  sisters  are  scandalized  that  Elizabeth
walked such a distance in the  mud.  Jane's  condition  having  intensified,
Elizabeth attends to her with great solicitude. Because Jane does  not  want
Elizabeth to leave, Miss Bingley invites her to stay at Netherfield.
Volume I, Chapter 8 Summary:
      When Elizabeth leaves the dinner table to continue attending to  Jane,
the Bingley sisters harshly criticize her pride  and  stubborn  independence
for having walked to Netherfield alone, but Mr.  Bingley  and  Darcy  admire
Elizabeth's devotion to Jane.  The  Bingley  sisters  also  deride  the  low
family connections of Jane and Elizabeth. Bingley  does  not  seem  to  care
about their low connections, although Darcy considers it  an  impediment  to
their marrying well.
In the evening after Jane has fallen asleep, Elizabeth joins the  others  in
the drawing room, and they have a conversation about what  it  means  for  a
woman to be accomplished. Darcy and Miss Bennett  provide  such  unrealistic
criteria that Elizabeth claims she has never seen such a woman in her  life.

Volume I, Chapter 9 Summary:
      Elizabeth asks that her mother be summoned to come and see  Elizabeth.
Mrs. Bennet is happy because she sees that Jane is not in  danger  but  that
she is ill  enough  to  continue  her  stay  at  Netherfield.  Elizabeth  is
thoroughly embarrassed by her mother's  conduct  in  the  conversation,  and
particularly by her extreme rudeness to Darcy. Mrs. Bennet returns home  and
Elizabeth continues to attend to Jane.
Volume I, Chapter 10 Summary:
      That evening in the drawing room Darcy writes a letter to  his  sister
while Miss Bennet observes him and continually makes comments in  admiration
of his  letter-writing  style.  The  group  gets  into  a  discussion  about
Bingley's characters, which leads  to  Elizabeth's  praise  of  someone  who
yields to the persuasion of friends.
      As the Bennet sisters sing and play the piano, Elizabeth  notices  how
frequently Mr. Darcy looks at her, but unable imagine that he  might  admire
her she assumes he is staring at her because  of  his  disapproval  of  her.
Darcy asks her to dance a reel, but Elizabeth assumes  that  there  is  some
sarcasm in  this  invitation,  and  satirically  declines  the  offer.  Miss
Bingley  notices,  and  begins  to  taunt  Darcy  by  speaking   about   the
possibility  of  marrying  into  the  Bennet  family  and  emphasizing   the
inferiority of her connections.
Volume I, Chapter 11 Summary:
      After dinner Jane is feeling well enough to join  the  others  in  the
drawing room, and Elizabeth is delighted  by  the  attention  which  Bingley
shows to her. Miss Bingley continues in her vain attempts to  please  Darcy,
and even feigns a love for reading, picking up  the  second  volume  of  the
book which he  is  reading.  She  then  begins  to  walk  around  the  room,
attempting to catch Darcy's admiration.  She  fails,  but  as  soon  as  she
invites Elizabeth to walk with her Mr. Darcy looks  up  and  stops  reading.
They begin to converse about Darcy's character, and  Darcy  admits  that  he
has a tendency to be resentful.
Volume I, Chapter 12 Summary:
      Jane having recovered from her illness, she and Elizabeth  resolve  to
go home the next morning. Her mother is unwilling to send  the  carriage  so
soon, wanting to extend Jane's stay as long as possible, but  Elizabeth  and
Jane are resolved to go and they ask for the Bingleys  to  lend  them  their
carriage. Elizabeth and Jane are glad to be returning home, and  all  except
Bingley are happy to see them go. Darcy is  glad  to  be  removed  from  the
danger of Elizabeth's company, and Miss Bingley is glad to  be  rid  of  her
Volume I, Chapter 13 Summary:
      At breakfast the following day Mr. Bennet announces that Mr.  Collins,
a cousin of his whom he has never met, will be coming to visit.  Because  of
the laws of inheritance at the time and because Mr. Bennet has no sons,  Mr.
Collins is in line to inherit  Longbourn.  Mrs.  Bennet  hates  Mr.  Collins
because of this, but Elizabeth and Jane try to explain  the  nature  of  the
laws of entailment.
      To inform them of his visit,  Mr.  Collins  writes  a  letter  to  Mr.
Bennet. In the letter  Mr.  Collins  explains  that  he  has  recently  been
ordained and is under the patronage of Lady Catherine De Bourgh.
      Mr. Collins arrives in the afternoon as expected. He is 25 years  old,
tall and heavyset,  with  a  grave  air  and  formal  manners.  When  he  is
conversing with the women of the household before dinner, he  mentions  that
he is well aware of the hardship involved in the entailment  of  the  estate
and that he wants to make amends for this hardship. He  has  come  "prepared
to admire" the young ladies of the household.  Mr.  Collins  also  expresses
his admiration for the house itself and for the quality of the dinner.
Volume I, Chapter 14 Summary:
      After dinner Mr.  Bennet  invites  Mr.  Collins  to  speak  about  his
patroness Lady Catherine. Mr. Collins describes Lady  Catherine  with  great
solemnity and  effusive  praise,  remarking  on  her  great  affability  and
condescension to him in spite of her  high  rank.  He  also  describes  Lady
Catherine's daughter, Miss de Bourgh, as quite charming but  rather  sickly.
He tries to ingratiate himself with Lady Catherine  by  thinking  up  pretty
and flattering phrases to tell her about Miss  de  Bourgh  while  trying  to
make his praise seem spontaneous. Mr. Bennet is convinced that  Mr.  Collins
is absurd.
      After tea Mr. Bennet invites Mr. Collins to read aloud to the  ladies.
Mr. Collins declares that he never reads novels and instead begins  to  read
with a book of sermons with "monotonous solemnity." After a few pages  Lydia
interrupts the reading by asking her  mother  a  question  about  her  uncle
Philips. Mr. Collins is offended but takes the hint and stops reading  after
briefly reprimanding the frivolity of Lydia.  He  then  proposes  playing  a
game of backgammon.
Volume I, Chapter 15 Summary:
      Mr. Collins' upbringing by an "illiterate and  miserly  father"  along
with his unexpected good fortune in finding a patroness like Lady  Catherine
has  led  to  his  lack  of  good  sense  and  his  strange  combination  of
obsequiousness and self-conceit. Now that he is settled he  wants  to  "make
amends" for inheriting the Longbourn estate by marrying  one  of  the  young
ladies in the Bennet household. After meeting them, he was  first  attracted
to Jane because of her beauty, but after hearing from Mrs. Bennet that  Jane
may soon be engaged, he switches his affections to Elizabeth.
Mr. Collins joins the ladies for a walk to Meryton.  Upon  reaching  Meryton
they meet Mr. Denny, an officer with whom Lydia and  Kitty  are  acquainted,
and he introduces them to a new member of the  regiment,  Mr.  Wickham.  Mr.
Wickham is handsome and charming. While they  are  all  conversing,  Bingley
and Darcy notice them as they are riding by and stop to greet them. As  soon
as Darcy notices Mr. Wickham, he turns white, and  Mr.  Wickham  turns  red.
Bingley and Darcy continue on their way.
      Mr. Denny and Mr. Wickham take leave of the  young  ladies  once  they
arrive at Mr. Philip's house. Jane introduces Mr. Collins to Mrs.  Phillips.
Mrs. Philips plans to invite Mr. Wickham to dinner tomorrow and invites  the
Longourn ladies and Mr. Collins to join them.
Volume I, Chapter 16 Summary:
      At the beginning of the event at the Phillips' house the next day, Mr.
Collins speaks  to  Mrs.  Philips  about  Lady  Catherine  and  her  mansion
Rosings, and Mrs. Philips is favorably impressed.
      Elizabeth forms a  very  favorable  impression  of  Mr.  Wickham,  and
converses with him at length during the evening.  Elizabeth  is  curious  to
find out about the obvious animosity which exists  between  him  and  Darcy.
Wickham brings up the subject by inquiring how long Darcy has  been  in  the
area. Elizabeth expressed her dislike  of  Darcy  to  Wickham,  and  Wickham
mentions that he and Darcy have been intimately acquainted since  childhood.
After feigning to avoid the subject,  Wickham  divulges  to  Elizabeth  that
Darcy's father was his godfather  and  had  promised  to  provide  an  ample
living for him, but after his death  Darcy  had  circumvented  his  father's
promise and had given the living to someone else because of his dislike  for
Wickham. Elizabeth is outraged and suggests that Darcy ought to be  publicly
dishonored for his actions, but Wickham refuses to do so  ought  of  respect
for Darcy's father. Wickham attributes Darcy's dislike of him  to  jealousy.
Elizabeth and Wickham also speak of Darcy's pride,  which  Wickham  believes
is the source of all his generosity in the use of his  money  and  excellent
care for his sister. Wickham alludes to a  previously  close  but  now  very
cold relationship with Darcy's sister.
      Wickham also mentions to Elizabeth that Lady Catherine  de  Bourgh  is
Mr. Darcy's aunt, and that Mr. Darcy is expected to marry Miss de Bourgh  in
order to unite the fortunes of the two families.
Volume I, Chapter 17 Summary:
      When, the next day, Elizabeth relates to Jane  the  substance  of  her
conversation with Wickham, Jane refuses to think ill of  either  Wickham  or
Darcy, and assumes that they must in some way be mutually deceived.
      Mr. Bingley and his sisters come to Netherfield to  announce  a  ball.
When Elizabeth asks Mr. Collins whether or not he plans to attend, he  state
that he does and asks her for the first two dances. While she had wanted  to
reserve  those  dances  for  Wickham,  she  gracefully  accepts  his  offer.
Elizabeth begins to realize that she has become Mr.  Collins  choice  for  a
future wife, but she ignores his hints in  that  direction  hoping  that  he
will not ask her.
Volume I, Chapter 18 Summary:
      At the Netherfield Ball Elizabeth is disappointed because of Wickham's
absence, which she assumes is all Mr.  Darcy's  doing.  After  relating  her
disappointment to her friend Charlotte Lucas, she suffers  through  her  two
dances with Mr. Collins. Mr. Darcy asks her for a dance and Elizabeth is  so
taken by surprise  that  she  accepts.  During  the  dance  with  Mr.  Darcy
Elizabeth  makes  a  bit  of  sarcastic  conversation,  poking  fun  at  his
character. She alludes to her new acquaintance with Wickham and to the  fact
that she thinks he has not behaved well toward him. They change the  subject
after a brief interruption from Sir William Lucas, but then  she  goes  back
to it by asking him about his previous admission  that  he  has  a  tendency
toward  resentment,  explaining  that  she  is  unable  to  figure  out  his
character because she has received such contradictory  accounts.  After  the
dance they part in silence but Darcy forgives  her  questioning  and  blames
      Miss Bingley, having heard from Jane  that  Wickham  has  talked  with
Elizabeth about Darcy, tries to warn her not to trust  Wickham  and  assures
her that Darcy has done nothing  wrong  to  Wickham  but  that  Wickham  has
treated Darcy shamefully. Elizabeth reacts rudely and considers Mr.  Bingley
to be blinded to the truth. Jane  also  tells  Elizabeth  that  Mr.  Bingley
believes Darcy's behavior is above reproach and that Wickham is not  reputed
to be of good character, but Elizabeth dismisses Bingley's  opinion  because
he received all his information from Darcy.
      Mr. Collins finds out the Darcy is Lady Catherine's nephew and decides
to introduce himself, in spite of Elizabeth's  warnings  that  it  would  be
inappropriate to do so because of Mr. Darcy's superior social status.  Darcy
is surprised at Mr. Collins but replies to him with civility and then  walks
      Jane seems to be  having  a  wonderful  time  with  Mr.  Bingley,  and
Elizabeth enjoys herself in thinking of her sister's happiness. Mrs.  Bennet
is also happy to see how well Jane and Mr. Bingley are  getting  along,  and
during dinner speaks unceasingly and loudly about  the  imminence  of  their
engagement in close proximity  to  Mr.  Darcy,  much  to  Elizabeth's  great
      After dinner Mary accepts an invitation to play and sing at the piano,
and is insensible to Elizabeth's hints that  she  ought  to  decline.  After
Mary's second piece Elizabeth gets her father to tell Mary to stop  playing.
Mr. Collins then  makes  a  speech  about  the  importance  of  music  which
nonetheless should not take precedence  to  more  important  parish  duties.
Elizabeth feels completely embarrassed by her family's  conduct  during  the
      At the end of the ball  Mrs.  Bennet  invites  Bingley  to  dinner  at
Longbourn and he promises to come as soon as he returns form  a  short  trip
to London.
Volume I, Chapter 19 Summary:
The next day Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, in a long speech  explaining
that he considers it appropriate for him to  marry  and  that  he  wants  to
marry one of the  Miss  Bennets  in  order  lessen  the  difficulty  of  the
entailment of the estate. Elizabeth refuses him in no uncertain  terms,  but
Mr.  Collins  refuses  to  believe  that  her  refusal  could  be   sincere,
considering it a formality of female coquetry to always  refuse  a  proposal
the first time. Elizabeth repeats and strengthens her  refusal,  but  as  he
still cannot believe her to be sincere, she simply leaves.
Volume I, Chapter 20 Summary:
      When Mrs. Bennet  hears  that  Elizabeth  has  refused  to  marry  Mr.
Collins, she entreats Mr. Bennet to force Elizabeth to change her mind.  Mr.
Bennet agrees to speak with Elizabeth, but actually tells her that he  would
never hear of her marrying such a man as Mr. Collins. Mrs. Bennet  does  not
give up however, and continually attempts to persuade  Elizabeth  to  accept
the proposal. In the midst of all this confusion, Charlotte Lucas  comes  to
visit. Eventually Mr. Collins accepts Elizabeth's refusal.
Volume I, Chapter 21 Summary:
      Mr. Collins reacts by treating Elizabeth coldly for the  rest  of  the
day and shifting his attentions to Charlotte Lucas. The girls  all  walk  to
Meryton after breakfast. Elizabeth speaks with Wickham  and  he  accompanies
them back to Longbourn, paying particular attention to Elizabeth.
      When they return Jane receives a letter from Caroline Bingley  stating
that they have all left Netherfield  for  town  and  have  no  intention  of
returning. She states that Mr. Bingley will most probably not return for  at
least  another  six  months.  The  letter  also  speaks  of   the   family's
expectation that Mr. Bingley will marry Georgiana Darcy, implying that  they
do not want him to  marry  Jane.  Elizabeth  attempts  to  comfort  Jane  by
reassuring her that Mr. Bingley really is attached to her and that in  spite
of his sisters' efforts to prevent him  from  marrying  Jane  he  will  most
assuredly return to Netherfield.
Volume I, Chapter 22 Summary:
      Charlotte Lucas continues to engage Mr. Collins  in  conversation  for
the rest of the day. Early the next morning Mr. Collins goes to Lucas  Lodge
to propose to Charlotte. Charlotte accepts and Sir William  and  Lady  Lucas
approve of the match.
      Mr. Collins left the next day without informing  the  Bennets  of  his
engagement. His promise to return soon was met by assurances on the part  of
Mr. Bennet that they would not be offended if the fulfillment of his  duties
prevented his speedy return.
      Later in the day Miss Lucas  tells  Elizabeth  about  her  engagement.
Elizabeth is shocked but tries to be kind in her reaction. She  is  however,
very unhappy about Charlotte's decision because she thinks  that  the  match
is completely unsuitable.
Volume I, Chapter 23 Summary:
      Later in the day Sir William Lucas came to announce the engagement, to
the great surprise of the rest of the family.  Mrs.  Bennet  is  incredulous
and after being convinced that the news  was  true  is  extremely  angry  at
Elizabeth for having turned down the proposal.
Elizabeth and Charlotte do not discuss the subject of the  marriage  between
themselves, and their friendship gradually diminishes.
      Jane and Elizabeth are concerned because they have not heard  anything
at all from Mr. Bingley.
Mr. Collins returns again to Longbourn in order  to  make  preparations  for
his marriage. The Bennets are not too happy to see him  but  they  are  glad
that he spends most of his time at Lucas Lodge.
Volume II, Chapter 1 Summary:
      Jane receives another letter from Miss Bingley  confirming  that  they
will definitely not return before the end of the winter, and boasting  about
the whole family's increasing intimacy with Miss Darcy and the hopes  of  an
engagement between her and Mr. Bingley. When Elizabeth and Jane are  finally
able to speak alone, Jane  confides  her  disappointment  to  Elizabeth.  In
spite of Elizabeth's arguments,  Jane  refuses  to  believe  that  the  Miss
Bingleys and Mr. Darcy are responsible for persuading  Mr.  Bingley  not  to
propose to Jane.
Mrs. Bennet only aggravates the situation by speaking of Bingley  so  often,
and Mr. Bennet only responds sarcastically.
      Some comfort is provided to the household by  Mr.  Wickham's  society.
Soon the whole town knows Wickham's  story  about  Darcy  and  is  happy  to
believe it and judge Darcy to be completely in the wrong.
Volume II, Chapter 2 Summary:
      Mr. Collins leaves Longbourn with his usual solemnity.
      Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, Mrs. Bennet's brother and  his  wife,  come  to
Longbourn to visit. Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner  are  both  sensible,  intelligent
and refined. Elizabeth and Jane are very fond of  them.  Mrs.  Gardiner  and
Elizabeth speak about Jane and Bingley. Mrs. Gardiner offers to  bring  Jane
back to London with her in order to cheer her  with  the  change  of  scene.
Elizabeth hopes that while in London Jane will run into Bingley.
During the course  of  the  visit  Mrs.  Gardiner  observes  Elizabeth  with
Wickham and notices her preference for him. Mrs.  Gardiner  enjoys  speaking
with Wickham about mutual acquaintances and about Mr. Darcy and his  father.

Volume II, Chapter 3 Summary:
      Mrs. Gardiner speaks with Elizabeth about the imprudence  of  becoming
attached to Wickham because of his poor financial state. Elizabeth makes  no
promises that she will not become attached to him, but does promise  to  try
to prevent the attachment as much as possible.
Mr. Collins returns to Hertfordshire for his wedding. Charlotte Lucas  makes
Elizabeth promise to visit her at Hunsford
      Jane writes to Elizabeth telling about her stay  in  London.  Caroline
Bingley is extremely inattentive  to  her,  pretending  first  that  she  is
unaware of Jane's presence in London, and then waiting a fortnight  to  make
a promised visit, which itself is rudely short.
In  a  letter  to  Mrs.  Gardiner  Elizabeth  relates  that  Mr.   Wickham's
affections for her have subsided and have been transferred to another  young
lady, Miss King, who recently acquired 10,000  pounds.  Elizabeth  concludes
that she must not have been in love  with  him,  because  her  feelings  are
still cordial toward him.
Volume II, Chapter 4 Summary:
      After a couple of dull winter months in  Hertfordshire,  Elizabeth  is
looking forward to going with Sir William Lucas and his second  daughter  to
visit Charlotte. She parts very amiably  with  Wickham,  reinforced  in  her
belief that he is a "model of the amiable and the pleasing." The  travellers
stop for a night in London to see the Gardiners.  Elizabeth  is  pleased  to
see that Jane is looking well. Mrs.  Gardiner  informs  her,  however,  that
Jane does undergo  periods  of  dejection  occasionally.  Mrs.  Gardiner  is
critical of Wickham so quickly shifting his attentions  to  Miss  King,  but
Elizabeth defends him. Elizabeth is pleasantly surprised to  be  invited  to
accompany the Gardiners on a tour of the country during the summer.
Volume II, Chapter 5 Summary:
      The next day Elizabeth, Sir William and his daughter Maria set out for
Hunsford to visit Charlotte. Upon arriving Mr. Collins welcomes him  to  the
house with his usual verbose formality. Charlotte‹now Mrs. Collins‹seems  to
endure Mr. Collins' silliness very well, and to take  pleasure  in  managing
the house. On reflection, Elizabeth concludes  that  Charlotte  is  handling
things well.
      Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by shouts from  Maria  telling
her to look outside because  Miss  de  Bourgh  is  there  in  her  carriage.
Elizabeth is happy that Miss de Bourgh  looks  sickly  and  cross,  thinking
that she'll make a perfect wife for Mr. Darcy.  After  the  carriage  drives
away Mr. Collins congratulates them because they have all  been  invited  to
dine at Rosings the next day.
Volume II, Chapter 6 Summary:
      The day of the dinner at Rosings is spent mostly in listening  to  Mr.
Collins, who is trying to prepare his  guests  for  the  grandeur  they  are
about to encounter. While Maria and Sir William are extremely nervous  about
meeting Lady Catherine, Elizabeth sees  nothing  to  be  intimidated  about,
being unimpressed by "the mere stateliness of money and rank."
      Lady  Catherine  is  "a  tall,  large  woman,   with   strongly-marked
features," and her manner of receiving her visitors is one  which  does  not
fail to remind them of their inferior rank.  Miss  de  Bourgh  is  extremely
thin and small. Mrs. Jenkinson, who lives with  them,  has  an  unremarkable
appearance and spends most of her time fussing over Miss de Bourgh.
      At dinner nothing much is said other than continuous compliments about
the food from Mr. Collins, which are echoed by  Sir  William.  After  dinner
Lady Catherine speaks about her opinion on  every  subject  which  comes  to
mind and offers advice to Charlotte  about  even  the  smallest  details  of
household  management.  She  then  barrages   Elizabeth   with   impertinent
questions about her and her family. Elizabeth  answers  with  composure  but
without fear of giving her own opinion. For the rest  of  the  evening  they
play cards.
Volume II, Chapter 7 Summary:
      Sir William Lucas stays only for a week  at  Hunsford,  but  Elizabeth
stays  for  quite  some  time  longer.  She  passes  the  time   pleasantly,
conversing with Charlotte and taking long walks through  the  gardens.  They
all dine regularly at Rosings about twice a week,  and  all  dinners  follow
the model of the first.
      After having stayed a fortnight at Hunsford Elizabeth hears  that  Mr.
Darcy is planning to visit Rosings. She looks forward to his coming  because
he will provide a new face at the dinner parties and because  she  wants  to
see how he acts with Miss de Bourgh, whom he is expected to marry. When  Mr.
Darcy arrives  with  his  cousin  Colonel  Fitzwilliam,  the  two  gentlemen
immediately call at Hunsford. Elizabeth asks Darcy whether  or  not  he  has
seen Jane in the past few  months,  in  order  to  see  if  he  betrays  any
knowledge about what happened between Jane and the Bingleys. He looks a  bit
confused but simply answers that he has not seen her.
Volume II, Chapter 8 Summary:
      It is about a week before Elizabeth  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Collins  are
invited again to Rosings, since Lady Catherine  is  no  longer  in  need  of
company. During the evening Colonel Fitzwilliam and Elizabeth  have  a  very
enjoyable conversation. Lady Catherine seems annoyed that she is not a  part
of the conversation, and interrupts them in order  to  join  in.  Mr.  Darcy
looks a bit ashamed at his aunt's impertinence and ill-breeding in  treating
Elizabeth as an inferior.
      At Colonel Fitzwilliam's request, Elizabeth begins to play the  piano.
As she playing Darcy walks away from Lady Catherine in order  to  go  up  to
the piano and watch her. They have a very lively conversation, teasing  each
other playfully about  their  characters.  Soon  Lady  Catherine  interrupts
demanding to know what  they  are  talking  of,  and  Elizabeth  immediately
resumes playing. Lady Catherine offers generous criticisms and advice  about
Elizabeth's playing. Elizabeth tries to observe  how  Mr.  Darcy  reacts  to
Miss de Bourgh, and she finds in him no sign of affection for her.
Volume II, Chapter 9 Summary:
      The next morning, when only Elizabeth is at home, Mr. Darcy  comes  to
visit alone. He had thought that the other ladies were also  at  home.  They
converse for a while about several subjects, including his  quick  departure
from Netherfield last November, and Charlotte's  marriage  to  Mr.  Collins.
When Elizabeth tells Darcy that, contrary to his opinions, Charlotte is  not
exactly  close  to  her  family  since  they  lack  the  income  to   travel
frequently, he tells Elizabeth emphatically that  she  must  not  have  such
strong local attachments. Elizabeth is surprised and he  quickly  cools  his
tone of voice and changes the subject to a general  conversation  about  the
countryside. Charlotte and Marie return from their walk Mr. Darcy stays  for
a few minutes and then leaves. Charlotte  tells  Elizabeth  that  Mr.  Darcy
must be in love with her, but Elizabeth convinces her that such is  not  the
      Colonel Fitzwalliams calls on the ladies frequently because he  enjoys
their company. Elizabeth can tell that he admires her.  He  reminds  her  of
Wickham. Neither Elizabeth nor Charlotte are able  to  figure  out  why  Mr.
Darcy calls on them so often. Charlotte  keeps  suggesting  that  Mr.  Darcy
must be partial to her, but Elizabeth simply laughs at the idea.
Volume II, Chapter 10 Summary:
      Elizabeth often unexpectedly meets Mr. Darcy during her walks  in  the
Park, in spite of the fact that she has told him where she usually walks  in
hopes of deterring him from taking the same path.  When  they  meet  he  not
only stops to say hello but also walks all the way back to  the  house  with
her. During one conversation he asks questions which seem to imply  that  in
the future when she comes to Kent she will be staying at Rosings.  Elizabeth
thinks that he may be alluding to the prospect of her  marriage  to  Colonel
      On another walk Elizabeth runs into Colonel Fitzwilliam. He speaks  to
her about the fact that because  he  is  a  younger  son  he  cannot  ignore
financial concerns in his choice of whom to  marry.  Elizabeth  thinks  that
this statement may be made for her sake. They also speak of Miss Darcy,  and
then of Bingley. Colonel Fitzwilliam tells  Elizabeth  that  Darcy  recently
saved a good friend probably Bingley from an imprudent marriage.
      When she is alone and reflecting on  the  conversation,  Elizabeth  is
sure that it was due to Darcy's influence that Bingley did  not  propose  to
Jane. Her reflections distress her  so  much  that  she  begins  to  have  a
headache, and her headache combined with her  desire  to  avoid  seeing  Mr.
Darcy lead her to stay at  home  even  though  they  have  been  invited  to
Rosings that evening.
Volume II, Chapter 11 Summary:
      While Elizabeth is at home alone, the door bell rings and  she  thinks
that it might be Colonel Fitzwilliam. To her surprise, however,  it  is  Mr.
Darcy. After he inquires about her health, he paces around the  room  for  a
few minutes and then makes a declaration of love for her.  While  he  speaks
eloquently about his admiration for  her,  he  also  clearly  expresses  the
inferiority of her connections and the family obstacles which prevented  him
from proposing sooner. Elizabeth turns down  his  proposal  rather  harshly,
and he is both surprised and resentful.
      Elizabeth explains her reasons for turning  him  down.  These  reasons
are, first, the arrogant manner of his  proposal;  second,  his  actions  to
separate Bingley and Jane; and third,  his  actions  toward  Wickham.  Darcy
replies angrily that her calculation of his  faults  is  indeed  heavy,  but
that she might have overlooked them if he had  not  been  honest  about  the
fact that her  family  connections  had  made  him  try  to  avoid  becoming
attached to her. She simply states  that  his  manner  of  proposal  had  no
influence on her other than to "spare me the concern of  refusing  you,  had
you acted in a more gentlemanlike manner." After she  finishes  speaking  he
quickly leaves the room.
      Elizabeth collapses and cries from weakness as a result  of  what  has
passed. She is flattered that he  should  have  proposed  to  her,  but  any
softness which she feels toward him because  of  his  affection  is  quickly
dissipated as soon as she thinks of his "abominable pride" and all  that  he
has done to Jane and to Wickham.
Volume II, Chapter 12 Summary:
      The next morning Elizabeth decides to go for a walk. Though she avoids
her usual walking route, Mr. Darcy finds her and gives her  a  letter,  then
quickly leaves. First the letter explains  Darcy's  reasons  for  persuading
Bingley not to marry Jane. Darcy admits that the impropriety of  the  Bennet
family made him hope that the two would not marry, but that his main  reason
for preventing Bingley from proposing to Jane was  that  he  did  not  think
that Jane had any particular regard  for  Bingley.  The  only  part  of  his
conduct which he is uneasy about is  that  he  concealed  from  Bingley  his
knowledge that Jane has been in London for the past few months.
      In response to Elizabeth's charge that Darcy had injured Mr.  Wickham,
Darcy relates the whole account of Wickham's relationship with him  and  his
family. Darcy's father was very fond of Wickham  and  paid  to  provide  him
with an excellent education. Before his death Darcy's father asked Darcy  to
promote Wickham's professional advancement and stipulated  that  if  Wickham
should become a clergyman Darcy  should  provide  him  with  a  good  family
living. Wickham, however, having no desire to become a clergyman,  wrote  to
Darcy after his father's death and asked for money in order  to  study  law.
Darcy gave him 3,000 pounds and Wickham resigned his claim to assistance  in
a church career. However, Wickham  quickly  gave  up  on  studying  law  and
squandered the money with a dissipate lifestyle. When he needed  more  money
he went to Darcy and told him that he would  become  a  clergyman  if  Darcy
would provide him with the living that had  been  promised.  Darcy  refused,
and Wickham was furious. A while afterwards, Wickham, with the help of  Miss
Darcy's governess Miss Younge, managed to  deceive  Darcy's  younger  sister
into consenting to elope with him when she was fifteen.  Darcy  happened  to
go see his sister before the intended elopement and she ended up  confessing
the whole plan to him. He thus prevented  the  elopement,  the  motives  for
which on Wickham's side were mostly Miss Darcy's fortune  and  a  desire  to
revenge himself on Mr. Darcy.
Volume II, Chapter 13 Summary:
      Elizabeth reads the letter "with a strong prejudice against everything
he might say." She does not at all  believe  his  claim  that  he  prevented
Bingley from proposing to Jane because he thought Jane was not  attached  to
him. After reading Darcy's account of his dealings with  Wickham,  she  does
not know how to react and tries to convince herself it must  be  false.  She
puts away the letter, resolving not to think about it, but then examines  it
slowly, line by line. After long deliberation Elizabeth  begins  to  rethink
her previous judgment of Wickham. She realizes that  his  communications  to
her in their first conversation were indelicate, improper and  inconsistent,
and that his attentions to Miss King were purely mercenary.
      She begins to see that she judged Darcy completely  wrongly,  and  she
grows  ashamed,  concluding  that  she  been  "blind,  partial,  prejudiced,
absurd," in spite of  the  fact  that  has  always  prided  herself  on  her
judgment. She realizes that vanity has been the cause of her prejudice.
      After this realization, she rereads the first part of the letter which
deals with his reasons for preventing Bingley's proposal to  Jane.  She  now
sees that he had reason to be suspicious  of  Jane's  attachment.  Elizabeth
also admits that Darcy's criticisms of the impropriety  of  her  mother  and
younger sisters is just, and is ashamed and depressed.
      After wandering through the  park  or  two  hours,  engrossed  in  her
reflections, she returns to the Parsonage to find that both  Mr.  Darcy  and
Colonel Fitzwilliam have stopped by to take leave of them,  but  have  since
left. She is glad to have missed them.
Volume II, Chapter 14 Summary:
      Lady Catherine invites Elizabeth, Maria and the  Collinses  to  dinner
because she is bored now that her nephews have left.  Elizabeth  can't  help
thinking that she might have been attending this dinner as Lady  Catherine's
future niece, and amusing herself at how indignant Lady Catherine would  be.
Lady Catherine attempts to persuade Elizabeth  and  Maria  to  stay  another
fortnight, but Elizabeth insists that her father wants her to come home.
      She spends much time over the next few days  before  her  return  home
reflecting on the contents of the letter and on her past conduct.  She  does
not regret her refusal of Darcy's  offer,  but  does  regret  her  own  past
actions. She  is  also  depressed  by  the  hopelessness  of  improving  the
character of her younger sisters, since her father only laughs at  them  and
her mother is equally frivolous. She is also sad to think  that  Jane  could
have been so happy had it not been for the indecorum of her family.
Volume II, Chapter 15 Summary:
      Elizabeth and Maria leave the Parsonage  on  Saturday  morning,  after
lengthy  parting  civilities  from  Mr.   Collins.   Before   returning   to
Hertferdshore, they stop at the Gardiner's to spend a few days  there.  Jane
is to return home with them. Elizabeth is tempted to tell her all  that  she
learned from Darcy, but decides to wait because she is  not  sure  how  much
she should reveal.
Volume II, Chapter 16 Summary:
      Upon reaching Hertfordshire they are greeted by Kitty and  Lydia,  who
have prepared lunch for them at the inn where they  have  arranged  to  meet
the carriage. Elizabeth is happy to hear that regiment will soon be  leaving
Meryton, although Kitty and Lydia are not equally pleased. Lydia hopes  that
Mr. Bennet will allow them all to go to Brighton for the  summer  since  the
officers will be there. During lunch Lydia tells  Jane  and  Elizabeth  that
Miss King has left and that  Wickham  is  therefore  once  again  available.
Lydia entertains them on the carriage home by relating stories  of  all  the
balls and dances they have attended with the officers in Meryton. When  they
arrive at Longbourn they have dinner with the  Lucases,  who  have  come  to
meet Maria. Lydia urges everyone to take a walk with  her  to  Meryton,  but
Elizabeth stays home because she wants to avoid seeing Wickham.
Volume II, Chapter 17 Summary:
      The next morning Elizabeth tells  Jane  about  Darcy's  proposal,  and
about the part of the letter regarding Wickham. Jane is shocked not as  much
about the proposal as about Wickham's  being  so  bad,  and  tries  to  make
excuses for him, but realizes that no excuse can be  found.  Elizabeth  asks
Jane whether or not  she  should  let  the  rest  of  the  town  know  about
Wickham's true character. They decide it would be best to  keep  the  matter
quiet, since he is leaving soon  and  it  will  be  extremely  difficult  to
convince people without telling about his attempts  to  seduce  Miss  Darcy.
Elizabeth decides that she should not tell Jane about the  part  of  Darcy's
letter which relates to her and Bingley. After observing  Jane  at  leisure,
Elizabeth sees that she is not happy and is still very attached to  Bingley.

Volume II, Chapter 18 Summary:
      Kitty, Lydia and Mrs. Bennet are extremely  disappointed  because  the
regiment  is  leaving  Meryton.  Lydia  receives  an  invitation  from  Mrs.
Forster, the wife of the Colonel  of  the  regiment,  to  accompany  her  to
Brighton. Lydia is ecstatic.
      Elizabeth entreats her father to prevent Lydia from going,  explaining
that such an experience  will  only  increase  her  frivolousness.  But  her
father does not listen and tells  Elizabeth  that  Lydia  will  be  fine  in
Brighton under the supervision of Colonel Forster and that she is  too  poor
to be taken advantage of by any of the officers in the regiment.
      Elizabeth sees Wickham frequently. He attempts to renew his attentions
to her, but she represses them and is annoyed by them. On the  last  day  of
their stay in Meryton, they have a conversation in  which  Elizabeth  speaks
of her stay at the Parsonage  and  her  enjoyment  of  Darcy's  and  Colonel
Fitzwilliam's company. She leads Wickham  to  suspect  that  she  knows  the
truth of his past. He  pretends  not  to  notice  but  stops  distinguishing
Elizabeth. At the end of the  party  Lydia  returns  to  Meryton  with  Mrs.
Forster in order to be able to set out with them for Brighton early  in  the
Volume II, Chapter 19 Summary:
      Elizabeth's father had married her mother because he was captivated by
her beauty,  but  her  weak  understanding  soon  made  him  lose  all  real
affection for her. Mr. Bennet derives  his  enjoyment  from  books  and  the
country. Elizabeth has always recognized the  impropriety  of  her  father's
behavior as a husband, and is now especially aware of the disadvantage  that
such a marriage has had on the children.  She  faults  her  father  for  not
having used his talents to at  least  preserve  the  respectability  of  his
      The days at Longbourn  are  far  from  enjoyable,  with  the  constant
lamentations of boredom form  Mrs.  Bennet  and  Kitty.  Elizabeth  consoles
herself by looking forward to her tour of  the  Lakes  with  the  Gardiners.
After a few weeks things become more bearable at home, and  Elizabeth  hopes
that Kitty may be improved by the time away from Lydia.
      Elizabeth's vacation with the Gardiners is delayed  and  shortened  on
account of Mr. Gardiner's work commitments. In the course of the  trip  they
pass near Pemberley and Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner want to go see  it.  Elizabeth
does not want to go because of fear of seeing Darcy, but she finds out  from
the maid that the Darcy family is not at home.
Volume III, Chapter 1 Summary:
      Elizabeth is captivated by the beauty of Pemberley, and feels that  it
would not be bad to be the mistress of  such  a  house.  She  almost  has  a
feeling of regret. The housekeeper gives them a tour of the house and  talks
to them about  Mr.  Darcy  and  Miss  Darcy.  She  describes  Mr.  Darcy  as
exceptionally sweet-tempered, generous and good-natured, remarking that  she
has "never heard a cross word from  him."  Elizabeth  is  surprised,  having
retained her assumption  that  Darcy  is  ill-tempered.  Elizabeth  is  also
impressed with Darcy's excellent treatment  of  his  younger  sister.  After
hearing so much praise of Darcy from his housekeeper,  Elizabeth  thinks  of
his regard for her with more warmth than ever.
      As they go out to  see  the  gardens,  Mr.  Darcy  unexpectedly  comes
forward from the road. Both he and Elizabeth are ill at  ease,  but  she  is
impressed at the genteel civility in his inquiries. After exchanging  a  few
civilities he takes leave. Elizabeth is mortified and wonders what he  might
think of her for having come to visit the house.
Elizabeth is extremely distracted but  attempts  to  be  sociable  and  make
conversation with her aunt and uncle as they walk through the garden.  After
a long while she is surprised to see Mr. Darcy coming toward them. They  are
both better prepared  for  this  encounter.  Mr.  Darcy  asks  Elizabeth  to
introduce him to the Gardiners. In spite of the fact that they  are  a  much
lower class than he, he enters into conversation with them  and  even  tells
Mr. Gardiner that he is welcome to come to Pemberley and fish as long as  he
is in the area.
      Elizabeth and Darcy begin walking together, and she informs  him  that
she thought he would not be at home. He explains his  reason  for  returning
early and then asks her if he can introduce  his  sister  to  her  when  she
arrives the next day. Elizabeth is surprised  at  this  offer  but  accepts.
When they reach the house they have an awkward  conversation  while  waiting
for the Gardiners to catch up with them, and then  he  sees  them  off  with
great politeness.
      The Gardiners are very pleased  and  surprised  at  Darcy's  civility,
having heard from so  many  people,  including  Elizabeth,  that  he  is  so
disagreeable, and still believing Wickham's story. Elizabeth tells  them  in
a very guarded way that there is reason to believe  that  Darcy  is  not  at
fault in his dealings with Wickham.
Volume III, Chapter 2 Summary:
      Mr. Darcy brings his sister to visit Elizabeth at  the  inn  the  very
morning of her arrival. Elizabeth is caught by surprise, not  thinking  that
they will come until the next day. She  is  extremely  nervous  because  she
wants Georgiana to form a good  opinion  of  her.  The  Gardiners  begin  to
suspect  that  Darcy  has  a  partiality  for  Elizabeth,  seeing  no  other
explanation for such attentions. Elizabeth is  relieved  to  see  that  Miss
Darcy is as nervous as she is. Miss Darcy is shy, attractive  and  graceful,
with unassuming and gentle manners. Soon  Mr.  Bingley  comes  to  visit  as
well. All of Elizabeth's anger  at  him  disappears  upon  seeing  him.  The
Gardiners, through their observations and  conversation,  become  completely
convinced that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth.
      Elizabeth observes the conduct of Bingley  and  Georgiana  toward  one
another, and is happy to find no sign of particular regard on  the  part  of
either. When Bingley has a moment to speak to Elizabeth without the  others'
hearing, he inquires about Jane and seems to regret  that  it  has  been  so
long since he has seen her.
Elizabeth is amazed at Darcy's  civility  toward  the  Gardiners,  relations
which he had previously spoken of with disdain, and she cannot  imagine  the
reason for his change in manners. Before the visitors  leave  Darcy  invites
Elizabeth and the Gardiners to dinner at Pemberley, and they accept.
      The Gardiners, seeing that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth, reevaluate
their former negative opinion of him, which had been based on  the  accounts
of their friends in Hertfordshire. They are satisfied  that  he  is  a  much
better man they had previously thought, and also find that  Wickham  is  not
held in such good esteem in the area.
      Elizabeth stays awake trying to discern her feelings  for  Darcy.  She
realizes that she is grateful to him for having loved  her  and  loving  her
still even after the rudeness of her rejection. She is  extremely  impressed
by his change of character, and esteems him highly, but is  still  not  sure
whether or not she loves him.
      Mrs. Gardiner decides that she and Elizabeth should wait on Miss Darcy
the following morning in return for her great politeness in  coming  to  see
them immediately after her arrival.
Volume III, Chapter 3 Summary:
      During  their  visit  to  Pemberley  Miss  Darcy  receives  them  with
civility, although she is very shy. Mrs. Hurst and  Miss  Bingley  say  very
little, and the conversation is carried  on  mostly  by  Mrs.  Annesley  (an
acquaintance), Mrs. Gardiner and Elizabeth. Elizabeth both hopes  and  fears
that Mr. Darcy will join them.
      After a while Mr. Darcy does join them, and his  actions  are  closely
scrutinized by Miss Bingley and Miss Hurst. When Miss Bingley  notices  that
Mr. Darcy is trying to get Elizabeth and Georgiana  to  converse,  she  asks
Elizabeth a question about the militia. Elizabeth  answers  with  composure,
and notices that both Mr. Darcy and Georgiana are pained by the allusion  to
      After Elizabeth and Mrs.  Gardiner  take  their  leave,  Miss  Bingley
speaks negatively about Elizabeth to Georgiana, but Georgiana's  opinion  is
fixed firmly in Elizabeth's  favor  by  her  brother's  commendations.  Miss
Bingley also repeats her criticisms of Elizabeth to Darcy,  and  after  much
provocation he coolly answers that he considers Elizabeth one  of  the  most
handsome women he has ever met, and then walks away.
Volume III, Chapter 4 Summary:
      Elizabeth receives two letters from her sister relating that Lydia has
eloped with Wickham. At first they expected that the two  were  planning  to
go to Scotland to get married (because minors  can  marry  without  parental
permission in Scotland). However, after gaining  further  intelligence  they
find that there is reason  to  doubt  that  Wickham  has  any  intention  of
marrying her at all. Jane asks Elizabeth and the Gardiners  to  return  home
as soon as possible, and requests that Mr. Gardiner help her  father  search
for Lydia and Wickham in London.
      Elizabeth rushes to the door to go out to find Mr.  Gardiner,  but  as
she does so Mr. Darcy appears. She tells him with great agitation  that  she
must go immediately in search of Mr. Gardiner,  but  he  recommends  that  a
servant be sent. That being done, Elizabeth collapses into a chair and  when
she is able to  she  explains  the  situation  to  Darcy.  He  is  extremely
distressed, thinking that if he had revealed more  of  what  he  knew  about
Wickham's character this could have  been  prevented.  Elizabeth,  observing
Darcy, believes that such an  action  on  her  sister's  part  will  make  a
renewal of Darcy's proposal impossible.  Feeling  this  loss,  she  realizes
that she loves him.
      After a few minutes Darcy realizes that he is doing  no  good  by  his
presence and takes his leave, promising to maintain secrecy  on  the  matter
and wishing that he could do more to help. Elizabeth  watches  him  go  with
regret, doubting that they will ever meet again on such friendly terms.
      Elizabeth has no doubts that Wickham does not plan to marry Lydia. She
knows that Lydia would not have gone off with him if she were not under  the
pretense that they were going to be married,  but  Elizabeth  also  realizes
that Lydia is easy prey for  Wickham's  deceptions.  The  Gardiners  quickly
return and Elizabeth relates the sad news to them. Mr. Gardiner promises  to
do all he can to help, and they quickly prepare for their journey.
Volume III, Chapter 5 Summary:
      On the way back  to  Longbourn,  Mr.  Gardiner  attempts  to  convince
Elizabeth that Wickham must have a genuine intention of marrying Lydia,  but
Elizabeth, knowing what she does of Wickham,  is  not  convinced.  Elizabeth
reproaches herself for not having revealed what she knew of  Wickham's  true
      They arrive at Longbourn the next day and Jane is very  happy  to  see
Elizabeth. So far there is no  new  news  about  Lydia's  whereabouts.  Mrs.
Bennet has taken things badly and will not leave her  apartment.  When  they
go to see her, she tells them that she blames the Forsters for neglect,  not
thinking that Lydia is the type of girl to do such a thing. She  is  alarmed
that when Mr. Bennet finds them he will fight with Wickham  and  be  killed.
Mr. Gardiner tries to reassure her, and promises to do what he can  to  help
Mr. Bennet in London. Kitty and Mary do not seem extremely  upset  over  the
      When Elizabeth and Jane are alone they discuss what  has  happened  in
more detail. Jane shows  Elizabeth  the  note  which  Lydia  left  for  Mrs.
Forster. Lydia's letter shows extreme  thoughtlessness  and  frivolity,  but
also proves that she had every intention to marry Wickham.
Volume III, Chapter 6 Summary:
      The next morning Mr. Gardiner sets off for London. Mrs. Gardiner plans
to remain for a few more days at Longbourn in order to  help  Elizabeth  and
Jane. All in Meryton quickly changed  their  opinion  of  Wickham  from  "an
angel of light" to "the wickedest young  man  in  the  world,"  now  finding
fault with so many of his actions.
      A letter from Mr. Gardiner arrives in a  couple  of  days,  explaining
that they plan to inquire at every major hotel about Lydia and Wickham.  Mr.
Gardiner also plans to ask Mr. Forster if anyone  in  the  militia  has  any
idea of where he would be staying in London.
      They receive a letter from Mr. Collins, offering condolences and  also
criticizing the lack of parental attention to Lydia. He also alludes to  the
fact that he is now glad Elizabeth turned down  his  proposal,  since  being
married to her would connect him with this disgrace.
      Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner saying that Mr.  Forster  has
had no luck in finding any possible close friends  or  relations  with  whom
Wickham and Lydia might be staying. He also mentions that Wickham has  extra
reasons for secrecy because of over 1,000 dollars  in  gaming  debts,  along
with other debts to the town merchants. Mr. Bennet decides to come home  and
leave the rest of the searching to Mr. Gardiner.  At  the  same  time,  Mrs.
Gardiner returns home to London with her children.
      Elizabeth's misery at  the  situation  is  greatly  increased  by  the
knowledge that it probably ruins her chances  of  marriage  to  Darcy.  When
Elizabeth speaks to  her  father,  he  tells  her  that  he  thinks  himself
completely to blame.
Volume III, Chapter 7 Summary:
      Mr. Bennet receives an express letter from Mr. Gardiner, stating  that
he has found  Wickham  and  that  Wickham  will  agree  to  marry  Lydia  on
condition that she receives her equal share of  Mr.  Bennet's  wealth  after
his death along  with  100  pounds  per  year.  Mr.  Gardiner  assumes  that
Wickham's debts are not so bad as everyone had thought.
      Mr. Bennet comments that Mr. Gardiner must have paid Wickham  a  large
sum of money to make him comply, since what Wickham is asking  is  extremely
little. When Elizabeth and Jane relate the news to Mrs.  Bennet,  Kitty  and
Lydia, Mrs. Bennet is ecstatic. She  begins  to  think  about  ordering  the
wedding clothes.
Volume III, Chapter 8 Summary:
      Mr. Bennet wants to find out how much Mr. Gardiner paid to get Wickham
to agree to the marriage and to pay him back as much as possible.
      After listening throughout dinner to Mrs.  Bennet's  talk  of  wedding
plans and suitable houses in the neighborhood for  Lydia  and  Wickham,  Mr.
Bennet informs her that he will not receive the  couple  at  Longbourn,  nor
give Lydia money for wedding clothes. Mrs. Bennet is more disgraced  by  her
daughter's lack of new clothes for the wedding than by her elopement.
      Elizabeth reflects on the fact that with Wickham as a  member  of  the
family, there is no possibility that Darcy will propose to  her  again.  His
proposal of four months ago would  now  be  most  gratefully  received.  She
realizes that Darcy is the man who would  most  suit  her,  and  that  their
personalities would complement each other for their mutual advantage.
      Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner. He reports that  Wickham  is
planning to quit the militia and that has a promise  of  an  ensigncy  in  a
regiment quartered in the North. The letter also mentions Wickham  will  pay
off all his debts both  in  Brighton  and  Meryton.  After  entreaties  from
Elizabeth and Jane, Mr. Bennet decides to allow Lydia and Wickham  to  visit
Longbourn before leaving for the North.
Volume III, Chapter 9 Summary:
      When the couple arrives, they show no sense of  shame  whatsoever  and
Lydia shamelessly expects congratulations from all  her  sisters.  Jane  and
Elizabeth are extremely distressed at Lydia's conduct.
      Upon observance, Elizabeth finds that Wickham's affection for Lydia is
not nearly so strong as her affection for him. Lydia  relates  to  Elizabeth
all the details of the wedding. She is completely ungrateful  for  what  the
Gardiners have done, and even complains that they would not let her  go  out
while she was staying with them. Lydia mentions in passing  that  Mr.  Darcy
attended the wedding, but then says  that  she  was  not  supposed  to  tell
anyone. Elizabeth writes to Mrs. Gardiner asking for more details about  why
Mr. Darcy was at the wedding.
Volume III, Chapter 10 Summary:
      Mrs. Gardiner's letter arrives, explaining all  the  particulars  with
regard to Mr. Darcy's involvement in the wedding. Mr. Darcy was the one  who
found out Wickham's whereabouts by bribing Miss Younge (the  woman  who  had
helped Wickham to seduce Georgiana)  to  tell  him.  When  Darcy  found  the
couple, he tried to convince Lydia to leave, but  she  refused.  That  being
the case, Darcy tried to get Wickham to marry Lydia, which  Wickham  had  no
intention of doing. Darcy offered Wickham money in order to persuade him  to
marry Lydia. Darcy then waited until Mr. Bennet had left for  Longbourn  and
went to inform Mr. Gardiner of all that had  occurred,  explaining  that  he
felt guilty for not having exposed Wickham's character sooner.
      Mrs. Gardiner concludes the letter stating that she  is  sure  Darcy's
actions are motivated by his love for Elizabeth, and  relates  to  Elizabeth
how much she thinks that he would be a good match.
      In reflecting  on  the  letter,  Elizabeth  is  sensible  of  all  the
mortification and suffering which  Darcy  must  have  gone  through  in  the
process of getting Wickham to marry Lydia.  She  does  not  think,  however,
that his regard for her could possibly be the primary motive, and she  still
does not think that there is any hope that he will marry her.
Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by  Wickham.  They  have  a  guarded
conversation in  which  she  makes  it  clear  that  she  knows  more  about
Wickham's true past than he would like, but she  avoids  provoking  him  for
Lydia's sake.
Volume III, Chapter 11 Summary:
      Lydia and Wickham leave for  Newcastle,  where  his  new  regiment  is
stationed. Lydia's good-byes are not very affectionate. Mrs. Bennet  is  sad
that she will not be able to see her daughter for a long time.
      Mrs. Bennet hears from Mrs. Phillips that Mr. Bingley is  planning  to
return to Netherfield in a few days. Jane tells Elizabeth that she does  not
want to see much of him. Elizabeth, however, after having seen him while  on
vacation with the Gardiners, is sure that he is still partial to  Jane,  and
thinks that perhaps Mr. Darcy may have told Bingley that he now approves  of
the match.
      Mrs. Bennet plans to invite  Bingley  to  dinner.  Jane  is  obviously
disturbed by his coming and is pained by the constant mention of his name.
      Mr. Bingley and Darcy come to pay a visit  at  Netherfield.  Elizabeth
begins to hope that Darcy's affections for her are  not  shaken.  When  they
come in, Elizabeth is pained by Mrs. Bennet's cold  reception  of  Darcy  in
comparison with Mr.  Bingley,  considering  how  much  she  owes  to  Darcy.
Elizabeth is also mortified by her mother's jubilant announcement  of  Lydia
and Wickham's marriage. Darcy speaks  little  during  the  visit.  When  the
gentlemen are leaving Mrs. Bennet invites them for dinner.
Volume III, Chapter 12 Summary:
      During the dinner party, Bingley sits next to Jane  and  Elizabeth  is
convinced that he still admires her. Mr. Darcy  and  Elizabeth  are  sitting
too far apart to be able to  speak,  and  circumstances  prevent  them  from
conversing after dinner. Elizabeth is anxious and annoyed because she  wants
to speak with him very badly. Mrs. Bennet  is  extremely  pleased  with  the
dinner and is sure that Bingley and Jane will soon be married. Mr. Darcy  is
going back to London but will return in 10 days.
Volume III, Chapter 13 Summary:
      After a few days Mr. Bingley calls again, and the day after  he  joins
them again for dinner. Mrs. Bennet contrives to get Jane and  Bingley  alone
together, but is unsuccessful.  The  next  morning  Mr.  Bingley  joins  Mr.
Bennet to go hunting, and he then stays for  dinner.  Mrs.  Bennet  is  this
time successful  in  arranging  for  Jane  and  Bingley  to  be  left  alone
together. When Elizabeth walks into the drawing room she  finds  them  there
alone in  earnest  conversation.  Bingley  quickly  leaves  and  Jane  tells
Elizabeth that she is the happiest woman in the world.  Jane  then  goes  to
tell her mother, and Bingley,  who  had  gone  to  speak  with  Mr.  Bennet,
returns and  receives  Elizabeth's  congratulations.  All  are  very  happy.
Bingley now comes to visit Netherfield every day.
Volume III, Chapter 14 Summary:
      Early the next morning Lady Catherine  unexpectedly  comes  to  visit.
Lady Catherine is, as usual, domineering and arrogant in  her  conversation.
She tells Elizabeth she would like her company  for  a  walk  outside.  Lady
Catherine tells Elizabeth that she has come because  of  rumors  that  Darcy
and Elizabeth will soon be married. Elizabeth answers her  inquiries  curtly
and without revealing the fact that Darcy has not  proposed  to  her  again.
Lady Catherine tries to forbid Elizabeth to marry Mr. Darcy,  but  Elizabeth
is insensible to her entreaties and threats. Lady Catherine is  furious  and
Volume III, Chapter 15 Summary:
      Her conversation with Lady Catherine throws  Elizabeth  into  a  great
discomposure of spirits. She is not sure what the cause of Lady  Catherine's
suspicion is, but she is uneasy about the  fact  that  Lady  Catherine  will
surely try to influence Darcy not to propose.
      Mr. Bennet tells Elizabeth that he wants to speak with her and relates
to her the contents of a letter from Mr. Collins in which he  says  that  he
has heard that Mr. Darcy may propose to Elizabeth and advises Elizabeth  not
to accept because of Lady Catherine's disapprobation. Mr. Bennet thinks  the
letter  is  extremely  amusing  because  he  still  thinks  that  Darcy   is
indifferent to Elizabeth and that Elizabeth hates Darcy.
Volume III, Chapter 16 Summary:
      Within a few days Mr. Darcy returns to  Netherfield  and  he  and  Mr.
Bingley  come  to  Longbourn  early  in  the  day.  Jane,  Bingley,   Darcy,
Elizabeth, and Kitty take a walk. Jane and Bingley lag behind the rest,  and
eventually Darcy and Elizabeth are left to walk together alone as  well.  As
soon as they are alone Elizabeth expresses to Darcy her  gratitude  for  his
assistance in the affair with Wickham  and  Lydia.  Darcy  replies  that  he
wishes she had not found out, but  adds  that  what  he  did  was  done  for
Elizabeth's sake. Elizabeth cannot say a word.  Darcy  tells  her  that  his
affections are no different than they were when he proposed,  and  asks  her
to tell him if hers are the same as well. Elizabeth  informs  him  that  her
sentiments have changed and that she will now gladly receive his  assurances
of continued affection. He is overcome with delight upon  hearing  this  and
speaks warmly and fervently about his  love.  Lady  Catherine's  attempt  to
dissuade him from proposing only had  the  effect  of  giving  him  hope  by
letting him know that Elizabeth was not decided against marrying him.
      They speak about the last proposal, both apologizing for their lack of
civility. Mr. Darcy had been tortured by Elizabeth's reproof "had you  acted
in a more gentleman-like manner." This and her other reproofs on that  night
humbled him and led him to realize his selfishness  and  conceit.  Elizabeth
tells Darcy that his letter slowly removed all her former  prejudices.  When
Darcy met Elizabeth at Pemberley, he wanted to show her immediately that  he
had changed as a result of her just reproofs.
      Darcy tells Elizabeth that before  leaving  for  London  he  had  told
Bingley that he had been wrong in interfering  with  Bingley's  relationship
with Jane and that he was now sure that Jane was  really  attached  to  him.
This assurance from Darcy gave Bingley the encouragement he needed  to  make
the proposal.
Volume III, Chapter 17 Summary:
      At night, when she is finally able to speak with Jane alone, Elizabeth
tells her what has happened. Jane is incredulous. But  eventually  Elizabeth
convinces her that she is serious and  that  she  really  does  love  Darcy.
Elizabeth explains her reasons for previously concealing her affection,  and
reveals to Jane what Darcy did for Lydia. Jane is extremely happy  for  her,
and they spend half the night talking.
      The next morning Mrs. Bennet is annoyed on seeing that Mr.  Darcy  has
again accompanied Bingley to Longbourn, and suggests that Elizabeth  go  for
a walk with him to keep him out of Jane  and  Bingley's  way.  Elizabeth  is
quite happy to comply. Bingley greets Elizabeth with such  warmth  that  she
is sure he knows of her engagement. During their walk  Elizabeth  and  Darcy
decide that Darcy will ask Mr. Bennet's consent  in  the  evening  and  that
Elizabeth will speak to her mother.
      After Mr. Darcy speaks with Mr. Bennet, Darcy tells Elizabeth that her
father wants to speak with her. Mr. Bennet  is  shocked  because  he  thinks
that Elizabeth hates Darcy. After long explanations she assures  Mr.  Bennet
of her affection for him. She also tells him of what Darcy  did  for  Lydia.
He is surprised and happy for his daughter.
At night Elizabeth tells  her  mother  of  the  engagement.  Her  mother  is
shocked but extremely happy in thinking of how rich  Darcy  is.  Her  former
dislike of him is completely forgotten.
      The next day her mother acts remarkably well  toward  Darcy,  and  her
father tries to get to know him better and is pleased with him.
Volume III, Chapter 18 Summary:
      Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy converse playfully about how he fell  in  love
with her in the first place and why he took so long to  propose  the  second
time. He tells  her  that  his  second  proposal  was  all  thanks  to  Lady
Catherine, her warning having  given  him  hope  of  Elizabeth's  affection.
Elizabeth asks him when he will tell Lady Catherine the news,  and  he  goes
off to write to her, while Elizabeth goes to write to Mrs. Gardiner.
      Miss Bingley's reactions to  Mr.  Bingley's  engagement  to  Jane  are
affectionate and insincere. Miss Darcy's reaction to  news  of  Mr.  Darcy's
engagement is one of genuine delight.
      The Collinses come to stay at Lucas Lodge because Lady Catherine is so
angry at the engagement. Darcy deals well with  the  obsequiousness  of  Mr.
Collins, along with the vulgarity of Mrs. Philips and Mrs. Bennet.
Mrs. Bennet is extremely happy and proud at her  daughters'  marriages.  Mr.
Bennet misses Elizabeth and often goes to visit her at Pemberley.
      Bingley  and  Jane  leave  Netherfield  after  a  year  and  move   to
Derbyshire,  because  their  closeness  to  Mrs.  Bennet  and  the   Meryton
relations is too much to bear even for them.
      Kitty now spends most of her  time  with  her  sisters,  and  is  much
improved by their example and society. Mary stays  at  home  and  keeps  her
mother company on her visits.
      Lydia soon writes to Elizabeth to congratulate her and ask her to  see
if Mr. Darcy will use his money and influence  to  help  Wickham.  Elizabeth
replies negatively, but does send Lydia money that she saves by  economizing
in her private expenses.
      Miss Bingley drops her resentment  of  Darcy's  marriage  because  she
wants to retain the right of visiting  Pemberley.  Georgiana  and  Elizabeth
become very close  and  very  fond  of  one  another.  Relations  with  Lady
Catherine were broken off for  a  while,  but  Elizabeth  finally  convinces
Darcy to attempt a reconciliation, and Lady Catherine comes to  visit  them.
Darcy and Elizabeth are always on intimate  terms  with  the  Gardiners,  to
whom they are grateful for having brought them together.

                             Pygmalion by B.Shaw

      Born in Dublin in 1856 to a  middle-class  Protestant  family  bearing
pretensions to nobility (Shaw's embarrassing alcoholic father claimed to  be
descended from Macduff, the slayer of Macbeth), George Bernard Shaw grew  to
become what some consider the second  greatest  English  playwright,  behind
only Shakespeare. Others most certainly disagree with  such  an  assessment,
but few question Shaw's immense talent or the play's that talent produced.
      Shaw died  at  the  age  of  94,  a  hypochondriac,  socialist,  anti-
vaccinationist, semi-feminist vegetarian who believed in the Life Force  and
only wore wool. He left behind him a truly massive corpus of work  including
about 60 plays, 5 novels, 3 volumes of music criticism, 4 volumes  of  dance
and theatrical criticism, and heaps of social commentary, political  theory,
and voluminous correspondence. And this list does not include  the  opinions
that Shaw could always be counted on to hold  about  any  topic,  and  which
this amboyant public figure was always most willing to  share.  Shaw's  most
lasting contribution is no doubt his plays, and it has  been  said  that  "a
day never passes without  a  performance  of  some  Shaw  play  being  given
somewhere in the world." One of Shaw's greatest contributions  as  a  modern
dramatist is  in  establishing  drama  as  serious  literature,  negotiating
publication deals for his highly popular plays so as to convince the  public
that the play was no less important than the novel. In that way, he  created
the conditions for later playwrights to write seriously for the theater.
Of all of Shaw's plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved  and
popularly received, if not the most significant in literary  terms.  Several
_lm versions have been made of the play, and it has even been  adapted  into
a musical. In fact, writing the screenplay  for  the  _lm  version  of  1938
helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win  the  much  coveted
Double: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Shaw wrote  the
part of Eliza in Pygmalion for the famous  actress  Mrs.  Patrick  Campbell,
with whom Shaw was having a prominent affair at the time that  had  set  all
of London abuzz.
      The aborted romance between  Professor  Higgins  and  Eliza  Doolittle
reflects Shaw's own love life, which was always peppered with  enamored  and
beautiful women, with whom he flirted outrageously but with whom  he  almost
never had any further relations. For example, he  had  a  long  marriage  to
Charlotte Payne-Townsend in which it is well known  that  he  never  touched
her once. The fact that Shaw was quietly a member  of  the  British  Society
for the Study of Sex Psychology, an organization  whose  core  members  were
young men agitating for homosexual liberation, might  or  might  not  inform
the way that Higgins would  rather  focus  his  passions  on  literature  or
science than on women. That Higgins was a representation of  Pygmalion,  the
character from the famous story of Ovid's  Metamorphoses  who  is  the  very
embodiment  of  male  love  for  the  female  form,  makes  Higgins   sexual
disinterest all the more compelling. Shaw is too consummate a performer  and
too smooth in his self- presentation for us to  neatly  dissect  his  sexual
background; these lean biographical facts, however, do  support  the  belief
that Shaw would have an interest in  exploding  the  typical  structures  of
standard fairy tales.
      Professor Henry Higgins  Henry Higgins is a professor of phonetics who
plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's Galatea. He is the author  of  Higgins'
Universal Alphabet, believes in concepts like visible speech, and  uses  all
manner of recording and  photographic  material  to  document  his  phonetic
subjects, reducing people and their dialects into what he  sees  as  readily
understandable units. He is an unconventional man, who goes in the  opposite
direction from the rest of society in most matters. Indeed, he is  impatient
with high society, forgetful in his public graces,  and  poorly  considerate
of normal social niceties the only reason the world has not  turned  against
him is because he is at heart a good and harmless man. His biggest fault  is
that he can be a bully.
      Eliza Doolittle f Eliza, The Flower Girl, Flower  Girl,  flower  girl,
The flower girl, the flower girl g  "She is not at all a  romantic  figure."
So is she introduced in Act I. Everything about  Eliza  Doolittle  seems  to
defy any conventional notions we might  have  about  the  romantic  heroine.
When she is transformed from a sassy, smart-mouthed  kerbstone  flower  girl
with deplorable English, to a (still sassy) regal figure _t to consort  with
nobility, it has less to do with her innate  qualities  as  a  heroine  than
with the fairy-tale aspect of  the  transformation  myth  itself.  In  other
words, the character of Eliza Doolittle comes  across  as  being  much  more
instrumental than fundamental.  The  real  (re-)making  of  Eliza  Doolittle
happens after the ambassador's party, when she decides to make  a  statement
for her own dignity against Higgins' insensitive  treatment.  This  is  when
she becomes, not a duchess, but an independent woman; and this explains  why
Higgins begins to see Eliza not as a mill around his neck but as a  creature
worthy of his admiration.
      Colonel Pickering  Colonel Pickering, the author of  Spoken  Sanskrit,
is a match for Higgins (although somewhat less  obsessive)  in  his  passion
for phonetics. But where Higgins is a boorish, careless bully, Pickering  is
always considerate and a genuinely gentleman. He says little of note in  the
play, and appears most of all to be a civilized foil to  Higgins'  barefoot,
absentminded crazy professor. He helps in the Eliza Doolittle experiment  by
making a wager of it, saying he will cover the costs of  the  experiment  if
Higgins does indeed  make  a  convincing  duchess  of  her.  However,  while
Higgins only manages  to  teach  Eliza  pronunciations,  it  is  Pickering's
thoughtful treatment towards Eliza that teaches her to respect herself.
      Alfred Doolittle  Alfred Doolittle is Eliza's father, an  elderly  but
vigorous dustman who has had at least six wives and who "seems equally  free
from fear and conscience." When he learns that his daughter has entered  the
home of Henry Higgins, he immediately pursues to see  if  he  can  get  some
money  out  of  the  circumstance.  His  unique  brand   of   rhetoric,   an
unembarrassed, unhypocritical advocation of drink  and  pleasure  (at  other
people's  expense),  is  amusing  to  Higgins.   Through   Higgins'   joking
recommendation, Doolittle becomes a  richly  endowed  lecturer  to  a  moral
reform society, transforming him from lowly dustman to a picture  of  middle
class morality he becomes miserable. Throughout, Alfred is a  scoundrel  who
is willing to sell his daughter to make a few pounds, but he is one  of  the
few unaffected characters in the play, unmasked by appearance  or  language.
Though scandalous, his speeches are honest. At points, it  even  seems  that
he might be Shaw's voice piece of  social  criticism  (Alfred's  proletariat
status, given Shaw's socialist leanings, makes the  prospect  all  the  more
      Mrs. Higgins  Professor Higgins' mother, Mrs.  Higgins  is  a  stately
lady in her sixties who sees the Eliza Doolittle experiment as  idiocy,  and
Higgins and Pickering as senseless children.  She  is  the  first  and  only
character to have any qualms about the whole affair. When her worries  prove
true, it is to her that all the characters turn. Because no woman can  match
up to his mother, Higgins claims, he has no interest in dallying with  them.
To observe the mother of Pygmalion  (Higgins),  who  completely  understands
all of his failings and inadequacies, is  a  good  contrast  to  the  mythic
proportions to which Higgins builds himself in  his  self-estimations  as  a
scientist of phonetics and a creator of duchesses.
      Freddy Eynsford Hill  Higgins'  surmise  that  Freddy  is  a  fool  is
probably accurate. In the opening scene he is a spineless  and  resourceless
lackey to his mother and sister. Later,  he  is  comically  bowled  over  by
Eliza, the half-baked duchess who still speaks cockney. He becomes  lovesick
for Eliza, and courts her with letters. At the play's close,  Freddy  serves
as a young, viable marriage option for Eliza, making the possible  path  she
will follow unclear to the reader.

Two old gentlemen meet in the rain one night  at  Covent  Garden.  Professor
Higgins is a scientist of phonetics, and Colonel Pickering is a linguist  of
Indian dialects. The first bets the other that he can,  with  his  knowledge
of phonetics, convince high London society that, in a matter of  months,  he
will be able to transform the cockney speaking Covent  Garden  flower  girl,
Eliza Doolittle, into a woman as poised and well-spoken as a duchess.
      The next morning, the girl appears at his laboratory on Wimpole Street
to ask for speech lessons, offering to pay  a  shilling,  so  that  she  may
speak properly enough to work in a flower shop. Higgins makes merciless  fun
of her, but is seduced by the idea of working his magic  on  her.  Pickering
goads him on by agreeing to cover the costs of  the  experiment  if  Higgins
can pass Eliza off as  a  duchess  at  an  ambassador's  garden  party.  The
challenge is taken, and Higgins  starts  by  having  his  housekeeper  bathe
Eliza and give her new clothes. Then Eliza's father Alfred  Doolittle  comes
to demand the return of his daughter, though his real intention  is  to  hit
Higgins up for some money.
      The professor, amused by Doolittle's unusual rhetoric, gives him  five
pounds. On his way out, the  dustman  fails  to  recognize  the  now  clean,
pretty flower girl as his daughter.
For a number of months, Higgins trains Eliza to speak properly.  Two  trials
for Eliza follow. The first occurs at Higgins' mother's  home,  where  Eliza
is introduced to the Eynsford Hills, a trio of mother,  daughter,  and  son.
The son Freddy is very attracted to her, and  further  taken  with  what  he
thinks is her affected "small  talk"  when  she  slips  into  cockney.  Mrs.
Higgins worries that the experiment will lead to problems once it is  ended,
but Higgins and Pickering are too absorbed in their game  to  take  heed.  A
second trial, which takes place some months later at an  ambassador's  party
(and which is not actually staged), is a resounding success.  The  wager  is
definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored  with  the  project,
which causes Eliza to be hurt. She throws Higgins'  slippers  at  him  in  a
rage  because  she  does  not  know  what  is  to  become  of  her,  thereby
bewildering him. He suggests she marry somebody. She returns him  the  hired
jewelry, and he accuses her of ingratitude.
      The following morning, Higgins  rushes  to  his  mother,  in  a  panic
because Eliza has run away. On his tail is  Eliza's  father,  now  unhappily
rich from the trust of a deceased millionaire who  took  to  heart  Higgins'
recommendation that Doolittle was England's "most original  moralist."  Mrs.
Higgins, who has been hiding Eliza upstairs all along,  chides  the  two  of
them for playing with the girl's affections. When she enters,  Eliza  thanks
Pickering for always treating her like a lady, but  threatens  Higgins  that
she will go  work  with  his  rival  phonetician,  Nepommuck.  The  outraged
Higgins cannot help but start  to  admire  her.  As  Eliza  leaves  for  her
father's wedding, Higgins shouts out a few errands for her to run,  assuming
that she will return to him at Wimpole Street. Eliza,  who  has  a  lovelorn
sweetheart in Freddy, and the wherewithal to pass as a duchess, never  makes
it clear whether she will or not.
Act I
      A heavy late-night summer thunderstorm opens the play. Caught  in  the
unexpected downpour, passers-by from distinct strata of the  London  streets
are forced to seek shelter together under the portico of  St  Paul's  church
in Covent Garden. The hapless Son is forced  by  his  demanding  sister  and
mother to go out into the rain to find a taxi even though there is  none  to
be found. In his hurry, he knocks over the basket of a common  Flower  Girl,
who says to him, "Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y' gowin, deah."  After  Freddy
leaves, the mother gives the Flower Girl money  to  ask  how  she  knew  her
son's name, only to learn that "Freddy" is a common by-word the Flower  Girl
would have used to address anyone.
      An elderly military Gentleman enters from the  rain,  and  the  Flower
Girl tries to sell him a flower. He gives her some change, but  a  bystander
tells her to be careful, for it  looks  like  there  is  a  police  informer
taking  copious  notes  on  her  activities.  This   leads   to   hysterical
protestations on her part, that she is only a poor  girl  who  has  done  no
wrong. The refugees from the rain crowd around her and the Note Taker,  with
considerable hostility towards the  latter,  whom  they  believe  to  be  an
undercover cop. However, each time someone speaks up,  this  mysterious  man
has the amusing ability to determine where the person came from,  simply  by
listening to that person's speech, which  turns  him  into  something  of  a
      The rain clears, leaving few other people than the  Flower  Girl,  the
Note  Taker,  and  the  Gentleman.  In  response  to  a  question  from  the
Gentleman, the Note  Taker  answers  that  his  talent  comes  from  "simply
phonetics...the science of speech." He goes on  to  brag  that  he  can  use
phonetics to make  a  duchess  out  of  the  Flower  Girl.  Through  further
questioning, the Note Taker and the Gentleman reveal  that  they  are  Henry
Higgins and Colonel Pickering respectively, both scholars  of  dialects  who
have been wanting to visit with each other. They decide to go for a  supper,
but not until Higgins has been convinced by the  Flower  Girl  to  give  her
some change. He generously throws her a  half-crown,  some  florins,  and  a
half-sovereign. This allows the delighted girl to  take  a  taxi  home,  the
same taxi that Freddy has brought back, only  to  find  that  his  impatient
mother and sister have left without him.
Act II
      The next day, Higgins and Pickering  are  just  resting  from  a  full
morning of discussion when Eliza Doolittle shows up  at  the  door,  to  the
tremendous  doubt  of  the  discerning  housekeeper  Mrs.  Pearce,  and  the
surprise of the two gentlemen. Prompted by his careless  brag  about  making
her into a duchess the night before, she  has  come  to  take  lessons  from
Higgins, so that she may sound genteel enough  to  work  in  a  flower  shop
rather than sell at the corner of Tottenham Court Road. As the  conversation
progresses, Higgins alternates between making  fun  of  the  poor  girl  and
threatening her with a broomstick beating, which only  causes  her  to  howl
and holler, upsetting Higgins' civilized company to a  considerable  degree.
Pickering is much kinder and considerate of her feelings, even going so  far
as to call her "Miss Doolittle" and  to  offer  her  a  seat.  Pickering  is
piqued by the prospect of helping Eliza, and bets Higgins  that  if  Higgins
is able to pass Eliza o_ as a duchess  at  the  Ambassador's  garden  party,
then he, Pickering, will cover the expenses of the experiment.
      This act is made up mostly of a  long  and  animated  three-(sometimes
four-)way argument over the character and the  potential  of  the  indignant
      At one point, incensed by Higgins' heartless insults, she threatens to
leave, but the clever professor lures her back by stuffing her mouth with  a
chocolate, half of which he eats  too  to  prove  to  her  that  it  is  not
poisoned. It is agreed upon that  Eliza  will  live  with  Higgins  for  six
months, and be schooled in the speech and manners of a lady of  high  class.
Things get started when Mrs. Pearce takes her upstairs for a bath.
While Mrs. Pearce and Eliza are  away,  Pickering  wants  to  be  sure  that
Higgins' intentions  towards  the  girl  are  honorable,  to  which  Higgins
replies that, to him, women "might as well be blocks of wood."  Mrs.  Pearce
enters to warn Higgins that he should be more careful with his swearing  and
his forgetful table manners now that they have an impressionable young  lady
with them, revealing  that  Higgins's  own  gentlemanly  ways  are  somewhat
precarious. At  this  point,  Alfred  Doolittle,  who  has  learned  from  a
neighbor of Eliza's that she has come to the  professor's  place,  comes  a-
knocking under the pretence of saving his  daughter's  honor.  When  Higgins
readily agrees that he should take his daughter  away  with  him,  Doolittle
reveals that he is really there to ask for  five  pounds,  proudly  claiming
that he will spend that money on immediate gratification and put none of  it
to useless savings.
      Amused by his blustering rhetoric, Higgins gives him the money.  Eliza
enters, clean and pretty in a blue kimono, and everyone  is  amazed  by  the
difference. Even her father has failed to  recognize  her.  Eliza  is  taken
with her transformation and wants to go back to  her  old  neighborhood  and
show o_, but she is warned against snobbery by Higgins. The  act  ends  with
the two of them agreeing that they have taken on a difficult task.
It is Mrs. Higgins' at-home day, and she is greatly  displeased  when  Henry
Higgins shows up suddenly, for she knows from  experience  that  he  is  too
eccentric to be presentable in front of the sort of respectable company  she
is expecting. He explains to her that  he  wants  to  bring  the  experiment
subject on whom he has been working for some  months  to  her  at-home,  and
explains the bet that he has  made  with  Pickering.  Mrs.  Higgins  is  not
pleased about this unsolicited visit from a common flower girl, but she  has
no time to oppose before  Mrs.  and  Miss  Eynsford  Hill  (the  mother  and
daughter from the first scene) are shown into  the  parlor  by  the  parlor-
maid. Colonel Pickering enters  soon  after,  followed  by  Freddy  Eynsford
Hill, the hapless son from Covent Garden.
      Higgins is about to really offend the company with a theory that  they
are all savages who  know  nothing  about  being  civilized  when  Eliza  is
announced. She makes quite an impact on everyone with her studied grace  and
pedantic speech. Everything promises to go well  until  Mrs.  Eynsford  Hill
brings up the subject of influenza, which causes Eliza to  launch  into  the
topic of her aunt, who supposedly died of influenza. In her excitement,  her
old accent, along with shocking facts such as her father's alcoholism,  slip
out. Freddy thinks that she is merely affecting "the new  small  talk,"  and
is dazzled by how well she does it. He is obviously infatuated with her.
       When Eliza gets up to leave, he offers to walk her but she  exclaims,
"Walk! Not bloody likely. I am going in a  taxi."  The  Mrs.  Eynsford  Hill
leave immediately after. Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill,  is  taken  with  Eliza,
and tries to imitate her  speech.  After  the  guests  leave,  Mrs.  Higgins
chides Higgins. She says there is no way Eliza will  become  presentable  as
long as she lives with the constantly-swearing Higgins. She demands to  know
the precise conditions  under  which  Eliza  is  living  with  the  two  old
bachelors. She is prompted to say, "You  certainly  are  a  pretty  pair  of
babies, playing with your live doll," which is only the first  of  a  series
of such criticisms she makes of Higgins and Pickering.
      They assail her simultaneously with accounts  of  Eliza's  improvement
until she must quiet them. She tries to explain to them that there  will  be
a problem of what to do with Eliza once everything is over, but the two  men
pay no heed. They take their leave, and Mrs. Higgins is left exasperated  by
the "infinite stupidity" of "men! men!! men!!!"
Act IV
      The trio return to Higgins' Wimpole Street laboratory, exhausted  from
the night's  happenings.  They  talk  about  the  evening  and  their  great
success,  though  Higgins  seems  rather  bored,  more  concerned  with  his
inability to find slippers. While he talks  absentmindedly  with  Pickering,
Eliza slips out, returns with his slippers,  and  lays  them  on  the  floor
before him without a word.  When  he  notices  them,  he  thinks  that  they
appeared out of nowhere.
Higgins and Pickering begin to speak as if Eliza is  not  there  with  them,
saying how happy they are that the entire experiment is over, agreeing  that
it had become rather boring in the last few months. The  two  of  them  then
leave the room to go to bed. Eliza is clearly hurt  ("Eliza's  beauty  turns
murderous," say  the  stage  directions),  but  Higgins  and  Pickering  are
oblivious to her.
      Higgins pops back in, once again mystified over what he has done  with
his slippers, and Eliza promptly flings them  in  his  face.  Eliza  is  mad
enough to kill him; she thinks that she is no more  important  to  him  than
his slippers.
      At Higgins' retort  that  she  is  presumptuous  and  ungrateful,  she
answers that no one has treated her  badly,  but  that  she  is  still  left
confused about what is to happen to her now  that  the  bet  has  been  won.
Higgins says that she can always get married or open that flower shop  (both
of which she eventually does), but she replies by  saying  that  she  wishes
she had been left where she was before. She  goes  on  to  ask  whether  her
clothes belong to her, meaning what can  she  take  away  with  her  without
being accused of thievery. Higgins is genuinely hurt,  something  that  does
not happen to him often. She returns him a ring he bought for  her,  but  he
throws it into the _replace. After he leaves, she finds it again,  but  then
leaves it on the dessert stand and departs.
Act V
      Higgins and Pickering show up the next day at Mrs. Higgins' home in  a
state of distraction because Eliza has run away.  They  are  interrupted  by
Alfred Doolittle, who enters  resplendently  dressed,  as  if  he  were  the
bridegroom of a very fashionable wedding. He has come  to  take  issue  with
Henry Higgins for destroying his happiness. It turns out that Higgins  wrote
a letter  to  a  millionaire  jokingly  recommending  Doolittle  as  a  most
original moralist, so that in his will  the  millionaire  left  Doolittle  a
share in his trust, amounting to three  thousand  pounds  a  year,  provided
that he lecture for the Wannafeller  Moral  Reform  World  League.  Newfound
wealth has only brought him more pain than pleasure, as long lost  relatives
emerge from the woodwork asking to be fed, not to mention that he is now  no
longer free to behave in his casual, slovenly, dustman  ways.  He  has  been
damned by "middle class morality."
      The talk degenerates into a squabble over who owns Eliza,  Higgins  or
her father (Higgins did give the latter five pounds for her after  all).  To
stop them, Mrs. Higgins sends for Eliza, who has been  upstairs  all  along.
But first she tells Doolittle to step out on the balcony  so  that  the  she
will not be shocked by the story of his new fortune.
      When she enters, Eliza takes care to behave  very  civilly.  Pickering
tells her she must not think of herself as an experiment, and she  expresses
her gratitude to him. She says that even though  Higgins  was  the  one  who
trained the flower girl to become a duchess, Pickering  always  treated  her
like a duchess, even when she was  a  flower  girl.  His  treatment  of  her
taught  her  not  phonetics,   but   self-respect.   Higgins   is   speaking
incorrigibly harshly to  her  when  her  father  reappears,  surprising  her
badly. He tells her that he is all dressed up because he is on  his  way  to
get married to his woman. Pickering and  Mrs.  Higgins  are  asked  to  come
along. Higgins and Eliza are finally left alone while the rest go o_ to  get
      They proceed to quarrel. Higgins claims that while he  may  treat  her
badly, he is at least  fair  in  that  he  has  never  treated  anyone  else
differently. He tells her she should come back with him just for the fun  of
flithe will adopt her as a daughter, or she can marry Pickering. She  swings
around and cries that she won't even marry Higgins if he asks. She  mentions
that Freddy has been writing  her  love  letters,  but  Higgins  immediately
dismisses him as a fool.
      She says that she will marry Freddy, and that  the  two  will  support
themselves  by  taking  Higgins'  phonetic  methods  to  his  chief   rival,
Nepommuck. Higgins is outraged but cannot help wondering  at  her  character
he finds his defiance much more appealing than  the  submissiveness  of  the
slippers-fetcher. Mrs. Higgins comes in to tell Eliza it is time  to  leave.
As she is about to exit, Higgins tells her off handedly to  fetch  him  some
gloves, ties, ham, and cheese while she is  out.  She  replies  ambivalently
and departs; we do not know if she will follow his  orders.  The  play  ends
with Higgins's roaring laughter as he says to his mother,  "She's  going  to
marry Freddy. Ha! Freddy! Freddy!! Ha ha ha ha ha!!!!!"


Олден Пайл — предстаитель экономического отдела американского посольства в
Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным
изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой
арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед
нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся
именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и
систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить
самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне
своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью
мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые
рамки и схемы.
Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного, неповторимого.
Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под систему
понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами, моделью
отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики Кинси,
впечатления о Вьетнаме — с точкой зрения американских политических
комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо «красная опасность», либо «воин
демократии». Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и
противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо
более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей
семьи, молод и довольно богат.
Все подчинено правилам морали, но морали формальной. Так, он уводит у
своего друга Фаулера девушку, причем объясняет это тем, что ей будет с ним
лучше, он может дать ей то, что не может Фаулер: жениться на ней и дать ей
положение в обществе; жизнь его разумна и размеренна. Постепенно О. П.
превращается в носителя агрессии. «Напрасно я уже тогда не обратил внимания
на этот фанатический блеск в его глазах, не понял, как гипнотизируют его
слова, магические числа: пятая колонна, третья сила, второе пришествие...»
— думает о нем Фаулер. Той третьей силой, которая может и должна спасти
Вьетнам, а заодно помочь установлению господства США в стране, по мнению О.
П. и тех, кто направляет его, должна стать национальная демократия. Фаулер
предупреждает О. П.: «Эта ваша третья сила— это все книжные выдумки, не
больше. Генерал Тхе просто головорез с двумя-тремя тысячами солдат, никакая
это не третья демократия». Но О. П. переубедить нельзя. Он организует взрыв
на площади, и гибнут ни в чем не повинные женщины и дети, а О. П., стоящего
на площади, заполненной трупами, волнует ничтожное: «Он взглянул на мокрое
пятно на своем башмаке и упавшим голосом спросил: — Что это? — Кровь, —
сказал я, — никогда не видели, что ли? — Надо непременно почистить, так
нельзя идти к посланнику, — сказал он...» К моменту начала повествования О.
П. мертв— он предстает перед нами в мыслях Фаулера: «Я подумал: «Какой
смысл с ним говорить? Он так и останется праведником, а разве можно
обвинять праведников — они никогда ни в чем не виноваты. Их можно только
сдерживать или уничтожать. Праведник — тоже своего рода душевнобольной».
Томас Фаулер — английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в
1951—1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со
Скоби — героем другого романа Грэма Грина— «Суть дела». Он считает, что его
долг — сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не
хочет ни во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В
Сайгоне Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его
там, — любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фуонг. Но появляется американец Олден
Пайл, который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того,
что Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет
преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во
время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место,
рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок?
Пайл раздражает Т. Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением,
граничащим с фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный
американцами, в результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла,
Т. Ф. не выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: «Вы бы на
него посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное
недоразумение, что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной
женщины убили ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой». После смерти
Пайла как-то сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме
— «этой честной стране», где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами;
женщина, некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью
выгоды легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

                       The Quiet American by G.Greene

Олден Пайл - представитель экономического отдела американского посольства в
Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным
изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой
арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед
нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся
именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и
систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить
самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне
своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью
мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые
рамки и схемы. Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного,
неповторимого. Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под
систему понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами,
моделью отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики
Кинси, впечатления о Вьетнаме - с точкой зрения американских политических
комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо "красная опасность", либо "воин
демократии". Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и
противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо
более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей
семьи, молод и довольно богат. Все подчинено правилам морали, но морали
Так, он уводит у своего друга Фаулера девушку, причем объясняет это тем,
что ей будет с ним лучше, он может дать ей то, что не может Фаулер:
жениться на ней и дать ей положение в обществе; жизнь его разумна и
размеренна. Постепенно О. П. превращается в носителя агрессии. "Напрасно я
уже тогда не обратил внимания на этот фанатический блеск в его глазах, не
понял, как гипнотизируют его слова, магические числа: пятая колонна, третья
сила, второе пришествие..." - думает о нем Фаулер. Той третьей силой,
которая может и должна спасти Вьетнам, а заодно помочь установлению
господства США в стране, по мнению О. П. и тех, кто направляет его, должна
стать национальная демократия. Фаулер предупреждает О. П.: "Эта ваша третья
сила- это все книжные выдумки, не больше. Генерал Тхе просто головорез с
двумя-тремя тысячами солдат, никакая это не третья демократия". Но О. П.
переубедить нельзя. Он организует взрыв на площади, и гибнут ни в чем не
повинные женщины и дети, а О. П., стоящего на площади, заполненной трупами,
волнует ничтожное: "Он взглянул на мокрое пятно на своем башмаке и упавшим
голосом спросил: - Что это? - Кровь, - сказал я, - никогда не видели, что
ли? - Надо непременно почистить, так нельзя идти к посланнику, - сказал
он..." К моменту начала повествования О. П. мертв- он предстает перед нами
в мыслях Фаулера: "Я подумал: "Какой смысл с ним говорить? Он так и
останется праведником, а разве можно обвинять праведников - они никогда ни
в чем не виноваты. Их можно только сдерживать или уничтожать. Праведник -
тоже своего рода душевнобольной".
Томас Фаулер - английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в 1951-
1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со Скоби -
героем другого романа Грэма Грина- "Суть дела". Он считает, что его долг -
сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не хочет ни
во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В Сайгоне
Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его там, -
любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фу-онг. Но появляется американец Олден Пайл,
который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того, что
Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет
преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во
время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место,
рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок? Пайл раздражает Т.
Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением, граничащим с
фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный американцами, в
результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла, Т. Ф. не
выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: "Вы бы на него
посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное недоразумение,
что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной женщины убили
ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой". После смерти Пайла как-то
сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме - "этой
честной стране", где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами; женщина,
некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью выгоды
легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

                       Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

Part 1 Summary:
      The narrator introduces himself as Robinson Crusoe.  He  was  born  in
1632 in the city of York to a good family. His father  is  a  foreigner  who
made money in merchandise before settling to down and marrying  his  mother,
whose surname is Robinson. His true last name is Kreutznaer,  but  has  been
corrupted into Crusoe by the English. There are two older  brothers  in  the
family; one died in the English regiment, and Robinson does  not  know  what
became of the other.
      Crusoe's father has designed him for the law, but early on his head is
filled with "rambling thoughts" of going to sea.  No  advice  or  entreaties
can diminish  his  desire.  His  father  gives  him  "excellent  advice  and
counsel," telling him that only men of desperate and  superior  fortunes  go
abroad in search of adventures, and that he is too high or too low for  such
activities. His station is the middle station, a state  which  all  figures,
great and small, will envy eventually, and his happiness  would  be  assured
if he would stay at home.  Nature  has  provided  this  life,  and  Robinson
should not go against this. After all, look what  happened  to  his  brother
who went into the army. The narrator  is  truly  affected  by  his  father's
discourse, but after a few weeks he decides to run away.  He  prevails  upon
his mother to speak to his father and persuade him to allow one  voyage.  If
Robinson does not like it, he resolves to go home and think of  the  sea  no
more. She reluctantly reports their conversation, but no  headway  is  made,
no consent given. About a year later, he is able to procure free passage  on
a friend's boat heading to London. Asking  for  no  blessing  or  money,  he
boards the ship and leaves.
      Misfortune begins immediately. The sea is rough, and Robinson  regrets
his decision to leave home. He sees now how comfortably  his  father  lives.
The sea calms, and after  a  few  days,  the  thoughts  are  dismissed.  The
narrator speaks with his companion, marveling at the "storm." His  companion
laughs and says it was nothing at all. There is  drinking  that  night,  and
Robinson forgets his fear of drowning. Within a few more days, the  wind  is
behaving terribly, and then a  true  and  terrible  storm  begins.  Robinson
spends much time in his cabin, laying down in fright. He  sees  nothing  but
distress, and is convinced  he  is  at  death's  door.  The  ship  is  being
flooded, and he is commissioned to help bail water. At  one  point  Robinson
faints, but is roused quickly. The water is coming too fast, so  they  board
life boats. People on shore are ready to assist  them,  if  they  can  reach
land. The boats arrive at Yarmouth, and the magistrate gives the men  rooms.
They must decide whether or not to continue to London  or  return  to  Hull.
His comrade notes that Robinson should take this as a sign that  he  is  not
meant to go to sea. They part in an angry state. Robinson travels to  London
via land. He is ashamed to go home and be laughed at by  neighbors.  Finally
he decides to look for a voyage. He is deaf to all good advice,  and  boards
a vessel bound for  Guiana  because  he  befriends  the  its  captain.  This
voyage, save seasickness, goes well, but  upon  arrival  the  captain  dies.
Robinson resolves to take his ship and be a Guiana trader.
      On a course towards the Canary Islands, they are attacked  by  Turkish
pirates, who capture them  and  take  them  into  Sallee,  a  Moorish  port.
Robinson is now a slave. His new master takes him home  for  drudgery  work.
The narrator meditates  escape  for  the  next  two  years.  An  opportunity
presents itself when his master sends  Robinson,  along  with  some  Moorish
youths, to catch some fish. Robinson secretly stores provisions and guns  on
the ship. They set out to fish. Robinson convinces the  helmsman  that  they
will find fish further out. He goes behind one of the Moors and  tosses  him
overboard, saying that he should swim for shore because he the  narrator  is
determined to have liberty. Robinson turns to the other  boy,  called  Xury,
and says he must be faithful or be tossed as well.  Xury  resolves  fidelity
and says he will see the world with Robinson. They sail for  five  days,  as
the narrator is anxious to get far away. They land in a  creek  and  resolve
to swim ashore and see what country this is. For two days they are  anchored
there. They  observe  "mighty  creatures"  yelling  on  shore  and  swimming
towards the ship. Robinson fires a gun  to  discourage  them  from  swimming
further. They are not sure what animal this is.
      Although the two are scared, they need water. Together  they  will  go
ashore, and either they will  both  live  or  both  die.  The  land  appears
uninhabited. They are able to kill a hare-like animal for dinner and  obtain
fresh water. Robinson is sure they are on  the  Canary  or  the  Cape  Verde
Islands. He hopes to come upon English trading vessels that will allow  them
to board. The two men remain in the creek. Together they  kill  a  lion  for
sport as they pass the time. Xury cuts off a foot  for  them  to  eat.  They
begin to sail along the land in search of a river. Eventually they  see  the
land is inhabited by naked black people. Robinson  and  Xury  go  closer  to
shore. The people leave food at the water's edge. They keep  great  distance
from the two men. Another creature swims toward  the  boat.  Robinson  kills
it, and sees that it is a leopard of some sort. The black people accept  the
killing happily, so Xury goes ashore for water and  food.  In  the  distance
Robinson spies a Portuguese ship, but it is too far to  make  contact.  They
leave immediately, trying to follow the ship. Robinson fires a  gun  to  get
their attention. Joyfully, Robinson finds they will  let  Xury  and  himself
board, and the captain does not demand any money  from  them.  The  ship  is
headed for Brazil.
Part 2 Summary:
      The sea captain is extremely kind to Crusoe. He buys Robinson's  boat,
all of his worldly goods, and Xury. At first the narrator  is  reluctant  to
part with his servant, but the captain promises to free him in ten years  if
he has turned Christian. As Xury finds this agreeable, Robinson  allows  the
exchange. The voyage to Brazil goes well. The  narrator  is  recommended  by
the captain  to  the  house  of  an  "honest  man."  This  man  lives  on  a
plantation, and Robinson lives with him for a while.  Seeing  how  rich  the
plantation  owners  are,  he  resolves  to  become  a  planter,  and  begins
purchasing much land. Once Robinson is planting, he  becomes  friendly  with
Wells, his Portuguese neighbor. They slowly increase the diversity of  their
stock. At this juncture Robinson regrets having sold Xury. He is in a  trade
that he knows nothing about, and he has no one to talk to but the  neighbor.
If he had listened to his father, he would have been  comfortable  at  home.
Still, he is sustained by his augmenting wealth.
      The captain returns and  tells  Robinson  to  give  him  a  letter  of
procuration so that he can bring the narrator half of  the  fortune  he  has
left with the English captain's widow. He returns not only with  money,  but
with a servant. Robinson is now infinitely richer  than  his  neighbor,  and
purchases a "Negro slave" and a "European servant." Each year he grows  more
tobacco and thrives.  But  he  is  not  completely  happy  with  this  life.
"Nature" and "Providence" stir him so that he is not content, and  winds  up
throwing himself into the  pit  of  human  misery  once  more.  Having  made
friends during his four year residence in Brazil,  he  has  spoken  much  of
voyages to Guinea, where one can buy desirable items, but  especially  Negro
servants for plantation work. It  is  a  highly  restricted  trade,  though.
Three merchants come to him and say they want to buy the  Negroes  privately
for their own plantations. They ask if he will join and manage  the  trading
on Guinea. Ignoring the inner voice of his father,  Robinson  wholeheartedly
agrees to go. He makes the investing merchants promise they will look  after
his plantation if he "miscarries." He  boards  the  ship  on  the  first  of
September, eight years after he ran away from home.
      Good weather lasts for a while, but then it turns stormy. One man dies
of sickness; a little boy is washed overboard. After 12  days  it  is  clear
that the ship will not make it due to leakiness.  They  decide  to  try  and
make it to Africa, where they can get assistance. For  15  days  they  sail,
and another storm hits. There is land in the distance, but they  are  afraid
it might be inhabited by savages who will eat them. The  ship  crashes  into
sand, and the sea powerfully washes over it. They use  their  oars  to  edge
closer to shore, but their hearts are heavy because they  know  as  soon  as
they get there, the  ship  will  be  dashed  to  pieces  and  they  will  be
overtaken by the undercurrent and drowned. They have to  at  least  try  and
swim. Once they jump into the sea,  Robinson  has  some  good  luck  and  is
helped to shore by a wave. He runs as the sea continues to  chase  him.  The
water fights him, but he manages to land safely on  shore.  Robinson  thanks
God for his deliverance. He looks around, sees  nothing  to  help  him,  and
runs about like a madman until he falls asleep in a tree. The  next  day  is
calm and sunny. The narrator now sees that if they had stayed on board,  the
ship would have made it to land without being dashed. But the  rest  of  the
company is dead, and Robinson grieves. He swims out to the ship and takes  a
few pieces to build a raft. On this  he  loads  the  provisions,  everything
from food to weaponry. Robinson looks about the island for a good  place  to
live and store his supplies. There  are  no  people,  only  beasts.  A  tent
serves as his lodging. He makes a number of voyages to the ship in the  next
few weeks and brings back everything salvageable. In order to guard  against
possible savages, the narrator moves his tent near a cave with steep  sides.
He sets up a home with cables and rigging. A hammock is his bed. He makes  a
cave behind the tent to serve as a cellar. Discovering goats on the  island,
Robinson goes out daily to kill  his  food.  This  leads  to  his  making  a
cooking area. When desolation threatens to overwhelm him, he forces  himself
to remember the dead company, and how much better off he  is.  At  the  very
least he has housing and guns to kill food.
Part 3 Summary:
      After having been there about 12 days,  Robinson  decides  to  keep  a
calendar by marking a large wooden post. He is very happy to have  some  pen
and paper, three Bibles, two cats and a dog, all from  the  ship.  The  work
upon his home is tedious without proper  tools,  but  he  improvises.  After
all, he has nothing  else  to  occupy  his  time.  To  comfort  himself  the
narrator makes a list of pros and cons about his  shipwreck.  Ultimately  he
decides to be joyous because God has delivered and provided for him.  He  is
raising a wall around his home. After about  a  year  and  a  half,  he  has
rafters and a thatched roof. Robinson realizes there  is  nothing  he  wants
that he can't make: thus he creates entrance and exit  to  his  home,  table
and chairs that he might truly  enjoy  writing  and  reading.  The  narrator
begins a journal, in which he documents his initial misery, and all  of  his
tasks and duties that he performs in acclimating to the island. A  scheduled
routine forms for his hunting and building. Every animal he kills, he  keeps
the skins and hangs them as ornaments. Robinson goes about the  business  of
making chests  to  store  his  provisions,  as  well  as  tools  such  as  a
wheelbarrow. The cave/cellar appears to  be  finished  when  a  quantity  of
earth falls from  the  ceiling;  Crusoe  repairs  this.  He  builds  storage
shelves to create "order within doors." A more solid fence  begins  to  form
around his  dwelling.  The  narrator  takes  frequent  walks  and  discovers
pigeons, a very good meat.  The  darkness  is  his  greatest  annoyance;  he
decides to  make  candles  from  the  tallow  of  slaughtered  goats.  While
emptying sacks from the ship, Robinson  shakes  out  come  pieces  of  corn.
After the rains, husks of barley  appear.  The  narrator  is  astounded  and
thanks God. He manages to plant some rice as well.
      Robinson builds a ladder to the entrance of his  home.  While  in  his
cave/cellar, an earthquake occurs and much  of  the  walls  crumble.  He  is
frightened and prays profusely. It rains violently. He resolves to move  his
tent a bit to prevent untimely death from other earthquakes. Pieces  of  the
shipwreck wash up on shore. Robinson gathers them to use on  his  new  home.
He finds a large tortoise that provides a good meal. Soon he falls  ill  and
has chills for many days. The narrator sleeps restlessly and has  nightmares
about dark men coming to kill him. He reflects once more  on  how  good  God
has been to him, and assumes that this sickness  is  a  punishment  for  not
realizing this goodness sooner. He regrets  not  listening  to  his  father.
Robinson prays what he refers to as his "first prayer." He makes a  homemade
remedy in the form of rum, tobacco and water. When his sickness grows  worse
he wonders what he has done to deserve this. His conscience answers that  he
has led a "dreadful misspent life." Robinson takes up reading the Bible.  He
becomes better.
Part 4 Summary:
      It takes some weeks for Robinson to  recover  his  full  strength.  He
marvels at this deliverance from  sickness.  More  serious  reading  of  the
Bible commences. The narrator now looks  at  his  past  life  with  complete
horror. His thoughts are directed to a "higher nature." The rainy season  is
dangerous to his health, so he spends little time  walking  about.  Crusoe's
habitation is set; he feels that  he  wants  to  explore  the  rest  of  the
island. When the weather improves, he goes about and sees many  meadows.  He
also finds some tobacco growing. In the woods  there  is  fruit  growing  in
great abundance, and a spring of fresh water. Robinson tries to being  fruit
back, but he is gone so long it spoils. He resolves to try again.  Returning
to his home, Crusoe finds that some of  his  grapes  have  been  trod  upon.
There must be wild creatures thereabouts. He hangs the remaining  grapes  to
dry them into raisins. Robinson loves the  wilder  part  of  the  island  so
dearly that he resumes his thoughts of a  new  habitation,  and  decides  to
simply build another one and have two homes:  a  "sea  coast  house"  and  a
"country house." He finishes in time for the next  rainy  season.  His  cats
are breeding with wild cats on the island, so he is forced to kill  some  of
them, that his food supply is not entirely diminished. The year  anniversary
of his arrival is unhappy. He prays again to God.
      He has learned the rainy season from the dry season,  and  decides  to
plant crops of rice and corn. The first crop is  a  good  one,  so  Robinson
extends the arable land. He busies himself with the farming and with  making
finer household items, like baskets. He moves  frequently  between  his  two
homes. His greatest desire at the moment is for a pipe. On an  exceptionally
clear day, he spies a line of land, but he cannot be sure where  it  is.  He
is sure,  however,  that  the  inhabitants  are  cannibalistic  savages.  He
discovers more animals on his rambles around  the  island.  Many  times  the
narrator sleeps outdoors, in trees to protect himself. When he  comes  home,
however, he is always very happy. He has tamed a parrot and  a  young  goat,
who follow him endlessly. The two year anniversary arrives, and it is  still
solemn, but with much more joy in Robinson's heart. His desires in life  are
completely altered. He decides he can be more happy in this  existence  than
in his previous one. Scripture reading is done daily and  methodically.  The
narrator finds that his crops are being eaten by birds. He  shoots  one  and
uses it successfully as a scarecrow. The  next  goal  is  to  try  and  make
bread. His parrot Poll now talks.
      Robinson makes some very good pots and jars. He  then  forms  a  stone
mortar to beat the corn into meal, and a sieve to dress it. Over hot  embers
he bakes the batter and gets corn bread. This  new  technique  leads  to  an
enlargement of the barns, to hold more corn.
Part 5 Summary:
      Robinson is growing curious about the land on the other  side  of  the
island. He believes from there he might spot a mainland and  obtain  escape.
Yet he does not think about falling into the hands of savages. The  narrator
wishes for Xury and the boat they sailed. He resolves to try and repair  the
wrecked ship's boat, but it sinks repeatedly. He then decides to  build  his
own boat. Crusoe is unsure as to how he will get  the  boat  off  land,  but
decides to worry about this later. In retrospect  this  is  referred  to  as
"preposterous method" of work.  The  boat  is  well-made,  but  Robinson  is
unable to get it to the water due to its weight. The only way is to build  a
canal to the ocean, which will take a long  while.  The  fourth  anniversary
comes, and Crusoe observes it with  respect,  marveling  that  there  is  no
wickedness here. Ironically, all the money he  has  is  worthless--he  longs
for a tobacco  pipe  or  a  handmill.  He  reflects  upon  the  goodness  of
Providence, and spends much time remembering important dates in his life.
      Robinson's clothes have begun to wither. He manages to use  the  skins
of creatures he has killed to make a "sorry shift." The skins keep him  very
dry in the rain, so he decides to make an umbrella. He  also  makes  another
boat, small enough that he can get it to the water. In  the  sixth  year  of
his "reign or captivity," he sets out on a voyage  around  the  island.  The
current is strong and sweeps him away from  the  island.  Crusoe  begins  to
fear that he will not be able to return. Gradually  the  wind  changes,  and
the narrator immediately goes back to shore, drops to his knees, and  thanks
God. He is able to reach his country house  by  nightfall.  He  is  terribly
frightened to hear a voice calling his name, asking where he  is,  until  he
sees it is the parrot Poll. For  the  next  year  Robinson  lives  a  quiet,
sedate life. He perfects his carpentry skills and is able to  make  a  wheel
tool to aid in his building. His powder supply is decreasing, so  he  begins
to set traps to catch the goats and have his own flock.  Eleven  years  have
past. The goats provide him with milk, from which the narrator  is  able  to
make butter and cheese. He now dines  like  a  "king  among  his  subjects."
Still the narrator longs to sail around the island,  but  he  is  afraid  of
being swept away. Thus he decides to have a  boat  on  either  side  of  the
island. One day going to visit his boat, he spies  a  man's  footprint  near
it. Robinson is thunderstruck with fear: it must be  a  savage  from  nearby
lands. He wonders if there are on the island, if  it  is  the  mark  of  the
devil. His religious hope is abating. But the narrator resolves to  let  God
decide--if he is not to be delivered from the evil, so be it.
Part 6 Summary:
      Robinson begins to  think  that  he  might  have  made  the  footprint
himself; this makes him bolder and he goes out again to milk his goats.  But
he walks with incredible fear, always looking behind him. He concludes  that
since he has not seen anyone in fifteen years, the  people  must  come  from
abroad in boats. He wants to hide himself even more, so  he  reinforces  his
walls and plants groves of trees that develop into a  forest  in  six  years
time. He moves his goats to a more remote location  and  divides  them  into
two groups. Crusoe makes his way to the shore opposite to the one  on  which
he  landed,  and  finds  it  littered  with  human  bones.   His   fear   of
cannibalistic savages is confirmed. He thanks God that he was not eaten  and
that he is distinguished from  these  people  whom  he  sees  as  abhorrent.
Gradually the narrator becomes comfortable again, but he is  cautious  about
firing his gun, and prefers to tend his livestock, so he does  not  have  to
hunt. Aside from this, he sets his mind to other tasks, such as learning  to
make beer.
      Crusoe is not fearful but vengeful. He longs for the  chance  to  hurt
these savages and save the victims. Several times  he  imagines  the  proper
mode of ambush and attack. He picks the exact sniper  spots.  A  daily  tour
commences to look out for approaching ships. He then  steps  back,  however,
and wonders if it is his place to engage in violence with  people  who  have
not done him any personal harm, and who are most  likely  killing  prisoners
of war. Robinson debates with himself and concludes  that  he  should  leave
them to the justice of God. He continues his secluded life and is once  more
thankful for his deliverance.  Occasionally  he  is  frightened  by  strange
sounds, and he is still cautious. But the narrator tells himself that if  he
is not fit to face the devil, he could not have lived twenty years alone  on
the island. Time continues passing. Robinson spends  time  with  his  parrot
and his various animals. One day, he is stunned to see a fire  on  his  side
of the island--the savages are back. He sees they have  two  canoes  from  a
lookout point, but he does not dare approach them.  When  the  tide  returns
they leave. Crusoe is horrified at the human  remains  on  the  shore.  Once
again he wants to destroy the savages when they  return.  When  the  twenty-
fourth anniversary passes, Robinson  spies  the  wreck  of  a  Spanish  ship
drifting towards the island. His heart is  lightened  by  the  thought  that
there might be a survivor. He hastens to his boat, gathers  provisions,  and
rows out to the wreck. Aside from a yelping dog, he  finds  no  one  living.
Crusoe takes the dog, along with some liquor, clothing and  money,  back  to
the island with him.
Part 7 Summary:
      The narrator resumes his quiet steady life. He always thinks upon  the
goodness of Providence. But he is haunted by  dreams  of  savages.  In  this
time the narrator has thought that upon saving the life of a  captive  or  a
savage himself, he might be able  to  make  him  his  companion  and  obtain
escape from the island. Only now does he realize how  lonely  he  has  been.
Crusoe waits patiently, and after a year and a half he is  rewarded  by  the
appearance of five canoes  on  shore.  Against  twenty  or  thirty  men,  he
wonders how he will fight. He spies two "miserable  wretches"  being  pulled
from the boat. As one is beaten and  cut  open  for  the  feast,  the  other
manages to run away, towards Robinson. He fetches his two guns and  goes  to
save "the creature's" life. He manages to shoot the  two  men  pursuing  the
prisoner. The prisoner then begins to bow to the narrator and rest his  head
on his foot. He is amazed that his  enemies  are  dead.  Apparently  he  has
never seen a gun. Together they bury the  bodies.  Robinson  gives  the  man
bread, raisins and water, who  then  falls  asleep.  He  is  a  good-looking
youth, about twenty-six years old, but he does not speak  English.  Robinson
manages to tell the man that his name is Friday, and  that  he  should  call
the narrator Master. When they go out and reach the graves of the  two  men,
Friday makes signs that they should eat  the  bodies.  Crusoe  becomes  very
angry and leads away the docile Friday. He still hungers for flesh, but  the
narrator makes him understand that he will be killed if he eats  other  men.
Friday is  dressed  in  his  master's  image.  He  becomes  a  most  devoted
manservant. The relationship is very loving. Robinson seeks to  make  Friday
civilized with everything from eating  habits  to  religious  teachings.  He
teaches him how to use guns and roast goats. Crusoe is  having  a  wonderful
      A year goes by in this pleasant way. Friday learns broken English.  He
manages to tell Robinson that they are near the  Caribbean,  and  that  they
would need a big boat to get back to his homeland. The  narrator  begins  to
teach about the Christian God. Friday does  not  understand  why  the  Devil
cannot be beaten if God is stronger. Robinson makes him understand that  all
must be given the chance to repent and be pardoned.  Explaining  this  makes
Crusoe even more full of faith because he clears up his  own  ideas.  Friday
tells him that there are white men living  peaceably  on  his  native  land.
When the weather is clear, Friday rejoices at seeing  his  homeland  in  the
distance. Robinson worries that he might return there  and  resume  his  old
habits. Thus he is jealous. But Friday assures him that  he  only  wants  to
return so that he can teach the others. He says that Crusoe  would  have  to
come with him, though, or he would not be able  to  leave.  He  cannot  even
bear for Crusoe to send him to  the  continent  first--they  have  lived  in
harmony for three years. Together they manage to build a big boat.  Robinson
sets the adventure for the post-rain months of November and December.
Part 8 Summary:
      Before Friday and Robinson can make their journey, three canoes arrive
on the island. Friday panics. Robinson provides him with some rum, and  they
gather their weapons. Crusoe  is  not  worried;  they  are  "naked,  unarmed
wretches" who are subservient to him. The savages have prisoners. As  Friday
and Robinson approach, they are eating the flesh  of  one.  A  white-bearded
man of European descent  is  a  prisoner.  The  narrator  is  horrified  and
enraged, for he thought those men  lived  peaceably  with  Friday's  people.
Against nineteen men Friday and Crusoe wage battle,  Friday  always  copying
the moves of his master. In the chaos, the prisoners are freed. One of  them
is a Spaniard. The narrator  enlists  his  help  in  shooting  his  captors.
Together the three  of  them  manage  to  kill  most  of  the  savages.  The
remaining ones run to two of the canoes and hastily row  away,  never  again
to return to the island. In the third canoe another man  is  founded,  bound
and gagged. Friday is ecstatic--it is his father.  The  reunion  is  joyous,
and the narrator is very touched. They give the prisoners bread  and  water.
Friday and Robinson make them some beds. Crusoe  is  very  happy  that  "his
island is now peopled," and he is  "rich  in  its  subjects."  He  considers
himself the rightful lord. Talking with the Spaniard, Robinson  learns  that
more of his men are living with the savages,  but  in  peace.  The  narrator
would like to join these Europeans, but he fears being  a  prisoner  in  New
Spain and being sent to the  Inquisition.  The  Spaniard  assures  him  this
would not happen. He is so impressed with Robinson's island  that  he  wants
to bring the rest of his men there to live. Everyone works to  increase  the
livestock and crops  in  preparation.  Finally  the  Spaniard  and  Friday's
father are sent back in the canoe to gather the men.
      As Friday and Robinson await their return, they spy another ship close
to shore. It appears to be an English boat. Some  men  row  to  the  island.
Three of them are  prisoners.  The  seamen  are  running  about,  trying  to
explore this strange place. Robinson dearly wishes  that  the  Spaniard  and
Friday's father were here to help fight. While the seamen sleep, Crusoe  and
Friday approach the prisoners, who see them as  God-sent.  They  learn  from
one that he is the captain of the ship, and  his  crew  has  mutinied.  They
want to leave him with the first mate and a passenger  to  perish.  Robinson
says he will try to save them  on  two  conditions:  that  they  pretend  no
authority on the island, and that if the  battle  is  won,  that  they  take
Friday and himself to England passage-free. It is agreed. They are  able  to
surprise everyone on land, killing some and granting mercy to those who  beg
for their lives. Crusoe tells the captain of his life  on  the  island.  The
captain is visibly moved. Next they want to recover the ship. On  the  water
they hear shots. With the aid  of  a  binocular-type  instrument,  they  see
another small boat of men approaching. The captain says only a  few  can  be
trusted; the chief  organizer  of  the  mutiny  is  in  the  boat.  Robinson
marshals his "troops," consisting of Friday and the prisoners. They wait  to
start the battle.
Part 9 Summary:
      The boat of men lands on shore. They examine the first,  broken  boat.
Shots go off to try and find the other crew members. Robinson and  his  army
wait for a while. Just as the men are going  to  leave,  the  narrator  bids
Friday and the first mate to holler from an area  of  rising  ground  within
his sight. The men run back eagerly. Two stay in the boat.  Crusoe  and  the
others surprise them and quickly get them to join their side. The other  men
are looking for the calls. Friday and the mate lead them astray until  dark.
They return to the boat and are stunned when they find  the  other  two  men
gone. In the midst of their surprise Robinson and the army attack.  Two  men
are killed outright. The captain tells the rest to  surrender  by  order  of
the governor, Crusoe. Arms are laid down and  the  men  are  rounded  up  as
prisoners and divided up. Some are taken to the goat pasture,  some  to  the
cave, where the first prisoners lay. Except for the worst of the crew,  they
all pledge their undying devotion to  the  captain.  In  the  guise  of  the
governor's assistant, Crusoe tells them that if they mutiny or  go  back  on
their word, they will be killed. The captain goes out  with  his  men  in  a
boat and is able to reclaim his  large  ship.  He  kills  the  head  of  the
mutiny, and they hang his body from  a  tree  on  the  island.  The  captain
immediately hands over the ship to Crusoe. Crusoe embraces  the  captain  as
his deliverer. He dresses in new clothing from the ship  and  poses  as  the
Governor. He addresses the untrustworthy prisoners, and tells them they  can
either stay on the island or return to England and be  hanged.  They  choose
to stay on the isle.  Robinson  takes  time  to  show  them  where  all  his
amenities are. He and Friday leave on  the  ship  with  the  rest  of  their
little army.
      Robinson arrives in England thirty-five years after  he  left  it.  He
finds the old Portuguese captain in Lisbon and is able  to  get  in  contact
with  his  old  plantation  partners.  He  finds  he  is  very  wealthy  and
successful. He pays the Portuguese man and the widow  who  was  his  trustee
very well for all the kindness  they  have  shown  him.  He  sends  his  two
sisters in the English countryside some money. Crusoe  thinks  of  going  to
Brazil, but decides he could  not  bear  the  rule  under  the  religion  of
Catholicism. Thus he resolves to sell the plantation and settle in  England.
To get to England from Portugal, Robinson decides not to sail but to  go  by
land. The journey is treacherous. They are almost attacked  by  wolves.  The
guide becomes ill. At one point Friday must fight a  bear.  Happily  enough,
they are successful and  arrive  unscathed  in  Dover.  Robinson  eventually
marries and has three children. When his wife dies, he takes a  voyage  with
his nephew to the East Indies. There he  sees  that  his  island  is  faring
well, the Spaniards having arrived at the behest of Friday's father and  the
first Spaniard who landed on the isle. There are women  and  young  children
as well as men. Crusoe looks in on the inhabitants of the island  from  time
to time. He is always on a voyage.

                    The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde

      The artist creates beautiful  things.  Art  aims  to  reveal  art  and
conceal the artist. The critic translates  impressions  from  the  art  into
another medium. Criticism is a form of autobiography.  People  who  look  at
something beautiful and find an ugly  meaning  are  "corrupt  without  being
charming." Cultivated people look at beautiful  things  and  find  beautiful
meanings. The elect are those who  see  only  beauty  in  beautiful  things.
Books can’t be moral or immoral; they are only well or badly written.
      People of the nineteenth century who dislike realism are like  Caliban
who is enraged at  seeing  his  own  face  in  the  mirror.  People  of  the
nineteenth century who dislike romanticism are like Caliban enraged  at  not
seeing himself in the mirror.
      The subject matter of art is the moral life of people, but  moral  art
is art that is well formed. Artists don’t try  to  prove  anything.  Artists
don’t have ethical sympathies,  which  in  an  artist  "is  an  unpardonable
mannerism of style." The subject matter of art can include things  that  are
morbid,  because  "the  artist  can  express   everything."   The   artist’s
instruments are thought and language.
      Vice and virtue are the materials of art. In terms of form,  music  is
the epitome of all the arts. In terms of feeling, acting is the  epitome  of
the arts.
      Art is both surface and symbol. People  who  try  to  go  beneath  the
surface and those who try to read the symbols "do so at  their  own  peril."
Art imitates not life, but the spectator.  When  there  is  a  diversity  of
opinion about a work of art, the art is good.  "When  critics  disagree  the
artist is in accord with him[/her]self."
      The value of art is not in its usefulness. Art is useless.
      In a richly decorated studio an artist, Basil Hallward  talks  with  a
guest, Lord Henry Wotton about a new portrait  he  has  standing  out.  Lord
Henry exclaims that it is the best of Hallward’s work  and  that  he  should
show it at Grosvenor. Hallward remarks that he doesn’t plan to  show  it  at
all. Lord Henry can’t imagine why an artist wouldn’t want to show his  work.
Hallward explains that he has put too much of himself in it to  show  it  to
the public.  Lord  Henry  can’t  understand  this  since  Hallward  isn’t  a
beautiful  man  while  the  subject  of  the  portrait  is   extraordinarily
beautiful. As he is explaining himself, he  mentions  the  subject’s  name--
Dorian Gray. He regrets having slipped, saying that when  he  likes  people,
he never tells their names because it feels to him as if  he’s  giving  them
away to strangers.
      Lord Henry compares this idea to his marriage, saying  that  "the  one
charm of marriage is that it makes a life of deception absolutely  necessary
for both parties." He adds that he and his wife never know where  the  other
is and that she’s always a better liar than he is, but that she just  laughs
at him when he slips. Basil Hallward is impatient with Lord Henry  for  this
revelation, accusing Lord Henry of posing. He adds  that  Lord  Henry  never
says anything moral and never does anything immoral. Lord  Henry  tells  him
that being natural is the worst of the poses.
      Hallward returns to the idea of the portrait. He explains that  "every
portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist,  not  the
sitter." The sitter only occasions the production of the  art.  The  painter
is revealed, not the sitter. He won’t, therefore, show  the  secret  of  his
soul to the public.
      He tells the story of how he met Dorian Gray. He went to a "crush" put
on by Lady Brandon. While he was walking around  the  room,  he  saw  Dorian
Gray, "someone whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I  allowed
it to do so, it would absorb by whole nature, my whole  soul,  my  very  art
itself." He was afraid of such an influence, so he avoided meeting  the  man
he saw. He tried to leave and Lady Brandon caught him and  took  him  around
the room introducing him to her guests. He had recently shown a  piece  that
created a sensation, so his cultural capital was quite  high  at  the  time.
After numerous introductions, he came upon Dorian Gray.
      Lady Brandon says she didn’t know what Mr. Gray did, perhaps  nothing,
perhaps he played the piano or the violin. The two men laughed  at  her  and
became friends with each other at once.
      He tells Lord Henry that soon he painted Dorian Gray’s portrait.  Now,
Dorian Gray is all of Hallward’s art. He explains that  in  art,  there  are
two epochal events possible: one is the introduction of  a  new  medium  for
art, like  the  oil  painting,  the  second  is  the  appearance  of  a  new
personality for art. Dorian Gray is the latter.
      Even when he’s not painting Dorian Gray, he is influenced  by  him  to
paint extraordinarily different creations. It is like a new  school  of  art
emerging. Dorian Gray is his motive in art.
      As he is explaining the art, he mentions that he has never told Dorian
Gray how important he is. He  won’t  show  his  Dorian  Gray-  inspired  art
because he fears that the public would recognize his bared soul. Lord  Henry
notes that bared souls are quite popular these  days  in  fiction.  Hallward
hates this trend, saying that the artist  should  create  beautiful  things,
and should put nothing of his own life  into  them.  Dorian  Gray  is  often
quite charming to Basil, but sometimes he seems to take delight  in  hurting
Basil. Basil feels at such moments that he has given  his  soul  to  someone
shallow and cruel enough to treat it as a  flower  to  ornament  his  lapel.
Lord Henry predicts that Basil will tire of Dorian sooner than  Dorian  will
tire of him. Basil refuses to believe this. He says as  long  as  he  lives,
Dorian Gray will dominate his life.
      Lord Henry suddenly remembers that he has heard  Dorian  Gray’s  name.
His aunt, Lady Agatha, has mentioned him in relation to  some  philanthropic
work she does, saying he was going to help her in the  East  End.  Suddenly,
Dorian Gray is announced. Basil Hallward asks his servant to have  Mr.  Gray
wait a moment. He tells Lord Henry not to  exert  any  influence  on  Dorian
Gray because he depends completely on  Dorian  remaining  uncorrupted.  Lord
Henry scoffs at the idea as nonsense.
      When they walk from the studio into the house, they see Dorian Gray at
the piano. He tells Basil that he’s tired of sitting for his portrait.  Then
he sees Lord Henry and is embarrassed. Basil tries  to  get  Lord  Henry  to
leave, but Dorian asks him to stay and talk to him while  he  sits  for  the
portrait. He adds that Basil never talks  or  listens  as  he  paints.  Lord
Henry agrees to stay.
      They discuss Dorian’s work in philanthropy. Lord Henry thinks he’s too
charming to do that kind of thing. Dorian wonders if Lord Henry  will  be  a
bad influence on him as Basil thinks he will be.
      Lord Henry  thinks  all  influence  is  corrupting  since  the  person
influenced no longer thinks with her or his  own  thoughts.  He  thinks  the
"aim of life is self development." He doesn’t like philanthropy  because  it
makes people neglect themselves. They clothe poor people and let  their  own
souls starve. Only fear governs society, according to Lord Henry. Terror  of
God is the secret of religion and terror of society is the basis of  morals.
If people would live their lives fully, giving form  to  every  feeling  and
expression to every thought,  the  world  would  be  enlivened  by  a  fresh
impulse of joy. He urges Dorian not to run from his youthful fears.
      Dorian becomes upset and asks him to stop talking so he can deal  with
all that he has said. He stands still for ten minutes.  He  realizes  he  is
being influenced strongly. He suddenly  understands  things  he  has  always
wondered about. Lord Henry watches him fascinated.
      He remembers when he was sixteen he read  a  book  and  was  immensely
influenced. He wonders if Dorian Gray is being influenced that  way  by  his
random words. Hallward paints furiously. Dorian  asks  for  a  break.  Basil
apologizes for making him stand so long. He is excited  about  the  portrait
he’s painting, and praises Dorian for standing so perfectly still as to  let
him get  at  the  effect  he  had  wanted.  He  says  he  hasn’t  heard  the
conversation, but he hopes Dorian won’t listen to anything Lord Henry  tells
      Lord Henry and Dorian go out into the garden while Basil works on  the
background of the portrait in the  studio.  Dorian  buries  his  face  in  a
flower. Lord Henry tells him he is doing just as he should since the  senses
are the only way to cure the soul. They begin  to  stroll  and  Dorian  Gray
clearly looks upset. He’s afraid  of  Lord  Henry’s  influence.  Lord  Henry
urges him to come and sit in the  shade  to  avoid  getting  a  sunburn  and
ruining his beauty. Dorian wonders why it’s important. Lord Henry tells  him
it matters more than anything else since his youth is his greatest gift  and
that it will leave him soon. As they sit down, he implores Dorian  to  enjoy
his youth while he can. He shouldn’t give his life  to  the  "ignorant,  the
common, and the vulgar." He thinks the age needs a new Hedonism (pursuit  of
pleasure as the greatest goal in life). Dorian Gray  could  be  its  visible
      Dorian Gray listens intently. Suddenly, Basil comes out to  get  them.
He says he’s ready to resume the portrait. Inside, Lord Henry sits down  and
watches Basil paint. After only  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  Basil  says  the
painting is complete. Lord Henry proclaims it his finest work and offers  to
buy it. Basil says it’s Dorian’s painting.
       When Dorian looks at it, he realizes he is beautiful  as  Lord  Henry
has been telling him. He hadn’t taken it  seriously  before.  Now  he  knows
what Lord Henry has meant by youth being so  short-lived.  He  realizes  the
painting will always be beautiful  and  he  will  not.  He  wishes  it  were
reversed. He accuses Basil of liking his art works better than his  friends.
Basil is shocked at this change in  Dorian.  He  tells  him  his  friendship
means more to him than anything. Dorian is so upset that he says he’ll  kill
himself the moment he realizes he’s growing old. Basil turns to  Lord  Henry
and says it’s his fault. Then he realizes he is arguing with  his  two  best
friends and says he’ll destroy the painting to  stop  the  argument.  Dorian
pulls the knife away from him to stop him. He tells Basil he’s in love  with
the portrait and thinks of it as part of himself.
      The butler brings tea and the men sit down to  drink  it.  Lord  Henry
proposes they go to the theater that night. Basil  refuses  the  invitation,
but Dorian agrees to go. When they get up to go, Basil asks  Lord  Henry  to
remember what he asked him in the studio before they went in to see  Dorian.
Lord Henry  shrugs  and  says  he  doesn’t  even  trust  himself,  so  Basil
shouldn’t try to trust him.
      It is 12:30 in the afternoon and Lord Henry Wotton is walking  to  his
uncle’s house. Lord Fermor had in his youth been secretary  to  his  father,
an ambassador to Madrid. When his father didn’t get  the  ambassadorship  of
Paris, he quit in a huff and Lord Fermor quit with him. From  them  on  Lord
Fermor had spent his life  devoted  "to  the  serious  study  of  the  great
aristocratic art of doing absolutely nothing." He  pays  some  attention  to
the coal mines in the Midland counties, "excusing himself from the taint  of
industry on the ground that the one advantage of  having  coal  was  that  I
enabled a gentleman to afford  the  decency  of  burning  wood  on  his  own
      Lord Henry is visiting him to find out  what  he  knows  about  Dorian
Gray’s parents. He doesn’t belong to the Bluebooks  (the  lists  of  English
nobles), but he is  Kelso’s  grandson  and  his  mother  was  Lady  Margaret
Devereux, an extraordinary beauty of her day. She married  a  penniless  man
and upset everyone in the process. Her husband died soon afterwards,  killed
in a duel set up by her father. She was pregnant. In childbirth,  she  died,
leaving Dorian to grow up with his ruthless grandfather.
      Lord Henry leaves from his uncle’s and goes to his  aunt’s  house  for
lunch. He becomes engrossed in his thoughts about Dorian Gray’s  background.
He decides he will dominate Dorian just as Dorian dominates Basil  Hallward.
When he gets to his aunt’s he is happy to see Dorian is  at  the  table.  He
begins to regale his aunt’s guests with his hedonistic philosophy  of  life.
He scorns the motives of philanthropy,  which  his  aunt  and  most  of  her
guests espouse, and carries on about the joys of  the  pursuit  of  pleasure
for its own sake. He is pleased to see that  Dorian  is  fascinated  by  his
speech. All of his aunt’s guests are,  in  fact,  and  he  receives  several
      When lunch is over, he says he will go  to  the  park  for  a  stroll.
Dorian asks to come along and begs him to keep talking. Lord Henry  says  he
is finished talking and now he just wants to be and enjoy. Dorian  wants  to
come anyway. Lord Henry  reminds  him  he  has  an  appointment  with  Basil
Hallward. Dorian doesn’t mind breaking it.
      One month later, Dorian Gray is waiting at Lord  Henry’s  for  him  to
come home. He is impatient  since  he’s  been  waiting  for  a  while.  Lord
Henry’s wife comes in and they chat for a while  about  music.  She  notices
that he parrots her husband’s views, as many people  in  her  social  circle
do. Lord Henry arrives and his wife leaves. After Henry advises him  not  to
marry, Dorian says he is too much in love to consider  marriage.  He  is  in
love with an actress. He thinks of her as  a  genius.  Lord  Henry  explains
that women can’t be geniuses because they are made only for  decoration.  He
adds that there are only two kinds of women,  the  plain  and  the  colored.
Plain women are useful for respectability and colored women are  useful  for
charming men. Dorian claims to be terrified  by  Lord  Henry’s  views.  Lord
Henry pushes him to tell more about the actress.
      Dorian says that for days after he met Lord Henry, he felt alive  with
excitement and wanted to explore the world intensely. He walked the  streets
staring into the faces of people to see into their  lives.  He  decided  one
night to go out and have an adventure. He was walking along the  street  and
was hailed to come into a second rate theater.  Despite  his  repulsion  for
the caller, he went in and bought  a  box  seat.  The  play  was  Romeo  and
Juliet. He hated all of it until Juliet  came  on  stage  and  then  he  was
entranced. Since that night he has gone every night to the theater.  He  met
her on the third night and found her exquisitely innocent,  knowing  nothing
at all of life but art.
      He wants Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to come to  see  her  the  next
evening. His plan is to pay her manager  off  and  set  her  up  in  a  good
theater. Lord Henry invites him to dinner  that  evening,  but  he  refuses,
saying he has to see her perform Imogen. He leaves.
      Lord Henry thinks about what he’s learned. He thinks of Dorian Gray as
a good study. He likes to study people like a scientist studies the  results
of an experiment. He thinks of Dorian as being  his  own  creation.  He  had
introduced  his  ideas  to  Dorian  and  made  him  a  self-conscious   man.
Literature often did that to people,  but  a  strong  personality  like  his
could do it as well. As he thinks over his  thoughts,  he’s  interrupted  by
his servant reminding him it’s time to dress for dinner. As he arrives  home
that night, he finds a telegram on the hall  table  announcing  that  Dorian
Gray was to marry Sibyl Vane.
      Sibyl Vane is exclaiming to her mother about how much in love  she  is
with her Prince Charming, as she calls Dorian Gray,  not  knowing  yet  what
his name is. Her mother warns her that she must keep  her  focus  on  acting
since they owe Mr. Isaacs fifty pounds. Sibyl is impatient with  her  mother
and tries to get her mother to remember when she was young and in love  with
Sibyl’s father. Her mother looks pained and Sibyl  apologizes  for  bringing
up a painful subject.
      Her brother Jim comes in. It’s his last night on shore. He  is  booked
as a sailor on a ship headed for Australia. When Sibyl leaves the  room,  he
asks his mother about the gentleman he has heard  has  been  coming  to  the
theater to see Sibyl every night. His mother tells him the  man  is  wealthy
and it might be a good thing for Sibyl. Jim is not convinced.
      When Sibyl comes back, she and Jim go for a walk in the park together.
While there, Jim questions her about the man who has been  calling  on  her.
She only says how much she is in love with the man and how she is sure  he’s
trustworthy. Jim says that if he comes back and finds that the man has  hurt
her, he’ll kill the man. They walk on and return home after a while.
       Alone again with his mother, Jim asks her if she was married  to  his
father. She has been feeling like he has been on the verge  of  asking  this
question for weeks. She is relieved to get it out in the open. She says  she
was never married to the man. He was married, but loved her  very  much.  He
would have provided for her and her family, but died. Jim tells her to  keep
the gentleman away from Sibyl. She tells him that he need not worry  because
Sibyl has a mother, but she herself didn’t. He is touched by  her  sincerity
and they embrace. Soon, though, he has to get ready to leave for  his  ship.
Mrs. Vane thinks about his threat  to  kill  Sibyl’s  Prince  Charming,  but
thinks nothing will ever come of it.
      CHAPTER 6
      Lord Henry greets Basil Hallward as he  arrives  at  the  Bristol  for
dinner. He tells him the news  about  Dorian’s  engagement  to  Sibyl  Vane.
Basil is surprised and can’t believe it’s  true.  He  can’t  believe  Dorian
would do something as foolish as  to  marry  an  actress  in  light  of  his
"birth, and position, and wealth." Lord  Henry  acts  nonchalant  about  the
news and Basil is quite worried.
      Finally Dorian arrives elated to tell the others  of  his  news.  Over
dinner he tells them that he proposed  to  Sibyl  on  the  previous  evening
after watching her as Rosalind. He kissed her and told her he loved her  and
she told him she wasn’t good enough to be his wife. They are  keeping  their
engagement a secret from her mother.
      Dorian tells Lord Henry that she  will  save  him  from  Lord  Henry’s
"wrong, fascinating, poisonous, delightful theories" about life,  love,  and
pleasure. Lord Henry says they  aren’t  his  theories  but  Nature’s.  Basil
Hallward begins to think the engagement will be  a  good  thing  for  Dorian
after all.
      As they leave, Lord Henry tells Hallward to take a separate conveyance
to the theater since his is large enough only for  him  and  Dorian.  As  he
rides in the carriage behind Lord Henry’s, Basil  Hallward  feels  a  strong
sense of loss, as if Dorian Gray will never again be to him all that he  had
been in the past. He realizes that life has come  between  them.  He  feels,
when he arrives at the theater, that he has grown years older.
      CHAPTER 7
      At the theater, Dorian is surprised to find it crowded with people. He
takes Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to his usual box and  they  discuss  the
crowd  below.  He  tells  them  that  Sibyl’s  art  is  so  fine  that   she
spiritualizes the common people, transforming their  ugliness  into  beauty.
Basil tells him he now agrees that the marriage will be  a  good  thing  for
      When Sibyl appears on the stage, both men are entranced by her beauty,
but when she starts to act, they are embarrassed for Dorian. Dorian  doesn’t
speak, but he is horribly disappointed. Sibyl’s acting is  horribly  wooden.
The people below hiss and catcall to  the  stage  making  fun  of  her  poor
acting. After the second act, Lord Henry and Basil  Hallward  leave.  Dorian
tells them he will stay out the performance. He hides his face in anguish.
      When the play is over, he goes to the green room to find Sibyl.  She’s
waiting for him. She looks radiantly happy.  She  tells  him  she  acted  so
badly because she loves him. She says that before she loved him,  the  stage
was real and alive for her. she never noticed the tawdriness  of  the  stage
set or the ugliness of her fellow actors. She had  put  everything  into  it
because it was all of her life. When  she  realized  tonight  that  she  was
acting horribly, she was struck by the realization that it was  because  she
had found a new reality.
      When  she  finishes,  Dorian  tells  her  she  disappointed  him   and
embarrassed him horribly. He says she killed his love. Sibyl is shocked  and
horrified by his words. She begs him to take them back, but he goes  on.  he
tells her he loved her for her art and now she has nothing of  her  art  and
so he doesn’t love her any more.  Now  she  is  nothing  but  "a  third-rate
actress with a pretty face." Sibyl throws herself at his  feet  begging  him
to be kind to her, but he walks away  scornfully,  thinking  how  ridiculous
she looks.
      He walks through the poverty-stricken streets of  London  for  a  long
time. Then he gets back to his room, recently redecorated since  he  learned
to appreciate luxury from Lord Henry. He is undressing when  he  happens  to
glance at the portrait. He is taken aback to notice a change  in  it.  Lines
around the mouth have appeared. The face has a cruel  expression.  He  turns
on the lights and looks at it more carefully, but nothing changes  the  look
of cruelty on the face. He remembers what he said in Basil’s studio the  day
he saw it for the first time. He  had  wished  to  change  places  with  it,
staying young forever while it aged with time and experience. He knows  that
the sin he committed against Sibyl that evening had caused him  to  age.  He
realizes that the portrait will always be an emblem of his  conscience  from
now on. He dresses quickly and hurries toward Sibyl’s house. As  he  hurries
to her, a faint feeling of his love for her returns to him.
      CHAPTER 8
      Dorian doesn’t wake up the next day until well past noon. He  gets  up
and looks through his mail, finding and laying aside a piece  of  mail  hand
delivered from Lord Henry  that  morning.  He  gets  up  and  eats  a  light
breakfast all the while feeling as if he has  been  part  of  some  kind  of
tragedy recently. As he sits at  breakfast,  he  sees  the  screen  that  he
hurriedly put in front of his portrait the night before and realizes it  was
not a dream but is true. He tells his  servant  that  he  is  not  accepting
callers and he goes to the portrait and removes the screen. He hesitates  to
do so, but decides he must. When he looks at the portrait he  sees  that  it
was not an illusion. The change remains. He looks at it with horror.
      He realizes how unjust and cruel  he  had  been  to  Sibyl  the  night
before. He thinks the portrait will serve him  as  a  conscience  throughout
life. He remains looking at the portrait for hours more.  Finally,  he  gets
paper and begins to write a passionate letter to Sibyl apologizing for  what
he had said to her and vowing eternal love. He  reproaches  himself  in  the
letter so voluptuously that he feels absolved, like a person  who  has  been
to confession. He lays the letter to the side and then he hears  Lord  Henry
calling to him through the door.
      Lord Henry begs to be let in and Dorian decides he will let him.  Lord
Henry apologizes for all that has happened. Dorian tells him he  was  brutal
with Sibyl the night before after the performance, but  now  he  feels  good
and is not even sorry that it happened. Lord Henry says he had worried  that
Dorian would be tearing his hair in remorse. Dorian says he is  quite  happy
now that he knows what conscience is. He asks Henry not to sneer at it,  and
says that he wants to be good. He adds that he  can’t  stand  the  idea  "of
[his]  soul  being  hideous."  Lord  Henry  exclaims  about  this  "charming
artistic basis for ethics." Dorian says he will  marry  Sibyl.  It  is  then
when Lord Henry realizes Dorian didn’t read his letter. In it, he  had  told
Dorian that Sibyl committed suicide the  night  before  by  swallowing  some
kind of poison.
      Lord Henry begins advising Dorian about how to avoid the scandal  that
such a story would attach to his name. He asks if anyone but Sibyl knew  his
name and if anyone saw him go  behind  stage  to  speak  to  her  after  her
performance. Lord Henry urges Dorian not to  let  the  episode  get  on  his
nerves. He invites him out to dinner and to the opera with  his  sister  and
some smart women. Dorian exclaims  that  he  has  murdered  Sibyl  Vane.  He
marvels that life is  still  as  beautiful  with  birds  singing  and  roses
blooming. He adds that if he had read it in a book, he  would  have  thought
it movingly tragic. He recounts the exchange between he and Sibyl the  night
before, telling Henry of how cruel he was in casting her aside. He  ends  by
condemning her as selfish for killing herself.
      Lord Henry tells him that a woman can only reform a man by boring  him
so completely that he loses all interest in life. He  adds  that  if  Dorian
would have married Sibyl, he would have been miserable because  he  wouldn’t
have loved her. Dorian concedes that it probably  would  have  been.  He  is
amazed that he doesn’t feel the tragedy more than he  does.  He  wonders  if
he’s heartless. He thinks of it as a wonderful ending to a  wonderful  play,
a "tragedy in which [he] took a great part, but by which [he] has  not  been
wounded." Lord Henry likes to play on Dorian’s unconscious  egotism,  so  he
exclaims over the interest of Dorian’s sense of it.
      Dorian thinks he will now have to go into  mourning,  but  Lord  Henry
tells him it is unnecessary since there is already enough mourning in  life.
He adds that Sibyl must have been different from all other women who are  so
trivial and predictable. When Dorian expresses remorse at having been  cruel
to her, Lord Henry assures him  that  women  appreciate  cruelty  more  than
anything else. They are primitive. Men have emancipated them, but they  have
remained slaves and they love being dominated. He reminds Dorian that  Sibyl
was a great actress and that he can think of her suicide as an ending  to  a
Jacobean tragedy.
      Dorian finally thanks Lord Henry for explaining  himself  to  him.  He
revels in what a marvelous experience it has all been for  him.  He  wonders
if life will give him anything more marvelous and Henry assures him that  it
will. He wonders what will happen when he gets old  and  ugly.  Henry  tells
him that then he will have to fight for his  victories.  Dorian  decides  he
will join Lord Henry at the opera after all. Lord Henry departs.
      When he is alone, Dorian looks again at the portrait. He sees that  it
hasn’t changed since he last saw it. He thinks of poor Sibyl and  revels  in
the romance of it all.  He  decides  that  he  will  embrace  life  and  the
portrait will bear the burden of his shame. He is sad to think  of  how  the
beautiful portrait will be marred. He thinks  for  a  minute  about  praying
that the strange sympathy that exists between  him  and  the  picture  would
disappear, but he realizes that no one would give up  the  chance  at  being
forever young. Then he decides that he will get  pleasure  out  of  watching
the changes. The portrait would be a magic mirror  for  him,  revealing  his
soul to him. He pushes the screen back in front of it and  dresses  for  the
      CHAPTER 9
      The next morning after the opera, Dorian is visited by Basil Hallward.
Basil assumes that he really didn’t go to the opera the night before and  is
shocked to find out that he did so after all. He can’t believe  that  Dorian
is so unfeeling when Sibyl isn’t  even  buried  yet.  Dorian  tells  him  he
doesn’t want to hear about it because it’s in the past. He thinks if  he  is
a strong man, he should be able to dominate his feelings and end  them  when
he wants to end them. Basil blames Dorian’s lack of feeling on Lord Henry.
      Dorian tells Basil that it was he who taught him to be vain. Basil  is
shocked to find out that Sibyl  killed  herself.  Dorian  tells  him  it  is
fitting that she did,  more  artistic.  "Her  death  has  all  the  pathetic
uselessness of martyrdom, all its wasted beauty." He  tells  Basil  that  he
has suffered, that he was suffering terribly yesterday around  five  or  six
o’clock. He says he no longer has these emotions and  it  would  be  nothing
but empty sentimentality to try to repeat the feelings that have passed.  He
asks Basil to help him see the art in it rather than  to  try  to  make  him
feel guilt over it. He begs Basil not to leave him but  to  stop  quarreling
with him.
      Basil is moved by Dorian’s speech and decides Dorian might be  passing
through a momentary lapse of feeling  and  should  be  berated  for  it.  He
agrees not to speak to Dorian again of Sibyl. Dorian asks him,  however,  to
draw him a picture of Sibyl. Basil agrees to do so and urges Dorian to  come
sit for him again, saying he can’t get on with his painting without  Dorian.
Dorian starts and says he will never be able to sit for Basil  again.  Basil
is shocked and then looks around to see if he can see the portrait  he  gave
Dorian. He is annoyed to find that it is hidden behind  a  screen  and  goes
toward it. Dorian jumps up and stands between him  and  the  screen  keeping
him away from it. He makes Basil promise never to look at it again  and  not
to ever ask why. Basil is  surprised  but  agrees  to  do  so,  saying  that
Dorian’s friendship is more important to him than anything. He tells  Dorian
he plans to show the portrait in an exhibit. Dorian remembers the  afternoon
in Basil’s studio when Basil said he would never show it. He remembers  Lord
Henry telling him to ask Basil one day about why. He does so now.
      Basil explains to him reluctantly that he was fascinated with him  and
dominated by his personality from the first moment he saw  him.  He  painted
every kind of portrait of him, putting him in  ancient  Greek  garb  and  in
Renaissance garb. One day he decided to paint Dorian as he was,  and  as  he
painted each stroke, he became fascinated with the idea  that  the  portrait
was revealing his idolatry of Dorian. He  swore  then  hat  he  would  never
exhibit it. However, after he gave  the  portrait  to  Dorian,  the  feeling
passed away from him. He realized that "art conceals  the  artist  far  more
completely than if ever reveals him." That was when he  decided  to  exhibit
the portrait as a centerpiece.
      Dorian takes a breath. He realizes he is safe for  the  present  since
Basil clearly doesn’t know  the  truth  about  the  painting.  Basil  thinks
Dorian sees what he saw in the portrait, his idolatry of  Dorian.  He  tries
to get Dorian to let him see the portrait, but Dorian still  refuses.  Basil
leaves and Dorian thinks over  what  he  had  said  to  him.  He  calls  his
servant, realizing that the portrait has to be put away where he  won’t  run
the risk of guests trying to see it.
      CHAPTER 10
      Dorian is in his drawing room when his manservant Victor  enters.  She
scrutinizes Victor to see if Victor has looked behind  the  curtain  at  the
portrait. He watches Victor in the mirror to see if he can see anything  but
can see nothing  but  "a  placid  mask  of  servility."  He  sends  for  the
housekeeper. When she arrives, he asks her to give him the key  to  the  old
schoolroom. She wants to clean it up  before  he  goes  up  to  it,  but  he
insists he doesn’t need it cleaned. She mentions that  it  hasn’t  bee  used
for five years, since his grandfather died. Dorian winces at the mention  of
his grandfather, who was always mean to him.
      When she leaves, he takes the cover off the couch and throws  it  over
the portrait. he thinks of Basil and wonders if he shouldn’t  have  appealed
to Basil to help him resist Lord Henry’s influence.  He  knows  Basil  loves
him with more than just a  physical  love.  However,  he  gives  up  on  the
thought of asking Basil for help, deciding that  the  future  is  inevitable
and the past can always be annihilated.
      He receives  the  men  from  the  framemaker’s  shop.  The  framemaker
himself, Mr. Hubbard, has come. He asks the two men to help  him  carry  the
portrait upstairs. He sends Victor away to Lord Henry’s so  as  to  get  him
out of the way in order to  hide  the  operation  from  him.  They  get  the
portrait upstairs with some trouble and he has  them  lean  it  against  the
wall and leave it. He hates the idea of  leaving  it  in  the  dreaded  room
where he was always sent to be away from his grandfather who didn’t like  to
see him, but it’s the only room not in use in the  house.  He  wonders  what
the picture will look like over time. He thinks with repulsion  of  how  its
image will show the signs of old age.
      When he gets back downstairs to the library, Victor has returned  from
Lord Henry’s. Lord Henry had sent him a book and the  paper.  The  paper  is
marked with a red pen on a passage  about  the  inquest  into  Sibyl  Vane’s
death. He throws it away annoyed at Lord Henry for sending  it  and  fearing
that Victor saw the red mark. Then he picks up  the  book  Lord  Henry  sent
him. It is a fascinating book from the first page. It is a plot-less  novel,
a psychological study of a young Parisian who spends all his life trying  to
realize all the passions and modes  of  thought  of  previous  ages.  It  is
written in the style of  the  French  Symbolistes.  He  finds  it  to  be  a
poisonous book. He can’t put it down. It makes him late to dinner with  Lord
      CHAPTER 11
      For years afterwards, Dorian Gray continues to feel the  influence  of
the book Lord Henry gave him. He gets more copies of  the  book  from  Paris
and has them bound in different colors. He thinks of the book as  containing
the story of his life. He feels himself  lucky  to  be  different  from  the
novel’s hero in respect to aging. While the novel’s hero  bemoans  his  loss
of youthful beauty,  Dorian  Gray  never  loses  his  youth.  He  reads  the
passages over and over again reveling in his difference  from  the  hero  in
this respect.
      People in his social circle often hear dreadful  things  about  Dorian
Gray, but when they look at  him  and  see  his  fresh,  young  looks,  they
dismiss the rumors as impossible. Dorian is often gone from  home  for  long
periods of time and never tells anyone where he has gone. He always  returns
home and goes straight upstairs to see  the  portrait’s  changes.  He  grows
more and more in love with his own beauty. He spends much time in  a  sordid
tavern near the docks and  thinks  with  pity  of  the  degradation  he  has
brought on his soul.
       Most of the time, though, he doesn’t think of his soul. He  has  "mad
hungers that [grow] more ravenous as he [feeds] them."
      He entertains once or twice a month with such  lavish  fare  and  such
exquisite furnishings that he becomes the most  popular  of  London’s  young
men. He is admired by all the men who see him as a type of man who  combines
the real culture of a scholar with the grace of a citizen of the  world.  He
lives his life as if it were an art work. His style  of  dressing  sets  the
standard of all the fashionable shops.
      He worships the senses in many  different  forms.  He  lives  the  new
Hedonism, that Lord Henry has told him of. He  enjoys  the  service  of  the
Catholic Church for its ritual and its pathos. Yet, he  never  embraces  any
creed or system of thought because he refuses  to  arrest  his  intellectual
development. He studies new perfumes and experiments  with  them  endlessly.
He devotes himself for long periods to the study of  all  kinds  of  musical
forms from all over the world. He even studies  the  stories  written  about
the music, the stories of magic and death. He takes of the study  of  jewels
for a while, collecting rare and precious jewels from  all  over  the  world
for the pleasure of looking at them and feeling them.  He  collects  stories
about jewels as part of animals and stories of  jewels  which  caused  death
and destruction. For a time, he studies embroideries of all  sorts  and  the
stories that attach to them. He collects embroideries  and  tapestries  from
all over the  world.  He  especially  loves  ecclesiastical  vestments.  The
beautiful things he collects are part of his methods  of  forgetfulness.  He
wants to escape the fear that sometimes seems to overwhelm him.
      After some years, he becomes unable to leave London  for  any  purpose
because he cannot bear to be away from the portrait for any length of  time.
Often when he’s out with friends, he breaks off and rushes home  to  see  if
the portrait is still where it should be and  to  ensure  that  no  one  has
tampered with the door. He develops a  desperate  fear  that  someone  might
steal the portrait and then everyone would know about him.
      Most people are fascinated with  Dorian  Gray,  but  some  people  are
distrustful of him. He is almost banned from two clubs. He is ostracized  by
some prominent men. People begin to tell curious stories about  him  hanging
around with foreign sailors in run down pubs and  interacting  with  thieves
and coiners. People talk about his strange absences. He never  takes  notice
of these looks people give him. Most of them see his boyish smile and  can’t
imagine that the stories could be true. Yet  the  stories  remain.  Sometime
people notice women, who at one time adored him, blanch when he walks  in  a
room in shame or horror. To most  people,  the  stories  only  increase  his
mysterious charm. According  to  Lord  Henry,  society  doesn’t  care  about
morality in its aristocratic members, only good manners.
      Dorian Gray can’t imagine why people reduce human beings to a  single,
"simple, permanent, reliable  essence."  For  Dorian,  people  enjoy  myriad
lives and sensations; they change radically from time to time. Dorian  likes
to look at the portrait gallery of his country house. He wonders  about  his
ancestors and how their blood co- mingled with his own.  He  looks  at  Lady
Elizabeth Devereaux in her extaordinary beauty and realizes  her  legacy  to
him is in his beauty and in his love of all that is beautiful.
      He also thinks of his ancestors as being in literature  he  has  read.
These characters have influenced him  more  even  than  his  family  members
have. The hero of the central novel of  his  life  has  certainly  been  his
greatest influence. He also loves to think of  all  the  evil  heroes  about
whom he has read:  Caligula,  Filippo,  Due  of  Milan,  Pietro  Barbi,  the
Borgia, and many more. He feels a "horrible fascination" with all  of  them.
He knows he has been poisoned by the French Symboliste book.  He  thinks  of
evil as nothing more than a mode of experiencing the beautiful.
      CHAPTER 12
      It is the ninth of November, not long before Dorian Gray will turn  38
years old. He is walking home late one night when he  sees  Basil  Hallward.
He becomes suddenly afraid to have contact  with  his  old  friend  whom  he
hasn’t seen in many months, but Basil sees him and  stops  him.  Basil  says
he’s been waiting for him all evening and has just given up. He  insists  on
coming back inside with Dorian because he says he  has  something  important
to tell him.
      Inside, Dorian acts as though he’s bored and wants to go to bed. Basil
insists on talking. He says he is going to Paris  in  one  hour’s  time  and
will be taking a studio there for six months. He tells  Dorian  that  he  is
always having to defend Dorian’s name wherever he  goes.  He  thinks  Dorian
must be a good person because he looks so beautiful. He says  he  knows  sin
tells on people’s faces after a while, so he has a  great  deal  of  trouble
believing the stories. However, the evidence  has  piled  up  and  is  quite
compelling. He  names  several  young  men  who  have  lost  very  promising
reputations after being extremely close to Dorian. He  names  several  young
women, including Lord Henry’s sister, who have lost their reputations.  Lady
Gwendolyn, Lord Henry’s sister, has suffered such a fall  that  she  is  not
even allowed to see her own children any more. He mentions  the  stories  of
people who have seen Dorian spending time in "dreadful houses" and  in  "the
foulest dens in  London."  He  mentions  the  stories  of  what  happens  at
Dorian’s country house.
      Basil urges Dorian to have a good influence on people instead of a bad
one. He tells Dorian that it is said that he corrupts everyone with whom  he
becomes  intimate.  He  has  even  seen  a  letter  shown  to  him  by  Lord
Gloucester, one of his best friends, that his  wife  wrote  to  him  on  her
death bed. It implicated Dorian Gray in her debasement.  Basil  sums  up  by
saying that he doesn’t know that he even knows  Dorian  any  more.  He  says
that he can’t say without seeing Dorian’s soul and only God can do that.
      At his last words, Dorian goes white with fear and repeats  the  words
"To see my soul!" He laughs bitterly and tells Basil that he  will  see  his
soul that very night. He will let Basil look  on  the  face  of  corruption.
Basil is shocked and thinks Dorian is  being  blasphemous.  He  stands  over
Basil and tells him to finish what he has to say to him. Basil  says  Dorian
must give him a satisfactory answer to all the stories about him  that  very
night. Dorian just tells him to come upstairs  with  him.  He  says  he  has
written a dairy of his life from day to day and that  it  never  leaves  the
room in which it is written.
      CHAPTER 13
       The two men climb the stairs  and  Dorian  lets  Basil  in  the  room
upstairs. He lights the lamp and asks Basil again  if  he  really  wants  an
answer to his question. Basil does, so Dorian pulls  the  curtain  from  the
portrait and shines the light on it, saying he is delighted  to  show  Basil
because Basil is the only man in the world entitled to know all  about  him.
Basil cries out in horror when he sees the portrait. He stares at it  for  a
long time in amazement, not believing at first that it is the same  portrait
he painted all those years ago.
      Dorian is leaning against the mantle shelf watching  Basil’s  reaction
with something like triumph expressed on his face.  Dorian  tells  him  that
years ago when he was a  boy,  Basil  had  painted  this  portrait  of  him,
teaching him to be vain of his looks. Then he had  introduced  him  to  Lord
Henry who explained to him the wonder of youth. The portrait  had  completed
the lesson in the beauty of youth. When he had seen it in the first  moment,
he had prayed that he should change  places  with  it,  never  changing  and
aging, but letting the  picture  do  so.  Basil  remembers  the  prayer.  He
thinks, however, that it must be impossible. He tries to find  some  logical
explanation for the degradation of the beauty of  the  portrait.  He  thinks
perhaps the room was damp or that he had used  some  kind  of  poor  quality
paints. He says there was nothing evil or shameful  in  his  ideal  that  he
painted that day. This, instead, is the face of a satyr. Dorian says  it  is
the face of his soul.
      Basil begins to believe it is true and then realizes what it means. It
means that all that is said of Dorian is true and that his reputation  isn’t
even as bad as he is. He can hear Dorian sobbing as he begins  to  pray.  He
asks Dorian to join him in prayer. He says  Dorian  worshipped  himself  too
much and now they are both punished.
      Dorian tells him it’s too late. Basil insists that it isn’t. He begins
to pray. Dorian looks at the picture  and  suddenly  feels  an  overwhelming
hatred for Basil. He sees a knife lying nearby and picks  it  up.  He  walks
over and stands behind Basil and stabs him in the neck several  times.  When
he is finished, he hears nothing but blood dripping. He  goes  to  the  door
and locks it. He is horrified to look at Basil’s body.
      He goes to the window and sees a policeman outside and an  old  woman.
He tries not to think about what has happen. He picks up  the  lamp  because
he knows the servant will miss it from downstairs, and he  goes  downstairs,
locking the door behind him.
      Everything is quiet in the house. He remembers that Basil was supposed
to leave for Paris that night and had even sent his heavy  things  ahead  of
him. No one had seen him come back inside after he left  his  house  earlier
that evening. No one will begin to wonder about him for months to  come.  He
puts Basil’s bag and coat in a hiding place, the same place where  he  hides
his disguises. Then he puts on his own coat, goes  outside,  and  knocks  on
the door. His servant opens the door and he asks him what time it  is.  Then
he tells him to wake him at nine the next morning.  The  servant  tells  him
Mr. Hallward came by and Dorian exclaims over having missed him.
      Inside his library again, he picks up the Blue Book and finds the name
of Alan Campbell. He says this is the man he wants.
      CHAPTER 14
      Dorian Gray wakes with a smile  the  next  morning  at  nine  o’clock,
feeling well rested. He gradually recalls the events of  the  night  before.
He feels sorry for himself and loathing for Basil.  Then  he  realizes  that
Basil’s body remains upstairs in he room. He fears that  if  he  thinks  too
much on what happened he will go crazy. He gets up and spends  a  long  time
choosing his outfit and his rings. He has a leisurely  breakfast  and  reads
his mail, throwing away a letter from  a  lover,  remembering  one  of  Lord
Henry’s misogynist sayings about women, that they have a  awful  memory.  He
writes two letters and sends one to Mr. Alan Campbell by his manservant.
      He smokes a cigarette and sketches for a  while,  but  every  face  he
sketches looks like Basil’s. He lies down on the  sofa  and  tries  to  read
Gautier’s Emaux et Camees. He enjoys the images in the book of the  beauties
of Venice. It reminds him of his visit there.  He  was  with  Basil  and  he
remembers Basil’s joy over the work of Tintoret. He tries to read again  and
then begins to worry that Alan Campbell might be out of town.
      Five years ago, he and Alan had been great  friends.  Now  they  never
speak. Alan always leaves the room when Dorian comes in at  any  party  they
both attend. Alan is a scientist, but when he and Dorian were  together,  he
was also in love with music. They were inseparable for a year  and  a  half.
Then they quarreled and have not spoken since. Alan has given  up  music  in
favor of science. Dorian  becomes  hysterical  with  anxiety  as  he  waits.
Finally, the servant announces that Mr. Campbell has arrived.
      Dorian loses all anxiety and plays the part of the gracious host. Alan
Campbell is stiff with disapproval and hatred. He wants to know  why  Dorian
has called him. Dorian tells him there is a dead body in a room at  the  top
of the stairs and he needs Campbell to dispose of  it.  Alan  tells  him  to
stop talking. He says he will not turn him in, but that  he  will  not  have
anything to do with it. Dorian tells him he wants him to do  it  because  of
Alan’s knowledge of chemistry. He wants  him  to  change  the  body  into  a
handful of ashes. He at first says it was a suicide, but  then  admits  that
he murdered the man upstairs. Dorian begs him to help and  Alan  refuses  to
listen. Finally, when he is sure he can’t convince him,
      Dorian writes something down and  tells  Alan  to  read  it.  Alan  is
shocked at what he reads. Dorian says if Alan won’t help him, he  will  send
a letter to someone  and  ruin  Alan’s  reputation.  He  tells  Alan  he  is
terribly sorry for him for what he will have to do,  but  tries  to  console
him by saying he does this sort of thing all the time  for  the  pursuit  of
science so it shouldn’t be too horrible for him.
      Finally, Alan says he needs to get things from home. Dorian won’t  let
him leave. He makes him write down what he needs and sends  his  servant  to
get the equipment. Then when it arrives, he sends his servant away  for  the
day to get some orchids in another city. He and  Alan  carry  the  equipment
upstairs. At the door, Dorian realizes he has left  the  portrait  uncovered
for the first time in years. He rushes over to it to cover it. He sees  that
on the hands, there is a red stain. He covers it and then  leaves  the  room
to Alan without looking at the body.
      Long after seven o’clock that evening, Alan comes downstairs and  says
it is finished. He says he never wants to see Dorian  again.  Dorian  thanks
him sincerely, saying he saved him from ruin. When Campbell  leaves,  Dorian
rushes upstairs and sees there is no trace of the body.
      CHAPTER 15
      That evening, Dorian Gray goes to a dinner party at Lady  Narborough’s
house. He looks perfectly dressed and perfectly at ease. The party is  small
and the guests boring. Dorian is relieved when  he  hears  that  Lord  Henry
will be coming. When Lord Henry arrives late, he carries  on  in  his  usual
way with one aphorism after another much  to  Lady  Narborough’s  amusement.
Dorian, for his part, cannot even eat. He  is  noticeably  distracted.  Lady
Narborough asks him several times what is the matter and when  the  men  are
left alone after dinner for their cigars, Lord  Henry  questions  him.  Lord
Henry asks him where he went the  night  before  since  he  left  the  party
early. Dorian first says he went home, then he says he  went  to  the  club,
then he corrects himself again and says he walked  around  until  half  past
two when he got home and had to ask his servant to let him in.
      The two men chat a little longer. Dorian is planning a  party  at  his
country house the next weekend and they discuss the guest  list.  Dorian  is
interested in a Duchess and has invited her  and  her  husband.  Lord  Henry
warns him against her, saying she is too smart,  and  that  women  are  best
when they are weak and ignorant. Dorian finally says he must leave. He  goes
home and opens the hiding place where he has put Basil Hallward’s  coat  and
bag. He puts them on the fire and waits until  they  are  completely  burned
up. Then he sits and looks at a cabinet for a long time fascinated.
      Finally, he gets up and gets a Chinese box out of it. He opens it  and
finds inside a green paste with a heavy odor. He hesitates  with  a  strange
smile and then puts the box back and closes the  cabinet.  He  gets  dressed
and leaves the house. He hails a cab telling the man the  address.  The  cab
driver almost refuses since it is too far, but Dorian promises  him  a  huge
tip and they drive off toward the river.
      CHAPTER 16
      It is raining and cold as Dorian rides to the outskirts of  the  city.
The ride is extraordinarily long. He hears over and over again Lord  Henry’s
saying that one can cure the soul by means of the sense  and  can  cure  the
sense by means of the soul. He heard Lord Henry say that on  the  first  day
he met him. He has repeated it often over the years. Tonight it  is  all  he
can think of to calm himself through the long drive.  The  roads  get  worse
and worse. People chase the cab and have to be whipped away by  the  driver.
Finally, they arrive and Dorian gets out.
      He goes into a building and passes  through  several  dirty  and  poor
rooms. He passes through a bar where a sailor is slumped over  a  table  and
two prostitutes are jeering at a crazy old man. He smells the odor of  opium
and feels relieved. However,  when  he  goes  into  the  opium  den,  he  is
unhappily surprised to see Adrian Darlington.
      Adrian tells him he has no friends any more and doesn’t need  them  as
long as he has opium. Dorian doesn’t want to be in the same place  with  the
young man about whom Basil Hallway had just  spoken  the  night  before.  He
buys Adrian a drink and is bothered by a prostitute. He  tells  her  not  to
speak to him and gives her money to leave him  alone.  He  tells  Adrian  to
call on him if he ever needs anything and then he leaves. As he is  leaving,
one of the prostitutes calls out to him "There goes  the  devil’s  bargain."
He curses her and she says, "Prince Charming is what you like to be  called,
ain’t it?" As she says this the sailor who has  been  asleep  jumps  up  and
runs after Dorian.
      Outside, Dorian is wishing he hadn’t run  into  Adrian  Singleton  and
cursing fate. He hurries along when he is suddenly grabbed from  behind  and
shoved against the wall. A gun is shoved into his  face.  Dorian  calls  out
and the man tells him to be quiet. The man tells him to make his peace  with
God before he dies. He says he is James Vane, brother  of  Sibyl  Vane,  who
killed herself after Dorian ruined her. He plans to  leave  for  India  that
night and will kill Dorian before he goes. Dorian suddenly thinks of  a  way
out. He asks James when his sister died. James tells  him  it  was  eighteen
years ago. Dorian tells James to look at his face under the light.
      James drags him to the street light and looks at him. He sees  a  face
that is too young to have been a young lover eighteen years ago. H  releases
Dorian feelings shocked that he might have killed the wrong man.
      After Dorian is gone, the prostitute comes out  of  the  darkness  and
tells James he should have killed the man. She says he has  made  a  bargain
with the devil to remain looking young. She says the  same  man  had  ruined
her eighteen years ago and left her to become a  prostitute.  He  is  nearly
forty years old now. She swears she is telling the truth. He runs away  from
her but sees no trace of Dorian Gray.
      CHAPTER 17
      It is one week later and Dorian Gray is  entertaining  guests  at  his
country estate, Selby Royal. He is chatting with  the  Duchess  of  Monmouth
when Lord Henry interrupts them. Lord Henry has  decided  to  begin  calling
everyone Gladys as a means to combat the ugliness of  names  in  the  modern
world. He engages the Duchess in a witty  repartee  about  women  and  about
values in general. The Duchess at one point mentions that Dorian’s color  is
very poor. He seems not to be feeling well. Dorian tries  but  does  not  do
well in keeping up with their conversation. Finally, he volunteers to go  to
the conservatory to get her some orchids for her dress that evening.
      When he is gone, Lord Henry tells the Duchess  that  she  is  flirting
disgracefully with Dorian. She jokes with him in return. He teases her  that
she has a rival in Lady Narborough. She asks Lord Henry  to  describe  women
as a sex. He says women are "Sphinxes without  secrets."  She  notices  that
Dorian is taking a long time and suggests going to find him when  they  hear
a crash. They rush into the conservatory to find Dorian fainted away on  the
floor. They carry him in to the sofa and he gradually comes awake.  He  asks
Lord Henry if they are safe inside. Lord Henry tells  him  he  just  fainted
and must stay in his room instead of coming down to dinner.
      Dorian insists he will come down to dinner. At dinner,  he  is  wildly
gay. Every once in a while, he feels a thrill of terror as  he  recalls  the
face of James Vane looking at him through the window of the conservatory.
      CHAPTER 18
      The next day, Dorian Gray remains in his house afraid to leave it  for
fear of being shot by James Vane. The second day brings  its  own  fears  as
well, but on the third day, Dorian wakes up  and  feels  that  he  has  been
imagining things. He tells himself that James Vane has sailed  away  on  his
ship and will never find him in life.
      After breakfast, he talks to the Duchess for an hour in the garden and
then he drives across the part to join the  shooting  party.  When  he  gets
close, he sees Geoffrey Clouston, the Duchess’s brother. He  joins  Geoffrey
for a stroll. Suddenly, a rabbit appears out of the bush and  Geoffrey  aims
for it. Dorian tells him not  to  shoot  it,  but  Geoffrey  shoots  anyway.
Instead of the rabbit falling, a man who was hidden by the bush  falls.  The
two men think it was one of the beaters (the men hired to  beat  the  bushes
so the wildlife will run and the hunters will  be  able  to  shoot  at  it).
Geoffrey is annoyed at the man for getting in front  of  the  gunfire.  Lord
Henry comes over and tells Dorian they should call off the shooting for  the
day to avoid appearing callous. Dorian is awfully upset by the shooting.
      Lord Henry consoles him, saying the man’s death is of no  consequence,
though it will cause Geoffrey some inconvenience. Dorian thinks of it  as  a
bad omen. He thinks he will be shot.  Lord  Henry  laughs  his  fears  away,
telling him there is no such thing as destiny.
      They arrive at the house and Dorian is greeted by the gardener who has
a note from the Duchess. He receives it and  walks  on.  They  discuss  her.
Lord Henry says the Duchess loves him. Dorian says he wishes he  could  love
but that he’s too concentrated on himself to love anyone else.  He  says  he
wants to take a cruise on his yacht where he will be  safe.  As  they  talk,
the Duchess approaches them.
      She is concerned bout her brother. Lord Henry says it  would  be  much
more interesting if he had murdered the man on purpose. He  says  he  wishes
he knew someone who had committed murder. Dorian blanches and  they  express
concern for his health. He says he will go lie down to rest.
      Lord Henry and the Duchess continue their talk. He asks her if she is
in love with Dorian. She avoids answering. He asks if her husband will
notice anything. She says her husband never notices and she wishes he would
      Upstairs in his room, Dorian lies on his sofa almost in  a  faint.  At
five o’clock he calls for a servant and tells him to prepare his things  for
his leave-taking. He writs a note to Lord Henry asking him to entertain  his
guests. Just as he is ready to leave, the head keeper is announced. He  says
the man who was shot was not one of the beaters, but seems to  have  been  a
sailor. No one knew the man. Dorian is wildly excited at the thought hat  it
might be James Vane. He rushes out to go and see the body.  When  the  cloth
is lifted from the face, he cries out in joy  because  it  is  the  face  of
James Vane. He rides home with tears of joy knowing he’s safe.
      CHAPTER 19
      Lord Henry tells Dorian he doesn’t believe him when he says he is  now
going to be good. He says Dorian is already perfect and shouldn’t change  at
al. Dorian insists that he has done many terrible things and has decided  to
stop that and become a good  person.  He  says  he’s  been  staying  in  the
country lately and has resolved to change. Lord Henry  says  anyone  can  be
good in the country. Dorian says he has  recently  done  a  good  thing.  He
wooed a young girl as beautiful as Sibyl Vane was  and  loved  her.  He  has
been going to see her several times a week all month. They were planning  to
run away together and suddenly he decided to leave her with  her  innocence.
Lord Henry says the novelty of the emotion must have given  Dorian  as  much
pleasure as he used to get in stealing the innocence of girls.  Dorian  begs
Henry not to make jokes about his reform. Lord Henry asks him if  he  thinks
this girl will now ever be able to be happy after she was loved  by  someone
as beautiful and graceful as he is. Now she  will  be  forever  dissatisfied
with love. He wonders if the girl will even commit suicide.
      Dorian begs Henry to stop making fun of him. He tells him he wants  to
be better than he has been in life. After a while, he brings up the  subject
of Basil’s disappearance. He asks Henry what people are saying about it  and
wonders if anyone thinks foul play was involved. Henry makes  light  of  it.
He imagines that Basil fell off a bus into the  Seine  and  drowned.  Dorian
asks Henry what he would think if he said he had killed Basil. Henry  laughs
at the idea, saying Dorian  is  too  delicate  for  something  as  gross  as
      Lord Henry says he hates the fact that Basil’s art had become so  poor
in the last years of his life. After Dorian stopped  sitting  for  him,  his
art became trite.
      Lord Henry begs Dorian to play Chopin for him and talk to him.  Dorian
begins playing and remembers a line from Hamlet  that  reminds  him  of  the
portrait Basil painted of him: "Like the  painting  of  a  sorrow,/  A  face
without a heart." He repeats the line over again thinking how much it  suits
the portrait Basil painted of him.
      Lord Henry thinks of a line he heard when he passed by a  preacher  in
the park last Sunday: "What does it profit a man if he gain the whole  world
and lose his own soul?" Dorian is shocked at  the  saying  and  wonders  why
Henry would ask him this question. Henry laughs  it  off  and  moves  on  to
another topic.
      Henry urges Dorian to stop being so serious. He  tells  him  he  looks
better than he ever has and wonders what his secret is for warding  off  old
age. He revels in the exquisite life Dorian has  led  and  wishes  he  could
change places with him. He tells Dorian his life has been  a  work  of  art.
Dorian stops playing and tells Lord Henry that if he knew what he  had  done
in life, he would turn from him.
      Lord Henry urges Dorian to come to the club  with  him.  He  wants  to
introduce  him  to  Lord  Poole,  Bournemouth’s  eldest  son  who  has  been
imitating Dorian and wants to meet  him  terribly.  He  then  suggests  that
Dorian come to his place the next day and meet Lady Baranksome who wants  to
consult him about some tapestry she is going to buy. He asks Dorian  why  he
no longer sees the Duchess and guesses that the Duchess is too  clever,  one
never liking  being  around  clever  women.  Finally,  Dorian  leaves  after
promising to come back later.
      CHAPTER 20
      The night is beautiful. Dorian walks home from Lord Henry feeling good
about himself. He passes some y young  men  who  whisper  his  name.  He  no
longer feels the thrill he used to feel when  he  is  spoken  of  with  such
reverence by young men. He wonders if Lord  Henry  is  right,  that  he  can
never change. He wishes he had never  prayed  that  the  portrait  bear  the
burden of his age. He knows that his downfall has come because he has  never
had to live with the consequences of his actions.
      He gets home and looks in a mirror. He feels sickened by the idea that
youth spoiled his soul. He throws down the mirror smashing it on the  floor.
He tries not to think of the past. Nothing can  change  it.  He  knows  Alan
Campbell died without telling anyone of Dorian’s  secret.  He  doesn’t  even
feel too badly about the death  of  Basil.  He  doesn’t  forgive  Basil  for
painting the portrait that ruined his life. He just  wants  to  live  a  new
      He thinks of Hetty Merton and he wonders if the portrait upstairs  has
changed because of his good deed toward her. He gets the lamp and rushes  up
the stairs, hopeful that the portrait will  have  already  begun  to  change
back to beauty. When he  gets  there,  he  is  horrified  to  see  that  the
portrait looks even worse. Now the image has an arrogant sneer on its  face.
More blood has appeared on its hands and even on its feet.
      Dorian wonders what he should do.  He  wonders  if  he  will  have  to
confess the murder before he will be free of the guilt  of  it.  He  doesn’t
want to confess because he doesn’t want to be put in jail.
      He wonders if the murder will follow him  all  his  life.  Finally  he
decides to destroy the portrait. He finds the knife he used to  kill  Basil.
He rushes to the portrait and stabs at it.
      Downstairs on the street below, two men are passing by when they  hear
a loud scream. They rush for a policeman who knocks on the door, but no  one
comes. The men ask the policeman whose house it is. When  they  hear  it  is
Dorian Gray’s, they sneer and walk away. Inside, the  servants  rush  up  to
the room from whence the sound came. They try the door but it’s locked.  Two
of them go around by way of the roof to get  in  through  the  window.  When
they get inside, they find Dorian Gray stabbed in the heart and above him  a
glorious portrait of him hanging on the wall. The man stabbed on  the  floor
is wrinkled and ugly. They don’t eve recognize him until they see the  rings
on his fingers.
      Dorian Gray, a man who is jolted out of oblivion at the  beginning  of
the novel and made aware of the idea that  his  youth  and  beauty  are  his
greatest gifts and that they will soon vanish with age.
      Lord Henry Wotton, the bored aristocrat who tells Dorian Gray that  he
is extraordinarily beautiful. He decides to dominate Dorian and proceeds  to
strip him of all his conventional illusions. He succeeds  in  making  Dorian
live his life for art and forget moral responsibility.
      A secondary antagonist is age. Dorian Gray runs from the  ugliness  of
age throughout his life. He runs from it, but he  is  also  fascinated  with
it, obsessively coming back again and again to look at the signs of  age  in
the portrait.
      The climax follows Sibyl Vane’s horrible  performance  on  stage  when
Dorian Gray tells her he has fallen out of love with  her  because  she  has
made something ugly. Here, Dorian rejects love for the ideal of beauty.  The
next morning, he changes his  mind  and  writes  an  impassioned  letter  of
apology, but too late; Sibyl has committed suicide.
      Dorian Gray becomes mired in  the  immorality  of  his  existence.  He
places no limit on his search for pleasure. He ruins people’s lives  without
qualm. His portrait shows the  ugliness  of  his  sins,  but  his  own  body
doesn’t. His attempts at reform fail. He even kills a messenger of  reform--
Basil Hallward. Finally, he kills himself  as  he  attempts  to  "kill"  the
portrait. He dies the ugly, old man and the portrait returns to  the  vision
of his beautiful youth.

                The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946)

Type of Work: Fantasy / science fiction novel
Setting: England; late nineteenth century, and
Principle Characters:
       The Time Traveller, an inquisitive, scientific man
       Weena, a future woman
Story Overview
      One Thursday evening, four or five  men  assembled  for  dinner  at  a
friend's home near London. But as the evening passed, their host  failed  to
appear. Finally, at half past seven the guests  agreed  it  was  a  pity  to
spoil a good dinner and seated themselves to  a  delicious  meal.  The  main
topic of their conversation was  time  travel,  a  subject  their  host  had
seriously argued as a valid theory during an earlier dinner.
      He had gone so far as to show them the model of a curious  machine  he
had built, which, he declared, could travel through the fourth  dimension  -
time. While the guests conversed, the door suddenly  opened  and  in  limped
their host. He was in a state of disarray. His coat  was  dusty,  dirty  and
smeared with green; his hair was markedly grayer than  the  last  time  they
had seen him, his face pale, and his expression haggard and drawn as if by
 intense suffering. As he  stumbled  back  through  the  door  in  tattered,
bloodstained socks, he promised his guests  that  be  would  return  shortly
with an explanation for his actions and appearance.
       Soon after, the  gentleman  did  reappear,  and  commenced  with  his
remarkable story:
       That morning, his machine at last completed, he had begun his journey
through time. Increasing the angle of his levers, at first he  was  able  to
maintain a sense of time and place. His laboratory still  looked  the  same,
but slowly its image dimmed. Then, faster and faster,  night  followed  day,
until the palpitation of night and day merged into one continuous  grayness.
New questions sprung up in  the  Traveller's  mind:  What  had  happened  to
civilization? How had humanity changed?
       Now he saw great and splendid architecture rising  about  him,  while
the surrounding expanse became a richer green, with  no  interruptions  made
by winter. The Time Traveller decided to stop.
       He fell from his machine to find himself at the foot of  a  colossal,
winged, sphinx-like figure carved out of white stone on a  bronze  pedestal.
The huge image, outlined by early morning mist, made  him  somewhat  ill  at
ease. Then he noticed figures approaching, - slight creatures, perhaps  four
feet high, very beautiful  and  graceful,  but  indescribably  frail.  These
beings advanced toward the Time Traveller, laughing without fear, and  began
touching him all over. "So these are the citizens of the future," he  mused.
They acted like five-year old children, and the Traveller  was  disappointed
with their lack of intelligence and refinement.
       These gentle people, called Eloi, bore their visitor  to  a  towering
building that appeared ready to collapse. Their world in general  seemed  in
disrepair - a beautiful, tangled  waste  of  bushes  and  flowers;  a  long-
neglected and yet weedless garden. The Eloi served their guest a  meal  that
consisted entirely of fruit. During this repast, they all sat  as  close  to
the Time Traveller as they could.
       With much difficulty he began to learn their language, but the  Floi,
with their very short attention spans, tired easily of  teaching  him.  That
evening the Traveller began to hypothesize how these people, who all  looked
identical, dressed alike, and reacted to life in the same way, had  evolved.
Perhaps, he thought, mankind had overcome the numerous difficulties of  life
facing it in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  Under  new  conditions
of perfect comfort and security, perhaps power  and  intellect  -  the  very
qualities he most valued - had no longer been necessary. He decided that  he
had emerged into the sunset of humanity; a vegetarian society - for  he  had
noticed no animals - where  there  was  no  need  for  either  reasoning  or
strength. As night drew near, the Time Traveller suddenly realized that  his
time machine had vanished. Engulfed by the fear of losing contact  with  his
own age and being left helpless in this strange new world, he  flew  into  a
desperate rampage, a futile attempt to find his machine.
       Soon the voyager's  panic  faded  as  he  realized  his  machine  was
probably inside the huge stone figure near the spot where he  had  "landed."
He pounded on the bronze doors without effect, but he  was  certain  he  had
heard some voice from inside - a  distinct  little  chuckle.  Calm,  welcome
sleep, finally overcame the adventurer, and he  reasoned  that  in  time  he
would succeed in breaking into the stone behemoth to regain his machine.
       Another day passed. The Time Traveller came to realize  that  he  had
been wrong about the little beings. The Eloi had no machinery or  appliances
of any kind, yet they were clothed in  pleasant  fabric  and  their  sandals
were fairly complex  specimens  of  metalwork.  Perhaps  this  was  a  truly
advanced society.
       Later, the Time Traveller rescued an Eloi woman  from  drowning.  Her
name was Weena. Weena, unable to vocally express her  gratitude  and  regard
for the Time Traveller, slept by his side  in  the  dark.  This  took  great
courage because the Eloi feared  darkness  and  never  ventured  from  their
buildings after sunset. This point also puzzled the Time Traveller:  If  the
Eloi lived in a perfect society, then why were they afraid of the dark?
       On the fourth day of his adventure, the Traveller came  across  other
earth creatures. These subterranean, ape-like vermin were  called  Morlocks.
Summoning courage, the Time Traveller warily descended into their  world  to
learn what he could about them. There he found the machines that he had  not
seen  above  ground.  Morlocks  were  apparently  another  race   of   man's
descendants, no longer able to tolerate the sun-lit surface of  the  planet.
Here were the enemies who had taken his time machine.  By  their  smell  and
appearance they were obviously carnivores.
       Suddenly the Traveller understood why the Eloi feared darkness.  They
were like fatted calves, kept well and healthy, only to be seized and  eaten
when the Morlocks grew hungry. Eloi society wasn't perfect after all.
       A few days later, Weena and the Time Traveller set out to search  for
a weapon they could use to break into the pedestal  where  the  machine  was
hidden. Coming across  an  ancient  museum,  they  collected  matches,  some
camphor for a candle, and, most important of all, an iron mace. The sun  was
setting as they emerged from the museum.  Though  filled  with  a  sense  of
doom, and having several miles of  forest  between  them  and  safety,  they
nevertheless started for home in the shadowy darkness.
       Morlocks proceeded to close in on them along the way. The beasts were
temporarily driven off each time the Time Traveller  lighted  a  match,  but
finally, in an effort to slow them  down,  he  ignited  a  larger  fire.  In
minutes the entire forest was in flames. The Traveller was able to escape  -
but Weena was lost in the flames. Standing on a knoll, he  looked  out  over
the burning wasteland, and mourned the loss of his devoted Eloi friend.
       When morning came, the Time Traveller began retracing  his  steps  to
the place where he bad originally landed. On the way he pondered  how  brief
the reign  of  human  intellect  had  been.  Our  priceless,  heroic,  human
existence had been traded for a life of comfort and ease.
       Now, as the voyager approached the stone relic, he found the door  of
the pedestal open. Inside was his time machine. It was an obvious trap,  but
the Morlocks had no idea how the device worked. The  Traveller  sprinted  to
his machine and adjusted the lever, while  fighting  off  several  Morlocks.
Then he found himself enveloped by the same welcome grey  light  and  tumult
he had before observed. He had escaped that dismal future.
       The visit to the Eloi took  place  in  the  year  802,701.  The  Time
Traveller next journeyed through millions of years, seeing even  more  alien
creatures than before. Finally halting thirty million  years  after  he  had
departed, he found a distant age where the sun no longer shone brightly.  In
bitter cold and deathly stillness,  the  horrified  Traveller  started  back
toward the present.
       The guests listened with mixed emotions to the  last  of  this  tale.
Their host seemed sincere; but was such a feat possible? A  few  days  later
one of his friends came to hear more. Again, the Traveller excused  himself,
asking his guest to wait momentarily and he would be back with  evidence  of
this  excursion.  Three  years  elapsed  and  the  Time  Traveller  had  not
reappeared. He was considered by his friends as a lost  wanderer,  somewhere
in time.

                             Ulysses by J.Joyce

Chapter One: Telemachus
      When James Joyce began writing his novel Ulysses, he  had  in  mind  a
creative project that brought  together  aspects  of  his  two  major  works
Dubliners and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, while at the same  time
incorporating aspects  of  Homer's  epic  The  Odyssey.  The  novel  Ulysses
encompasses a total of eighteen chapters, tracing  the  actions  of  various
Dubliners beginning at 8 am on the day of June 16, 1904.
      Chapter One opens with the breakfast of three  young  men:  Haines,  a
British student who is in Dublin on temporary  leave  from  Oxford;  Malachi
"Buck" Mulligan, a medical student; and  Stephen  Dedalus,  the  protagonist
from Portrait and the central character  in  the  first  three  chapters  of
Ulysses. The three young men are living in Martello Tower,  for  which  only
Stephen pays rent as he is the one who has rented it from  the  Ministry  of
War.  We  immediately  discover  that  there  are  tense  relations  between
Mulligan and Stephen; particularly, Stephen feels  increasingly  ostracized,
as Mulligan and Haines become closer. Further, Buck spares  no  sympathy  in
his constant tormenting of Stephen in regards to the  recent  death  of  his
mother,  Mary  Dedalus.  Stephen  is,  in  general,  the  butt  of  most  of
Mulligan№s jokes.
      Particularly, Mulligan teases Stephen that he is responsible  for  his
mother's death because upon seeing her  on  her  deathbed,  he  refused  her
pleas for him to pray, having distanced himself from organized religion.  In
this, Mulligan jokes that his aunt has refused to allow him to keep  company
with Stephen, as his apostasy is made worse by being  the  murderer  of  his
mother. Further, Stephen feels distanced from  Haines;  Stephen  feels  that
Haines is somewhat patronizing in his attitude towards Stephen's  desire  to
become a poet. Haines is a British native  and  both  Mulligan  and  Stephen
despise him, though Mulligan masks his  true  thoughts  with  hypocrisy  and
flattery. Haines appears as a spoiled student  and  a  shallow  thinker.  He
argues that British oppression is  not  the  cause  of  Ireland№s  problems;
rather "history" is to blame.  Interrupting  the  young  men's  conversation
about Ireland and  its  international  politics,  an  old  lady  arrives  to
deliver the morning milk and Stephen finds that he  is  forced  to  pay  the
bill. Soon after breakfast, the three men leave the Tower to walk along  the
beach. After making plans to meet Stephen at a bar called  the  Ship  around
noon, Mulligan asks him for his key to the tower. After, forfeiting his  key
to Mulligan, Stephen departs from his two roommates,  feeling  that  he  has
been usurped from his position.
Chapter Two: Nestor
      About an hour  after  "Telemachus"  ends,  we  find  Stephen  teaching
ancient history and the classics to a disrespectful class of  wealthy  boys.
Neither Stephen nor the students are particularly interested in  the  lesson
which concerns the martial exploits of the Greek hero,  Pyrrhus.  Armstrong,
the class clown, is disruptive and Talbot, a lazy  cheater  who  is  reading
the answers out of his book, does not bother to hide his act  from  Stephen,
who tells him to 'turn the page" when he stammers  at  his  final  response.
Stephen struggles to keep the class in order  and  it  is  clear  that  they
disrespect him. Eventually, even Stephen is distant and half-hearted in  his
participation and he eventually gives up his attempt to  quiz  the  students
on their classics lesson.
      Later, the young boys ask Stephen  to  tell  them  ghost  stories  and
riddles instead of their lesson. Upon recess,  one  pathetic  student  named
Cyril Sargent asks Stephen for assistance  with  his  multiplication  tables
and Stephen is reminded of his mother as he considers the fact that  only  a
mother could love as pitiful a creature as  what  he  and  Cyril  must  have
been. Stephen considers his roommate Haines to  be  much  like  the  spoiled
students to whom he must cater. Because  he  feels  that  his  students  are
incapable of learning, and because he feels that  his  intellectual  talents
are being wasted in his current position, Stephen does not  care  about  his
job and is already considering leaving his position.
      At the end of the chapter, the schoolmaster, Mr. Deasy, gives  Stephen
his meager pay for the month.  and  annoys  the  young  teacher  with  trite
advice on lending money, pro-British and anti-Semitic  rhetoric.  Mr.  Deasy
continues  with  an  unintelligent  attempt  at  philosophy   as   well   as
Shakespearean criticism. At  the  close  of  the  chapter,  Mr.  Deasy  asks
Stephen to examine his letter on a cattle-disease that  has  caused  foreign
economic powers to consider an embargo on Irish cattle.  Deasy  intends  for
Stephen  to  use  his  contacts  to  get  the  letter,  which  is  full   of
misstatements and incorrect assertions, printed in the Evening Telegraph.
Chapter Three: Proteus
      After 11 AM, Stephen Dedalus wanders along Sandymount strand (a beach)
to waste time before he is to go to the Ship at 12:30 to meet  Mulligan  and
Haines. Though, in the end, Stephen decides not to go to  the  Ship  to  see
Mulligan. This occurs immediately after the "Nestor" episode at Mr.  Deasy's
school and Stephen is still disgruntled by his  unpleasant  experience  with
Mr. Deasy and also feels burdened because he has to carry Mr. Deasy№s  inane
letter to the Evening Telegraph. Later in the chapter,  Stephen  sits  on  a
rock and pencils in a few corrections, in an effort  to  make  his  upcoming
trip to the newspaper office less embarrassing.
      After walking  for  several  miles,  Stephen  considers  visiting  his
mother's family (the  Gouldings)  but  after  imagining  what  his  father's
objections would be, he decides against it. Stephen imagines a  vivid  scene
of what would transpire  if  he  did  decide  to  visit  the  Gouldings.  He
imagines his Uncle Richie Goulding who is laid up in bed as he  suffers  the
consequences of decades of alcoholism. As usually, "nuncle Richie" would  be
singing Italian opera while cousin Walter ran around the house in search  of
backache pills for his father. In  another  room,  Mrs.  Goulding  would  no
doubt be bathing one of the myriad young children running around the  house.

      As he walks on the beach, Stephen  considers  different  philosophical
questions on what is real and what is only perceived,  on  the  relationship
of the symbol versus the symbolized, as well as the  human  senses  and  how
they interact and overlap. Stephen expresses his  feelings  of  solitude  as
his mind wanders on the real and  imagined  figures  that  surround  him  on
Sandymount and he imagines himself to be in Paris, in  the  company  of  his
friend, Kevin Egan. Dedalus№ friend, Egan, was reputed  to  be  a  socialist
and after exiling himself to Paris, unlike Stephen,  he  never  returned  to
Chapter Four: Calypso
      Chapter Four marks the opening of Part  Two,  beginning  at  8am  with
Leopold Bloom in his house on 7 Eccles Street. It is breakfast time  at  the
Bloom residence as  was  the  case  in  Martello,  and  the  scene  that  we
encounter is one of fractured domesticity. Bloom's wife,  Molly,  is  asleep
in the bed and their daughter  Milly  is  away.  Joyce's  focus  on  Bloom's
thoughts is a contrast to  Stephen's  intellectualism.  When  he  wakes  up,
Bloom№s primary concern  is  to  get  breakfast  made  before  his  wife  is
stirring. He likes to serve Molly  breakfast  in  bed,  and  Molly  is  very
specific about how she likes her toast  corners  cut  and  her  morning  tea
served. After beginning preparations for her breakfast and serving  the  cat
her milk, Bloom quickly departs for the butcher shop in  search  of  a  nice
cut of pork kidney for his own breakfast. He later burns the kidney when  he
spends too much time assisting Molly upstairs.
      Indeed, Joyce's Ulysses is more of a comic hero than an epic figure, a
resemblance to Cervantes' Don Quijote. Bloom is doomed  to  wander  for  the
day because he has left his key in the  pair  of  pants  that  he  wore  the
previous day and he is afraid to go upstairs and  disturb  his  wife  Molly.
Like Stephen, Bloom is rather submissive in his  relationships.  Bloom,  for
example, is aware of the fact that his wife is having an affair with  Blazes
Boylan, a  younger  man  with  whom  she  professionally  sings.  Molly  has
received a letter from Boylan that morning and Bloom  is  aware  that  Molly
and Boylan plan  to  consummate  their  relationship  that  very  afternoon.
Additionally, Bloom is also concerned that his daughter's innocence  may  be
imperiled on account of her new suitor; Bloom simply shrugs this off and  is
passive, if not fatalistic.
      We learn a little about  Bloom's  sexual  preferences  in  his  rather
obsessive voyeurism. When  Bloom  goes  to  the  Dlugacz  butcher  shop,  he
attempts to pursue a young girl at the hope of catching  a  glimpse  of  her
underwear. Towards the end of the chapter, Bloom is dressing  in  all  black
on account of the  funeral  of  his  acquaintance,  Paddy  Dignam.  And  the
chapter ends when Bloom takes a trip  to  the  outhouse  and  expresses  his
concern about again while reading a serialized  story  which  leads  him  to
consider taking up a literary career to make more money.
Chapter Five: The Lotus Eaters
      Chapter Five begins close to 10am as a keyless Bloom leaves his  house
and takes a circuitous route to the post office in  order  to  pick  up  any
responses to an advertisement in which he inquired for  a  secretary.  As  a
result of his  advertisement,  Bloom  has  been  in  correspondence  with  a
flirtatious woman who uses the pseudonym "Martha  Clifford"  to  his  "Henry
Flower, Esquire." Despite the fact that he has already found  an  answer  to
his advertisement, Bloom continues to check the  post  office  box  and  his
advertisement has  netted  over  forty  responses  and  in  the  end  Martha
Clifford was the final consideration, narrowly defeating  Lizzie  Twigg  for
the "position." Regardless of Bloom№s initial intent and whether or  not  he
was initially searching for  a  secretary,  Martha  Clifford  has  become  a
platonic pen-pal and now it seems that the relationship is escalating.  Upon
reading Clifford's letter,  Bloom  regrets  the  fact  that  he  has  goaded
Clifford by responding to her letters and he is afraid that she may want  to
meet him instead  of  continue  a  Clifford-Flower  relationship  with  non-
committed, teasing love letters. As if to confirm her  romantic  intentions,
Clifford, the coquette, has included a flower along with her letter.
      After leaving the post  office,  Bloom  travels  to  the  Belfast  and
Oriental Tea Company, though he only looks through the  window  and  admires
the various spiced teas from the outside. Looking through the  large  window
of the store, Bloom is lost  in  a  daydream  as  he  imagines  the  various
advertisement possibilities for the establishment. Bloom  continues  on  his
wandering course until he reaches F.W. Sweny's chemist shop where he buys  a
bar of lemon soap and makes plans  to  return  with  a  recipe  for  Molly's
lotion. He had forgotten to bring it with him. Bloom sees  Bantam  Lyons  on
the street and Lyons misunderstands Bloom's offer of the newspaper  that  he
has just finished reading.
      Bloom's statement that he was just going to throw away  the  paper  is
misheard by Lyons who  thinks  that  Bloom  is  giving  him  a  tip  on  the
racehorse, Throwaway. This  rather  strained  comic  scene  has  unfortunate
consequences for Bloom, later in the novel. Towards the end of the  chapter,
Bloom  contemplates  a  Turkish  bath,  but  his   peaceful   thoughts   are
interrupted by his memory of his father's suicide. Bloom№s father,  Rudolph,
took an overdose of monkshood poison and died in a resort in Italy.
Chapter Six: Hades
      Soon before 11am, Bloom enters a funereal carriage with other  friends
of Paddy Dignam. Jack Power, Martin Cunningham, Simon  Dedalus  (the  father
of Stephen) and Bloom, follow Dignam's hearse to  Glasnevin  Cemetery  where
Father Coffey delivers the conclusion of the religious  interment  ceremony.
Along the way, the carriage passes throngs of urban poor, the  small  hearse
of an orphan, a widow, Blazes Boylan, as well as  Stephen  Dedalus.  As  the
funeral procession  passes  through  the  city,  all  of  Dublin№s  bleakest
characteristics are exposed and magnified. Bloom imagines it as  a  city  of
the dead and when he passes an old lady, he thinks to himself  that  she  is
somewhat relieved to see the  hearse  pass  by  her  as  she  lives  in  the
constant fear that the next death she sees will be  her  own.  The  carriage
has a  few  navigational  problems  as  the  course  to  Glasnevin  Cemetery
requires that they pass over four different  rivers  including  the  Liffey,
Dublin№s largest river.
      Bloom's outsider status is revealed even in the  stilted  congeniality
of the cramped carriage. Power and Dedalus  are  extremely  terse  in  their
comments to Bloom, though Cunningham does make  an  effort  to  express  his
kindness. Still, the conversation is triangular and  Bloom  spends  most  of
his time thinking of ways to jump into the conversation. His attempt  to  be
sociable is more of a faux pas than anything else and  his  comments  expose
him as  a  non-Catholic.  One  of  the  carriage  members  comments  on  the
unfortunate nature of Paddy Dignam№s death, given that he died in a  drunken
and unconscious stupor. For the three Catholics, it need not  be  said  that
Dignam was unable to receive last rites,  jeopardizing  the  status  of  his
soul in the afterlife. Bloom, an outsider, has  missed  the  nuance  of  the
conversation and he argues that Paddy was lucky, for dying in ones sleep  is
the least painful exit. Later the  conversation  turns  to  the  subject  of
suicide and Jack Power makes  an  inconsiderate  remark  about  the  eternal
damnation suffered by suicides. Unlike Power, Cunningham  is  aware  of  the
fact that Bloom№s father committed suicide and he  steers  the  conversation
to a lighthearted topic. Despite the stiff sobriety of the occasion  though,
Bloom's opinions of the Roman Catholic ceremony provide  comic  relief  from
the somber subject matter of the chapter.
Chapter Seven: Aeolus
      After the Dignam funeral, Bloom goes downtown to the newspaper  office
(an  office  for  three  different  publications)  to  work  on  his  newest
advertising assignment, a  two-month  renewal  for  Alexander  Keyes.  Bloom
appears close to accomplishing his goal because Keyes previous ad is  easily
recovered. Problems arise when the business manager, Nannetti, decides  that
Keyes should  take  out  a  three-month  advertisement  and  he  is  largely
unwilling to compromise. Nannetti№s tone  is  sarcastic  when  he  addresses
Bloom and so the ad canvasser is unclear as to whether or not he  will  have
to re-negotiate his contract with Keyes, though in the  end  it  seems  that
this is the case.
      To further complicate manners, Bloom learns that he will have to  trek
to the National Library to retrieve a specific graphic image of two  crossed
keys. The Keyes house wanted to use this image and though it  was  the  same
image that they used in their last advertisement, Bloom is unable to find  a
copy of it in the office. Bloom's escapades in the  office  are  interrupted
by the entrance and exit of both Simon  and  Stephen  Dedalus  at  different
times and within different groups. Simon Dedalus has arrived with a  few  of
his friends who were also in attendance at the funeral and  they  eventually
leave for drinks. While they are there,  the  men  discuss  and  ridicule  a
recent patriotic speech that has printed in the paper.
      When Stephen arrives, he sends a telegraph to Mulligan, notifying  him
that he will not be going to the Ship. Instead, Mulligan  and  Stephen  will
cross paths in the National Library, though Stephen  is  wholly  unaware  of
Leopold Bloom and  his  plans.  Stephen  is  also  engaged  in  a  political
discussion in which he tells  what  he  calls  the  Parable  of  the  Plums,
describing the Irish condition as that of two old women who  have  begun  to
climb the tall statue of the British Lord  Nelson.  Having  stopped  midway,
they take a break to eat plums, spitting the pits down into the Irish  soil.
At this point,  the  two  old  women  are  horrified  and  unable  to  move,
frightened by the distance between their current position and ground  level.
At the same time though, they find Lord Nelson№s face to be unwelcoming  and
menacing and they refuse to climb any further on  the  statue,  resigned  to
live the rest of their lives clutching on Lord  Nelson№s  midsection.  After
telling  the  parable  to  his  enthusiastic  and  older  audience,  Stephen
delivers Mr. Deasy's letter on Irish cattle,  which  the  staff  reluctantly
agrees to print. Bloom re-appears towards the  end  of  the  chapter  as  he
attempts to call Keyes to confirm the three-month renewal  before  beginning
the work but all of his attempts at communication are  unsuccessful  as  his
co-workers  are  disrespectful  and  only  make  Bloom's   assignment   more
difficult than it needs to be.
Chapter Eight: The Lestrygonians
      Chapter Eight is a chronology of Bloom's early afternoon. Rather  than
directly venturing to the National Library, Bloom wanders for a little  over
an hour and the narrative of the chapter follows his course  as  he  decides
to get something to eat. A  young  proselytizer  affiliated  with  the  YMCA
hands Bloom a "throwaway" tract  and  when  Bloom  first  reads  the  words:
"blood of the lamb," he mistakes the letters B-L-O-O for  the  beginning  of
his own name. Soon  after,  Bloom  sees  one  of  Simon  Dedalus'  daughters
waiting for him outside a bar. Bloom then feeds the gulls, watches the  five
men advertising H.E.L.Y.S. establishment,  listens  to  Mrs.  Breen's  story
concerning her husband, Denis, who is losing his mind. Mr. Denis  Breen  has
received a postcard in the mail that reads "U. p: up" and  enraged,  by  the
unintelligible prank, he  has  ventured  to  a  lawyer  in  order  to  press
charges. Denis Breen intends to sue for libel, though he is unaware  of  the
intent or sender of the postcard.
      Mrs. Breen also shares the story of Mina  Purefoy,  who  has  been  in
labor for three days. Purefoy is losing her strength  and  apparently,  Mrs.
Breen  has  recently  visited  her  in  the  National  Maternity   Hospital.
Concerned for Mrs. Purefoy, Bloom decides that he will  visit  the  pregnant
woman and a little  after  this  decision,  Bloom  encounters  an  in/famous
character by the name of Cashel Boyle O'Connor Fitzmaurice  Tisdall  Farell.
Farrell is another Dublin crazyman who spends him time  walking  in  between
the lampposts. After avoiding Farrell's track, a  hungry  Bloom  enters  the
Burton Restaurant but he leaves, disgusted by the exceptionally poor  habits
of the savage customers. Bloom, in fact, does  not  even  give  himself  the
chance  to  sit  down  in  the  Restaurant,  whose  somewhat  opulent  dйcor
contrasts the loud noise of the animated diners.
      After leaving the Burton Restaurant,  Bloom  continues  his  wandering
through the city before he finally opts for Davy Byrne's "moral pub,"  where
he sees Nosey Flynn. Just as the "moral pub" is  considerably  cleaner  than
the Burton Restaurant, Flynn presents himself  as  a  decent  man‹though  he
too, is not the cleanest. Flynn is constantly picking and brushing lice  off
his shoulders. The conversation inside Byrne's touches  upon  Blazes  Boylan
as well as the upcoming horserace  in  which  Sceptre  is  heavily  favored.
After Bloom's exit, Byrne and Flynn discuss the wanderer, concluding  rather
fairly that he  is  a  decent  man  despite  his  deliberate  ambiguity  and
consistent refusal to sign his name to any agreement. The chapter ends  soon
after Bloom is on the path to  the  National  Library.  He  helps  a  "blind
stripling" cross street and soon after, Bloom enters  a  Museum,  presumably
to hide from Blazes Boylan whose path has again crossed with Bloom's.
Chapter Nine: Scylla and Charybdis
      This afternoon chapter lasts for approximately an hour and a half  and
ends at 3pm. "Scylla and Charybdis takes place in the National  Library  and
the shift in focus from Bloom  to  Stephen  Dedalus  marks  Stephen's  third
appearance since "Proteus." Stephen has left the  news  office  of  "Aeolus"
and after sending a message  to  Mulligan,  he  departed  for  the  National
Library rather than The Ship. It is unclear exactly what  Stephen  has  been
doing in the interim, though we do see that he is not alone in  the  library
and Stephen  sees  that  this  casual  company  provides  him  with  another
opportunity to present  himself  as  an  intellectual  thinker  and  budding
literary genius.
      Despite Stephen’s continued efforts to impress the men in his company,
he finds that his ploys are mostly  frustrated.  In  contrast  to  Stephen's
more receptive audience in "Aeolus," two of his library companions,  Russell
and Eglington, are men of literary stature  who  patronize  Stephen's  ideas
about  Shakespeare,  ideas  that  he  wedges  between  commentary  on  Irish
politics and the difficult predicament of the young Irish literati.  In  his
discussion of Shakespeare, Stephen aims to make use of his various  critical
skills without actually believing the arguments that he makes. Bloom is  the
first interruption of the narrative when we learn that  he  has  arrived  in
search of the design the Keyes  advertisement.  Upon  Bloom№s  arrival,  the
head Librarian briefly departs presumably, to help Bloom locate  the  design
of the "Keys of Killarney."
      Later, Mulligan arrives and continues his "tongue-in-cheek" mocking of
Stephen and while Bloom and Stephen do not meet in this chapter, Bloom  does
pass between the two young men as he exits, separating them. By the  end  of
"Scylla and Charybdis," Stephen is irked by  the  discussion  of  the  Irish
literary renaissance and  he  wonders  if  he  will  ever  achieve  literary
success in Ireland as  Mulligan,  a  sarcastic  medical  student,  has  been
invited to  attend  a  literary  function  with  Haines,  while  he  remains
Chapter Ten: Wandering Rocks
      The "Wandering Rocks" chapter of  Ulysses  is  a  narrative  interlude
midway through the novel. Joyce depicts the adventures of  a  collection  of
Dubliners between 2:40 and 4pm, ending approximately  half  an  hour  before
Molly and Boylan meet. The diverse roll of characters includes some  figures
that do not appear in other chapters and Joyce's primary concern in  Chapter
Ten is painting a vivid portrait of Dublin. Among  these,  we  meet  several
figures of the Roman Catholic Church included Father  "Bob"  Cowley,  who  a
habitual alcoholic who has lost is collar for previous indiscretions.
      We also encounter Father Conmee, who has the noble though naпve  dream
of venturing into Africa in the hopes of converting the  millions  of  "dark
souls" who are lost in paganism. Father Conmee№s nostalgic thoughts  on  his
days at Clongowes College are interrupted when he notices two  young  people
who are kissing  behind  a  half-hidden  bush.  Joyce  also  offers  several
glimpses of the Dedalus daughters. One of the  four  daughters  has  made  a
failed effort to pawn their brother Stephen№s books in the hopes of  getting
some money for food. After she returns, another  daughter  departs  for  the
bars there father is none to frequent. While she accosts him in the hope  of
getting a few coins to purchase some food, her sisters are at  home  boiling
laundry before taking a break to drink some discolored pea soup.
      We receive separate views of Boylan and Molly before they meet.  Molly
appears on Eccles  Street,  offering  a  coin  to  a  beggar  sailor  before
preparing her home for her upcoming  tryst.  Boylan  exposes  himself  as  a
hopeless flirt in his relationship with his secretary and in  his  treatment
of the clerk of the flower shop. Stephen Dedalus appears  without  mulligan;
a few mourners meet again to discuss  Dignam's  funeral  and  two  viceregal
carriages cast their  shadows  over  beggars  and  barmaids,  among  others.
Bloom's path intersects with Boylan's yet again  and  Bloom  busies  himself
with the purchase of a book.
Chapter Eleven: The Sirens
      "The Sirens" takes place in the  bar  and  restaurant  of  the  Ormond
Hotel, where Lydia Douce and Mina Kennedy are barmaids.  The  chronology  of
the chapter overlaps with the previous one. Douce and Kennedy  have  entered
the Ormond bar before the "Wandering Rocks" episode has concluded and  Bloom
only arrives at the Ormond after he has made his purchase of Sweets of  Sin.
Because Bloom is in the restaurant area of the Ormond he can only  hear  the
noise coming from the bar  area.  Boylan  arrives  at  the  Ormond  to  meet
Lenehan and the singer enters and exits  without  Bloom  noticing;  all  the
while, Bloom sits in dread of his upcoming cuckolding. A despondent  Leopold
Bloom accompanies Richie  Goulding  to  a  restaurant  table.  The  physical
consequences of Richie's drinking are visible to  Bloom  who  suspects  that
Goulding will soon die. Soon  after  sitting  at  the  table,  Bloom  begins
writing a letter  to  Martha  while  talking  to  Goulding,  disguising  his
efforts and insisting that he is only replying to a newspaper  advertisement
and not writing a letter as Goulding had suspected.
      The piano sets a lively tone for those who are in the  bar,  including
Simon Dedalus, Douce, Kennedy, Lenehan, Boylan, a singer named Ben  Dollard,
Father Cowley and Tom Kernan. This lively group provides intermittent  comic
relief from Bloom№s depressing meal. Dedalus  is  a  strong  singer  and  he
engages in several rounds of a few Irish folk songs including the  patriotic
ballad, "The Croppy Boy."  Ben  Dollard,  a  professional  singer,  is  also
rather obese and he is the butt of a few of the barmaids№ jokes.  For  their
parts, Douce and Kennedy, fully thrust themselves into their "siren"  roles,
luring Boylan and after he departs for 7 Eccles, focusing  their  attentions
on Lenehan who squanders a significant amount of money in their bar.
Chapter 12: The Cyclops
      During the time of Molly's affair, Leopold Bloom wanders  into  Barney
Kiernan's pub. Bloom is not a  drinker  and  this  is  not  a  pub  that  he
regularly frequents; indeed, Bloom seems to  be  lost  in  thought  when  he
literally wanders into Kiernan№s where he is to meet  Cunningham  and  Power
for a trip to see the Widow Dignam. The  pub's  fierce  scene  is  a  severe
contrast to the  mellow  drunkenness  of  the  Ormond's  bar  and  Bloom  is
immediately  uncomfortable.  A  rabid  Irish  nationalist  called   Citizen,
terrorizes Kiernan's pub and focuses most of his  verbal  attack  on  Bloom.
Citizen,  like  many  of  Joyce№s  patriots,  is   both   anti-Semitic   and
isolationist in his thinking.
      Citizen initially begins his drunken discourse on the subject  of  the
lost Celtic culture. Though he briefly touches upon the death of  the  Irish
language, Citizen№s primary focus is  on  the  renaissance  of  the  ancient
Celtic games. Citizen№s verbal spouting is not held in regard,  though  none
of the pub№s patrons feel as uncomfortable  as  Bloom.  A  large  dog  named
Garryowen is equally menacing for Bloom, and despite Garryowen№s  allegiance
with Citizen, who feeds the dog biscuits, Citizen is not the dog№s owner.
      Lenehan is present and his conversation reveals  the  results  of  the
horserace where Throwaway  has  upset  the  heavily  favored  Sceptre.  When
Citizen's anti-Semitism flares, Bloom is forced to assume a heroic  role  in
defending himself. Specifically, the Citizen accuses Bloom of stealing  from
widows and orphans and he goes further, insinuating that Jews can  never  be
true Irish citizens. Bloom  defends  himself  as  an  honest  person  before
offering Citizen a  brief  catalogue  of  Jews  who  have  made  significant
contributions to European and Irish  culture.  When  Bloom  informs  Citizen
that his own God (Christ)  also  happened  to  be  a  Jew,  Citizen  becomes
enraged and as Bloom exits the pub victorious, Citizen  chases  behind  him,
throwing an empty biscuit tin at Bloom's head. The  sun  temporarily  blinds
Citizen,  whose  missile  falls  far  short  of  the  target.  Upon  exiting
Kiernan№s pub Bloom continues on his mission  to  visit  the  Dignam  widow,
accompanied by Martin Cunningham and Jack Power. They intend to discuss  the
specifics of Paddy Dignam№s insurance policy and  help  the  widow  get  her
finances in order.
Chapter 13: Nausicaa
      Nausicaa takes place several hours after "The Cyclops," and ends  with
the clock striking nine. In the interim  between  the  chapters,  Bloom  has
visited the Dignam widow to discuss Paddy's insurance  policy  and  in  this
chapter he is walking along Sandymount strand, the same beach where  Stephen
strolled during "Proteus." There is a group of young  people  on  the  beach
including a young woman named Cissy Caffrey who is watching Tommy and  Jacky
Caffrey and a smaller baby. Alongside Cissy is her friend  Gertrude  "Gerty"
MacDowell. Gerty's mostly thinks about her previous boyfriend and later  she
considers thoughts of marriage. In her conversation with Caffrey,  MacDowell
hides the emotional disappointment  that  she  has  suffered.  Even  as  she
maintains a rigid and impassive exterior,  MacDowell  is  deep  in  thought,
considering (apparently, for the first time) that she may  not  be  able  to
find a boyfriend whom she might convince or seduce into marriage.
      Midway through her thoughts, Gerty notices the voyeur, Bloom.  Leopold
Bloom is still dressed in all black on account of Dignam№s  funeral  and  he
is a somber contrast to the white sand of the beach.  MacDowell  can  easily
detect that Bloom is watching her though he continues  his  failed  attempts
to conceal his furtive staring. Cissy Caffrey  suspects  that  something  is
awry when MacDowell appears to be distracted and focused  in  the  direction
of the dark stranger. MacDowell then decides to use Caffrey  in  a  ploy  to
get a better look at Bloom who is  sitting  in  the  distance.  Knowing  the
Caffrey did not have a timepiece with her, MacDowell asks her for  the  time
and when Cissy replies that she does not know, MacDowell  ventures  over  to
Bloom, an "uncle" of hers, so that she might find out.
      Upon returning to her original  seat  with  Caffrey,  MacDowell  feels
sympathy for Bloom, who she decides must be the saddest man alive. In  place
of her thoughts on  her  boyfriend,  Reggie  Wylie,  MacDowell  suggests  to
herself that Bloom might be a character worth  saving,  as  only  she  could
truly understand him. It is not long before MacDowell notices that Bloom  is
again engaged in furtive behavior, masturbating himself with a hand  cloaked
in his pocket. After a brief consideration, Gerty  decides  to  "loves"  him
back, teasing Bloom by displaying her garters as he masturbates. Soon  after
this, MacDowell and the Caffreys depart from the beach,  having  stayed  for
the display of the nearby Bazaar№s fireworks. After MacDowell№s  flirtatious
departure, Bloom's considers his wife Molly and at the  end  of  "Nausicaa,"
our hero confesses that his nauseous post-orgasmic lassitude is a sure  sign
that he is aging.
Chapter 14: The Oxen of the Sun
      "The Oxen of the Sun" begins  no  earlier  than  10  pm  and  ends  at
approximately 11pm. After the "Nausicaa" episode, Bloom finally  arrives  at
The National Maternity Hospital to visit Mina Purefoy who has been in  labor
for three days. Because Bloom is concerned that Purefoy has  not  been  able
to deliver the child, he waits in the hospital before  briefly  seeing  Mrs.
Purefoy, whose husband, Theodore, is not present. After a  brief  discussion
with one of the midwives, Bloom decides to wait outside the maternity  room,
until he has received word that, with the aid  of  Dr  Horne  and  midwives,
Mina Purefoy has given birth to a healthy son.
      While Bloom is waiting for information regarding Purefoy's  labor,  he
meanders into a darkened waiting room where he encounters  Stephen  Dedalus,
who is sitting at a long table, drinking absinthe in the company of  several
other young men who are also drinking. Apparently, Stephen№s  acquaintances,
including Buck Mulligan, are mostly medical  students  and  interns  at  the
hospital. When Bloom sits at the drinking table of the younger  men,  he  is
initiating the first union between the novel's principal  characters  (Bloom
and Dedalus). Buck Mulligan is a  menacing  presence  in  the  hospital  and
Bloom consciously assumes a paternal role, fearing that Mulligan  has  laced
Stephen's drink with a harmful substance.
      Even after Bloom joins the conversation of  the  semi-inebriated  men,
Mulligan remains as bawdy and irreverent as before, making crass  references
to contraception, sexual  intercourse,  masturbation  and  procreation.  And
Bloom№s paternal aura seems to only extend to Stephen, who  he  singles  out
as the one decent character in the group.  Repeatedly,  the  young  men  are
cautioned to lower  the  volume  of  their  laughter  and  profanity.  After
Stephen separates from Mulligan at the  chapter's  end,  Bloom  worries  for
Stephen's safety and he decides to  follow  Stephen  who  has  departed  for
"Baudyville," alongside his friend Vincent Lynch; presumably, the young  men
intend to visit a brothel.
Chapter 15: Circe
      Bloom follows Stephen and Lynch out of the maternity hospital as  they
head to Bawdyville, a brothel in  the  red-light  district  of  Dublin  that
Joyce refers to as Nighttown. The reader is presented with grisly scenes  of
street urchin and deformed children, rowdy  British  soldiers  and  depraved
prostitutes. Bloom follows the young men by train but he gets off  at  wrong
stop and has initial difficulty keeping track of them. He is  then  accosted
by a stranger who refuses to let him pass and a "sandstrewer" runs  him  off
the road.
      As Bloom progresses deeper into Nighttown with the  hopes  of  finding
young Stephen, the frenetic pace of the red-light district provokes  several
hallucinations in Bloom and his secret thoughts and hidden fears are  played
out before us. A sober Bloom is greeted by the spirits of his  dead  parents
as well as the image of his  wife  Marion  (Molly)  who  speaks  to  him  in
"Moorish." The farce continues when Bloom's bar  of  lemon  soap  begins  to
speak and Mrs. Breen, the wife of the lunatic Denis,  appears  in  the  road
and flirts with Bloom before mocking him for  getting  caught  in  the  red-
light district. Bloom is suddenly in a courtroom, charged  with  accusations
of lechery. Several young girls recount sordid stories  of  his  Bloom,  the
conspicuous voyeur, and the courtroom's  roll  includes  various  characters
from earlier in the day  including  Paddy  Dignam  and  Father  Coffey,  who
presided over Dignam's funeral.
      The narrative abruptly shifts when  Bloom  finally  arrives  at  Bella
Cohen's brothel. When Bloom finds Stephen inside, he  immediately  seeks  to
protect the young  man  from  being  swindled.  Stephen  continues  his  own
descent into drunken madness and Bloom holds Dedalus'  money  to  avoid  any
further losses. Stephen's despairing hallucinations reach their climax  when
he encounters the vengeful ghost of his mother who begs  him  to  return  to
the Roman Catholic Church. Dedalus breaking his symbolic chains to  past  by
smashing Cohen's cheap chandelier with his walking stick. Chaos ensues  when
Bella Cohen tries to overcharge  Stephen  for  the  damage  and  Bloom  must
defend Stephen's interests. Again, as they are leaving  the  brothel,  Bloom
comes to the defensive when Private Carr assaults Stephen. Carr attacks  the
intoxicated young man despite Bloom's insistence that Stephen  is  incapable
of protecting himself. Stephen has lost his glasses, his  hand  wounded  and
he immediately faints after Carr's blow. Vincent Lynch  deserts  Dedalus  in
Nighttown and Bloom directs Stephen towards shelter. In the final  scene  of
"Circe," Bloom is distracted by the vision of his dead son, Rudy, not  as  a
newborn infant but at the age that he would have been had he lived.
Chapter Sixteen: Eumaeus
      After Stephen is  revived,  Bloom  directs  him  towards  a  "cabman's
shelter," a coffeehouse owned by a man named "Skin-the-Goat" Fitzharris.  As
Stephen begins to slowly sober up, Bloom begins a conversation  in  earnest,
discussing his ideas of love and politics.  Bloom's  desperation  makes  his
desire for a "son" transparent and even when Stephen is sober, he  does  not
seem to be particularly interested in  Bloom's  thoughts.  The  conversation
between Bloom and Dedalus resembles the conversation in the  Dignam  funeral
carriage, where Bloom appears as a man who is desperate for acceptance.
      In his efforts to win Stephen№s favor, Bloom attempts to play the role
of an intellectual. Upon entering the cabman№s shelter, Bloom  hears  a  few
Italians speaking  their  native  language  and  he  turns  to  Stephen,  to
proclaim his love of  the  Italian  language,  specifically  its  phonetics.
Stephen (who knows Italian) calmly replies  that  the  Italian  melody  that
Bloom has heard, was a base squabble over money. Though Bloom soon  realizes
that he does not know the brooding young  Dedalus  very  well,  he  believes
that the student's company would be beneficial  for  the  Blooms.  He  could
perhaps be a singer like his father and his economic potential  is  all  the
more pleasant to Bloom because he considers  Stephen  to  be  an  "edifying"
partner in conversation. Later in the conversation, Bloom  demonstrates  his
intellectual deficiencies as he attempts to discuss  politics  with  Dedalus
arguing a shallow and superficial Marxist  Leninism.  Bloom№s  reform  calls
first, for all citizens to "labor" and second, for all  citizen№s  needs  to
be secured regardless of their varying abilities, provided that this  reform
is carried out "in installments." Perceiving Stephen№s negative reaction  to
be a non-intellectual aversion, Bloom seeks to immediately  assuage  Dedalus
by explaining that poetry is "labor."
      Bloom leaves the cabman's shelter and invites Stephen to his home at 7
Eccles Street and  the  young  man  grudgingly  accepts.  While  inside  the
coffeehouse, Stephen's paid less attention to Bloom and more attention to  a
man named W. B. Murphy, a self-described world  sailor  who  had  just  come
home to see his wife after many years. The comic sea bard adds a comic  note
to the tiring chapter,  with  his  stories  of  acrobats,  conspiracies  and
tattoos. As he is leaving the cabman's shelter, Stephen sees his  dissipated
friend, Corley. When Corley explains that he is in  need  of  work,  Stephen
suggests that Corley visit Mr. Deasy's school to apply for  an  opening,  as
Dedalus intends to vacate his post.
Chapter Seventeen: Ithaca
      The novel's penultimate chapter marks the pre-dawn hours of  June  17,
1904. Stephen returns with Bloom to his residence at  7  Eccles  Street  and
after a strained conversation and a cup of cocoa, Dedalus  departs,  turning
down Bloom's invitation to stay for the night. When the two gentlemen  reach
7 Eccles, Bloom realizes that he does not have his key and he is  forced  to
literally jump over a gate in order to gain  entry  into  the  house.  After
navigating his way through the dark house,  Bloom  retrieves  a  candle  and
returns to lead Stephen through the dark house. Their conversation  is  more
spirited as Stephen is considerably more conscious and lucid than he was  in
the fourteenth and fifteenth  chapters.  And  unlike  his  demeanor  in  the
cabman№s shelter, Stephen is less sullen as he sits in the  Bloom  residence
drinking cocoa. Bloom№s conversation eventually tires  Dedalus  though,  and
despite Bloom№s efforts, he departs without committing to Bloom№s offer  for
a future engagement for "intellectual" conversation. Dedalus does  not  know
where he is going to go, as he declines returning to his father№s house  and
is locked out of Martello. Guiding  Stephen  outside  of  the  house,  Bloom
lingers outside to stare at the multitude of early morning stars.  Upon  re-
entering the house, Bloom retires for the night, focusing  his  thoughts  on
the untidy house.
      There is visible evidence of Boylan's earlier visit and after  briefly
contemplating a divorce, Bloom silently climbs into bed,  offering  Molly  a
kiss on the rear end. It seems that Bloom is eager  to  forget  the  matter,
and will sacrifice his  self-respect  for  comforts  of  married  stability.
Bloom's submissiveness presents a sharp contrast to  the  triumphal  actions
of Homer's Ulysses. In the original "Ithaca" episode, Ulysses  and  his  son
Telemachus  attack  Penelope's  suitors,  executing  them  all  before   re-
establishing Ulysses on his throne.
Chapter Eighteen: Penelope
      "Penelope" is Ulysses'  eighteenth  and  final  chapter.  Molly  Bloom
thinks on her life before marriage and she defends and  regrets  her  affair
with Boylan, while bemoaning the social restrictions on  women.  Mrs.  Bloom
catalogues the detriments  of  her  married  life,  describing  her  nagging
loneliness, the deceptive allures of adultery  and  the  betrayals  she  has
suffered on account of her emotionally  absent  "Poldy."  Molly№s  narrative
quickly slides between the distant and recent  past  and  we  learn  of  her
years as an unmarried and attractive young  lady  in  Gibraltar,  a  British
colony on the southernmost tip of Spain. Her years with  her  mother  Lunita
and her father, a military man named Tweedy, seem  to  offer  her  the  most
pleasure as she is largely displeased with Boylan№s rough  manners  and  her
husband№s effeminate deficiencies.
      For all of the negative assessments of hearth and home, "Penelope"  is
emphatically braced with the word "Yes" at  the  beginning  and  conclusion,
and we have every reason to believe that-at least for  June  17-the  Bloom's
intend to preserve their marriage. Perhaps in irritation and  gratitude  for
Bloom's "kiss on the rump," Molly intends to turn his servility on its  head
by waking up early to serve Bloom "his breakfast in bed  with  a  couple  of
eggs." After analyzing Bloom№s faults, Molly suggests that she  knows  Bloom
better than  anyone  else  and  that  their  shared  memories  represent  an
emotional wealth that she would be unable to  duplicate  in  a  relationship
with Boylan.

                         Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray

      Chapter 1. Chiswick Mall
      Two young ladies-Amelia Sedley and Rebecca (Becky) Sharp are preparing
to leave Miss Pinkerton’s finishing school.  Amelia  is  the  kind  hearted,
conventional beauty who is loved by all, while Rebecca is  a  defiant  young
woman, who is disliked by almost everyone, including  Miss  Pinkerton.  Only
Miss Pinkerton’s sister, Jemima, and Amelia seem to be fond of Becky.  Becky
is to leave with Amelia and spend some time at her home before she can  take
her job as a governess at Queen’s Crawley.
      Owing to the  difference  in  the  social  status  as  well  as  their
temperaments, only Amelia is gifted a copy of Dr  Johnson’s  Dictionary,  as
per the tradition of Chiswick  Mall,  as  a  parting  gift.  Miss  Pinkerton
refuses to give Becky a copy. Just as their carriage is about to move,  Miss
Jemima runs to Becky and hands over a copy of the  Dictionary  to  her,  but
Becky, in her defiance, flings the gift out of the  carriage,  leaving  Miss
Jemima shocked!
      Chapter 2 In which Miss Sharp and Miss  Sedley  prepare  to  open  the
      Becky  is  wickedly  satisfied  with  the  heroic  act  she  has  just
performed.  She  tells  Amelia  that  she  was  treated  with  contempt  and
compelled to teach French at the mall and  that  she  was  glad  to  bid  it
Amelia, excitedly, shows Becky around her house and  gifts  her  a  Cashmere
shawl (which her brother had brought for her from India), besides a  lot  of
other things. The knowledge that Amelia’s brother,  Joseph  Sedley  is  rich
and unmarried fills hope into Becky’s heart and she is  determined  to  make
an attempt to woo him.
      Chapter 3 Rebecca is in presence of the Enemy.
      Joseph Sedley is a very stout man, vain as a young girl usually is. He
is greatly flattered, by the fact that Becky considers him to  be  handsome.
Becky tries all her charms on him.  She  shows  immense  interest  in  tales
about India and suffers the spicy Indian curries and  the  hot  chillies  to
win Jos over.
      Chapter 4 The Green Silk Purse
      Rebecca is all set to please everyone at the Sedley House.  She  makes
the right moves towards Jos. Amelia insists that Jos take her and  Becky  to
Vauxhall. It is decided that Lieutenant George Osborne, the  godson  of  Mr.
Sedley, is to accompany Amelia while Jos is to lead Becky to  Vauxhall.  Mr.
Sedley and Mr. Osborne are good friends and wish to see  Amelia  and  George
      Due to a thunderstorm, the young couples are prevented from  going  to
Vauxhall that night and so  they  spend  the  evening  indoors.  George  and
Amelia sing songs, while a besotted  Jos  helps  Becky  in  weaving  a  silk
purse. Later he  is  in  ‘a  state  of  ravishment,’  when  he  hears  Becky
performing. Jos makes up his mind to ask Becky to marry him.
      Chapter 5 Dobbin of ours
      This chapter begins with a flashback. Years ago,  at  Dr.  Swishtail’s
famous school, a boy named Dobbin used to be  constantly  ridiculed  because
his father was  a  grocer  and  it  was  said  that  he  paid  for  Dobbin’s
education, not in money but in goods.
      One day, Dobbin saw the  dreadful  school  bully,  Cuff,  harassing  a
scared boy. Dobbin stood in support of the poor victim and as a result,  had
to fight with Cuff. At his victory over Cuff, Dobbin was made  the  hero  of
the school and the little boy, who was George Osborne, began to love him  as
a friend. Humbled by the love of George,  Dobbin,  since  that  day,  became
George’s shadow, his devoted friend.
      Back to the present, the party prepares to go to Vauxhall  and  George
requests them to take Dobbin along.  Dobbin  enters  the  Sedley  House  and
notices the young, beautiful Amelia, singing happily,  and  instantly  falls
in love with her.
      Chapter 6 Vauxhall
      As the possibility of a match between Jos and Rebecca  increases,  Mr.
Sedley becomes more and more indifferent towards his son. The  five  people,
at their best, go to Vauxhall- Becky full of  hope  and  expectations,  with
Jos and Amelia extremely happy with George. All Dobbin does at Vauxhall  is,
takes care of the shawls, and make payments at the gate.
When the time actually comes for Jos to propose marriage to Becky,  he  gets
drunk, and  in  his  nervousness  creates  such  a  riot  that  everyone  is
miserably embarrassed. Disappointed though, Rebecca  does  not  leave  hope.
The next day, George pays a visit to Jos at his apartment  and  narrates  to
him all the foolish things he (Jos) had done the previous night.  Thoroughly
ashamed he flees to Scotland, in order to avoid Becky.
      This completely crashes all of  Becky’s  attempts  and  with  all  her
pretense at work she bids a tearful goodbye to a dejected Amelia  and  gifts
the purse to Mr. Sedley. Becky is sure that George Osborne  has  a  hand  in
her misery and is therefore determined to take her revenge.
      Chapter 7 Crawley of Queen’s Crawley
      The narrator traces the  history  of  the  Crawley  family.  Sir  Pitt
Crawley first marries Grizzel who bears him two sons-Pitt and  Rawdon.  Many
years after her demise, Sir Pitt marries Rose Dawson.  The  job  that  Becky
gets at Queen’s Crawley, is to look after the two daughters of Sir Pitt  and
Rose Dawson.
      Rebecca, dusting off  her  disappointment  at  the  Sedley’s,  becomes
excited at the prospect of living with a Baronet.  Sir  Pitt  Crawley  is  a
dirtily dressed, foul-mouthed old man. He  has  very  crude  manners  and  a
heavy Hampshire accent. The old house  too  seems  almost  dilapidated.  Sir
Pitt is to take Becky to Crawley’s mansion the next day.
      Chapter 8 Private and Confidential
      Becky writes a detailed letter to Amelia, describing Sir Pitt Crawley;
her adventures during her journey as she was made  to  sit  outside  in  the
rain, for a passenger wanted an  inside  place  in  Sir  Pitt’s  coach,  the
Crawley estate, and finally  the  old-fashioned,  red-brick  mansion.  Becky
also gives  her  an  account  of  the  family  members:  Lady  Crawley,  who
constantly weeps for the loss of her beauty; Pitt Crawley who is  lean  with
‘hay colored whiskers’ and dresses with the pomp of an undertakes;  the  two
girls Rose and Violet who are simple and nice and of  course  Sir  Pitt  who
drinks in the company of Horrocks, his butler.
      Chapter 9 Family Portraits
      Sir Pitt Crawley with his taste for low life marries Rose, daughter of
an ironmonger. He gets drunk more than often and beats his pretty  Rose.  He
has a brother, a Rector, Bute Crawley, whose wife refused to  call  on  Lady
Crawley because she is the daughter  of  a  petty  tradesman.  After  giving
birth to two daughters, Lady Crawley  remains  as  a  mere  machine  in  the
house. She is only faintly attached to Pitt Crawley who is a polite,  gentle
and disciplined man. He is also an ambitious and industrious person.
      Sir Pitt gets great pleasure in making his creditors wait and go  from
court to court. He asks, "What is the good of being  in  Parliament  if  you
must pay your debts?"
      Sir Pitt has an unmarried half sister, Miss Crawley, who has  a  large
fortune. She helps the Crawleys often, to pay their debts.  The  members  of
her family love and respected her because of her vast bank balance.
      Chapter 10 Miss Sharp Begins to make friends.
      Rebecca’s main aim is to make herself agreeable  to  her  benefactors.
She knows that to survive in the world she has  to  fend  for  herself.  She
easily pleases Lady Crawley and her daughters.  Her  respect  and  obedience
towards Pitt Crawley wins her, his  good  opinion.  She  finds  ways  to  be
useful to Sir Pitt and within a year, she becomes indispensable to him.  She
becomes his constant companion.
      Rawdon Crawley of the LifeGuards Green does not  get  along  with  his
brother Pitt and pays a visit to the house, only  when  the  aunt  comes  to
stay with them. He is a favorite of his aunt and there  is  mutual  contempt
between Pitt and Miss Crawley.
      Miss Crawley is a rich woman, who  loves  everything  associated  with
France. She enjoys life (though Pitt considers  her  to  be  ‘godless’)  and
loves to pamper her nephew, Rawdon.
      Chapter 11 Arcadian Simplicity
      Bute Crawley and his wife form the nearest relatives and neighbors  of
Sir Pitt. The two brothers are entirely against  each  other.  Mrs.  Crawley
keeps a close watch on the Crawley house for news. She is  quite  suspicious
about Rebecca’s growing influence over the Crawleys.  Therefore  she  writes
to Miss Pinkerton to enquire about her past for which Miss Pinkerton  gladly
fills in the information that her parents had been disreputable.
      Becky writes a letter to Amelia informing her about the perfect  peace
and happiness in the house due to the  arrival  of  Miss  Crawley.  The  two
brothers make best chaperons for her while they wait for  her  to  kick  the
bucket. Becky also gives an account of Rawdon Crawley  who  lives  a  lavish
life under the favor of his aunt. She does not  forget  to  mention  how  he
constantly showers attention over her while he is around.
      Besides charming Mrs. Bute Crawley, Rebecca also has Miss Crawley tied
to her little finger in no time, (who is immensely  impressed  by  her)  and
becomes her constant companion.
      Chapter 12 Quite a sentimental chapter.
      Sisters of George as well as of Dobbin  believe  that  Amelia  is  not
worthy enough for a charming man like  George.  They  feel  that  George  is
making a great sacrifice in loving Amelia. George plays truant  and  in  the
evenings is neither at his own house nor at Amelia’s. Amelia is  heartbroken
waiting for George. She writes frantic letters to  George,  who  replies  in
very few words - in a soldier like manner.
      Chapter 13 Sentimental and otherwise
      While Amelia suffers in George’s absence, George is busy  enjoying  in
the company of other women. Unable to hear people talking about  George  and
his lady in a light manner, Dobbin, to  the  great  displeasure  of  George,
blurts out the truth about George’s  engagement  with  Amelia.  Dobbin  also
rebukes  George  for  neglecting  the  angelic  Amelia.  George,  with  some
hesitation, accepts money from Dobbin to buy a gift for Amelia.  But  he  is
driven by self-love, and buys a diamond shirt pin  for  himself.  Amelia  is
euphoric to see George.
      George’s  father,  John  Osborne,  is  worried  about  John   Sedley’s
business. He makes it clear to George that he is not to marry Amelia  unless
she brings along ten thousand pounds.
      Chapter 14 Miss Crawley at Home
      Miss Crawley falls severely ill and is transported back to her  house.
Rebecca nurses her throughout  her  illness.  Miss  Crawley  refuses  to  be
looked after by anyone else, not even her old loyals, like Miss  Briggs  and
Mrs.  Firkin.  These  two  companions  are  greatly  threatened  by  Becky’s
presence. Rawdon comes regularly to ask Becky about the improvement  in  the
      After great caring and watching over on  Becky’s  part,  Miss  Crawley
recovers. Becky keeps her entertained and accompanies her on drives. On  one
such drive they pay a visit to Amelia, which again Amelia  returns  after  a
few days. Amelia is invited for dinner in which George  Osborne  is  also  a
guest. George tells Rawdon to be careful of a desperate flirt like Becky.
      Sir Pitt  becomes  a  widower  again.  Throughout  the  time  of  Miss
Crawley’s convalescence, he writes frantic letters to Rebecca to  return  to
Queen’s Crawley. One day, he personally comes  to  fetch  her  and  proposes
marriage to her. Rebecca has only tears to shed at this  marriage  proposal;
she confesses between her sobs that she is already married.
      Chapters 15 & 16 In which Rebecca’s husband appears for a  short  time
and the letter on the Pincushion
      Miss Crawley is astonished to know that Rebecca has  turned  down  Sir
Pitt’s proposal. After much explanation to Miss Crawley, Becky  admits  that
she loves someone else. Becky is a little remorseful  that  she  has  missed
the position of a Lady,  but  she  has  enough  ‘resolution  and  energy  of
character,’ to not continue mourning for what is lost.
She writes a letter to her secret husband, who is none  other  than  Rawdon,
and plans an elopement. Becky is sure that Miss Crawley will  be  hysterical
for a while and then forgive her two favorites.  She  runs  away  leaving  a
letter for Miss Briggs, who does not have a clue  about  how  to  break  the
news and sends for Mrs. Bute Crawley. Together  they  inform  Miss  Crawley,
who is frantic. Sir Pitt is  furious.  All  this  while  Becky  and  Rawdon,
together, are hoping that Miss Crawley will sooner or later come around  and
forgive them.
      Chapter 17 &18 How Capt. Dobbin bought a piano and who played  on  the
piano Capt. Dobbin bought.
      Mr. John Sedley goes bankrupt and the family moves to a  modest  house
in Fulham Street. There is an auction in their old house  where  Rawdon  and
Becky buy a painting of Jos Sedley on an elephant and Dobbin  buys  the  old
piano and sends it to its previous owner, Amelia.
      Jos arranges financial help for his parents but does not come down  to
meet them. After his marriage, Rawdon Crawley is a much-altered  man.  Becky
just avoids the ruined Sedleys.
      Everybody is sure that George Osborne will not marry Amelia and speaks
ill about her. Aware of this fact, John Sedley asks the  heartbroken  Amelia
to  return  all  the  gifts  that  George  had  given  her  and  break   the
relationship.  George  is  moved  by  Amelia’s  letter  and,   on   Dobbin’s
insistence, goes to meet her.
      Chapter 19 Miss Crawley at Nurse
      Mrs. Bute Crawley tries every way to make Miss Crawley despise  Rawdon
and Becky. For this, she reminds Miss Crawley of every vice  of  Rawdon  and
takes Miss Crawley  to  Miss  Pinkerton’s,  who  helps  them  trace  Becky’s
earlier life. Thus, she fortifies the Park Lane house against the enemy.
      Seeing Miss Crawley weak, Mrs. Bute Crawley presses upon the old woman
to alter her will but  does  not  succeed.  At  a  drive  in  a  park,  Miss
Crawley’s carriage passes by Rawdon’s carriage, who acknowledges  the  party
but is coldly spurned. For Mrs. Bute it is a  sure  triumph.  She  plans  to
take Miss Crawley to Brighton to avoid such encounters in the future.
      Chapters 20 & 21 In which Capt. Dobbin acts as the messenger of  Hymen
and Quarrel about on heiress.
      Dobbin volunteers to convince  Mr.  Sedley  about  Amelia’s  marriage.
Amelia is as happy as she can be. George tells Amelia that his  parents  and
sisters have formed a new  acquaintance  with  a  Miss  Swartz,  who  is  an
extremely beautiful and rich heiress.  John  Osborne  plans  to  get  George
married to Miss Swartz and he keeps giving his son, hints  about  this  wish
of his.
      Miss Swartz is invited home for dinner where George is ordered  to  be
present. During the meetings instigated by the foul  words  of  his  sisters
towards Amelia, George declares to Miss Swartz  that  he  loves  Amelia  and
even rises against his father to defend  her.  His  father  is  enraged  and
warns him not to argue with him if he wants to remain in the family.  George
defies his father’s orders and tells Dobbin that he will  marry  Amelia  the
very next day.
      Chapter 22 A marriage and part of a Honeymoon.
      Like a typical patriarch, Old Osborne is sure that George will  return
the moment his supplies fall short. Amelia and George  tie  the  knot  at  a
chapel near Fulham Road. Immediately after the marriage, the  couple  leaves
for Brighton. Dobbin stays back to overcome his  depression  caused  due  to
Amelia’s marriage and also to inform Mr. Osborne.
      At Brighton, the young couple, later joined by, Jos meets the  Crawley
couple, who is enjoying their stay. However,  the  Crawley  couple  is  also
worried about Miss Crawley’s acceptance  as  she  still  refuses  to  yield.
Dobbin too joins them later, bringing the news that  all  the  soldiers  are
ordered to Belgium.
      Chapters 23 & 24 Capt. Dobbin proceeds on his canvass and in which Mr.
Osborne takes down the family Bible.
      Dobbin tries very hard to convince George’s sisters, to be  supportive
of his marriage to Amelia. Miss  Osbornes  are  moved,  but  they  dare  not
oppose their father. Sure about the fact that, George will  lose  his  share
of the property, Mr. Fredrick Bullock, a businessman, at heart becomes  more
interested in Miss Maria Osborne. This is because; he realizes that now  she
is worth thirty thousand pounds more.
      Very gradually, Dobbin breaks the news about George’s marriage to  Mr.
Osborne, who is shattered, angry and  deeply  disappointed.  He  decides  to
disown George and disinherit him. He  sends  a  letter  for  George  through
      Chapter 25 In which all the principal personages think  fit  to  leave
      George is panic struck, the moment  he  reads  the  letter,  from  his
father’s lawyer, disinheriting him from his  father’s  property.  He  rudely
blames Dobbin for (George’s) his being out of  favor  of  his  father,  then
later ‘generously’ forgives him. Within a week of  marriage,  George  begins
to neglect Amelia for the company of others, especially  the  Crawleys.  The
regiment is next commissioned to Brussels.
      Before leaving town, Becky insists on  getting  back  a  sum  lent  to
George, which he does, and appeasing Miss Crawley. The latter  becomes  easy
as Mrs. Bute Crawley, the only great obstacle, rushes to  her  home  because
Mr. Bute Crawley had injured himself. Rebecca  seizes  the  opportunity  and
sends feelers through honest Miss Briggs. Becky also dictates  a  letter  to
Rawdon for Miss Crawley. Miss Crawley refuses  to  see  Rawdon.  On  further
insistence, she asks him to see her lawyer. On  following  her  instruction,
Rawdon is shocked to see that she leaves a meager sum of twenty  pounds  for
      Chapters 26, 27 & 28 Between London and Chatham, in which Amelia joins
her Regiment, in which Amelia invades the Low Countries.
      On their way to Brussels, George,  Amelia,  Jos  and  Dobbin  stop  at
London. George keeps Amelia in the lap of luxury, but does  not  spend  time
with her. He is back to his vices, of gambling and flirting. A happy  Amelia
pays a visit to her parents. George meets his  father’s  solicitor  for  the
final little sum of 2000 pounds that his father has spared for him.
      At Chatham, Amelia meets George’s regiment. They are all impressed  by
Amelia’s sweet and kind nature and George feels proud of her.  Amelia  takes
a liking for the garrulous and imposing Mrs. Peggy O’Dowd, who is  the  wife
of Mayor O’Dowd, the commander of George’s regiment.
      The regiment is transported by water to Ostend.  Before  the  war  can
begin, there is great merriment in the regiment. In such parties, Amelia  is
extravagantly  dressed,  Jos,  excessively  drunk   and   George   extremely
      Chapter 29 Brussels
      Following the others, the Crawley couple arrives at  Brussels.  George
enjoys in their company but Amelia is  jealous  of  the  admiration  Rebecca
receives from George. George continuously loses  his  money  to  Rawdon,  at
gambling and loses his heart to Becky.
      On June 15, 1815  a  noble  duchess  hosts  a  lavish  ball  in  which
Crawleys, Osbornes and Dobbin are  invited.  Amelia,  half-  expecting  what
would happen, is quite without enthusiasm.
George, as usual, chaperones Rebecca, dances with her and in the end,  gives
her a piece of paper crumpled in her  bouquet.  Amelia,  totally  neglected,
requests Dobbin to take her back to her room.
      George Osborne is  having  a  great  time  at  the  ball  when  Dobbin
announces that their regiment is to march to the  battlefront.  George,  the
brave soldier, is excited. On his way to his room, he bitterly  regrets  his
behavior towards Amelia and wonders  what  will  happen  to  her  and  their
unborn child if he were  to  die  in  the  war.  He  feels  guilty  for  his
ingratitude towards his father and writes a farewell letter to him.
      Chapter 30 "The girl I left behind me"
      Major O’Dowd, Rawdon, George, and Dobbin  prepare  to  leave  for  the
battlefield. Rawdon is worried about the debts  he  is  leaving  behind  and
gives Becky all his savings and valuables  out  of  which  she  can  make  a
little  fortune  and  live  comfortably  if  he  were  to  die.  Rawdon   is
overwhelmed  with  emotions  while  Rebecca  bears  it  all  with   ‘Spartan
      Before leaving, Dobbin extracts a promise from Jos Sedley that he will
not leave Amelia alone and will take care  of  her  while  George  is  away.
After a brief parting with Amelia, George rushes to join the march, full  of
enthusiasm and overflowing with excitement.
      Chapter 31 In which Jos Sedley takes care of his sister.
      Jos is comfortable while Amelia is very ill and disturbed in  George’s
absence. Becky comes to pay Amelia a visit, but Amelia  is  furious  at  her
and behaves rudely towards her. In a fit of rage and jealousy,  she  assures
Becky that George loves only her (Amelia) and that none  of  Becky’s  tricks
would work. For the first time, Amelia gathers enough  courage  to  confront
Becky, who is stunned. She leaves Peggy to take care of Amelia.
      Before this confrontation with Amelia, Becky flatters and  praises  an
impressed Jos Sedley so that she can use him whenever she  needs  to.  While
Jos and Peggy are at dinner, they hear cannons being fired and  it  perturbs
      Chapter 32 In which Jos takes flight and  the  war  is  brought  to  a
      With the noise of cannons, there  are  rumors  that  the  French  will
overpower the British army. Mrs. O’Dowd courageously consoles  Amelia  while
Jos is mortally frightened. He puts forth his plan to flee to Ghent but  his
servant Isidor informs him that all the  horses  are  gone.  Pauline’s  (the
cook’s) lover, Regulus returns from the battlefield  bringing  the  news  of
the war that, the British army was  butchered.  They  are  all  scared.  Jos
plans to shave his moustaches so that no one will mistake him  for  an  army
      Like Jos, even the Bareacres are panic struck and wish to flee  but  a
paucity of horses prevents them. Rebecca has two  horses  to  sell  but  she
doesn’t sell them to the Lady Bareacres, as she is angry with the  Lady  for
ignoring her at the parties. She sells the horses to  Jos  at  a  very  high
      The news of victory arrives. Amelia is even more hysterical. She spots
an injured ensign and mistakes him for George.  This  ensign,  Tom  Stubble,
brings news that George and Dobbin are fine. He tells them how Capt.  Dobbin
had carried him to the surgeon and has sent him  back  with  a  message  for
Mrs. Osborne that her husband is well.
      When all are at peace, they hear the cannons of Waterloo strike  again
and this scares Jos very much. Jos once more implores upon Amelia  to  leave
with him, but when she refuses, he goes away with  his  servant.  After  the
roaring of cannons all  day,  the  British  are  finally  triumphant.  While
Amelia is praying for George, he lies dead with a bullet through his  heart.

      Chapter 33 In which Miss Crawley’s relations are  very  anxious  about
      Miss Crawley reads about Rawdon’s bravery and learns that he has  been
honored with the title of Colonel. She receives a letter and tokens  of  war
from his nephew Rawdon from Paris. Mrs. Bute Crawley  is  disappointed,  for
her absence has resulted in her losing her hold over Miss  Crawley  and  her
After Becky leaves Queen’s Crawley, Sir Pitt  does  not  care  to  mend  his
lifestyle. He drinks with the peasants and showers attention on his  servant
Miss Horrocks.
      Mr. Pitt is to marry Lady Jane, daughter of  Countess  Southdown.  Mr.
Pitt Crawley, together with Lady Southdown and Lady Jane,  decides  that  he
must cultivate Miss Crawley’s friendship and win her favor as  well  as  her
      Chapter 34 James Crawley’s pipe is put out.
      Miss Crawley instantly likes Jane and asks her  to  visit  her  often.
Mrs. Bute Crawley, immensely jealous of the improvement Pitt is making  with
Miss Crawley, sends her son James Crawley to  please  the  rich  lady.  Miss
Crawley asks James to live in her house. Pitt is envious of James  for  Miss
Crawley had never invited him to stay with her. So he tries various ways  to
make Miss Crawley fed up of James. One day, he instigates James to  smoke  a
pipe in the house. This pollutes the atmosphere of the home and  results  in
Miss Crawley bidding farewell to James.
      Meanwhile, Becky creates a place for herself in the Parisian  society.
She delivers a boy and Miss Crawley immediately orders for the  marriage  of
Pitt and Lady Jane. They come and stay with Miss Crawley and decide to  give
them (Pitt and Jane) a thousand pounds a year till she  lives  and  all  the
bulk of her property after her death.
      Chapter 35 Widow and mother.
      Old Osborne and his family is wholly shaken and shattered at the  news
of George’s death. His heart melts, when he reads  the  letter  that  George
had written to him on the eve of the battle. He goes to see his son’s  tomb.
He sees Amelia in her sorrowful widowhood but remains  unmoved  and  refuses
to accept her as his son’s widow.
      Amelia lives a passive and melancholic life till the  arrival  of  her
son, which brings life back into her. Dobbin is the godfather of the  little
George and takes care that he does not lack anything. One day, Dobbin  comes
and informs Amelia that he is leaving and will not be back for a long  time.
She promises to write to him about little George.
      Chapters 36 & 37 How to live well on nothing  a  year  &  the  subject
      Rebecca and Rawdon live comfortably on debt,  in  Paris,  for  3  -  4
years. Rebecca becomes a favorite in the aristocratic circle. Rawdon  has  a
lucky hand at gambling but their rising  debts  compel  them  to  return  to
England. Becky  makes  the  scene  pretty  easy  in  England,  by  appeasing
Rawdon’s old debtors. By promising  them  a  fairly  good  dividend  on  the
previous debt, Becky gets ten times more from them.
      The news of Miss Crawley’s death arrives. In London, Becky and  Rawdon
stay in Raggles’ house at Curzon Street, Mayfair. Raggles is  an  old  loyal
of the Crawley family. He was their (Crawley’s) butler, who  had  spent  all
his hard-earned money to buy the apartment, which he now lends Becky.  Becky
and Rawdon never pay him anything, and  in  time,  poor  Raggles  becomes  a
ruined man.
      Miss Crawley leaves Bute Crawley five thousand pounds, Rawdon inherits
only a hundred pounds, and the rest of the fortune is left to Pitt.  Rebecca
advises Rawdon to keep a friendly  relationship  with  Pitt  and  his  wife.
Rebecca is a failure as a mother. In fact, she finds little Rawdon  a  great
botheration, but father and son share a special bond.
Rebecca totally overshadows Rawdon. While  Rawdon  is  busy  with  his  son,
Becky charms rich men like Lord Styne. One day, while  playing  at  a  park,
Rawdon and his son meet John Sedley and Georgy.
      Chapter 38 A Family in a small way
      Jos Sedley goes to India,  straight  from  Brussels,  without  meeting
anyone. He sends his parents a small sum of  money,  which  is  their  chief
income. Amelia develops into a possessive mother and hurts  her  own  mother
by suspecting that she  wants  her  Georgy  to  be  poisoned.  Reverend  Mr.
Binney, who offers to teach  Georgy  Latin,  proposes  marriage  to  Amelia,
which she turns down kindly. She refuses to send her son away to school  and
creates havoc if he falls ill.
      Dobbin writes  frequently  and  sends  numerous  expensive  gifts  for
Georgy, Amelia, and her parents. Her parents are sorry about the  fact  that
she does not want to marry Dobbin. Georgy grows up to be pompous  and  proud
like his father. Sometimes, Dobbin’s sisters take Georgy out for a  ride  in
their carriage or to spend a day  with  the  ladies.  One  day  they  inform
Amelia that Dobbin is about to  marry  Glorvina  O’Dowd  at  Madras.  Amelia
expresses a great deal of happiness at the news.
      Chapter 39 A Cynical chapter
      Lady Jane and Pitt pay a visit to Sir Pitt, soon after their  wedding.
Sir Pitt’s condition is lamentable, so is  the  state  of  his  house.  Miss
Horrocks rules the entire home. Mrs. Bute Crawley, with  her  close  eye  on
Queen’s Crawley, catches Miss Horrocks  red  handed  as  she  is  trying  to
steal. She brings along her husband and James to bear  witness.  While  Miss
Horrocks is busy robbing, her father and a doctor try to  murder  Sir  Pitt,
but Bute Crawley foils their plan and throws them out of Queen’s Crawley.
      Chapters 40 & 41 In which Becky is recognized by  the  family  and  in
which Becky revisits the halls of her ancestors.
      The news of the  death  of  Sir  Pitt  makes  his  son  Pitt  secretly
delighted, as  now  he  will  be  Sir  Pitt  Crawley  with  a  seat  in  the
Parliament. He quickly communicates the news to Rawdon. Rawdon  and  Rebecca
rush to Queen’s Crawley, dressed correctly to the occasion,  leaving  little
Rawdon with Miss Briggs who has been living with them since  Miss  Crawley’s
      Becky and Rawdon’s homecoming is warm. Pitt notices that  marriage  to
Becky has made Rawdon a better person. Pitt volunteers  to  pay  for  little
Rawdon’s education. Becky is touched by the goodness of Lady  Jane.  Knowing
that Pitt is at odds with Bute Crawley and his family, Becky  gladly  blames
Mrs. Bute Crawley for her marriage to Rawdon and their eventual falling  out
of Miss Crawley’s favor.
      Becky and Rawdon leave for London with  many  gifts  from  Lady  Jane.
During their short stay Rebecca pleases everyone at the house, while  Rawdon
misses his beloved son and keeps track of his activities back home.
      Chapters 42 & 43 Which treats of the Osborne family and In  which  the
reader has to double the cape.
      Maria Osborne is married to Fredrick Bullock, the greedy materialistic
man, and they are almost cut  off  from  the  family  due  to  their  social
superiority. Miss Jane leads a monotonous life with her  tyrannical  father.
One day, she meets Georgy and gifts him  a  gold  watch  and  a  chain.  Her
father begins to flush up and tremble at the news.
      Amelia writes to Dobbin wishing him and his wife all the best.  It  is
believed that, Dobbin will marry Glorvina, sister of Peggy  O’Dowd,  but  he
is too involved with Amelia to even think about the match. So he  is  deeply
hurt to read Amelia’s letter, blessing the couple, and yearns to go back  to
England. Soon, he receives his sister’s letter  informing  him  that  Amelia
may be marrying a Reverend Mr. Binney. With this  knowledge,  Dobbin  rushes
to England.
      Chapters 44 & 45 A roundabout chapter between London and Hampshire and
between Hampshire and London.
      Becky is to take care of the renovation of the Great  Gaunt  House  of
Sir Pitt. Sir Pitt comes for a short stay  with  them,  during  which  Becky
impresses him with everything she does. Sir Pitt realizes that,  Rawdon  was
supposed to inherit the money that he has, and so helps him with small  sums
every now and then. The frequent visits of men like Sir Pitt and Lord  Styne
helps Becky to extract more credit, for the creditors believe  that  if  she
stays in such rich company, she can surely return their debts.  During  this
time Rebecca gets more and more estranged from her son.
      While Sir Pitt frequents Becky’s house, Rawdon and  his  son  spend  a
happy time with Lady Jane and her children, who they are very fond  of.  Sir
Pitt is elected as a Member of the Parliament. Becky dislikes Lady Jane  for
being a simple and good woman.  Becky  also  introduces  Sir  Pitt  to  Lord
      Chapter 46 Struggles and trials.
      Amelia is too possessive to  send  Georgy  to  school,  therefore  she
teaches him at home. After one  of  the  rides  in  the  Dobbin’s  carriage,
Georgy tells his mother that an old  man  had  come  to  see  him.  Old  Mr.
Osborne sends his attorney to get Georgy in his custody with  the  following
proposal: Amelia is to get a fair allowance, which will  not  be  withdrawn,
even if she marries again. She will be allowed to see her son sometimes  but
at her own residence. Amelia is furious at the attorney for bringing such  a
      The monetary condition of the Sedley family goes from  bad  to  worse.
Amelia has no money to gift Georgy on Christmas, so she  sells  one  of  the
exquisite shawls that Dobbin had sent for  her  from  India.  She  buys  new
clothes and books for Georgy from the money  obtained.  But  her  mother  is
thoroughly disappointed. According to her, Amelia should not spend  lavishly
on her son’s books and on providing  him  with  other  luxuries,  when  they
don’t have enough money to live. The main reasons for  this  poor  financial
condition of the Sedleys are;  the  money  sent  by  Jos  does  not  arrive,
Amelia’s pension is insufficient, and Mr. Sedley’s  business  always  incurs
      Amelia soon begins to feel guilty for her selfishness. She knows that,
Georgy will be provided for in a better manner in his  grandfather’s  house.
She realizes that she cannot do very much for her son  and  is  afraid  that
she may have to part with him.
      Chapter 47 Gaunt House
      Tom Eaves, an inhabitant of Vanity Fair, tells the narrator about  the
history of Lord Styne’s family. Lord Styne an extremely affluent man, has  a
brief unhappy married life and due to a low- spirited wife, he is  lured  by
pleasures and merriment. His son George loses his mental balance  due  to  a
disease that runs in their family and of which Lord Styne is  petrified.  To
escape his fears, he throws lavish balls and invites everyone. In  spite  of
all his notorious and immoral escapades,  everyone  belonging  to  the  high
society attends his parties.
      Chapter 48 In which the reader is  introduced  to  the  very  best  of
      Becky is rewarded with a chance to go to Court with Sir Pitt and  Lady
Jane. She is dazzling in her best clothes and large diamonds which Sir  Pitt
secretly gives her. Rawdon goes in his old shabby uniform, which is now  too
tight for him. Becky therefore achieves her aim in life.
      Lord Styne is a frequent visitor at  Rebecca’s  place,  but  he  feels
uneasy in the presence of Miss Briggs. He asks Becky to send her  away,  but
Becky replies that she will not be able to do so, as she  owes  Miss  Briggs
some money. Becky then quotes almost double the amount.  Later,  Lord  Styne
sends her a check and an  invitation  for  dinner.  Rebecca  buys  Briggs  a
beautiful, silk gown and pays Raggles and her coachman fifty pounds each  to
silence them for sometime. The rest she keeps for herself.
      Chapter 49 In which we enjoy three courses and a Dessert.
      Lord Styne receives great opposition from his family, for  wanting  to
invite Rebecca  Crawley  for  his  party.  His  mother-in-  law  being  Lady
Bareacres,  this  opposition  is  not  surprising.  Rebecca  is   eventually
invited. Though  in  the  former  part  of  the  evening  she  is  not  very
successful, she enchants Lady Styne by singing sweetly for her.
      Chapter 50 Contains a vulgar incident.
      After a lot of  pondering,  Amelia  decides  to  send  Georgy  to  his
grandfather. At this decision, Mr.  Osborne  sends  her  a  hundred  pounds.
Georgy is excited to go to his new lavish home. After he is gone, Amelia  is
sad and depressed. He comes often to meet her and on other days,  she  walks
up to his house and watches the window of his room.
      Amelia still does not know that it is not Jos who has stopped  sending
money, but it  is  her  father  who  has  already  sold  away  Jos’s  future
allowances for his unsuccessful businesses.
      Chapter 51 In which a charade is acted which may or may not puzzle the
      Becky gets more and more popular in  the  aristocratic  circle.  In  a
party at Gaunt House, Becky participates in the charades.  The  audience  is
spell bound with Becky’s performance. After the charade, Becky is placed  at
a grand exclusive table, with all the distinguished guests, and eats out  of
a gold plate.
At the end of the party, Becky leaves by carriage while  Rawdon  prefers  to
walk. On the way, he is arrested on account of an unpaid debt.
      Chapter 52 In which Lord Styne shows himself a most amiable light.
      This chapter is a flashback. Due to  the  generosity  of  Lord  Styne,
little Rawdon is sent to a very good school. His father  misses  him  during
his absence and  longs  for  him  to  return  home  on  Saturdays.  Rawdon’s
relationship with Becky is growing more and more estranged.
      One day Lord Styne, in a conversation with Miss Briggs  realizes  that
Becky had told him a falsehood and  taken  double  the  amount  she  needed,
giving none of it to Miss Briggs. When he questions Becky  about  this,  she
tells him another lie, where she puts the entire  blame  on  Rawdon’s  greed
and his constant bullying asking her to ask Styne for money.
      Lady Jane warns Rawdon to keep an  eye  on  Becky’s  activities.  Lord
Styne gives Miss Briggs a better place, that of  a  housekeeper  at  Gauntly
Hall. Rawdon orders Becky to refuse invitations, which are only for her  and
where he is not on the guest list.  Becky  agrees  and  they  live  in  each
other’s company and to Rawdon, this  feels  like  the  blissful  days,  just
after their marriage.
      Chapter 53 A rescue and a catastrophe
      Rawdon, who has been arrested, writes to Becky asking her  to  arrange
for a hundred pounds to bail him out  (for  he  has  only  seventy  pounds).
Becky writes a sympathetic letter, in, which she makes an excuse of her  bad
health and puts off his rescue to the next day. A  furious  Rawdon  sends  a
letter to Sir Pitt asking for help. Lady Jane comes to his rescue.
      Rawdon rushes home and is enraged to see Becky and Lord Styne spending
a great evening together. Becky is bedecked with numerous diamond  trinkets,
which Lord Styne has presented to her. Rebecca is mortally scared  on  being
caught red handed. Rawdon strikes Lord Styne, who claims to have paid  large
sums of money to his wife. Rawdon makes Becky open  her  secret  drawer  and
finds a thousand-pound note from Lord Styne. Becky only screams that she  is
innocent. Rawdon, in a fit of rage, goes away.
      Chapters 54 & 55 Sunday after the battle and in which the same subject
is pursued.
      Fuming with anger, Rawdon goes over to Sir Pitt and informs him  about
what has happened. He assures Pitt that he has come just to request  him  to
take care of his son whom he loves dearly.
Then he goes to Gaunt House and leaves his card for Lord  Styne,  expressing
his wish to meet him. He goes to Captain Macmurdo (Mac)  and  asks  him  for
help, which the latter gladly  extends.  Mac  takes  the  responsibility  of
returning Styne’s note back to him.
      At Curzon Street, Becky’s maid robs her of all  her  jewelry  and  her
servants harass her for money. Now that they know that she is out  of  favor
of both Lord Styne and Rawdon, they  are  worried  about  their  repayments.
Becky meets Sir Pitt and convinces him of her innocence by saying  that  she
was entertaining Lord Styne so that she could acquire a good employment  for
Rawdon. Lady Jane is furious to see Becky in her house.
      In the meanwhile, Rawdon is spending  his  time  with  Mac,  when  two
acquaintances inform him about his appointment as the Governor  of  Coventry
Island. He has obtained this position due to the patronage  of  Lord  Styne.
Rawdon meets his emissary, Mr. Wenham. Styne’s emissary tries  to  prove  to
Rawdon that Becky is innocent, but Rawdon refuses to believe him. Capt.  Mac
hands over the note (given by Lord Styne to Becky) to  Wenham  and  the  ex-
col. accepts the job on the  insistence  of  Mac  and  Sir  Pitt.  Sit  Pitt
however, is unable  to  bring  about  a  reconciliation  between  Becky  and
      Rawdon fixes an annuity for his wife, writes regularly to his son  and
sends Lady Jane all the possible  goodies  Coventry  Island  has  to  offer.
Rawdon also repays all his debts  and  takes  Capt.  Mac  with  him  as  his
      Chapter 56 Georgy is made Gentleman
      Georgy lives with his grandfather, in great comfort and luxury. He has
the best of everything. Old Osborne is as proud of him  as  he  was  of  his
dead son. He  exceedingly  pampers  Georgy  and  the  little  boy  playfully
bullies the entire household. He regularly comes to visit Amelia.  One  day,
while Georgy is taking lessons, Dobbin and Jos  Sedley  come  to  meet  him.
Georgy instantly recognizes one to be Major Dobbin, about  whom  his  mother
had always spoken to him.
      Chapters 57 & 58 Eцthen and our friend the major.
      Amelia’s mother dies. She now looks after her ill father with the help
of the money given by Old Mr. Osborne. Dobbin proceeds for England,  but  he
falls seriously ill. His peers wonder if he would  survive.  Jos  Sedley  is
traveling back

home on the same ship as Dobbin and, in one of  his  conversations,  assures
Dobbin that Amelia has no plans of marrying.  After  this  assurance  Dobbin
begins to recover and becomes more and  more  excited  at  the  prospect  of
seeing Amelia.
      Amelia is very happy to see Dobbin and talks to him  in  very  buoyant
spirits about Georgy. He is greatly relieved to see Mrs.  Binney  (the  wife
of the man whom he thought Amelia was marrying). Dobbin  also  informs  them
of Jos’ arrival.
      Chapter 59 The old Piano
      While watching over the shifting of the Sedley household to  a  better
place, Dobbin tells Amelia that he is glad that she has still kept  her  old
piano. Amelia does not realize at first, but  later  it  strikes  her  that,
perhaps it was  not  George  but  Dobbin  who  had  sent  it  for  her.  She
apologizes to Dobbin for attributing the kind deed to her dead husband.
      Dobbin tells her how much he loves her and has  loved  her  since  the
first time he saw her. She reminds him that George is and  would  always  be
her husband. But at the same time, she requests Dobbin to  be  a  friend  to
both her and Georgy.
      Chapters 60 & 61 Returns to the genteel world and In which two  lights
are put out.
      Amelia’s good fortune makes her friends happy for her. Georgy is  very
fond of Dobbin, while there is no great attachment between Jos  and  Georgy.
Jos and Amelia become a  part  of  the  genteel  society.  Jos  invites  his
friends home for frequent parties and himself goes to Court.
      John Sedley dies after a prolonged illness, during which he was  loved
and cared for by Amelia. He too is very fond of Amelia  in  his  last  days,
even more than when she  was  a  little  girl.  After  Mr.  Sedley’s  death,
Osborne invites Jos to his house, saying that he has  nothing  against  him.
Dobbin also implores Mr. Osborne to reconcile with Amelia and he agrees  for
a meeting. Unfortunately, the old patriarch dies soon  but  he  leaves  half
his property to Georgy, an annuity of 500 pounds  for  Amelia  and  restores
Georgy to his mother. Dobbin too is left a sum, sufficient to  buy  him  his
commission  as  Lieutenant  Colonel.  Affluent  people  from  all  quarters,
including the haughty Maria Bullock, (nee Osborne) come to pay  a  visit  to
Mrs. Osborne owing to the knowledge of her  newly  acquired  nobility.  Jos,
Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin plan a foreign trip.
      Chapter 62 Am Rhein
      Jos Sedley, Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin leave for  Pumpernickel  for  a
pleasure trip. They enjoy themselves and

most  of  all  Amelia  begins  to  brim  with  excitement  and  radiance  of
happiness. Dobbin is  glad  to  see  her  so.  She  sketches  the  beautiful
mountains and is enchanted by musical performances, which they attend.
      Chapter 63 In which we meet an old acquaintance.
      Lord Tapeworm, the heir and nephew  of  one  of  Major  Dobbin’s  late
Marshal, accompanies Jos  and  the  rest  of  the  party  as  their  friend.
Tapeworm suggests a doctor for Jos to loose weight, who plans  to  stay  and
get  treatment.  They  move  in  aristocratic  society  and   attend   their
      One day, Georgy meets a mysterious woman at a gambling house, for whom
he plays and wins. Jos recognizes her to be Rebecca. Dobbin extracts a  word
from Georgy that he will never gamble again.
      Chapter 64 A vagabond chapter.
      After separating from Rawdon, Becky is left  with  a  bad  reputation,
which compels her to leave the country. Before quitting England, she  writes
to little Rawdon, to which he replies as per his duty.  First  she  goes  to
Bologne. Soon she feels the pangs of loneliness. She is driven  out  of  the
hotel in which she lives, as she is deemed unfit to stay there.
      Every time Becky  makes  her  little  circle  of  friends,  some  past
acquaintance pours cold water on her efforts. She begins again  from  square
one. She realizes that Amelia  and  the  other  people  she  knew  are  kind
people. Bored of all her show of being a respectable lady,  she  throws  all
her guard and her taste for low life grows more remarkable. She travels  all
over Europe and mingles with coarse men. At Rome, she finds Lord  Steyne  at
a ball and hopes to reestablish their acquaintance, but a warning  from  his
confidential man forces her to flee to save her life,  as  Steyne  is  livid
about his confrontation with Rawdon.
      The news comes later, that Lord Steyne has died is Naples,  due  to  a
series of fits, as a result of  the  downfall  of  French  Monarchy  at  the
French Revolution.
      Chapter 65 Full of business and pleasure.
      Jos goes to see Becky at her dingy room in the ‘Elephant’ Hotel. Becky
succeeds in winning his favor and tells him the saddest story of  her  life,
which is absolutely false. Jos, much affected, reports about  her  condition
to Dobbin and Amelia. Initially, Amelia is  unmoved,  but  as  soon  as  she
learns that Becky’s son was torn from her arms, she instantly leaves to  see
her dear friend. Becky watches Amelia and Dobbin approach, yet  pretends  to
give a shriek the moment she sees them at her door.
      Chapter 66 Amantium Irae
      In spite of repeated polite warnings from Dobbin, Amelia and  Jos  are
determined to bring Becky home with them. Dobbin is  opposed  to  this  view
because he overhears the two boys with whom she  comes  from  Leipzig,  talk
very lightly about her. Dobbin is the only one who can see  through  all  of
Becky’s pretensions. Finally, Dobbin  tries  to  remind  Amelia  of  Becky’s
behavior with George,  before  the  battle.  This  infuriates  her  and  she
refuses to see Dobbin anymore. Dobbin too, angry  with  her  for  the  first
time, admits to himself as well as her that, she is and never was worth  all
the devotion he has given her, and he leaves, never  to  return.  Georgy  is
very sad to hear that  Dobbin  is  leaving.  When  he  goes  to  bid  Dobbin
goodbye, Becky sends him a note imploring upon him  to  stay,  which  Dobbin
tears in spite.
      Chapter 67 Which contains births, marriages, and deaths
      While Amelia is silent and  depressed  due  to  her  behavior  towards
Dobbin, Becky takes charge of the house.  She  becomes  popular  in  society
because of her wit and talents. The news of Dobbin  re-joining  the  service
arrives. The party (Amelia, Becky, Jos and Georgy) moves to Ostend  on  Jos’
health grounds. Becky has  many  low  acquaintances  there,  who  forcefully
impose themselves upon her and pay tipsy comments on Amelia.  Amelia  yearns
to go back, but Jos cannot  discontinue  his  treatment.  Amelia  writes  to
Dobbin. When Becky’s luggage arrives from  Leipzig,  she  impresses  Jos  by
showing him his portrait, which she has preserved, and  the  letter,  asking
Becky to elope, which George had written to her and given her  at  the  ball
just before the war. Amelia is even more determined to marry Dobbin and  she
does. Becky roots her anchor on Jos and follows him wherever he goes.  After
his marriage  to  Amelia,  Dobbin  leaves  the  service  and  they  live  in
Hampshire, close to Queen’s Crawley.  Lady  Jane  and  Amelia  become  great
friends and Georgy and Rawdon study together and  both  fall  in  love  with
Lady Jane’s daughter. Dobbin and Amelia have a daughter who is  named  after
her godmother Lady Jane.
      Jos Sedley dies, leaving half of his money to  Mrs.  Crawley,  who  is
suspected as the cause of his death. Col.  Rawdon  Crawley  dies  of  yellow
fever in Coventry Island, six weeks before the death of  Sir  Pitt.  As  Sir
Pitt’s son had died in infancy, Rawdon is made the next  Baronet.  He  makes
his mother a liberal allowance but does not meet her.  Becky  calls  herself
Lady Crawley and becomes engaged in charity activities.

                             William Shakespeare

Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars

A Midsummer Night's Dream

Act I: Theseus, Duke of Athens, is preparing to marry Hippolyta in his
palace. He is solving a dispute between Egeus (who wants his daughter,
Hermia, to marry Demetrius) and Lysander, who has Hermia's love. Theseus
declares that Hermia must marry D emetrius as the law specifies, or marry
no one. Hermia and Lysander plan to escape to the woods and elope, and they
tell Helena. Helena loves Demetrius, and plans to impress him by telling
him of the lovers' plans. In the wood, six laborers meet to arrang e the
production of a play for Theseus's wedding.
Act II: In the wood, a Fairy talks with Robin Goodfellow about how Oberon,
King of the Fairies, is mad that his wife Titania has stolen an Indian
child from him. To get him, Oberon tells Puck to find and use a magic
flower's juice to make Titania f all in love with a beast. Meanwhile,
Oberon pities Helena's grief at Demetrius hating her, and tells Puck to
also use the juice to make Demetrius love Helena.
Act III: Puck (Robin) accidently puts the juice on Lysander instead of
Demetrius. He then turns Bottom's head into that of an ass, for Titania.
Oberon sees Puck's mistake, tells him to anoint Demetrius, and now both are
following Helena, leading he r to believe they are mocking her. Hermia does
not know what to think, as the two men begin to fight. Titania is so
entranced with Bottom that she freely gives up the Indian boy. Now Oberon
tells Puck to release her from the spell and fix the lover's quad rangle.
Act IV: Theseus and Hippolyta enter the woods for their marriage. They find
the lovers, and despite Egeus' request, Theseus declares that since all
four are happy (Demetrius with Helena and Lysander with Hermia), they shall
all be married on the sa me day. Bottom finds himself restored, and so the
play be performed.
Act V: At the wedding, Theseus asks for the play "Pyramus and Thisbe," and
it is performed. It is awful. The married people retire to bed, and Puck
ends the play with a nice anecdote.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I: Antonio, the Merchant of Venice, discusses his sadness with Salerio
and Solanio. Bassanio asks him for a loan, and Antonio says he may borrow
on his credit because his money is at sea. In Belmont, Portia discusses her
distaste with her suito rs with Nerissa. Back in Venice, Bassanio gets
money from Shylock on the condition that if Antonio does not repay in three
months, he gets a pound of his flesh.
Act II: The Prince of Morocco arrives to try for Portia's hand. Bassanio
and company plan their dinner. In Venice, Shylock tells his daughter
Jessica not to go out, but she loves Lorenzo and they escape that evening
with her father's valuables. Mor occo picks the Golden Casket, which is
wrong, and leaves. Salerio and Solanio, the gossipers, talk of Shylock's
anger at finding his daughter and money taken. The Prince of Aragon arrives
and tries to win Portia's hand, but incorrectly chooses the silver casket.
Act III: The gossipers reveal that one of Antonio's ships has sunk and that
he may be in trouble. Bassanio correctly picks the leaden casket, but later
finds out that Antonio owes a pound of flesh to Shylock. Because he will
die, he wants to see Ba ssanio again. Bassanio goes to Venice to see him.
Act IV: Shylock rejects an offer from Portia for three times the initial
loan because he wants his enemy Antonio dead. Portia and Nerissa disguise
themselves as doctor and clerk and go to help Antonio. Portia points out
that because the 'bond' they made said Shylock could not have Antonio's
blood, he cannot take the flesh and also loses all of his possessions.
Act V: Lorenzo and Jessica are enjoying the night, when Portia and Nerissa
return just ahead of Bassanio, Graziano, and Antonio. The wives reveal
themselves and the rings they had deceitfully taken.

The Tragedy of Richard II

Act I: The play begins with a dispute between Bolingbroke and The Duke of
Norfolk. Richard wants John of Guant, Bolingbroke's father, to solve the
matter, but when he cannot he says they will fight it out. Then, Richard
cancels this idea and instea d banishes Mowbray for life and Bolingbroke
for ten years.
Act II: Gaunt dies after insulting Richard, and the King claims his wealth
to help finance his war with Ireland. Northumberland reveals that
Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army to overtake Richard. He,
with York and Willoughby, join hi m. Richard's troops under the Earl of
Salisbury dispurse because they think Richard is dead.
Act III: Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Green, both loyal to the King.
Richard returns to England happily after defeating the Irish, but loses
that zest when he finds out that he has lost his troops and Bolingbroke
will surely defeat him. Bolingbro ke discovers that Richard is nearby in
Berkeley Castle, goes and asks him to surrender, and Richard does.
Act IV: The Bishop of Carlisle reluctantly lets Bolingbroke, who has been
questioning Bagot about whether the King ordered an execution or not,
overtake his castle. After some dramatic speech, Richard is sent to the
Tower by Bolingbroke, now known as King Henry IV.
Act V: Richard's loving and grief-stricken wife sees him on his way to
detention. A plot is hatched against Bolingbroke by Aumerle and others, but
his father York finds out and tells. Aumerle is spared but the other rebels
are not. Richard is kille d by Exton, news the new king says he is not
happy to hear, and so he decides to launch a crusade to ease his

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Act I: Guards on duty discuss seeing the Ghost of Hamlet's late father, the
dead King, and then see him again. Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, has remarried
to Hamlet's uncle Claudius, putting the King's murderer on the throne. The
courtier Polonius pre pares his son Laertes for a journey to Paris. He then
orders his daughter to stay away from Hamlet, her love, because he fears
Hamlet is going mad. The Ghost appears to Hamlet and tells him he wants
revenge on Claudius.
Act II: After a time lapse, Hamlet feigns madness, but cannot as easily
fool Claudius as he does others. The two both want to kill each other, but
both need a reason to justify it. The attacking Fortinbras is reported to
have called off his strike on Denmark, but that remains to be seen.
Polonius and Claudius try to trick Hamlet, but he stays ahead of them.
Hamlet meets his old friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and is at first
delighted to see them. But, he immediately realizes they are there to spy
on him. Hamlet devises to use a play which show's Claudius's crime to prove
him guilty.
Act III: Hamlet contemplates suicide, but Claudius is still not fooled and
decides to send Hamlet to England, most likely to kill him. The play is
done, and Claudius knows he must act or he will fall. Foolish Plonius asks
Gertrude to question Hamle t. While the two are talking, Hamlet begins to
grow angry at his mother, but the Ghost reappears and tells Hamlet to
remember who it is that he is after. Inadvertently, Hamlet kills Polonius
who was listening in from behind the curtain.
Act IV: Laertes is angry at Claudius because he thinks he killed his
father, but the king consoles him. Claudius hatches a plan to kill Hamlet,
who is back in Denmark because he escaped death in England via some wit and
some pirates.
Act V: Hamlet finds out from a gravedigger that Ophelia is dead, and upon
seeing her funeral, announces his love for her. Laertes challenges him to a
match, but they do not fight just yet. They go back to the castle for a
jousting match where...the Queen drinks a poisoned glass meant for Hamlet,
Laertes wounds Hamlet, Hamlet kills Laertes, Laertes announces Claudius's
evil intentions, Hamlet kills Claudius, and then Hamlet dies because
Laertes was fighting with a poisoned sword. Before his death, H amlet tells
Horatio to give authority to the approaching Fortinbras.


Act I: Iago is discussing his desire for revenge against Othello (for his
passing over of the lieutenant position that was given to Michael Cassio)
with the idiot Roderigo, who desires Desdemona (Othello's wife). Iago tells
Desdemona's father that she has eloped with Othello. He then tells Othello
to take heed of Brabantio's hostility, a warning the Moor shrugs off. The
two almost fight, but both are summoned by the Duke.
Act II: The scene shifts to Cyprus, and news comes that a tempest has
elimated a Turkish war threat. Othello declares a holiday and Iago uses
this to get Michael Cassio drunk. Iago cleverly sets the scene for a
trashed Cassio to chase Roderigo and wound Montano, followed by Othello
conveniently being woken and forced to discharge Cassio.
Act III: Now Iago tries to break up Othello and Desdemona by telling Cassio
to try and earn reinstatement by getting Desdemona to like him and talk to
Othello for him. Iago cleverly puts people in the right places so that
Othello begins to think Ca ssio is pursuing Desdemona. He also steals a
hankerchief Othello gave to Desdemona and puts it in Cassio's possession.
He lies some more and gets Othello to order Cassio's assassination,
question Desdemona, begin to lose rational thought, and ultimately d estroy
his noble record.
Act IV: Ludovico and other Venetian officials arrive, saying they want
Othello back. Desdemona speaks well of Cassio in hopes that he might
succeed the Moor, and for that Othello slaps and degrades her. Ludovico
wonders if Othello is sane, and Iago seizes the moment to cast Othello in a
bad light. Roderigo starts to realize that the jewels he has been giving
Iago to give to Desdemona have not been making it past Iago, and he
threatens to kill him. But Iago uses his rhetoric to convince Roderigo to
just wait a little longer.
Act V: Roderigo attacks Cassio, both are wounded, and Iago comes upon them
and kills Roderigo. Othello decides to kill Desdemona by strangling her in
her bed. Emilia then enters and tells him the news. She screams at seeing
Desdemona and the others come into the room as well. Emilia tells about how
she gave the hankerchief to Iago, and the truth starts to come out. Othello
realizes what Iago has done, and although he cannot kill him, Iago is
captured. Othello kills himself.

King Lear, 1594

Act I: King Lear announces that he wants to give his kingdom to his three
daughters. He has them all tell him they love him, but when Cordelia
refuses to pour on the compliments, she gets nothing. Kent is banished for
trying to tell the King he is making a mistake, but returns disguised and
serves the King again. Regan and Goneril discuss their problems with their
father. Burgundy loses interest in Cordelia, but France does not. The Earl
of Gloucester's bastard son, Edmund, tricks his father into t hinking that
his other son, Edgar, plans to kill him. Edmund then makes Edgar flee by
telling him that he is in danger.
Act II: Regan and Cornwall arrive at Gloucester's castle. Edmund fools his
father into thinking Edgar has struck him and left. Kent insults Oswald for
his refusal to respect the King and is thrown in the stocks by Cornwall as
an insult to the King. Lear continues to lose his sanity along with his
authoritative presence. After running to Regan, Lear finds that she, too,
will not be hospitable to him.
Act III: Lear rages out at a storm. The fool continues his important
commentary. Kent finally brings the King to safety in a rock sheltering.
Edmund turns his back on his father by informing Cornwall that France is
coming with Cordelia to restore t he King's power. A disguised Edgar meets
the King and Co. in their shelter. Gloucester then comes by and sends them
all to Dover. Gloucester returns to his castle, is tied up by Regan and
Cornwall, has his eyes plucked out, and is thrust outside towards D over.
Act IV:Edgar meets a suicidal Gloucester and agrees to help him. Albany
shows his nobility, Cornwall dies, and Edmund moves closer to control of
the English army. Cordelia longs for her father as France prepares for a
battle. Regan discloses to Osw ald her affection for Edmund and tells him
to kill Gloucester. Edgar saves Gloucester by tricking him into believing
he survived a huge fall, and then by killing Oswald. Lear remorsely meets
Act V: France loses to England and Lear and Cordelia are taken prisoners by
Edmund. Edgar kills Edmund. Goneril poisons Regan and then kills herself.
Lear is unable to save Cordelia from Edmund's ordered execution and then
dies himself after a touch ing moment of remorse.

The First Part of King Henry IV

Act I: This follows Richard II, and King Henry begins by again putting off
his promised crusade because of Westmoreland's reports of battles at home.
Shakespeare introduces the conflict between Hotspur and Prince Hal. Prince
Hal is the son of King Henry and Hotspur the son of Westmoreland, who will
eventually try to take down the King. In a tavern, Hal and Falstaff engage
in a battle of wits, and then Poins enters and plans with Hal to use a
robbery to embarrass Falstaff. Back at Windsor Castle, Ho tspur will not
give the King prisoners he has captured because the King will not agree to
ransom his brother-in-law Mortimer. Worcester and others plan out how to
overtake the King.
Act II: Falstaff and others rob the traveling pilgrims and are then robbed
by a disguised Poins and Hal. Falstaff returns to the tavern and
exaggerates what happened to Poins and Hal, not knowing they are playing a
trick on him. Hal hides Falstaff from the sherriff, who comes looking for
him. Hotspur receives news of when the rebellion will occur, but does not
tell his curious wife.
Act III: An exuberant Hotspur makes his fellow conspirators angry with his
brash statements. Meanwhile, the King gives Hal a scolding for his
behavior, and Hal promises to shape up, for he had originally intended to
be bad so that he could eventual ly look all the better. Hal gives Falstaff
a post in the royal forces.
Act IV: The confident conspirators receive a blow when they learn that the
Earl of Northumberland is sick and they will not have his forces. Also, the
royal army is now swiftly approaching them and Glendower's forces are also
unavailable to the reb ellion. Falstaff admits he has wasted his money and
hired beggars for his battalion, surely leading them to their deaths.
Act V: The rebels forces will surely lose, and the King offers Worcester
amnesty for all if they will surrender. But he does not trust the King and
tells Hotspur they will fight. Prince Hal saves the King from death, and
his own reputation, by kill ing Douglas. Then the climax - Hal fights
Hotspur. Hotspur falls. Falstaff takes credit for this killing, which takes
the hope away from the rebels. They dispurse, but the rebellion carries on
into part two.

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar

Act I: Caesar has just emerged victorious in a series of Roman civil wars.
The populous swarms to see his homecoming, but tribunes question the
celebration. A Soothsayer foreshadows the play by giving Caesar a warning,
which he ignores. Cassius beg ins to subtly sway Brutus against Caesar. The
conspirators meet and decide they need Brutus to join them, for tomorrow
they must kill Caesar before he becomes king.
Act II: Brutus joins, but Cicero is left out. Brutus foolishly decides they
should not kill Mark Antony. Calpurnia tells her husband Caesar to stay
home that day, but Caesar still goes to the senate.
Act III: The conspirators pretend to petition for a recall so that they may
crowd around him, and then stab him to death. Caesar fights back at first,
but when Brutus takes his turn, Caesar gives in dramatically. As the
conspirators try to calm the city, Mark Antony steps in and wins Brutus
over with flattery. Cassius fears him, but Brutus foolishly lets him speak
to the crowds. At the funeral, Brutus gives a short but well-put speech and
then his mistake proves costly. Antony riles up the crowd ag ainst the
conspirators with a magnificent oration. Antony agrees to join Octavius
Caesar and General Lepidus in a three-man government.
Act IV: Civil war now erupts between the new government and the
conspirators. In Asia Minor, Cassius' army comes to join Brutus' army.
Cassius and Brutus argue and make up. Brutus finds out that Portia is dead,
along with many senators including Ci cero. Caesar's ghost visits Brutus
and says they will meet again.
Act V: The armies sit opposite each other near Philippi, waiting for
battle. Antony tells Cassius things might be better had he been in charge
instead of Brutus. Cassius and Brutus exchange good-byes, knowing they may
never see each other again. Br utus poorly leads his men, and turns a sure
victory into a possible defeat. Cassius mistakenly thinks he is prisoner
when in fact the conspirators are winning, and commits suicide. Brutus
continues to mislead, avoiding a sure victory, and eventually it co sts
him. He commits suicide in the face of defeat. Antony's forces win.


Act I: The Witches foreshadow the evil in Macbeth. King Duncan decides to
kill the traitorous Thane of Cawdor. Back to the witches - after some junk-
talk, they are encountered by Macbeth with Banquo, and they say that he is
now Thane and will be Ki ng. However, the King tells Macbeth he will make
Malcolm the next king. Macbeth plans to kill the King when he dines at his
house that night, and Lady Macbeth helps convince him to go ahead with that
Act II: Lady Macbeth drugs the guards, Macbeth kills the king, and then the
guards are framed. Macduff arrives with Lennox at the door, goes to get the
king, and discovers his murder. Macduff is suspicious, but Macbeth is in
the clear for now. Malc olm and Donalbain flee, fearing their lives since
they are prime suspects. Macbeth has killed the servants, and the nobility
feels they were the murderers. Macbeth is now king, but the tragedy is
starting to unfold.
Act III: Macbeth makes arrangements to have Banquo and his son killed. At
dinner, Macbeth is told the Banquo was killed but his son escaped. Banquo's
ghost then appears, but only Macbeth can see it. Hecate, the witch queen,
scolds the witches for d ealing with Macbeth without her. With Banquo dead,
Lennox joins Macduff in increasing suspiscion.
Act IV: Macbeth visits the sisters and three apparitions are shown to him:
an armed head (signifying war), a bloody child (showing that no man born of
a woman shall harm Macbeth), and a crowned child with a tree (saying that
"Macbeth shall never va nquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high
Dunsinane Hill Shall come against him"). Macduff has gone to England to get
Act V: Lady Macbeth is now unstable and walks and talks in her sleep. The
Scottish noblility has mostly joined the English against Macbeth, but he is
not scared because of the witches' prophecy. Lady Macbeth kills herself.
Macbeth then learns that the enemy is walking towards the castle with trees
from Birnam Wood, and that Macduff was ripped from his mother's womb early,
both explaining the witches' apparitions. Macduff kills Macbeth and Malcolm
is now King of Scotland.

Romeo and Juliet

Act I: Chorus gives a play overview. Sampson and Gregory fight with Abraham
and Balthasar. Benvolio breaks it up, fights with Tybalt, and a riot
erupts. Escalus, joined by the Capulets and Montagues, enters and stops the
fight. Afterwards the Monta gues speak with Benvolio about Romeo. Romeo
follows his parents exit with an entrance and talks with Benvolio about his
love life. Paris works on his hopes for a marriage to Juliet. He is invited
to a ball, which Romeo and Benvolio find out about from Cap ulet's Servant.
Juliet finds out about Paris' offer. Romeo and Co. head to the Capulet's
masked ball. At the ball, Romeo and Juliet meet each other, and the Nurse
tells them who each other is.
Act II: Chorus explains the problems Romeo and Juliet face. After climbing
into a back orchard and hearing Benvolio and Mercutio mock him, Romeo finds
Juliet speaking out of her window. The reveal their love and decide to
marry. Friar Lawrence agre es to marry them. With help from the Nurse,
arrangements are made and the two are wed.
Act III: Tybalt taunts Romeo, battles Mercutio and kills him, and is then
killed by Romeo. Romeo flees, Benvolio reports what happened, and Escalus
exiles Romeo. Juliet weeps, but gets a visit from Romeo that night. Romeo
goes to Mantua. Juliet doe s not want to marry Paris, but sees no way to
disobey her father.
Act IV: Friar Lawrence hatches a plan in which Juliet will fake her death:
he gives her a potion that will put her to sleep for a few days. Found to
be dead, everyone mourns the loss.
Act V: Friar John was supposed to tell Romeo that Juliet is not really
dead, but he reveals that he could not do it. Romeo visits the tomb and
finds Paris already there. Romeo kills him. Romeo kills himself after
kissing Juliet. Juliet awakes, sees Romeo dead, kisses him, and stabs
herself. Everyone comes after the watchmen send for Escalus. Friar Lawrence
explains his mistake. Montague and Capulet put aside their strife.

Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works


Act One, Scene One
Francisco, a soldier standing watch outside the gates of Elsinore Castle in
Denmark, is met by Barnardo who has arrived to replace him. They are soon
joined by Marcellus, another guard, and Horatio. Horatio is a scholar who
speaks Latin, and he has been brought along because Barnardo and Marcellus
claim they have seen a ghost. While Barnardo describes to Horatio exactly
what he has seen, the ghost appears in front of them. Horatio tries to
speak with the ghost in Latin, saying, "Stay, speak, speak, I charge thee
speak" (1.1.49), but the ghost remains silent and then leaves.
Horatio tells Barnardo that the ghost looks like the deceased King Hamlet,
also known as Old Hamlet. Horatio sees that the ghost was dressed the same
way as King Hamlet was when he defeated King Fortinbras of Norway. The
story is that King Hamlet went to Norway and fought Fortinbras in single
combat. The loser agreed to yield all his land to the other king. However,
in the time since King Hamlet died, the son of King Fortinbras, known as
young Fortinbras, has been gathering together troops and is threatening to
attack Denmark.
The ghost enters a second time and Horatio again begs it to speak to him.
Just as it seems the ghost is about to say something, a cock crows and the
ghost disappears. Horatio tells Marcellus that he will inform young Hamlet,
the Prince of Denmark and the son of King Hamlet, that a ghost keeps
appearing in the shape of his father. Marcellus knows where young Hamlet is
and leaves with Horatio to find him.
Act One, Scene Two
King Claudius, who has assumed the throne since his brother King Hamlet
died, is accompanied by Queen Gertrude and other lords and attendants in
Elsinore Castle. He addresses the people, telling them that although his
brother's death is fresh in their minds, it is time for them to celebrate
his royal marriage to Queen Gertrude, who was also his brother's former
wife. He further informs the people that young Fortinbras of Norway has
assembled armies against Denmark. In response to this threat, Claudius
sends two men, Valtemand and Cornelius, as messengers to the uncle of young
Fortinbras with a letter in which he asks the older uncle to stop young
Fortinbras from attempting to attack Denmark.
Claudius next asks a young nobleman named Laertes why he has requested an
audience. Laertes informs him that although he has been fulfilled his
duties and attended the coronation in Denmark, he would rather return to
France. Claudius asks Polonius, Laertes' father, if he has given permission
for his son to go. Polonius assents, and Laertes is allowed to leave
Turning to Hamlet, Claudius asks his nephew why he is still in mourning for
his father's death, hinting that Hamlet might only be pretending to be
grief-stricken. Hamlet's mother, Queen Gertrude, also asks him why he still
dresses in black clothing. Hamlet replies that his grief is quite real and
that he will continue grieving. Claudius tells him it is unnatural for a
man to remain sorrowful for such a long time. Both Claudius and Gertrude
then beg Hamlet to stay with them in Denmark instead of returning to
Wittenberg where his university is located. Hamlet agrees to stay, and
watches as everyone leaves the hall to celebrate his uncle's and his
mother's marriage.
He is upset about the fact that his mother married Claudius within less
than two months after the death of King Hamlet. Hamlet says, "O most wicked
speed, to post / With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!" (1.2.157). He
is interrupted by the arrival of Horatio, Barnardo, and Marcellus, who have
come to tell him about the ghost they have seen.
Horatio tells Hamlet about seeing the ghost of King Hamlet. Hamlet asks
them if they have the watch again that night, and Barnardo says they do. At
this information, Hamlet agrees to join them that night in order to see the
ghost and hopefully to speak with it.
Act One, Scene Three
Laertes, about to leave for France, says farewell to his sister Ophelia. He
warns her to beware of Hamlet, whom he tells her is insincere. "For Hamlet
and the trifling of his favour, / Hold it a fashion and a toy in blood, /
...sweet not lasting" (1.3.5-6, 8). Laertes then lectures Ophelia, telling
her that Hamlet will say anything to win her heart. He tells her to hold
off, and if Hamlet still loves her after he has been made king, only then
should she consider marrying him. Ophelia agrees to remember what he has
told her.
Polonius then arrives and tells Laertes to hurry up and catch his ship
before it leaves the harbor. As he walks Laertes towards the ship, Polonius
gives his son fatherly advice. "Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar. /
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, / Grapple them to thy soul
with hoops of steel" (1.3.61-63). Laertes promises to obey his father, and
leaves after he reminds Ophelia to remember what he has said.
Polonius asks Ophelia what advice Laertes gave her. Ophelia tells him, and
Polonius gets mad at her for believing what Hamlet has told her. He orders
her to give less of her time to Hamlet in the future, saying, "From this
time, daughter, / Be somewhat scanter of your maiden presence" (1.3.120-
121). Ophelia tells her father she will do what he commands: "I shall obey,
my lord" (1.3.136).
Act One, Scene Four
Hamlet and Horatio are outside waiting for the ghost to arrive. They hear a
cannon go off, and Hamlet tells Horatio that the cannon is fired whenever
the king empties a draught of Rhenish wine. Hamlet is upset about the
custom, because he thinks it makes Denmark appear to be a land of
drunkards. The ghost arrives and Hamlet tries to speak to it, but it only
beckons him to follow it. Horatio and Marcellus try to make him stay, but
Hamlet tells them to let go of him. Marcellus and Horatio watch him leave
and decide to follow him. Marcellus remarks, "Something is rotten in the
state of Denmark" (1.4.67).
Act One, Scene Five
Hamlet follows the ghost, who finally speaks and informs Hamlet that he is
the spirit of Old Hamlet, Hamlet's father. The ghost indicates that he is
in purgatory, "I am thy father's spirit, / Doomed for a certain term to
walk the night / And for the day confined to fast in fires / Till the foul
crimes done in my days of nature / Are burned and purged away" (1.5.9-13).
The ghost then tells Hamlet to listen to him closely.
Old Hamlet orders his son to revenge his murder. Hamlet is confused, not
understanding what the ghost is speaking about. The ghost tells him that
"sleeping in mine orchard, / A serpent stung me" (1.5.35-36), alluding to
the fact that he was murdered. He goes on to say that the serpent is his
brother, Claudius, who entered the garden where he was sleeping and poured
poison into his ear. He died without having a chance to confess his sins,
and is therefore forced to suffer in Purgatory until his sins are burned
The ghost leaves Hamlet with the words, "Adieu, adieu, Hamlet. Remember me"
(1.5.91). Hamlet wonders about what he has heard, and decides that he
believes the ghost. He makes Marcellus and Horatio swear to never reveal
what they have seen. He then makes them swear a second time, this time on
his dagger which is shaped like a cross. He tells Horatio, "There are more
things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in our
philosophy" (1.5.168-169). They all swear yet again and return to the
Act Two, Scene One
Polonius is in his apartments with his servant Reynaldo. He is sending
Reynaldo to France with instructions to keep tabs on the behavior of
Laertes. Polonius tells Reynaldo to first inquire what other Danes are in
the area, and then to tell them that he knows Laertes. He wants Reynaldo to
hint to the other Danes that Laertes has a reputation for gambling,
drinking, or whoring. The purpose of this lie is to see if the other Danes
agree with Reynaldo and tell him about real things that Laertes has done.
Polonius is careful to insist that Reynaldo does not harm his son's honor
in the process, saying, "none so rank / As may dishonour him, take heed of
that" (2.1.20-21). Reynaldo leaves the room to depart for France.
Ophelia arrives and tells Polonius that she thinks Hamlet has gone mad. She
claims that while she was sowing he came to her looking completely
disheveled. Hamlet took her by the wrist and looked at her for a long time.
He then turned to walk away, all the while keeping his eyes on Ophelia and
even walking through the doors without averting his gaze. Polonius is upset
when he hears this, and he concludes that her refusal to see Hamlet anymore
has driven the young prince mad. Polonius takes Ophelia to go see King
Claudius and tell him what has happened.
Act Two, Scene Two
Claudius and Gertrude meet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two former
friends of Hamlet. Claudius informs them that he has summoned them to
Denmark due to Hamlet's madness. He wants them to spend time with Hamlet
and find out what the reason for the madness is. They both agree to do
this, and leave to find Hamlet.
Polonius arrives and informs Claudius that the ambassadors he sent to
Norway have returned. Claudius tells him that he always brings good news.
Polonius, delighted by the compliment, further tells him that he thinks he
knows the cause of "Hamlet's lunacy" (2.2.49). Claudius is excited by this
news as well, but orders the ambassadors to enter first.
Valtemand, one of the ambassadors, tells Claudius that Old Norway, the
uncle of Fortinbras, was unaware that his nephew was raising an army
against Denmark. He informs Claudius that Old Norway summoned Fortinbras to
meet him as soon as he heard about his nephew's plans. Fortinbras complied
with the summons and was forced to vow to never attack Denmark. His uncle,
believing him, immediately gave him an annual income of three thousand
crowns and also gave him permission to attack Poland instead. Old Norway
further wrote a letter to Claudius asking him to allow Fortinbras a safe
passage through Denmark on the way Poland.
Claudius is very pleased with the way things appear to have turned out, and
heartily agrees to allow Fortinbras to march through Denmark. After the
ambassadors leave, Polonius turns to Claudius and Gertrude and tells them
that Hamlet is mad. They both become impatient to hear what he is saying,
and Polonius finally produces a letter from Hamlet to Ophelia in which
Hamlet professes his love to her. Gertrude then asks Polonius how Ophelia
received Hamlet's overtures of love. Polonius is forced to tell them that
at his request she ignored Hamlet or rebuked his love. Claudius is not
completely convinced that this is the full cause of Hamlet's insanity. He
and Polonius decide to put Ophelia into the hall where Hamlet is known to
spend hours pacing each day. They plan to hide behind a tapestry and watch
what happens.
Hamlet arrives at this moment dressed as if he is mad and reading a book.
Polonius asks the king and queen to leave so that he may speak with Hamlet
alone. Hamlet pretends not to recognize Polonius, whom he calls a
fishmonger. He then asks Polonius if he has a daughter, and tells him to
keep her out of the sun. When Polonius, thoroughly convinced that Hamlet is
deranged, asks what he is reading, Hamlet tells him, "Words, words, words"
(2.2.192). Polonius gives up trying to reason with Hamlet and leaves.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive and are greeted warmly by Hamlet who
immediately drops all pretense of madness. He recognizes them and asks them
what brings them to Denmark, referring to it as a "prison". They refuse to
give him a straight answer, and Hamlet infers from this that "you were sent
for, / and there is a kind of confession in your looks which your modesties
have not craft enough to colour" (2.2.271-272). Guildenstern finally admits
that Hamlet is correct in his assumption that they were sent for. Hamlet
tells them that he has been extremely melancholy during the past few
The two friends of Hamlet inform him that some players, a theatrical group,
arrived in Denmark with them that day. Hamlet discusses the actors with
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern until a trumpet announces the arrival of the
performers. He then personally goes to greet them and welcome them to
Denmark. Polonius arrives at that moment and, still thinking that Hamlet is
mad, tells Hamlet that the best actors in the world have arrived. Hamlet
plays word games with Polonius until he starts to ignore him.
Hamlet asks one of the players to perform a speech for him. The player asks
him which speech he is so keen to hear, and Hamlet begins to recite lines
from Dido and Aeneas, taken from Virgil's Aeneid. Finally he stops and asks
the actor to continue the speech. The man does, describing how Pyrrhus
kills Priam (the king of Troy). Polonius starts to get bored and soon
Hamlet is forced to stop the actor. He orders Polonius to take care of the
actors and ensure their comfort for the night. Hamlet also asks the actors
whether they can perform a play about the murder of Gonzago. They tell him
they can, and he then asks them whether they can also perform some lines he
wishes to write for them. They agree to do this as well and then leave,
following Polonius. Hamlet tells Guildenstern and Rosencrantz that he will
see them that night.
Left alone onstage, Hamlet speaks to himself. He wishes that he were able
to act as eloquently as the actor who performed the speech. Hamlet is still
torn with indecision about revenging the murder of his father on Claudius
or keeping silent due to uncertainty about whether Claudius really killed
his father. He decides to try and make the player's enact the murder scene
as it was described to him by the ghost. Hamlet is hoping that Claudius,
when he sees the scene, will reveal himself as the true murderer of King
Hamlet. "I have heard that guilty creatures sitting at a play / Have by the
very cunning of the scene / Been struck so to the soul that presently / The
have proclaimed their malefactions" (2.2.566-569). By watching Claudius
when the actors perform this scene, Hamlet expects to discover whether the
ghost told him the truth.
Act Three, Scene One
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are reporting to Claudius and Gertrude what
they have noticed about Hamlet. They tell the king and queen that Hamlet
has not revealed to them why he acts mad some of the time, but that he also
seems distracted. They mention that Hamlet seemed much happier when the
actors arrived and that he ordered them to perform for the court that very
night. Polonius interrupts and mentions that Hamlet had asked him to invite
Claudius and Gertrude to the evening's performance. Claudius happily
accepts the invitation.
Claudius then asks Gertrude to leave, telling her that they will put
Ophelia alone in the room so that she and Hamlet may "accidentally" meet.
She agrees to depart and wishes Ophelia luck in bringing Hamlet out of his
supposed madness. Claudius and Polonius proceed to hide themselves behind a
curtain or tapestry in order to spy.
Hamlet enters the room giving his famous soliloquy, "To be, or not to be;
that is the question" (3.1.58). He is grappling with the difficulty of
taking action against Claudius and the fact that he has not been able to
revenge his father's murder yet. Hamlet's introspective commentary is
interrupted when he sees Ophelia.
Ophelia greets Hamlet and tries to hand him back some of the tokens of his
affection he previously gave her. Hamlet tells her that she should never
have believed him when he told her he loved her, and that she was deceived.
He tells her, "Get thee to a nunnery. Why wouldst thou be a breeder of
sinners?" (3.1.122). Hamlet then says that women are liars and should not
be allowed to marry, unless the men they marry are fools. He is likely
alluding to the fact that Ophelia rejected him after he proclaimed his love
for her.
Ophelia is upset by his reactions, and says, "O what a noble mind is here
o'erthrown!" (3.1.149). Claudius and Polonius emerge from their hiding-
place and tell her they heard everything. Polonius still thinks the cause
of Hamlet's misery is Ophelia's rejection of his love. Claudius, however,
is convinced that Hamlet is not mad, merely deeply depressed and possibly
dangerous. He tells Polonius that he will send Hamlet to England as soon as
Act Three, Scene Two
Hamlet has written a scene for the actors and he is instructing them on how
to perform it. He tells them not to be overdramatic, but also "Be not too
tame, neither" (3.2.15). The actors tell him they can perform it exactly as
he desires it to be.
Polonius, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz arrive and Hamlet sends them all to
make the actors hurry up and get ready. Horatio soon shows up and Hamlet
tells him that one scene in the play that night directly mimics the murder
of his father. He asks Horatio to, "observe mine uncle" (3.2.73) in order
to determine whether the ghost was lying or not. They plan to meet
afterwards and compare their separate judgments as to what the reaction of
Claudius means.
Horatio goes to find a seat, and Claudius enters along with the rest of the
court. He greets Hamlet and asks him how he is. Hamlet gives a nonsensical
answer and then asks Polonius if he was an actor during his university
days. Polonius says he was a good actor, and that he played Julius Caesar.
Gertrude asks Hamlet to sit by her, but he says, "No, good-mother, here's
mettle more attractive" (3.2.99) and sits next to Ophelia instead. He
proceeds to make bawdy comments to her, all of which Ophelia tries to
respond to appropriately.
The actors come out onto the stage and proceed to perform a dumb show, a
silent scene in which they enact the murder of a king through poisoning.
Ophelia is confused by the show, but assumes it foretells the actual plot.
The players emerge a second time and start to perform the actual play. They
pretend to be a king and queen. The queen protests her love for the king,
telling him that she will never consider marrying a second man. The king
tells her that such vows are quickly forgotten, but the queen continues to
swear she will never marry a second time.
Hamlet turns to Queen Gertrude and asks her what she thinks of the play.
Gertrude tells him that the queen "protests too much" (3.2.210). Claudius
is worried that the play may be offensive, and asks Hamlet what the play is
called. Hamlet says, "The Mousetrap" (3.2.217), alluding to the fact that
he wants to catch Claudius.
An actor named Lucianus arrives onstage, and Hamlet tells them that he is
meant to portray the nephew of the king. Lucianus pours poison in the
king's ears, and Hamlet comments that he kills the king in order to steal
his estate. Ophelia informs Hamlet that Claudius has stood up out of rage,
thereby stopping the performance. Hamlet happily replies, "What, frighted
with false fire?" (3.2.244). Claudius demands light to shone on him and
leaves the room, followed by everyone except Hamlet and Horatio.
The two friends remain behind and Hamlet gleefully tells Horatio, "O good
Horatio, I'll take the Ghost's word for a thousand pound" (3.2.263-264).
Horatio agrees with him that Claudius is guilty. Rosencrantz and
Guildenstern arrive and tell Hamlet that the king is in a terrible mood and
that Gertrude has sent for him. He agrees to meet with his mother soon, but
they continue to ask him why he is so "distempered" (3.2.308). Hamlet gets
mad at them for their insistence and grabs a recorder from one of the
actors. He shows it to them and demands that Guildenstern play it. When he
refuses, saying he does not know how, Hamlet says,
Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would play upon
me, you would seem to know my stops...do you think I am easier to be played
on than a pipe?" (3.2.334-335,339-340).
Polonius enters and Hamlet immediately pretends to be crazy again. Polonius
also tells Hamlet that his mother wants to see him in her private chamber.
Hamlet plays with him a little, pointing to the clouds and pretending to
see various animals. Finally he makes Polonius leave, and tells Rosencrantz
and Guildenstern to depart as well. In a soliloquy, Hamlet indicates that
he will be "cruel, not unnatural. / I will speak daggers to her, but use
none" (3.2.365-366). He wants to make his mother aware of the fact that
Claudius murdered her former husband, but not physically harm her in the
Act Three, Scene Three
Claudius meets with Guildenstern and Rosencrantz. He tells them that Hamlet
has become too dangerous to keep in Denmark, and that he is therefore
sending him to England. He orders the two young men to prepare to accompany
Hamlet on the voyage, to which they readily assent.
Polonius informs Claudius that Hamlet will meet with his mother in her
private chamber. Polonius decides to conceal himself behind a tapestry in
order to overhear their conversation. He promises to tell Claudius
everything that happens.
Claudius, finally alone, states, "O, my offense is rank! It smells to
heaven" (3.3.36). He then admits to killing his brother and laments the
fact that he cannot repent his crime. He prays to the angels to help him.
Hamlet enters behind him and draws his sword, preparing to kill Claudius.
However, when he realizes that Claudius has been praying, and therefore
would be absolved of all his sins, he decides not to kill him. "A villain
kills my father, and for that / I, his sole son, do this same villain send
to heaven.../ When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage.../ At gaming,
swearing, or about some act / That has no relish of salvation in't, / And
that his soul may be as damned and black / As hell whereto it goes" (3.3.76-
78,89,91-92,94-95). Hamlet chooses to wait and kill Claudius when he is
sure that Claudius will be sent to hell.
Act Three, Scene Four
Polonius admonishes Gertrude to rebuke Hamlet for the way he has acted. He
quickly hides himself as soon as he hears Hamlet coming. Hamlet arrives and
is immediately rude to his mother; he mentions her incestuous marriage to
Claudius and tells her she has offended his father. He promises to hold up
a mirror to her face so that she can see what she has become. "You go not
till I set you up a glass / Where you may see the inmost part of you"
(3.4.19-20). Queen Gertrude becomes afraid of her life and cries for help,
a cry that Polonius foolishly answers.
Hamlet, having heard Polonius make a sound behind the curtain, pulls out
his sword and thrusts it through the curtains, killing him. Hamlet asks
Gertrude if it is the king, but then realizes he has instead killed
Polonius. Gertrude is upset, but Hamlet comments that his act is, "A bloody
deed - almost as bad, good-mother, / As kill a king and marry with his
brother" (3.4.27-28). Gertrude does not understand what Hamlet means, and
he is forced to explain to her. He pulls out two miniatures of King Hamlet
and Claudius and compares them for her, telling her that Claudius killed
King Hamlet in order to seize the throne.
Gertrude is upset and confused, struggling to believe Hamlet. The ghost
reappears at that moment and Hamlet speaks to it, saying, "What would you,
gracious figure?" (3.4.95). Gertrude, who is unable to see the ghost,
believes that Hamlet has gone completely mad. The ghost tells Hamlet to
keep speaking to Gertrude and to convince her, but she becomes even more
convinced that Hamlet is mad as she watches him speak to empty air. Hamlet
points to his father and urges her to look, but she cannot see anything and
finally exclaims, "this is the very coinage of your brain" (3.4.128).
Hamlet shows her that his pulse is constant, convincing her that it is not
a hallucination. She finally asks him what she must do. Hamlet tells
Gertrude to go to bed that night, but to avoid sleeping with Claudius. He
further tells her to let Claudius know that he is not mad, but rather
merely cunning. Hamlet then leaves to get ready to go to England, tugging
Polonius out of the room behind him.
Act Four, Scene One
Claudius asks Gertrude to tell him what the matter is. She informs him that
Hamlet is completely mad and describes how he killed Polonius behind the
curtain. Claudius decides to pardon Hamlet's life, but calls Guildenstern
and Rosencrantz into the chamber. He orders them find Hamlet and Polonius'
body, and to bring the body into the chapel.
Act Four, Scene Two
Hamlet hears someone calling for him and responds to them. Rosencrantz and
Guildenstern run onstage and demand to know where Polonius' body is. Hamlet
riddles with them, and tells them that they are like sponges who soak up
the king's favors. He refuses to reveal where he has hidden Polonius and
runs away from them.
Act Four, Scene Three
Claudius is upset that Hamlet is running around the palace but cannot order
Hamlet killed because the populace likes him. Rosencrantz arrives and tells
Claudius that he cannot find the body, but that Guildenstern is holding
Hamlet. Claudius orders Guildenstern to bring in Hamlet, and then asks him
where Polonius is. Hamlet riddles some more, telling Claudius to seek for
Polonius in heaven or possibly hell.
Hamlet finally gives them a hint, and says, "you shall nose him as you up
the stairs into the lobby" (4.3.35-36). Rosencrantz immediately goes to
seek the body. Claudius tells Hamlet that because of his "deed", the murder
of Polonius, he must leave Denmark for England. Hamlet walks out after
calling Claudius his "mother" and is followed by Guildenstern. Claudius,
now alone, prays that the King of England will obey his letters, which ask
the King of England to kill Hamlet for him.
Act Four, Scene Four
Fortinbras has reached the Danish castle and orders a captain to inform
Claudius that his army is there and that he requests safe passage through
Denmark so that he may invade Poland. The Captain leaves to deliver the
Hamlet arrives, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and approaches
the captain. He asks the man whose army it is, and learns that Fortinbras
has marched into Denmark on his way to "Poland". The captain is ambiguous
about the exact location, saying only that they are fighting over a
worthless piece of ground.
Hamlet sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on ahead and remains to ponder
the fact that nearly twenty thousand men are in the army, all willing to
die for nothing. He realizes that he has been unable to revenge his
father's death, but decides that now is the time for decisive action.
Hamlet says, "O, from this time forth / My thoughts be bloody or be nothing
worth" (
Act Four, Scene Five
Horatio begs Queen Gertrude to come see what has happened to Ophelia. She
reluctantly agrees, and Ophelia enters singing to herself. Ophelia has gone
completely mad due to the death of her father and the loss of Hamlet, and
she incoherently sings her songs rather than respond to Gertrude.
Claudius arrives and Gertrude shows him what has happened to Ophelia. She
continues singing, the songs getting raunchier as she continues. Finally
Ophelia tells them that Laertes must find out about the death of their
father, and she leaves to go find him. Horatio follows her in order to keep
an eye on her.
Claudius tells Gertrude that they made a mistake in trying to secretly
dispose of Polonius. He further informs her that Laertes has secretly come
from France to Denmark to avenge his father's death. A noise interrupts
him, and a messenger rushes in telling Claudius to save himself. He asks
what the problem is, and learns that Laertes has gathered a mob of citizens
together and rushed the castle, breaking past all the guards. The mob wants
to make Laertes king and is therefore fighting for him.
Laertes bursts through the doors and tells the mob to wait for him outside.
He then demands that Claudius reveal to him why Polonius was killed.
Gertrude intervenes and informs Laertes that Claudius did not kill his
father. Laertes then demands to know who his real enemy is. Ophelia enters
at that moment, completely mad, and gives them each some flowers. Claudius
turns to Laertes after Ophelia leaves and tells him that he will personally
arrange his revenge.
Act Four, Scene Six
Horatio receives a letter from Hamlet which tells him a strange story. The
ship Hamlet was on was caught by pirates, and Hamlet alone boarded the
pirate ship. After the battle was over he became their prisoner but was
treated well because he could do them a favor. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz
are still on their way to England.
Act Four, Scene Seven
Claudius has explained to Laertes that Hamlet killed Polonius. Laertes asks
why Hamlet was not punished at the time and Claudius says that it was for
his mother's sake. Laertes tells Claudius that his revenge will come soon.
Some messengers arrive and hand Claudius letters from Hamlet. He is
surprised to receive the letters, and reads his out loud. The letter
indicates that Hamlet is returning to Denmark alone. Laertes is excited by
this because it means that he will be able to revenge his father's death.
Claudius asks him to "be ruled" and listen to a plot which will make
Hamlet's death seem like an accident, even though Laertes will be allowed
to kill him.
Claudius proposes that Laertes fight Hamlet in a fencing match with
rapiers. Laertes agrees to this provided he be allowed to put poison on the
tip of his rapier so that even the slightest scratch will cause Hamlet to
die. Claudius is uncertain as to whether they can trust the poison, and so
he offers to also create a poison drink for Hamlet. That way, they will
have two ways of killing Hamlet and will not fail.
Gertrude enters the room and informs Laertes that Ophelia has drowned
herself while sitting on a willow branch over a brook. Laertes is overcome
with grief and starts to shed tears for his sister. He leaves the room but
Claudius urges Gertrude to follow him for fear that Laertes will erupt in
rage again.
Act Five, Scene One
Two gravediggers (clowns) are digging out Ophelia's grave. They discuss the
fact that Ophelia drowned herself, and therefore should not receive a
Christian burial under Christian law. However, the one gravedigger points
out that the coroner has declared it a natural death rather than a suicide,
and therefore they must dig the grave for her.
Hamlet overhears the first gravedigger singing to himself and remarks on
the fact that the man is so cheerful at his occupation. Horatio tells him
that it must come from doing the job for such a long time. Hamlet
approaches the man and asks him whose grave it is. The gravedigger, taking
every word literally, tells him, "Mine, sir" (5.1.109). Hamlet finally
gives up asking and instead inquires for news about Prince Hamlet while
pretending to be someone else.
The gravedigger tells him that Hamlet was sent to England because he was
mad. He then informs Hamlet that a body will last in the grave for eight or
nine years at the most. He picks up a skull and shows it to Hamlet, telling
him it has been in the earth for twenty-three years. Hamlet asks whose
skull it is, and is shocked to learn that it is the skull of Yorick, a
jester who entertained him as a youth. He comments that even parts of
Alexander the Great's body might now be used as a flask stopper and they
would never know it.
Hamlet and Horatio run and hide when they hear Claudius, Gertrude, Laertes,
and other attendants arriving. Hamlet wonders whose corpse they are
carrying with them to the grave. He overhears Laertes arguing with the
priest about the last rites. Due to the strange manner of Ophelia's death,
the priest will only allow the body to be buried in holy ground, but he
refuses to read her the prayers. Hamlet soon realizes that the body is that
of Ophelia.
Laertes is so overcome with emotion once the coffin has been placed into
the grave that he leaps in after it. Hamlet, seeing this, reveals himself
and jumps into the grave as well. Laertes immediately grabs Hamlet by the
throat and starts to choke him. Claudius order the other men present to
pull them apart and Hamlet shouts that he loved Ophelia more than forty
thousand of her brothers combined. He tells Laertes that, "I loved you
ever. But it is no matter. / Let Hercules himself do what he may, / The cat
will mew, and dog will have his day" (5.1.275-278). Hamlet leaves and
Horatio follows him.
Act Five, Scene Two
Hamlet tells Horatio what really happened on the way to England. He rose on
night and stole the letters that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were taking
to the King of England. The letters told the king to kill Hamlet and listed
several reasons why this would benefit both nations. Hamlet immediately
wrote out several new letters and sealed them using his signet. The new
letters ordered that the two men accompanying him should be put to death.
Hamlet is not at all upset about ordering his two "friends" to die in
England since, "they did make love to this employment" (5.2.58). Horatio
warns Hamlet that Claudius will soon discover what has happened when news
arrives from England.
A man named Osric arrives and tells Hamlet that he has news from the king
for him. Hamlet plays a game with the man, telling him to alternately put
on and take off his hat. Osric finally gets frustrated with the game and
informs Hamlet that Laertes, whom he describes in glowing terms, has placed
a wager with Claudius. Claudius has bet Laertes that he cannot beat Hamlet
by at least three hits in a fencing match with twelve passes. Hamlet agrees
to the match and orders Osric to have them bring out the foils.
A lord soon enters and tells Hamlet that everything is prepared and that
they are waiting for Hamlet to come. He further tells Hamlet that Gertrude
wishes that he would treat Laertes with respect and courtesy, to which
Hamlet agrees. Horatio tells Hamlet that, "You will lose this wager, my
lord" (5.2.147), but Hamlet tells him that he has been in continual
practice since Laertes left for France. Horatio again tries to dissuade him
from fencing with Laertes, and again Hamlet tells him that he will go and
Claudius and the rest of the court arrive and Claudius orders Hamlet to
greet Laertes. Hamlet offers Laertes an apology for killing Polonius and
blames the act on his madness. Laertes stiffly asserts that his honor is
still at stake and that he must therefore have his revenge. They then call
for the foils and prepare for the match.
Claudius orders his attendants to bring him a cask of wine. He then
announces that if Hamlet is able to score a hit in the first, second or
third exchange then he will drink some wine and drop a pearl of exceptional
value into the cup for Hamlet. Claudius then drinks to Hamlet as a salute
for good luck and orders them to begin.
Hamlet and Laertes fight until Hamlet shouts, "One" (5.2.220). Laertes
disputes the hit and Osric decides in favor of Hamlet. Claudius halts the
match and drops a pearl into his wine cup. He then offers the cup to
Hamlet, who refuses to take it and tells him that he would rather continue
the match. They fight and Hamlet again claims a hit that Laertes grants
him. Gertrude takes the cup with the pearl in it and offers to drink for
Hamlet. Claudius begs her not to, but she ignores him and drinks anyway,
thereby ingesting the poison that Claudius had planned to give to Hamlet.
Laertes meanwhile has poisoned his rapier's tip and in the next scuffle he
manages to wound Hamlet. They continue fighting and Hamlet accidentally
exchanges rapiers with Laertes after which he wounds him as well. Both men
stop fighting when they realize that Gertrude has fallen onto the ground.
She tells Hamlet, "The drink, the drink - I am poisoned" (5.2.253) before
she dies. Laertes also falls to the ground from the poison he received when
Hamlet wounded him. He tells Hamlet that both of them are poisoned to death
and blames the king for everything.
Hamlet, realizing that the point of the rapier is envenomed, slashes at
Claudius and wounds him with it. The courtiers cry out, "Treason, treason!"
(5.2.265), but they cannot stop Hamlet who has also grabbed the poisoned
wine and is making Claudius drink it. Claudius quickly dies from the
poison. Laertes, still barely alive, tells Hamlet that he forgives him for
Polonius' death before he too dies.
Hamlet orders Horatio to stay alive and report everything he knows to the
public. Horatio instead has grabbed the cup and is preparing to commit
suicide, but at Hamlet's plea he relinquishes the poison. Osric enters the
room and tells them that Fortinbras has arrived with his army. Hamlet gives
Fortinbras his vote to become the next King of Denmark before he dies.
Fortinbras and the English ambassadors arrive together. Fortinbras looks
over the scene of carnage and compares it too a massacre. The Englishmen
inform Horatio that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been put to death.
Horatio takes charge and tells Fortinbras and the ambassadors to put the
bodies on a stage in view of the public so that he may tell the full story
of what has happened. Fortinbras agrees with this and orders his men to
obey Horatio. He compares the scene to a battlefield and ends the play by
ordering the soldiers to shoot their guns in honor of Hamlet's death.

King Lear

    Act I Summary: scene i:
    Gloucester and Kent, loyal to King Lear, objectively discuss his
division of the kingdom (as Lear is preparing to step down) and to which
dukes, Cornwall and Albany, they believe it will equally fall. Kent is
introduced to Gloucester's illegitimate son, Edmund. Gloucester
nonchalantly admits that the boy's breeding has been his charge ever since
impregnating another woman soon after his legitimate son, Edgar, was born.
Kent is pleased to meet Edmund. Gloucester mentions that Edmund has been
nine years in military service and will return shortly.
    Lear enters and sends Gloucester to find France and Burgundy,
Cordelia's suitors. He then begins to discuss the partitioning of Britain
he has devised to each of his three daughters and their husbands. Lear
decides to ask each of his daughters to express how much they love him
before he hands over their piece of the kingdom. As oldest, Goneril speaks
first, expressing her love as all encompassing. Regan adds that she is
enemy to other joys. Lear gives each their parcel, wishing them well.
Cordelia, as the youngest and most liked daughter, is saved the choicest
piece of land. However, she responds to her father's request by saying she
has nothing to add. She loves only as much as her obligation entitles and
will save some of her love for a husband. Lear is enraged and hurt. After
giving her a few chances, he strips Cordelia of any title or relation. Kent
intercedes on her behalf but he too is estranged by Lear. Kent cries that
honesty will continue to be his guide in any kingdom.
    Cordelia's suitors enter. Lear apprises them of Cordelia's new state of
non-inheritance. Burgundy cannot accept her under the circumstances, but
France finds her more appealing and takes her as his wife. Cordelia is not
unhappy to leave her sisters and leaves with France. Goneril and Regan
conspire to take rule away from Lear quickly as he is becoming more
    scene ii:
    The scene centers around Edmund, at first alone on stage, crying out
against his position as bastard to the material world. He is envious of
Edgar, the legitimate son, and wishes to gain what he has by forging a
treasonous letter concerning Gloucester from Edgar. Gloucester enters,
amazed at the events which have occurred during the last scene. He wishes
to know why Edmund is hiding a letter and demands to see it. He shrewdly
acts as if he is embarrassed to show it to Gloucester and continually makes
excuses for Edgar's apparent behavior. Gloucester reads the letter
detailing "Edgar's" call to Edmund to take their father's land from him.
Edmund asks that he not make too quick a judgment before they talk to Edgar
as perhaps he is simply testing Edmund. He suggests forming a meeting where
Edmund can ask Edgar about his proposals while Gloucester listens in
secret. Gloucester agrees, musing on the effects of nature and its
predictions. He leaves directly before Edgar enters. Edmund brings up the
astronomical predictions he had discussed with Gloucester and alerts Edmund
that Gloucester is very upset with him, though he knows not why. Edmund
offers to take Edgar back to his lodging until he can bring he and
Gloucester together and advises him to go armed. Edgar leaves and Edmund
notes that he will soon take his due through wit.
    scene iii:
    Scene iii reintroduces Goneril, as she is outraged by the offenses she
contends Lear has been showing her since moving into her residence. He has
struck Oswald for criticizing his fool, his knights are riotous and so on,
she claims. Lear is out hunting. Goneril commands Oswald to allow her
privacy from Lear and to treat Lear with "weary negligence". She does not
want him to be happy, hoping that he will move to Regan's where she knows
he will face the same contempt. She demands Oswald to treat his knights
coldly as well. She leaves to write Regan.
    scene iv:
    Kent enters, disguised and hoping to serve in secret as a servant to
Lear so that he can help him though he is condemned. Lear accepts to try
him as a servant.Oswald comes in quickly before exiting again curtly. A
knight tells Lear that Goneril is not well and that Oswald answered him
curtly as well. The knight fears Lear is being treated wrongly. Lear had
blamed himself for any coldness but agrees to look into a problem in
Goneril's household. Lear's fool has hidden himself since Cordelia's
departure so Lear sends the knight for him. Oswald reenters, showing Lear
the negligence Goneril had suggested. Lear and Kent strike him, endearing
Kent in Lear's eyes. Oswald exits as Fool enters. Fool persistently mocks
and ridicules Lear for his actions in scene i, his mistreatment of
Cordelia, trust in Goneril and Regan, and giving up of his authority. He
calls Lear himself a fool, noting he has given away all other titles. The
fool notes that he is punished by Lear if he lies, punished by the
household if he speaks the truth, and often punished for staying silent.
    Goneril harps on the trouble Lear and his retinue are causing, such as
the insolence of Fool and the riotous behavior of the knights. She states
that he is not showing her the proper respect and consideration by allowing
these actions to occur. Lear is incredulous. Goneril continues by adding
that as Lear's large, frenzied train cannot be controlled she will have to
ask him to keep fewer than his hundred knights. Outraged, Lear admits that
Goneril's offense makes Cordelia's seem small. As Albany enters, Lear
curses Goneril with infertility or, in its stead, a thankless child. He
then finds that his train has already been halved and again rages against
the incredible impudence Goneril has shown him. He angrily leaves for
Regan's residence. Albany does not approve of Goneril's behavior and is
criticized by her for being weak. Goneril sends Oswald with a letter to her
sister, detailing her fear that Lear is dangerous and should be curtailed
as soon as possible.
    scene v:
    Impatient, Lear sends the disguised Kent to bring letters to
Gloucester. The Fool wisely warns that Regan will likely act no better than
her sister had. He criticizes Lear for giving away his own home and place,
using examples such as a snail carrying his shell. Lear recognizes he will
have to subdue his fatherly instincts toward Regan as well. Fool points out
that Lear has gotten old before he is wise. Lear cries out, praying that he
will not go mad.
    Act II Summary: scene i:
    Act II begins with a return to the secondary plot of Edmund, Edgar, and
Gloucester. Edmund speaks with the courtier, Curan, who advises him that
Regan and Cornwall will arrive shortly at Gloucester's castle. He also
passes on the gossip that there may soon be a war between Cornwall and
Albany. After Curan leaves, Edmund expresses his delight over the news he
has learned as he can use that in his plot. Edgar enters and Edmund
cleverly asks if he has offended Cornwall or Albany. Edgar says he has not.
Edmund cries that he hears Gloucester coming and forces Edgar to draw his
sword with him. Telling Edgar to flee, Edmund then wounds himself with his
sword before calling out to Gloucester for help. Gloucester arrives quickly
and sends servants to chase down the villain. Edmund explains that he would
not allow Edgar to persuade him into murdering their father causing Edgar
to slash him with his sword. He continues that Edgar threatened him and by
no means intended to permit Edmund, an "unpossessing bastard", to stop him
from his evil plot. Gloucester is indignant and claims that Edgar will be
captured and punished. He promises that Edmund will become the heir of his
    At this point, Cornwall and Regan enter the scene, wondering if the
gossip they had heard about Edgar is correct. Gloucester confirms it is.
Edmund cleverly confirms Regan's fear that Edgar was acting as part of
Lear's riotous knights. Cornwall acknowledges the good act Edmund has done
for Gloucester and promises to take him into their favor. After Gloucester
and Edmund thank them, Regan explains why she and Cornwall have come to
Gloucester's castle. She had received a letter from Goneril and so had left
home to avoid Lear. She asks for Gloucester's assistance.
    scene ii:
    Oswald, Goneril's servant, and Kent, still disguised as Lear's servant
Caius, meet at Gloucester's castle after first trekking to Cornwall's
residence with messages. Oswald does not first recognize Kent but Kent
recognizes him and responds to him curtly with curses and name-calling. He
claims that Oswald comes with letters against the King and sides with his
evil daughter. He calls Oswald to draw his sword at which Oswald cries out
for help. The noise brings in Edmund, Cornwall, Regan, Gloucester, and some
    When asked what the commotion is, Kent continues to insult Oswald, who
is breathless. Oswald claims that he has spared Kent because of his grey
beard at which Kent scoffs. He describes that Oswald is like a dog,
ignorantly following a master. To Cornwall's incredulousness, Kent says
that he does not like the look of his face. Oswald explains that Kent had
no reason to strike him in Lear's company or to draw on him at
Gloucester's. Kent refers to Cornwall and Regan as cowards and they call
for the stocks. Regan comments that they should leave him not only until
noon, as Cornwall had suggested, but for over a day. Gloucester protests
but is overruled. After the others have exited, Gloucester apologizes to
Kent and admits that the Duke is to blame. Alone, Kent muses over a letter
he has received from Cordelia, implying that she knows he has taken
disguise and promises to try to save her father from the evil of her
sisters. Kent recognizes he is at the bottom of luck. He falls asleep.
    scene iii:
    Scene iii is solely a soliloquy by Edgar discussing his transformation
into poor Tom, the beggar. He tells us that he has just missed being hunted
as he heard them coming for him and hid in a hollow tree. In order to
remain safe, he proposes to take on "the basest and most poorest shape",
that of a beggar. He covers himself with dirt and filth, ties his hair in
knots, strips off much of his clothing, and pricks his skin with pins and
nails and so on. He no longer resembles Edgar.
    scene iv:
    Lear enters the scene with his fool and a gentleman, who tells him that
he was not advised of Regan and Cornwall's removal to Gloucester's castle.
They come upon Kent, still in the stocks. Lear does not believe that Regan
and Cornwall would commit such an offense to Lear has to place his servant
in the stocks but Kent reassures him that they have. He stresses that their
punishment came only because he was angered enough by Oswald's presence and
his letter to Regan to draw his sword upon Oswald. Fool comments on human
nature, retorting that children are only kind to their parents when they
are rich and that the poor are never given the chance for money. Lear feels
ill and goes to look for Regan. Kent asks why Lear's train has shrunk to
which Fool replies that many have lost interest in Lear as he has lost his
riches and power. He advises all that are not fools to do the same.
    Lear returns, amazed that Regan and Cornwall refuse to speak with him
over weariness from travel. Gloucester attempts to excuse them by
mentioning Gloucester's "fiery quality". Lear is enraged by this excuse.
Although he momentarily considers that Gloucester may truly be ill, he is
overwhelmed by anger and threatens to beat a drum by their door until they
speak to him. Gloucester leaves to get them and shortly returns with them.
They appear to act cordial at first to Lear and set Kent free. Lear is
cautious toward Regan and tells her that if she is not truly glad to see
him he would disown her and her dead mother. He expresses his grief to her
over his stay with Goneril and Goneril's demands on him. Regan replies that
he is very old and should trust their counsel. She advises him to return to
Goneril and ask for her forgiveness as she is not yet prepared to care for
him. Lear admits that he is old but pleads with Regan to care for him. She
again refuses even with his arguments that Goneril has cut his train and
his subsequent curses of Goneril. Regan is horrified. Lear pleads with her
to act better than her sister. He finally asks who put Kent in the stocks.
    Goneril arrives, as forecast in a letter to her sister. Lear calls on
the gods to help him and is upset that Regan takes Goneril by the hand. He
asks again how Kent was put in the stocks and Cornwall replies that that it
was his order and Lear is appalled. Regan pleads again for him to return to
Goneril's but he still holds hope that Regan will allow him all hundred of
his train. However, Regan assures him that she has no room for the knights
either and alerts him that he should only bring twenty-five with him after
his month stay with Goneril. Lear replies that he has been betrayed after
giving his daughter's his all, his land, authority and his care. He decides
to go then with Goneril as she must love him more if she will agree to
fifty knights. At this point, Goneril diminishes her claim, asking him if
needs twenty-five, ten, or five? Regan adds that he does not even need one.
Lear cries that need is not the issue. He compares his argument to Regan's
clothes which are too scant for warmth. She wears them not for need but for
vanity just as a King keeps many things he does not need for other reasons.
He hopes that he will not cry and fears that he will go mad. He leaves with
Fool, Kent, and Gloucester. A storm is heard approaching and Cornwall calls
them to withdraw. Regan and Goneril discuss how it is Lear's own fault if
they leave him out in the storm. Gloucester asks them to reconsider but is
again overruled. Regan has the house boarded up.
    Act III Summary: scene i:
    As it continues to storm, Kent enters the stage asking who else is
there and where is the King. A gentleman, one of Lear's knights, answers,
describing the King as struggling and becoming one with the raging elements
of nature. The King has been left alone except for his fool. Kent
recognizes the gentleman and fills him in on the events he has learned
concerning the Dukes and the news from France. He explains that a conflict
has grown between Albany and Cornwall which is momentarily forgotten
because they are united against Lear. He then mentions that French spies
and soldiers have moved onto the island, nearly ready to admit openly to
their invasion. He urges the gentleman to hurry to Dover where he will find
allies to whom he can give an honest report of the treatment to the King
and his declining health. Kent gives him his purse and a ring to confirm
his honor and to show to Cordelia if he sees her. They move out to look for
Lear before the gentleman leaves on his mission.
    scene ii:
    We meet Lear, raging against the storm, daring the storm to break up
the Earth. Fool pleads with him to dodge his pride and ask for his
daughters' forgiveness so that he can take shelter in the castle. Lear
notes that the storm, unlike his daughters, owes him nothing and has no
obligation to treat him any better. Still, the storm is joining to help his
ungrateful daughters in their unnecessary punishing of him. The fool says
he is foolish, nevertheless, to reside in the house of of the storm but
Lear responds that he will say nothing to his daughters.
    Kent enters, pleased to have found the King, and remarks that he has
never witnessed a more violent storm. Lear cries that the gods will now
show who has committed any wrongs by their treatment in the storm and Kent
pushes him toward a cave where they can find a little shelter. Lear agrees
to go, recognizing the cold which must be ravaging he and his fool. Before
entering the hovel, Fool prophecies that when the abuses of England are
reformed, the country will come into great confusion.
    scene iii:
    Gloucester and Edmund speak in confidence. Gloucester complains of the
unnatural dealings of Cornwall and Regan, taking over his home and
forbidding him to help or appeal for Lear. Edmund feigns agreement. Taking
him further in confidence, Gloucester alerts him to the division between
Albany and Cornwall. He then tells him that he has received a letter, which
he has locked in the closet because of it dangerous contents, divulging
that a movement has started to avenge Lear at home. Gloucester plans to go
find him and aid him until the forces arrive to help. He tells Edmund to
accompany the Duke so that his absence is not felt and if they ask for him
to report that he went to bed ill. Gloucester notes that he is risking his
life but if he can save the King, his death would not be in vain. After he
departs, Edmund tells the audience that he will alert Cornwall immediately
of Gloucester's plans and the treasonous letter. The young will gain, he
comments, where the old have faltered.
    scene iv:
    Kent and Lear find their way to the cave, where Lear asks to be left
alone. He notes that the storm rages harsher in his own mind and body due
to the "filial ingratitude" he has been forced to endure. Thinking it may
lead to madness, Lear tries not to think of his daughters' betrayal.
Feeling the cruelty of the elements, Lear remarks that he has taken too
little care of the poor who often do not have shelter from such storms in
life. The fool enters the cave first and is frightened by the presence of
Edgar disguised as poor Tom. Edgar enters, speaking in confused jargon and
pointing to the foul fiend who bothers him greatly. Lear decides that Tom
must have been betrayed by daughters in order to have fallen to such a
state of despair and madness. Kent attempts to tell Lear that Tom has no
daughters, but Lear can comprehend no other reason. Fool notes that the
cold night would turn them all into madmen. Lear finds Tom intriguing and
asks him about his life, to which Edgar replies that Tom was a serving man
who was ruined by a woman he had loved. Lear realizes that man is no more
than what they have been stripped to and begins to take off his clothes
before Fool stops him.
    Gloucester finds his way to the cave. He questions the King's company
before remarking that he and Lear must both hate what their bodies have
given birth to, namely Edgar, Regan, and Goneril. Although he has been
barred from securing shelter in his own castle for Lear, Gloucester
entreats the King to come with him to a better shelter. Lear wishes to stay
and talk with Tom, terming him a philosopher. Kent urges Gloucester to
plead with Lear to go, but Gloucester notes it is no surprise that Lear's
wits are not about him when his own daughters seek his death. Lear is
persuaded to follow Gloucester when they agree to allow Tom to accompany
    scene v:
    Cornwall and Edmund converse over the information Edmund has shared
with him. Edmund plays the part of a tortured son doing his duty for the
kingdom. Cornwall muses that Edgar's disloyalty is better understood in
terms of his own father's betrayal. Handing over the letter Gloucester had
received, Edmund cries out wishing that he were not the filial traitor.
Cornwall makes Edmund the new Earl of Gloucester and demands he find where
his father is hiding. In an aside, Edmund hopes he will find Gloucester
aiding the King to further incriminate him although it would be greater
filial ingratitude on his part. Cornwall offers himself as a new and more
loving father to Edmund.
    scene vi:
    Gloucester finds the group slightly better shelter and then heads off
to get assistance. Edgar speaks of the foul fiend and Fool tells the King a
rhyme, concluding that the madman is the man who has too greatly indulged
his own children. Lear pretends to hold a trial for his evil daughters,
placing Edgar, the fool, and Kent on the bench to try them. Lear tries
Goneril first and then Regan before crying that someone had accepted a
bribe and allowed one to escape. Kent calls for him to remain patient as he
had often been in the past and Edgar notes in an aside that he has nearly
threatened his disguise with tears. He tells Lear that he will punish the
daughters himself. Lear appreciates the gesture and claims that he will
take Tom as one of the hundred in his train if he will agree to change his
seemingly Persian garments. As Gloucester returns, he urges Kent to keep
the King in his arms due to the death threats circulating. There is a
caravan waiting which will take Lear to Dover and safety if they hurry.
Edgar is left on stage and soliloquizes that the King's pains are so much
greater than his own and he will pledge himself to helping him escape
    scene vii:
    Cornwall calls for Goneril to bring the letter concerning France's
invasion to her husband and calls to his servants to seek out the traitor,
Gloucester. Regan and Goneril call for tortuous punishment. Edmund is asked
to accompany Goneril so as not to be present when his father is brought in.
Oswald enters and alerts the court to the news of Gloucester's successful
move of the King to Dover. As Goneril and Edmund depart, Cornwall sends
servants in search of Gloucester. Gloucester enters with servants and
Cornwall commands that he be bound to a chair. Regan plucks his beard as he
protests that they are his guests and friends.They interrogate him on the
letter he received from France and his part helping King Lear. Gloucester
responds that he received the letter from an objective third-party but he
is not believed. He admits that he sent the King to Dover, explaining that
he was not safe out in the terrible storm nor in the company of those who
would leave him in such conditions. He hopes that Lear's horrific children
will have revenge light upon them. Cornwall answers that he will see no
such thing, blinding one of his eyes.
    A servant speaks up in Gloucester's defense and is quickly stabbed by
Regan using the sword Cornwall had drawn. Before the servant dies, he cries
that Gloucester has one eye remaining to see harm come to the Duke and
Duchess. Cornwall immediately blinds the other eye. Gloucester calls out
for Edmund to help him in the time of peril to which Regan replies that it
was Edmund who had alerted them to Gloucester's treachery. At this low
point, Gloucester realizes the wrong he has shown Edgar if Edmund has done
such evil. Regan has Gloucester thrown out of the castle and then helps
Cornwall, who has received an injury, out of the room. Two servants discuss
the incomprehensible evil of Cornwall and Regan, proposing to aid
Gloucester in his blind stumbles. One of the servants leaves to find him
while the other searches for ointments to sooth Gloucester's wounds.
    Act IV Summary: scene i:
    Edgar is alone on stage soliloquizing about his fate. He seems more
optimistic than earlier, hoping that he has seen the worst. This changes
when Gloucester and an old man enters, displaying to Edgar the cruelty of
Regan and Cornwall's punishment. Gloucester urges the old man aiding him to
leave him, noting that his blindness should not affect him as "I have no
way, and therefore want no eyes;/ I stumbled when I saw" (IV.1.18-19). He
then laments the fool he has been toward his loyal son, Edgar. The old man
tells him a mad beggarman is present to which Gloucester replies that he
cannot be too mad if he knows to beg. Ironically, he notes that his
introduction to a madman the night before (who was poor Tom) had made him
think of Edgar. This causes Edgar further pain. Gloucester again urges the
old man to leave, commenting that poor Tom can lead him. He reasons that
the time is such that madmen will lead the blind and tells the old man to
meet them in a mile with new clothes for the beggar. The old man agrees to
and leaves.
    Edgar wishes he did not have to deceive his father but reasons that he
must. He speaks in his poor Tom manner of all of the fiends whom have
plagued him. Gloucester gives him his purse, hoping to even out some of the
inequality which exists between them, and asks him to lead him to the
summit of the high cliff in Dover and leave him there.
    scene ii:
    Goneril and Edmund are en route to Goneril's home when Goneril asks
Oswald why her husband has not met them. Oswald answers that Albany is a
changed man. To all events Oswald expects he would be pleased by, he is
upset and vice versa. The examples Oswald gives are the landing of the
French army at which Albany smiled and Edmund's betrayal of Gloucester to
which Albany was very displeased. Goneril is disgusted and sends Edmund
back to Cornwall's with a kiss, telling him that she will have to become
master of her household until she can become Edmund's mistress.
    After Edmund's departure, Albany enters and greets Goneril with disgust
toward her character and the events with which she and Regan have been
involved. He notes that humanity is in danger because of people like her.
Goneril responds that he is weak, idly sitting by and allowing the French
to invade their land without putting up protest or guarding against
traitors. He lacks ambition and wisdom. The woman form she takes, Albany
proclaims, disguises the fiend which exists beneath and if it were not for
this cover, he would wish to destroy her.
    A messenger enters, conveying the news that Cornwall has died from the
wound given him during the conflict with the servant who had stood up for
Gloucester after one of his eye's had been blinded. In this manner, Albany
learns of the treatment and subsequent blindness imparted to Gloucester by
the hands of Regan and Cornwall. Though horrified, Albany remarks that the
gods are at least conscious of justice and have already worked toward
avenging the death of Gloucester by killing Cornwall. The messenger then
delivers a letter to Goneril from Regan. In an aside, Goneril comments that
the news of Cornwall's death is bad for her in that it leaves Regan a widow
so she could easily marry Edmund. However, it may be a positive event since
it takes Cornwall's threat to her reign out of the picture. She leaves to
read and answer the letter. Albany asks the messenger of Edmund's location
when Gloucester was blinded. The messenger informs him that Edmund was with
Goneril at the time but that Edmund knew of the events which were to take
place because it was he who had informed on Gloucester's treason. Albany
swears to fight for Gloucester who has loved the good king and received
such horrible treatment.
    scene iii:
    We learn from Kent's conversation with a gentleman that the King of
France has had to return to France for important business and has left the
Marshal of France in charge. The gentleman informs him also of Cordelia's
response to Kent's letter. She was very moved, lamenting against her
sisters and their treatment of her father. Kent comments that the stars
must control people's characters if one man and one woman could have
children of such different qualities, like Cordelia and her sisters. Kent
notifies the gentleman that Lear refuses to see Cordelia as he is ashamed
of his behavior toward her. The gentleman confirms that Albany and
Cornwall's powers are advancing. Deciding to leave Lear with him, Kent goes
off to handle confidential business.
    scene iv:
    Pained, Cordelia laments the mad state of Lear and asks the doctor if
there is a way to cure him. Rest might be the simple answer, the doctor
replies, since Lear has been deprived of it. Cordelia prays for him and
hopes that he will be revived. She must leave briefly on business for
    scene v:
    Regan and Oswald discuss how Albany's powers are afoot. Oswald points
out that Goneril is the better soldier and informs Regan that Edmund did
not have a chance to speak with Albany. Regan asks what the letter which
Oswald brought from Goneril for Edmund says but Oswald knows only that it
must be of great importance. Regan regrets blinding Gloucester because
allowing him to live arouses sympathy which results in more parties turned
against Regan and her company. Stating that Edmund has gone in search of
Gloucester to put him out of his misery, she then claims that he is
checking out the strength of the enemy forces. She urges Oswald to remain
with her because the roads are dangerous. She is jealous of what she fears
the contents of the letter may be, namely entreaties to Edmund for his
love. Advising him to remind Edmund of the matters he had discussed with
her considering their marriage, Regan allows Oswald to continue. Oswald
agrees to halt Gloucester if he comes upon him and thus show to whom his
loyalty lies.
    scene vi:
    Edgar leads Gloucester to Dover and pretends they are walking up the
steep hill Gloucester wished to be taken to. Edgar says that it is steep
and he can hear the ocean, noting that Gloucester's other senses must have
grown dim as well if he cannot feel these things. Gloucester comments that
poor Tom's speech seems much more elevated than before so Edgar attempts to
drop back into his beggarman dialect. Edgar says they have reached the
highest spot and Gloucester asks to be placed where he is standing. He then
takes out another purse for Tom and requests to be left. Thinking Tom has
gone, Gloucester prays to the gods to bless Edgar and then wishes the world
farewell and falls forward of the cliff, he believes. Edgar approaches
again as another man entirely, playing along with the idea that Gloucester
has fallen off the high cliff and survived, calling it a miracle.
Gloucester believes what the man says, though he cannot look up to verify.
Edgar helps him up and questions the thing which left him at the top of the
cliff, making it sound like it was not an actual man but a spirit.
Gloucester is skeptical at first but realizes that would make sense for why
he lived.
    Stumbling onto the scene is Lear, still mad and wearing weeds. He
rambles on about being king and then bitterly speaks of Goneril and Regan
agreeing to all he said and then stabbing him in the back. Gloucester
recognizes the voice and Lear confirms he is the King. He lectures about
Gloucester's adultery being no cause to fear because his bastard son
treated him better than Lear's own daughters. He then rages on the evil
nature of women in his daughter's shapes, similar to Centaurs but fiends
from the waist down instead of horses. Gloucester is saddened by this
diatribe and wonders if Lear knows him. He does, but refuses to be saddened
by Gloucester's blindness since one sees the world better through other
venues than the eyes. In his ranting, Lear touches on such issues as the
artifice of politicians and others in positions of authority who cover up
their evil-doing and self-centered ambition with wealth and fashion. Edgar
notices the sanity in his madness. Lear then identifies Gloucester and
rages bitterly against the state of the world which has made them as they
    A gentleman enters and, glad to find Lear, calls for them to put a hand
upon him. Lear is afraid he is being taken prisoner but they are the
attendants of Cordelia and happy to follow Lear as King. Still confused and
mad, Lear runs out so they will not catch him. The gentleman informs Edgar
that the army is approaching speedily, except for Cordelia's men who are on
a special purpose and have moved on. When he leaves, Edgar assures
Gloucester that he will lead him to a biding place. Oswald enters, pleased
to have found Gloucester, and draws his sword upon him. Edgar interposes,
using a rustic accent to play the part of a peasant. They fight and Oswald
falls. Before dying, Oswald pleads with Edgar to take his purse and deliver
his letter to Edmund, "Earl of Gloucester". Edgar reads the letter which is
from Goneril, pleading with Edmund to slay Albany so Goneril can be free
and they can be together. Edgar vows to defend Albany and defeat the
lechers. Gloucester muses that he is self-centered to worry about his
plight when Lear is mad. He wishes though that he too were mad in order to
numb the pain he feels.
    scene vii:
    Cordelia thanks Kent for the goodness he has shown her father and the
bravery he has espoused. She asks him to discard his disguise but he knows
that he will be able to work better for Lear if he remains disguised. The
Doctor remarks that Lear has slept for a long while so that they may try
waking him. Lear is brought in, still sleeping. Hoping to resolve the
horrors committed by her sisters, Cordelia kisses Lear and reflects on the
vileness and ingratitude of her sisters, treating Lear worse than a dog by
shutting their doors on him in the storm. Lear wakes and Cordelia addresses
him. Lear feels awakened from the grave and wishes they had left him. Very
drowsy at first, Lear thinks Cordelia is a spirit and then realizes he
should know her and Kent (disguised) but has difficulty putting his memory
together. Finally he recognizes Cordelia, to her delight, but thinks he is
in France. The Doctor advises them to give Lear his space so Cordelia takes
him for a walk. The gentleman remains and asks Kent if the rumors of
Cornwall's death and Edgar's position in Germany with the Earl of Kent are
true. Kent confirms the first, but leaves the latter unanswered. The
gentleman warns that the battle to come will be bloody.
    Act V Summary: scene i:
    Edmund sends an officer to learn of Albany's plans since he has become
so fickle. Regan approaches Edmund, sweetly asking him if he loves her
sister and if he has ever found his way into her bed. He replies that
though he loves in "honored love" he has done nothing adulterous or to
break their vow. Warning him to stay away from Goneril, Regan threatens
that she will not put up with her sister's entreaties to him. Goneril and
Albany enter as Goneril tells the audience that her battle for Edmund is
more important to her than the battle with France. Albany informs Regan of
Cordelia and Lear's reunion. Regan wonders why he brings up the subject of
the King and his grievances. Goneril points out that they must join
together against France and ignore their personal conflicts.
    As the two camps separate, Regan pleads with Goneril to accompany her
instead of the other camp where Edmund will be present. Goneril refuses at
first but then sees Regan's purpose and agrees. Edgar finds Albany alone
and asks him to read the letter to Edmund from Goneril he had intercepted.
Though he cannot stay while Albany reads it, he prays him to let the herald
cry when the time is right and he will appear again. Albany leaves to read
it when Edmund reenters to report of the oncoming enemy. In soliloquy,
Edmund wonders what he will do about pledging his love to both sisters. He
could take both of them, one, or neither. He decides to use Albany while in
battle and after winning, to allow Goneril to kill him. Moreover, he plans
to forbid any mercy Albany may show Cordelia and Lear because his rule of
the state is his highest priority.
    scene ii:
    The army of France, accompanied by Cordelia and Lear, crosses the stage
with their battle colors and drums and exits. Next, Edgar and Gloucester
enter. Edgar offers Gloucester rest under a nearby tree while he goes into
battle. The noises of the battle begin and end, at which time Edgar
reenters the stage to speak with Gloucester. He calls for Gloucester to
come with him as Cordelia and Lear have lost and been taken captive.
Entertaining ideas of suicide again, Gloucester tries to remain but Edgar
talks him into accompanying him, noting that men must endure the ups and
downs of life.
    scene iii:
    Edmund holds Cordelia and Lear prisoner. Trying to keep Lear's spirits
up, Cordelia tells him that they are not the first innocent people who have
had to endure the worst and she will be happy to endure for the King. She
asks if they will see Goneril and Regan but Lear rejects that notion. He
wants them to spend their days in prison enjoying their company, conversing
and singing and playing and debating the "mystery of things". As they are
taken away at Edmund's command, Lear encourages Cordelia to dry her tears
and enjoy their reunion as they will never again be separated. Edmund
demands the subordinate captain follow Lear and Cordelia to prison and
carry out the punishment detailed by his written instructions. Threatened
with demotion, the captain agrees.
    Albany praises Edmund for his work in the battle and in obtaining his
prisoners. He then commands Edmund to turn Cordelia and Lear over into his
protection. Edmund replies that he thought it best to send Lear and
Cordelia into retention so that they did not arouse too much sympathy and
start a riot, but he assures Albany that they will be ready the next day to
appear before him. Albany warns Edmund to remember that he is only a
subordinate to which Regan replies that Edmund is in fact her husband and
thus an equal. Goneril proclaims that he is more honorable on his own merit
than as Regan's partner. Not feeling well, Regan implores Edmund to accept
all of her property and herself. Goneril asks if she means to be intimate
with him to which Albany retorts that the matter does not relate to her.
Edmund disagrees and Regan calls for him to take her title. Albany
interrupts, arresting Edmund for treason and barring any relationship
between Goneril and Edmund. He calls Edmund to duel, throwing down his
glove. Edmund throws down his glove as well and Albany alerts him that all
of his soldiers have been sent away. Feeling very ill, Regan is taken off.
    The herald reads aloud Albany's notice, calling for anyone who holds
that Edmund is a traitor to come support that claim. The trumpet is sounded
three times and Edgar, still disguised, appears after the last. Asked why
he has responded, Edgar states that he is a noble adversary who desires to
fight with Edmund, a traitor to "thy gods, thy brother, and thy father".
They fight and Edmund falls. Albany calls for him to be spared while
Goneril supports Edmund for fighting an unknown man when not required,
noting that he cannot be defeated. Albany quiets her with the letter she
wrote desiring Edmund's hand but Goneril retorts that as she is the ruler,
he can bring no punishment upon her. She leaves before he can take command
over her. Dying, Edmund asks his conqueror to reveal himself. Edgar tells
of his identity and their relation, noting that Edmund has rightly fallen
to the bottom as a result of his father's adulterous act, which also cost
Gloucester his sight. Edmund agrees that he has come full circle and Albany
rejoices in Edgar's true identity, sorrowful that he had ever worked
against him or his father. Edgar describes his disguise and how he led his
blinded father, protecting him and sheltering him. He had never revealed
his identity until a half hour before, telling his father the entire story.
Gloucester was so overwhelmed by the news that his heart gave out.
Furthermore, after learning who Edgar was, Kent revealed his identity to
Edgar, embracing him and spilling all of the horrid details of Lear's state
and treatment. Edgar then learned that Kent too was dying but was forced to
rush off as he heard the trumpet call.
    A gentleman runs onto the stage with a bloody knife, informing the
company that it was just pulled from Goneril's heart. She had stabbed
herself after admitting that she had poisoned Regan. Edmund notes that as
he had been contracted to both sisters, now all three would die. Albany
calls for the gentleman to produce the bodies and comments on the immediate
judgment of the heavens. Kent enters, hoping to say goodbye to Lear.
Realizing that he has forgotten about the safety of Cordelia and Lear in
the excitement, Albany demands Edmund to tell of their circumstances.
Edmund admits that he had ordered their murders but as he hopes to do some
good, he sends an officer to try to halt Cordelia's hanging. He and Goneril
had commanded it look like a suicide. Lear stumbles in, carrying the body
of Cordelia. Overcome by grief, Lear rages against the senseless killing of
Cordelia, admitting that he killed the guard who was hanging her. Lear
recognizes Kent, though he can hardly see, and Kent informs him that he has
been with him all along, disguised as his servant Caius. It is not clear if
Lear ever understands. Kent tells him that his evil daughters have brought
about their own deaths. A messenger enters to tell them that Edmund has
died. Albany tries to set things right, reinstating Lear's absolute rule
and Kent and Edgar's authority, promising to right all of the good and
punish the evil. Lear continues to mourn the loss of Cordelia and then dies
himself. Albany thus gives Kent and Edgar the rule of the kingdom to which
Kent replies that he must move on to follow his master, leaving Edgar as
the new ruler.


Act 1 Summary Act 1, scene 1
On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet
Macbeth amid thunder and lightning. Their conversation is filled with
paradoxes; they say that they will meet Macbeth "when the battle's lost and
won," when "fair is foul and foul is fair."
Act 1, scene 2
As the play opens, the Scottish army is at war with the Norwegian army.
Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a soldier returning from battle. The
soldier informs them of Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle, and
describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the traitorous Macdonwald, in
which Macbeth triumphed and planted the severed head of Macdonwald on the
battlements of the castle. The Thanes (lords) of Ross and Angus enter with
the news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to
strip the traitor Thane of his title and give the title of Thane of Cawdor
to Macbeth.
Act 1, scene 3
The Weird Sisters meet on the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with
Banquo, confirming the witches' paradoxical prophecy by stating "So foul
and fair a day I have not seen." The witches hail him as "Thane of Glamis"
(his present title), "Thane of Cawdor" (which title Macbeth does not know
he has been granted yet), and "king hereafter." Their greeting startles and
seems to frighten Macbeth. Banquo questions the witches as to who they are,
and they greet him as "lesser than Macbeth and greater," "not so happy, yet
much happier," and a man who "shall get kings, though [he] be none." When
Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish like bubbles into the
air. Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear, bearing the
news that the king has granted Macbeth the title of Thane of Cawdor.
Macbeth and Banquo step aside to discuss this news; Banquo is of the
opinion that the title of Thane of Cawdor might "enkindle" Macbeth to seek
the crown as well. Macbeth questions why good news like this causes his
"seated heart [to] knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature," and
his thoughts turn immediately and with terror to murdering the king in
order to fulfill the witches' second prophesy. When Ross and Angus notice
Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity
with his new title.
Act 1, scene 4
Duncan demands to know if the ex-Thane of Cawdor has been executed, and his
son Malcolm assures him that he has. While Duncan muses about the fact that
he mistakenly placed his "absolute trust" in the traitor Thane, Macbeth
enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty and bravery, and
announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of
Scotland (something he should not have done, since his position was
elected, not inherited). Duncan then states that he plans to visit Macbeth
at his home in Inverness. Macbeth leaves to prepare his home for the royal
visit, pondering the stumbling block that the king has just placed in front
of his ambitions with the announcement of his heir. The king follows with
Act 1, scene 5
At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth telling of his
meeting with the witches. She fears that his nature is not ruthless enough,
is "too full o' th' milk of human kindness," to murder Duncan and assure
the completion of the witches' prophesy. He has ambition enough, she
claims, but lacks the gumption to act on it. She then implores him to hurry
home so that she can "pour [her] spirits in [his] ear," in other words,
goad him on to the murder he must commit. When a messenger arrives with the
news that Duncan is coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to
"unsex me here" and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural
womanly compassion. When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and
Cawdor and urges him to "look like th'innocent flower, / but be the serpent
under ?t," and states that she will make all the preparations for the
king's visit and subsequent murder.
Act 1, scene 6
Duncan arrives at Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with
Lady Macbeth. He asks her where Macbeth is, and she offers to bring him to
where Macbeth waits.
Act 1, scene 7
Alone, Macbeth agonizes over whether or not to kill Duncan, stating that he
knows the king's murder is a terrible sin. He struggles not so much with
the horrifying idea of regicide as with the actual fact and process of
murdering a man ­ a relative, no less ­ who trusts and loves him. He would
like the king's murder to be over and done with already. He hates the fact
that he has "only / Vaulting ambition" without the motivation or
ruthlessness to ensure the attainment of his ambitions. Lady Macbeth
enters, and Macbeth tells her that he "will proceed no further in this
business." Taunting him for his fears and ambivalence, she tells him he
will only be a man when he commits this murder. She states that she herself
would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and dash its brains out if
she had to in order to attain her goals. She counsels him to "screw [his]
courage to the sticking place" and details the way they will murder the
king. They will wait until he is asleep, she says, then they will get his
bodyguards drunk. Then they will murder Duncan and lay the blame on the two
drunken bodyguards. Macbeth, astonished at her cruelty, warns her to "bring
forth male children only," since she is too tough and bloodthirsty to bear
girls. He resigns to follow through with her plans.
Act 2 Summary Act 2, scene 1
Banquo, who has also come to Inverness with Duncan and Fleance, wrestles
with the witches' prophesy; unlike Macbeth, he restrains the desire to act
on it that tempts him in his dreams. Macbeth enters and, when Banquo
questions him, pretends to have forgotten the witches' prophesy. When
Banquo and Fleance leave Macbeth alone, Macbeth imagines that he sees a
bloody dagger pointing toward Duncan's chamber. Frightened by this "dagger
of the mind," he prays that the earth will "hear not [his] steps" as he
completes his bloody plan. The bell rings ­ a signal from Lady Macbeth ­
and he exits into Duncan's room.
Act 2, scene 2
Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to return from killing Duncan. Hearing the
hoot of an owl ­ an omen of death ­ she assumes that he has done it, and
waits fitfully for him to appear. She hears a noise within and worries that
the bodyguards have awakened before Macbeth had a chance to plant the
evidence on them. Macbeth enters, still carrying the bloody daggers with
which he killed Duncan. He is shaken because as he entered Duncan's chamber
he heard the bodyguards praying and could not say "Amen" when they finished
their prayers. He takes this as a bad sign. Lady Macbeth counsels him not
to think "after these ways; so, it will make us mad." Unheeding, Macbeth
goes on to tell her that he also thought he heard a voice that said, "sleep
no more! / Macbeth does murder sleep . . . . Glamis [Macbeth] hath murdered
sleep, and therefore Cawdor [also Macbeth] / Shall sleep no more." Lady
Macbeth warns him not to think of such "brainsickly things" but to wash the
blood from his hand. Seeing the daggers he carries, she chastises him for
bringing them in and tells him to plant them on the bodyguards according to
the plan. When Macbeth, still horrified by the crime he has just committed,
will not do it, Lady Macbeth herself takes the daggers and brings them into
the guards' chamber.
While she is gone, Macbeth hears a knocking and imagines that he sees hands
plucking at his eyes. He mourns the fact that not even an entire ocean
could wash the blood from his hand. Lady Macbeth enters here and, hearing
this, states that her hands are just as stained as his, but she is not a
coward like him. She claims that "a little water clears us of this deed" ­
that washing the blood from their hands will wash the guilt from them as
well. She, too, hears knocking, and tells Macbeth to retire with her to
their chamber and put on their nightgowns; they cannot be out in the hall
and in their clothes when the others enter.
Act 2, scene 3
In a "comic relief" scene, the Porter (doorman) hears knocking at the gate
and imagines that he is the porter at the door to Hell. He imagines
admitting a farmer who has committed suicide after a bad harvest, an
"equivocator" who has committed a sin by swearing to half-truths, and an
English tailor who stole cloth to make fashionable clothes and visited
brothels. Since it is "too cold for hell" at the gate, he stops there
instead of continuing with a longer catalogue of sinners and opens the
door. Outside are Macduff and Lennox, who scold him for taking so long to
answer the door. The Porter claims that he was tired after drinking until
late, and delivers a small sermon on the ills of drink.
Macbeth enters, and Macduff asks him if the king is awake yet. On hearing
that the king is still asleep, Macduff leaves to wake him. While he is
gone, Lennox tells Macbeth that the night was full of strange events in the
weather ­ chimneys were blown down, birds screeched all night, the earth
shook, and ghostly voices were heard prophesying bad fortune. A stunned
Macduff returns with the news that the king is dead. He tells them to go
see for themselves and calls to the servants to ring the alarm bell and
wake the other guests.
Lady Macbeth and Banquo enter and Macduff informs them of the king's death.
Macbeth and Lennox return and Macbeth laments the king's death, claiming
that he witches he was dead instead of the king. Malcolm and Donalbain
appear and ask who murdered their father. Lennox tells them that the
bodyguards must have done it because they still had the king's blood on
their faces and hands and the daggers on their pillows. Macbeth tells them
that he has already killed the bodyguards in a grief-stricken rage. When
Malcolm and Donalbain question this act, Lady Macbeth pretends to faint in
order to distract them. Aside, Malcolm and Donalbain confer and decide that
their lives are threatened and they should flee. As Lady Macbeth is being
helped to leave, Banquo counsels the others to get together to analyze what
just happened and figure out what to do next. Leaving Malcolm and Donalbain
alone, they leave to meet in the hall. Malcolm decides that he will flee to
England, and Donalbain says that he will go to Ireland.
Act 2, scene 4
Ross and an old man discuss the unnatural events that have taken place
recently: days are as dark as nights, owls hunt falcons, and Duncan's
horses have gone mad and eaten each other. Macduff enters, and Ross asks
him who killed the king. Macduff tells him that the bodyguards did it, but
that Malcolm and Donalbain's hasty flight from Inverness has cast suspicion
on them as well. Ross comments that Macbeth will surely be named the next
king, and Macduff says that he has already been named and has gone to Scone
to be crowned. Ross leaves for Scone to see the coronation, and Macduff
heads home to Fife.
Act 3 Summary Act 3, scene 1
At Macbeth's court, Banquo voices his suspicions that Macbeth has killed
Duncan in order to fulfill the witches' prophesies. He muses that perhaps
this means that the witches' vision for his future will come true as well,
then pushes this thought from his mind. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth enter to
the sound trumpets, along with Lennox and Ross. Macbeth announces that he
will hold a banquet that evening, and that Banquo will be the chief guest.
Banquo states that he must ride this afternoon, but he will be back in time
for supper. Macbeth tells him that Malcolm and Donalbain will not confess
to killing their father, and asks if Fleance will accompany Banquo on his
trip (he will), then wishes Banquo a safe ride.
Left alone, Macbeth summons the two murderers he has hired. While he waits
for them, he gives voice to his greatest worry of the moment ­ that the
witches' prophesy for Banquo will come true, and that Banquo's children
will inherit the throne instead of his own. He will put an end to that
thought by killing Banquo and Fleance. The murderers enter. These men are
not "murderers" by trade but poor men who are willing to do anything to
make some money. Macbeth has evidently sent them letters stating that
although they think Macbeth is the cause of their present poverty, the real
cause is Banquo, and that he will reward them richly if they would kill
Banquo for him. The Murderers respond that they are so "weary with
disasters [and] tugged with fortune" that they are "reckless what / [they]
do to spite the world." Macbeth tells them that Banquo is his own enemy as
well as theirs, but that loyal friends of Banquo's prevent him from killing
him himself. Macbeth tells them the particulars of the murder: they must
attack him as he is coming back from his ride, at a distance from the
palace in order to avert suspicion. They must also kill Fleance, and
perform these murders at exactly the right time.
Act 3, scene 2
Alone, Lady Macbeth expresses her unhappiness: there seems to be no end to
her desire for power, and she feels unsafe and doubtful. Macbeth enters,
looking upset, and she again counsels him not to spend his time alone
worrying about what they have done. Macbeth states that their job is not
done, and that he spends every waking moment in fear and each night
embroiled in nightmares. He says that he envies Duncan, who sleeps
peacefully in his grave. Lady Macbeth warns him to act cheerful in front of
their dinner guests, and Macbeth says that he will, and asks her to pay
special attention to Banquo tonight, both in speech and looks. Lady Macbeth
tries to comfort him by reminding him that although Banquo and Fleance
live, they are not immortal, and he should not fear them. Macbeth responds
elusively, telling her that "a deed of dreadful note" will be done tonight;
he will not tell her more.
Act 3, scene 3
The two murderers are joined by a third, who says that he has also been
hired by Macbeth. Horses are heard approaching, and Banquo and Fleance
enter. The murderers attack Banquo, but Fleance flees. The murderers leave
to report back to Macbeth.
Act 3, scene 4
At the banquet, Macbeth is just welcoming his guests when one of the
murderers comes to the door. He informs Macbeth that Banquo is dead but
Fleance has escaped. Shaken, Macbeth thanks him for what he has done and
arranges another meeting the next day. The murderer leaves and Macbeth
returns to the feast. Standing next to the table, he announces that the
banquet would be perfect if only Banquo were there. At this point, unseen
by any, Banquo's ghost appears and sits in Macbeth's seat. The guests urge
Macbeth to sit and eat with them, but Macbeth says that the table is full.
When Lennox points to Macbeth's empty seat, Macbeth is shocked to see
Banquo sitting there. He addresses the ghost, saying, "Thou canst not say I
did it. Never shake / Thy gory locks at me." The guests, confused by his
behavior, think that he is ill, but Lady Macbeth reassures them, saying
that he has had "fits" like this since youth, and that he will soon be
well. She draws Macbeth aside and tries to talk some sense into him,
telling him that this is just a hallucination brought on by his guilt, like
the dagger he saw before he killed Duncan. Ignoring her, Macbeth charges
the ghost to speak, and it disappears. Disgusted, Lady Macbeth scolds him
for being "unmanned in folly." Turning back to his guests, Macbeth tells
them that he has "a strange infirmity" that they should ignore.
Just as the party begins again and Macbeth is offering a toast to Banquo,
the ghost reappears, and Macbeth again yells at it. Lady Macbeth again
tries to smooth things over with the guests. The ghost exits again and Lady
Macbeth scolds Macbeth him. This time Macbeth responds in kind, telling her
that he is shocked that she can look on sights such as this and not be
afraid. Ross asks what sights Macbeth means, and Lady Macbeth tells the
guests that they should leave, because Macbeth's "illness" is getting
The guests leave, and Macbeth, frightened, says that he takes this
appearance as an omen. He decides that he will go back to the Weird Sisters
the next day and ask to hear more.
Act 3, scene 5
On the heath, the witches meet Hecate, queen of witches, who chastises them
for meddling in Macbeth's affairs without involving her or showing him any
fancy magic spectacles. She tells them that Macbeth will visit them
tomorrow, and that they must put on a more dramatic show for him.
Act 3, scene 6
Lennox and another lord discuss politics. Lennox comments sarcastically on
the recent deaths of Duncan and Banquo, saying that it seems almost
impossible for Malcolm and Donalbain to be inhuman enough to kill their
father, and that Macbeth's slaying of the bodyguards was pretty convenient,
since they would probably have denied killing Duncan. Lennox proposes that
if Malcolm, Donalbain, and Fleance were in Macbeth's prison, they would
probably be dead now too. He also reveals that since Macduff did not attend
Macbeth's feast, he has been denounced. The lord with whom Lennox speaks
comments that Macduff has joined Malcolm at the English court, and that the
two of them have asked Siward to lead an army against Macbeth. Lennox and
the lord send their prayers to Macduff and Malcolm.
Act 4 Summary Act 4, scene 1
The witches circle their cauldron, throwing into it the elements of their
magic spell while chanting "double, double toil and trouble; / Fire burn,
and cauldron bubble." Hecate appears, and they all sing together, then
Hecate leaves again. Macbeth enters, demanding answers. The witches
complete their magic spell and summon forth a series of apparitions. The
first is an Armed Head (a head wearing a helmet), that warns Macbeth to
beware the Thane of Fife (Macduff). The second apparition is a bloody
child, who tells him that "none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth."
Hearing this, Macbeth is bolstered, and states that he no longer needs to
fear Macduff then. The third apparition is a child wearing a crown, with a
tree in its hand, who says that "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until /
Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill [Macbeth's castle] / Shall come
against him." This cheers Macbeth even more, since he knows that nothing
can move a forest. Macbeth now asks his last question: will Banquo's
children ever rule Scotland?
The cauldron sinks, and a strange sound is heard. The witches now show
Macbeth the "show of kings": a procession of eight kings, the eighth of
whom holds a mirror in his hand, followed by Banquo. As Banquo points at
this line of kings, Macbeth realizes that they are indeed his family line,
and that the witches' words were true. The witches dance and disappear, and
Lennox enters, with the news that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth
resolves that from now on he will act immediately on his ambitions, and the
first step he will take will be to seize Fife and kill Macduff's wife and
Act 4, scene 2
At Fife, Ross visits Lady Macduff, who is frightened for her own safety now
that her husband has fled. He reassures her by telling her that her husband
did what he had to do, and takes his leave, telling her that he will return
soon. After he leaves, Lady Macduff engages her son in a conversation about
his missing father. The little boy shows wisdom beyond his years in his
side of the discussion. A messenger interrupts them with a warning to flee
the house immediately. But before Lady Macduff can go anywhere, Macbeth's
hired murderers attack the house and kill everyone in it.
Act 4, scene 3
Macduff has arrived at the English court and meets with Malcolm. Malcolm,
remembering his father's mistaken trust in Macbeth, tests Macduff by
confessing that he is a greedy, lustful and sinful man, who makes Macbeth
look like an angel in comparison. Macduff despairs and says that he will
leave Scotland forever if this is the case, since there seems to be no man
fit to rule it. Hearing this, Malcolm is convinced of Macduff's goodness
and reveals that he was merely testing him; he has none of these faults to
which he has just confessed. In fact, he claims, the first lie he has ever
told was this false confession to Macduff. He then announces that Siward
has assembled an army of ten thousand men and is prepared to march on
A messenger appears and tells the men that the king of England is
approaching, attended by a crowd of sick and despairing people who wish the
king to cure them. The king, according to Malcolm, has a gift for healing
people with the laying on of hands.
Ross enters, just come from Scotland, and reports that the country is in a
shambles. When Macduff asks how his wife is, Ross replies "Ay, well,"
meaning that they are now beyond Macbeth's grasp. Pressed further, he
relates the story of her death. Macduff is stunned speechless, and Malcolm
urges him to cure his grief by acting, and getting revenge on Macbeth.
Macduff replies "he has no children," meaning perhaps that Malcolm does not
know what it feels like to lose a child, or that Macbeth could never have
killed another man's children if he had children of his own. He is overcome
with guilt that he was gone from his house when it happened. Again Malcolm
urges him to put his grief to good use and seek revenge, and all three men
leave to prepare for battle.
Act 5 Summary Act 5, scene 1
Back at Dunsinane, the Scottish royal home, a gentlewoman who waits on Lady
Macbeth has summoned a doctor because Lady Macbeth has been walking in her
sleep. The doctor reports that he has watched her for two nights already
and has not seen anything strange. The gentlewoman describes how she has
seen Lady Macbeth rise, dress, leave her room, write something on a piece
of paper, read it and seal it, and return to bed, all without waking up.
When the doctor asks if the Lady said anything while sleepwalking, the
gentlewoman says that what the Lady said she does not dare to repeat. They
are interrupted by the sleepwalking Lady Macbeth, who enters carrying a
candle. The gentlewoman reports that Lady Macbeth asks to have light by her
all through the night. The doctor and the gentlewoman watch as Lady Macbeth
rubs her hands as if washing them and says " yet here's a spot . . . . Out,
damned spot, out I say!" As she continues to "wash" her hands, her words
betray her guilt to the watchers. She seems to be reliving the events of
the nights of Duncan and Banquo's deaths. She cannot get the stain or smell
of blood off her hand: "will these hands ne'er be clean? . . . . All the
perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand." The doctor is
shocked and understands that Lady Macbeth's words have heavy implications.
The sleepwalking lady imagines she hears knocking at the gate and returns
to her chamber. The doctor concludes that Lady Macbeth needs a priest's
help, not a physician's, and takes his leave, warning that he and the
gentlewoman had better not reveal what they have seen and heard.
Act 5, scene 2
Menteith, Caithness, Angus, and Lennox march with a company of soldiers
toward Birnam Wood, where they will meet up with Malcolm and the English
army. They claim that they will "purge" the country of Macbeth's sickening
Act 5, scene 3
At Dunsinane, Macbeth tires of hearing reports of nobles who have fled from
him to join the English forces. He recalls the witches' prophesy that he
has nothing to fear until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane or until he meets
up with a man not born of woman, and since these events seem impossible, he
feels unstoppable. A servant enters with the news that then thousand men
have gathered to fight against them, and Macbeth sends him away, scolding
him for cowardice. He calls for his servant Seyton to help him put on his
armor, and asks the doctor who has been treating Lady Macbeth how she is.
The doctor replies that she is not sick but troubled with visions, and that
she must cure herself of these visions (presumably by confessing the crimes
she has committed). Macbeth is not pleased with this answer. As his
attendants begin to arm him, he facetiously asks the doctor if it he could
test the country's urine to find out what disease ails it, and give it a
purgative medicine to cure it. Fully armed, Macbeth begins to leave the
room. As he goes, he professes that he will not be afraid of anything until
Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane. Aside, the doctor confesses that he would
like to be as far away from Dunsinane as possible.
Act 5, scene 4
Malcolm, Siward, Young Siward, Macduff, Mentieth, Caithness, and Angus
march toward Birnam Wood. When they approach the forest, Malcolm instructs
each soldier to cut a branch from the trees and carry it in front of him as
the group marches on Dunsinane, in order to disguise their numbers. Siward
informs Malcolm that Macbeth confidently holds Dunsinane, waiting for their
approach. Malcolm comments that Macbeth must be incredibly optimistic,
since almost all of his men have deserted him. The army marches on toward
Act 5, scene 5
Macbeth confidently orders his men to hang his banners on the outer walls
of the castle, claiming that his castle will hold until the men who attack
it starve of famine. If only the other side was not reinforced with men who
have deserted him, he claims, he would not think twice about rushing out to
attack the English army head-on. He is interrupted by the sound of women
screaming within, and Seyton leaves to see what the trouble is. Macbeth
comments that he had almost forgotten what fear felt and tasted like.
Seyton returns and announces that Lady Macbeth is dead. Seemingly unfazed,
Macbeth comments that she should have died later. He stops to muse on the
meaning of life, which he says is "but a walking shadow, a poor player /
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more.
It is a tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying
A messenger enters and reports that he has seen something unbelievable: as
he looked out toward Birnam Wood, it looked like the forest began to move
toward the castle. Macbeth is stunned and begins to fear that the witch's
words may come true after all. He instructs his men to ring the alarm.
Act 5, scene 6
Malcolm tells his soldiers that they are near enough to the castle now to
throw down the branches they carry. He announces that Siward and Young
Siward will lead the first battle, and that he and Macduff will follow
behind. He tells his trumpeters to sound a charge.
Act 5, scene 7
Macbeth waits on the battlefield to defend his castle. He feels like a bear
that has been "baited": tied to a stake for dogs to attack. Young Siward
enters and demands his name. Macbeth responds that he will be afraid to
hear it: it is Macbeth. The two fight, and Macbeth kills Young Siward,
commenting, as he does, that Young Siward must have been born "of woman."
He exits. Macduff enters and shouts a challenge to Macbeth, swearing to
avenge his wife and children's deaths. He asks Fortune to let him find
Macbeth, and exits. Malcolm and Siward enter, looking for the enemy, and
Act 5, scene 8
Macbeth enters, contemplating whether or not he should kill himself, and
resolving that he is too brave to do so. Macduff finds him and challenges
him. Macbeth replies that he has avoided Macduff until his point, but now
he will fight. Macduff unsheathes his sword, saying that his sword will
speak for him. The men fight. As they fight, Macbeth tells him that he
leads a charmed life; he will only fall to a man who is not born of woman.
Macduff replies that the time has come for Macbeth to despair: "let the
angel whom thou still hast served / Tell thee Macduff was from his mother's
womb / Untimely ripped" (Macduff was born through the medieval equivalent
of a caesarian section)! Hearing this, Macbeth quails and says that he will
not fight. Macduff replies by commanding him to yield, and allow himself to
be the laughing stock of Scotland under Malcolm's rule. This enrages
Macbeth, who swears he will never yield to swear allegiance to Malcolm.
They fight on, and exit fighting.
Malcolm, Siward, and the other Thanes enter. They have won the battle, but
Malcolm states that Macduff and Young Siward are missing. Ross reports that
Young Siward is dead, and eulogizes him by stating that "he only lived but
till he was a man, / The which no sooner had his prowess confirmed / In the
unshrinking station where he fought, / But like a man he died." Siward asks
if his son's wounds were in his front (in other words, did he fight until
the end, instead of running away), and when he learns that they were, he
declares that he will mourn no more for him then, because he died a hero's
death, and Siward could not wish for a better death for any of his sons.
Macduff enters, carrying Macbeth's severed head, and shouts "Hail, King of
Scotland!" All the men return this shout and the trumpets flourish as
Malcolm accepts the throne. He then announces that he will make the thanes
earls now ­ up until then they had only been called thanes. He will call
back all the men whom Macbeth has exiled, and will attempt to heal the
scars Macbeth has made in the country. All exit, headed toward Scone to
crown Malcolm King of Scotland.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I, Scene One
Antonio, a merchant, is in a melancholic state of mind and unable to find a
reason for his depression. His friends Salerio and Solanio attempt to cheer
him up by telling him that he is only worried about his ships returning
safely to port. Antonio, however, denies that he is worried about his ships
and remains depressed. His two friends leave after Bassanio, Graziano and
Lorenzo arrive. Graziano and Lorenzo remark that Antonio does not look well
before exiting, leaving Bassanio alone with Antonio.
Bassanio informs Antonio that he has been prodigal with his money and that
he currently has accumulated substantial debts. Bassanio reveals that he
has come up with a plan to pay off his obligations by marrying Portia, a
wealthy heiress in Belmont. However, in order to woo Portia, Bassanio needs
to borrow enough money so that he can act like a true nobleman. Antonio
tells him that all his money is invested in ships at sea, but offers to
borrow money for him.
Act I, Scene Two
Portia, the wealthy heiress, discusses her many suitors with her noblewoman
Nerissa. She points out the faults that each of them has, often
stereotyping each suitor according to the country from which he has
arrived. Nerissa, a gentlewoman who works for Portia, asks her if she
remembers a soldier who stayed at Belmont several years before. Portia
recalls the man, and says, "Yes, yes, it was Bassanio" (1.2.97). Portia's
servingman then arrives with news that four of her suitors are leaving, but
another, the Prince of Morocco, has arrived.
Act I, Scene Three
Bassanio in engaged in conversation with Shylock, a Jew who makes his
living as a moneylender. Bassanio has asked him for a loan of three
thousand ducats, a very large sum at the time, for a period of three
months. He further tells Shylock that Antonio is to "be bound," meaning
that Antonio will be responsible for repaying the loan.
Shylock knows Antonio's reputation well, and agrees to consider the
contract. He asks Bassanio if he may speak with Antonio first, and Bassanio
invites Shylock to dinner. Shylock responds that he will never eat with a
Antonio arrives at that moment and Bassanio takes him aside. Shylock
addresses the audience and informs them that he despises Antonio. He bears
an old grudge against Antonio which is not explained, but Shylock is
further upset that Antonio lends out money without charging interest,
thereby lowering the amount he is able to charge for lending out his own
money. Shylock turns to Antonio and tells him why interest is allowed in
the Hebrew faith by quoting a biblical passage in which Jacob receives all
the striped lambs from his father-in-law. Antonio asks him if the passage
was inserted into the bible to defend interest charges. He states, "Was
this inserted to make interest good, / Or is your gold and silver ewes and
rams?" (1.3.90-91). Shylock replies that, "I cannot tell. I make it breed
as fast" (1.3.92).
Antonio is upset that Shylock is considering charging him interest on the
loan, and asks Shylock to loan the money without any interest. Shylock
tells him that, "I would be friends with you, and have your love"
(1.3.133). He offers to seal the bond, "in a merry sport" (1.3.141) without
charging interest, but as collateral for the loan demands a pound of
Antonio's flesh. Antonio thinks Shylock is only joking about the pound of
flesh, and is happy to seal the contract. He remarks that, "The Hebrew will
turn Christian; he grows kind" (1.3.174).
Act II, Scene One
The Prince of Morocco meets with Portia and tells her that he is often
considered very handsome on account of his black skin. She tells him that
unfortunately she does not have the right to choose the man who will marry
her. Instead, her father created three caskets from among which each suitor
must choose. Portia warns the Prince that if he chooses the wrong casket,
he must swear to never propose marriage to a woman afterwards. The Prince
of Morocco agrees to this condition and joins Portia for dinner before
attempting to choose.
Act II, Scene Two
Lancelot, referred to as a clown, is the servant to Shylock. He tells the
audience that he is thinking about running away from his master, whom he
describes as a devil. However, he cannot make up his mind about whether to
run away or not because his conscience makes him guilty when he thinks
about leaving Shylock.
Lancelot's father, and old man named Gobbo, arrives with a basket. He is
nearly completely blind and cannot see Lancelot clearly. Gobbo asks his son
which way leads to the Jew's house, meaning Shylock's house. He mentions
that he is searching for his son Lancelot. Lancelot decides to have some
fun with his father, and so he pretends to know a "Master Lancelot" (a term
for a gentleman's son, not a servant). He informs Gobbo that "Master
Lancelot" is deceased.
Gobbo is clearly upset by this, and Lancelot kneels down in front of him
and asks his father for his blessing. Gobbo at first does not believe that
Lancelot is really his son, but then he feels his head and recognizes him.
Lancelot tells his father that he is wasting away serving Shylock and that
he will turn into a Jew himself if he stays there much longer. Gobbo has
brought a present for Shylock, but Lancelot instead convinces his father to
give it to Bassanio, whom Lancelot hopes to have as his new master.
Bassanio, coming onto stage at that moment, accepts the gift of doves and
tells Lancelot that he may leave Shylock and join his service. He then
orders one of the men to get Lancelot a new uniform to wear, and sends
Lancelot away.
Graziano arrives and tells Bassanio that he wants to join him on the trip
to Belmont, where Bassanio plans to go and woo Portia. Bassanio feels that
Graziano is too loud and rude and asks him if he will be able to act more
appropriately. Graziano says that he can, and that he will "put on a sober
habit" (2.2.171). Bassanio then agrees to take him to Belmont.
Act II, Scene Three
Jessica, the daughter of Shylock, meets with Lancelot and tells him that
she will miss him after he leaves to go work for Bassanio. She hands him a
letter to take to Lorenzo, who is supposed to be a guest of Bassanio's that
night. After Lancelot leaves, Jessica remarks,

"Alack, what heinous sin is it in me

To be ashamed to be my father's child!

But though I am a daughter to his blood,

I am not to his manners. O Lorenzo,

If thou keep promise I shall end this strife,

Become a Christian and thy loving wife.

Jessica thus informs the audience that she is in love with Lorenzo, a
Christian. She intends to meet him soon and run away from her father's
house in order to marry Lorenzo.
Act II, Scene Four
Lorenzo, Graziano, Salerio and Solanio are preparing for a masque that
night. Lancelot arrives with the letter from Jessica and hands it to
Lorenzo. Lorenzo reads it and tells Lancelot to inform Jessica that he will
not fail her. Lancelot leaves to bring the news to Jessica, and also to
invite Shylock to Bassanio's house for dinner.
After the other two men leave, Lorenzo shows Graziano the letter from
Jessica. He tells his friend that he and Jessica plan to steal away from
her father's house that night, along with a great deal of her father's gold
and jewels.
Act II, Scene Five
Shylock informs Lancelot that he will have to judge for himself whether
Bassanio is a better master. He then calls Jessica, hands her the keys to
the house, and tells her that he must leave for dinner that evening.
Lancelot tells Shylock that there will likely be a masque that night. At
this news, Shylock orders Jessica to lock up the house and not look out the
windows. He says, "Let not the sound of shallow fopp'ry enter / My sober
house" (2.5.34-35).
As Shylock gets ready to depart, Lancelot privately tells Jessica that
Lorenzo will come for her that night. She is grateful for the message, and
after Shylock leaves she comments that, "I have a father, you a daughter
lost" (2.5.55).
Act II, Scene Six
Salerio and Graziano are part of the masquers partying through the street
of Venice. They stop and wait for Lorenzo, who has asked them to meet him
at a certain spot. Lorenzo arrives and thanks them for their patience. He
then calls out to Jessica, who appears in the window of Shylock's house
dressed as a man. She throws out a casket to Lorenzo filled with much of
her father's gold and jewels. Jessica then goes back inside and steals even
more ducats (golden coins) before joining the men on the street.
Everyone departs except for Bassanio, who unexpectedly meets Antonio.
Antonio tells him to get to the ship heading for Belmont, because the wind
has started blowing the right way and the ship is ready to depart.
Act II, Scene Seven
The Prince of Morocco is brought into a room containing three caskets,
gold, silver and lead. Portia tells him to make his choice. The Prince
reads the inscriptions on all the caskets. Gold reads: "Who chooseth me
shall gain what many men desire" (2.7.5). The silver casket has, "Who
chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves" (2.7.7). Finally, the dull
lead casket bears the inscription, "Who chooseth me must give and hazard
all he hath" (2.7.9).
Portia tells the Prince that the correct casket, or the one that will allow
him to marry her, contains a miniature picture of her likeness. The Prince
looks over all the inscriptions a second time, and decides that lead is too
threatening and not worth risking anything for. He also spurns the silver,
which he feels is too base a metal to hold such a beautiful woman as
Portia. The Prince therefore chooses gold.
Portia hands him the key, and he opens the casket to reveal a golden skull.
The skull holds a written scroll that poetically indicates that he chose
superficially. The Prince departs after a hasty farewell. Portia watches
him go, and remarks, "A gentle riddance. Draw the curtains, go. / Let all
of his complexion choose me so" (2.7.78-79).
Act II, Scene Eight
Salerio and Solanio meet in the street and discuss the hasty departure of
Bassanio and Graziano for Belmont. They further tell the audience that
Shylock returned home and discovered his daughter had run away with
Lorenzo. Shylock then woke up the Duke of Venice and tried to stop
Bassanio's ship, which had already set sail. Antonio assured Shylock that
Jessica was not on board the ship, but rather had been seen in a gondola
with Lorenzo. However, Shylock continues to blame Antonio for the loss of
his daughter and his money.
Solanio informs Salerio that Shylock was later seen in the streets crying,

"My daughter! O, my ducats! O, my daughter!

Fled with a Christian! O, my Christian ducats!

Justice! The law! My ducats and my daughter!

A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats,"

Solanio is worried about Antonio, whom he says had better repay his bond
with Shylock on time, because Shylock is furious about losing his daughter
and his money and blames Antonio for it. Salerio indicates that a Frenchman
mentioned a Venetian vessel had sunk in the English Channel the day before.
Both men hope that it is not Antonio's ship.
Act II, Scene Nine
The Prince of Aragon arrives in Belmont and decides to choose from among
the three caskets. Portia takes him into the room and makes him recite the
oath never to reveal which casket he chooses, and further to promise never
to marry should he choose the incorrect casket. The Prince of Aragon agrees
and starts to read the inscriptions.
He rejects lead because of the ominous warning, and thinks that gold refers
to the foolish populace. Instead he chooses silver which indicates he will
receive what he deserves. The Prince takes the key and opens the casket to
reveal a "blinking idiot" (2.9.53). The scroll indicates that those who are
self-loving deserve to be called idiots, and would not make good husbands
for Portia. The Prince is upset by his choice, but is forced to leave.
Portia is happy that the Prince has chosen the wrong casket. Her messenger
comes into the room at that moment and informs her that a young Venetian
has just arrived. Portia goes to see who it is, while Nerissa secretly
wishes that it might be Bassanio.
Act III, Scene One
Solanio and Salerio discuss the rumor that Antonio has lost yet a second
ship. Shylock enters and complains that both Solanio and Salerio had
something to do with his daughter's flight. They do not deny it, but
instead ask Shylock if he has heard about Antonio's losses.
Shylock tells them that Antonio should "look to his bond" and make sure he
repays the money, or else Shylock is planning on taking his pound of flesh.
Shylock is furious with Antonio, whom he blames for the loss of Jessica,
and also bears an older grudge against the man. He then delivers his famous
soliloquy, "Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions,
senses, affections, passions..." (3.1.49-50). The speech concludes with
Shylock saying that he will be revenged for all the times he has been
treated badly by Christians.
One of Antonio's servants arrives and bids Solanio and Salerio to go to
Antonio's house. They leave, and Tubal, another Jew, arrives to speak with
Shylock. Tubal has been in Genoa, where he tried to locate Jessica. He
tells Shylock that Jessica had been in the city, and had spent over eighty
ducats while there. She had also traded a turquoise ring for a monkey, a
ring which Shylock regrets losing because he had received it from his wife
Leah. However, Tubal also brings Shylock news that Antonio has lost yet a
third ship, and is almost certain to go bankrupt in the near future.
Shylock is excited by this news, since he has decided that he would rather
exact revenge on Antonio than receive his three thousand ducats back.
Act III, Scene Two
Portia tells Bassanio that she wants him to wait a month or two before
choosing from the caskets so that she may be guaranteed his company for a
while longer. Bassanio tells her that he is desperate to choose, and feels
like he is being tortured the longer he waits. Portia finally agrees to
take him into the room with the caskets.
Portia orders music to be played for Bassanio, and one of her servants
starts to sing a song in which the rhymes all rhyme with lead. Bassanio
speaks directly to the audience and tells them that too many things are
gilded and coated with ornaments. He therefore decides to do away with
gold, comparing it to Midas' greed. The silver casket he also ignores,
saying it resembles money and is therefore too common. He thus chooses the
lead casket and finds Portia's picture inside.
Bassanio is overjoyed by the picture and remarks that it is a beautiful
"counterfeit". He then takes the scroll and reads it: "You that choose not
by the view / Chance as fair and choose as true" (3.2.131-132). Bassanio
goes over to Portia with the note, and she offers him everything she owns,
including herself. Portia then hands Bassanio a ring as a token of her love
and commitment and tells him never to lose it. He promises, telling her
that if he ever stops wearing the ring it will be because he is dead.
Graziano then informs them that he would like to be married as well. He
tells Bassanio and Portia that he and Nerissa (the chambermaid to Portia)
are in love. Bassanio is thrilled for his friend and agrees to let them get
married as well.
Jessica, Lorenzo and Salerio arrive at Belmont. Bassanio is happy to see
all of them, but Salerio then hands him a letter from Antonio. Bassanio
turns pale at the news that Antonio has lost his fortune and his ships, and
he asks Salerio if it is true that all of Antonio's ventures have failed.
Salerio tells him it is true, and that Shylock is so excited about getting
his pound of flesh that even if Antonio could repay him he would likely
refuse it.
Portia asks what amount of money Antonio owes to Shylock, and then orders
Bassanio to return to Venice and offer Shylock six thousand ducats to
destroy the contract. She informs Bassanio and Graziano that she and
Nerissa will live like widows in their absence. They all agree to get
married first and then go straight to Venice to rescue Antonio.
Act III, Scene Three
Shylock has come to watch Antonio be taken away by a jailer. Antonio pleads
with Shylock to listen to him, but Shylock says, "I have sworn an oath that
I will have my bond," (3.3.4) and refuses to listen to any of the pleas for
mercy. After Shylock departs, Antonio tells Solanio that Shylock hates him
because he used to loan money to men who were in debt to Shylock, thus
preventing Shylock from collecting the forfeiture. Antonio is prepared to
pay his "bloody creditor" the next day in court, but prays that Bassanio
will arrive in time to watch him die.
Act III, Scene Four
Portia and Nerissa, worried about their new husbands, tell Lorenzo that
they are going to stay at a local monastery for a few days in order to
pray. After Lorenzo and Jessica leave, Portia sends her servant Balthasar
to her cousin Doctor Bellario with instructions that Balthasar should bring
anything Bellario gives him to Venice. Portia then informs Nerissa that
they are going to dress up as men and go to Venice in order to help their
Act III, Scene Five
Lancelot and Jessica are in an argument over whether she can be saved by
God since she was born a Jew. Lancelot tells her that since both her
parents are Jews, she is damned. She protests that she can be saved once
she becomes a Christian because her husband Lorenzo is a Christian.
Lancelot then makes a joke, and says that Lorenzo is a bad man because by
converting all the Jews he is raising the price of pork (since Jews do not
eat pork, but Christians do). Lorenzo then arrives and orders Lancelot to
go inside and prepare the table for dinner. He and Jessica praise Portia
for being such a wonderful hostess before entering the house to get their
Act IV, Scene One
Antonio is brought before the Duke and the magnificoes of Venice to stand
trial for failing to pay off his obligation to Shylock. The Duke is upset
about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful
way of freeing Antonio from his bond. Shylock enters the court and the Duke
tells him that all of the men gathered there expect him to pardon Antonio
and forgive the debt.
Shylock replies that he has already sworn by his Sabbath that he will take
his pound of flesh from Antonio. He is unable to provide a good reason for
wanting to punish Antonio in this manner, other than to say, "So can I give
no reason, nor I will not, / More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing
/ I bear Antonio" (4.1.58-60).
Bassanio then comes forward and offers Shylock the six thousand ducats as
repayment for the loan. Shylock tells him that even if there were six times
as much money offered to him, he would not take it. The Duke asks Shylock,
"How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none?" (4.1.87). Shylock responds
that he is doing nothing wrong, and compares his contract with Antonio to
the Christian slave trade. He tells the Duke that he does not demand that
the Christians should free their slaves, and therefore the Christians
should not demand that he free Antonio.
The Duke threatens to dismiss the court without settling the suit brought
by Shylock if Doctor Bellario fails to arrive. Salerio tells him that a
messenger has just come from Bellario, and Nerissa enters dressed as a man
and informs the Duke that Bellario has sent a letter to him. Shylock whets
his knife on his shoe, confident that he will receive his pound of flesh.
The letter from Bellario recommends a young and educated doctor to
arbitrate the case. The Duke asks where the young doctor is, and Nerissa
tells him that he is waiting outside to be admitted into the court. The
Duke orders him to be brought in, and Portia enters dressed as a man,
pretending to be a doctor named Balthasar.
Portia tells the Duke that she has thoroughly studied the case and then
asks, "Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?" (4.1.169). Antonio
and Shylock both step forward, and Portia asks Antonio if he confesses to
signing the contract. He does, and Portia then says that Shylock therefore
must be merciful. She delivers a short speech on mercy, but Shylock ignores
it and demands the contract be fulfilled. Portia then asks if no one has
been able to repay the amount, but since Shylock has refused the money
there is nothing she can do to make him take it. She comments that she must
therefore side with Shylock.
Shylock, impressed that Portia is supporting his case, says, "A Daniel come
to judgment, yea, a Daniel!" (4.1.218). Portia rules that Shylock has the
right to claim a pound of flesh from next to Antonio's heart according to
the bond. Antonio's bosom is laid bare and Shylock gets ready to cut.
Portia asks him if he has a surgeon ready to stop the bleeding once he has
taken his pound of flesh. Shylock says, "I cannot find it. 'Tis not in the
bond" (4.1.257).
Just as Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond
does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. The laws of Venice
are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of
the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. Shylock realizes that he
cannot cut the flesh without drawing blood, and instead agrees to take the
money instead. However, Portia is not willing to back down and instead only
gives him the pound of flesh, further saying that if he takes a tiny bit
more or less he will be put to death himself. Shylock, unable to comply
with this stipulation, decides to withdraw his case.
Portia tells Shylock to remain in the court. She says that Venice has a
further law which says that if any foreigner tries to kill a Venetian, the
foreigner will have half of his property go to the Venetian against whom he
plotted, and the state will receive the other half. In addition, the life
of the foreigner will be in the hands of the Duke, who may decide to do
whatever he wants to. Shylock is forced to kneel on the ground before the
court, but the Duke pardons his life before he can beg for mercy.
Shylock instead asks the Duke to kill him, saying, "Nay, take my life and
all, pardon not that. / You take my house when you do take the prop / That
doth sustain my house; you take my life /When you do take the means whereby
I live" (4.1.369-373). Antonio intervenes on Shylock's behalf, and asks the
Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his wealth. He further offers to take
care of the half he was awarded as a form of inheritance for Jessica and
Lorenzo. The only requirements Antonio puts on his offer are that Shylock
must convert and become a Christian, and further that he must give
everything he owns to Lorenzo upon his death.
Shylock, wretched and having lost everything he owns, tells the court that
he is content to accept these conditions. The Duke leaves and tells Antonio
to thank the young doctor who has saved his life. Bassanio and Graziano go
to Portia and thank her profusely, and Bassanio offers the young doctor
anything he wants. Portia decides to test her husband's trustworthiness,
and asks him for the engagement ring, the ring which she made him vow never
to part with. He refuses, and Portia and Nerissa leave. However, at
Antonio's urging, Bassanio takes off the ring and gives it to Graziano,
telling him to take it to Portia and invite her to dinner that night at
Act IV, Scene Two
Portia gives Nerissa the deed by which Shylock will pass his inheritance to
Lorenzo. She tells Nerissa to take it to Shylock's house and make him sign
it. At the moment Graziano catches up with the two women and gives the ring
to Portia. She is surprised that Bassanio parted with it after all, and
Nerissa decides to test Graziano in the same way. Nerissa takes the deed
and asks Graziano to show her the way to Shylock's house.
Act V, Scene One
Lorenzo and Jessica, still at Belmont, sit outside and enjoy the night.
They compare the night to the stories of Troilus and Cressida, Pyramus and
Thisbe, and Dido and Aeneus, and then extend the analogy to their own love
affair. They are interrupted by Stefano, who tells them that Portia is
returning home with Nerissa. Lancelot then arrives and informs Lorenzo that
Bassanio will also be back by morning. Both Lorenzo and Jessica return to
the house and listen to music.
Portia and Nerissa, dressed as themselves again, return home and enter the
building. Lorenzo recognizes Portia's voice and comes to greet her. She
orders the servants to pretend as if she had never left, and asks Lorenzo
and Jessica to do the same. Soon thereafter Bassanio, Graziano and Antonio
Nerissa demands that Graziano show her the ring he gave away to Portia's
"clerk" in Venice. They start to argue over it, with Graziano defending his
action as a form of kindness for Antonio. Portia overhears them and
pretends to "discover" what happened. She then demands that Bassanio show
her his ring, which he of course cannot do. Portia and Nerissa then berate
their husbands for giving away the rings, and even tell them that they
would prefer to sleep with the doctor and his clerk rather than with their
unfaithful husbands.
Antonio offers his assurance that neither Bassanio nor Graziano will ever
give away their wives' gifts again. Portia thanks him and asks him to give
Bassanio another ring to keep. Bassanio looks at the ring and recognizes it
as being the same ring he gave away. Portia then tells him that the doctor
came back to Belmont and slept with her. Bassanio is amazed and does not
know how to respond.
Portia finally clears up the confusion by informing Bassanio that she and
Nerissa were the doctor and the clerk. She further has good news for
Antonio, namely a letter that indicates that three of his ships arrived in
port safely. Nerissa then hands Lorenzo the deed from Shylock in which he
inherits everything after Shylock dies. The play ends with Graziano
promising to forever keep Nerissa's ring safe.


Act I, scene i:
Othello begins in the city of Venice, at night; Roderigo is having a
discussion with Iago, who is bitter at being passed up as Othello's
lieutenant. Though Iago had greater practice in battle and in military
matters, Cassio, a man of strategy but of little experience, was named
lieutenant by Othello. Iago says that he only serves Othello to further
himself, and makes shows of his allegiance only for his own gain; he is
playing false, and admits that his nature is not at all what it seems. Iago
is aware that the daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian nobleman of some
stature, has run off with Othello, the black warrior of the Moors.
Desdemona is Brabantio's daughter, and Brabantio, and many others, know
nothing of this coupling; Iago decides to enlist Roderigo, who lusts after
Desdemona, and awaken Brabantio with screams that his daughter is gone.
At first, Brabantio dismisses these cries in the dark; but when he realizes
his daughter is not there, he gives the news some credence. Roderigo is the
one speaking most to Brabantio, but Iago is there too, hidden, yelling
unsavory things about Othello and his intentions toward Desdemona.
Brabantio panics, and calls for people to try and find his daughter; Iago
leaves, not wanting anyone to find out that he betrayed his own leader, and
Brabantio begins to search for his daughter.
Act I, scene ii:
Iago has now joined Othello, and has told Othello about Roderigo's betrayal
of the news of his marriage to Brabantio's daughter. He tells Othello that
Brabantio is upset, and will probably try to tear Desdemona from him.
Cassio comes at last, as do Roderigo and Brabantio; Iago threatens Roderigo
with violence, again making a false show of his loyalty to Othello.
Brabantio is very angry, swearing that Othello must have bewitched his
daughter, and that the state will not decide for him in this case. Othello
says that the Duke must hear him, and decide in his favor, or else all is
far from right in Venice.
Act I, scene iii:
Military conflict is challenging the Venetian stronghold of Cyprus; there
are reports that Turkish ships are heading toward the island, which means
some defense will be necessary. Brabantio and Othello enter the assembled
Venetian leaders, who are discussing this military matter, and Brabantio
announces his grievance against Othello for marrying his daughter. Othello
addresses the company, admitting that he did marry Desdemona, but wooed her
with stories, and did her no wrongs. Desdemona comes to speak, and she
confirms Othello's words; Brabantio's grievance is denied, and Desdemona
will indeed stay with Othello. However, Othello is called away to Cyprus,
to help with the conflict there; he begs that Desdemona be able to go with
him, since they have been married for so little time. Othello and Desdemona
win their appeal, and Desdemona is to stay with Iago, until she can come to
Cyprus and meet Othello there.
Roderigo is upset that Desdemona and Othello's union was allowed to stand,
since he lusts after Desdemona. But Iago assures him that the match will
not last long, and at any time, Desdemona could come rushing to him. Iago
wants to break up the couple, using Roderigo as his pawn, out of malice and
his wicked ability to do so.
Act II, scene i:
A terrible storm has struck Cyprus, just as the Turks were about to
approach. This might mean that the Turkish attack will not happen; but it
also bodes badly for Othello's ship. A messenger enters, and confirms that
the Turkish fleet was broken apart by the storm, and that Cassio has
arrived, though Othello is still at sea. They spot a ship coming forth; but
Iago, Desdemona, and Emilia are on it, not Othello. Cassio greets them all,
especially praising Desdemona; somehow, Iago and Desdemona enter into an
argument about what women are, and Iago shows how little praise he believes
women deserve. Othello arrives at last, and is very glad to see his wife
arrived, much earlier than expected; he and Desdemona make public signs of
their love, and then depart. Iago speaks to Roderigo, convincing him that
Desdemona will stray from Othello, as she has already done with Cassio. He
convinces Roderigo to attack Cassio that night, as he plans to visit
mischief on both Othello and Cassio.
Act II, scene ii:
Othello's herald enters, to proclaim that the Turks are not going to
attack, all should be joyful, and Othello is celebrating the happiness of
his recent marriage.
Act II, scene iii:
Iago and Cassio are on the watch together; Iago gets Cassio to drink a bit,
knowing that he cannot hold his liquor at all. Iago also tries to get
Cassio's feelings about Desdemona, and make her seem tempting to him; but
his intentions are innocent and friendly, so this approach fails. Cassio
leaves for a bit, and Iago says that he intends to get Cassio drunk, that
will hopefully cause a quarrel between Cassio and Roderigo, who has been
stirred up against Cassio. Iago wants to see Cassio discredited through
this, so that he might take Cassio's place. Montano and others come, and
Iago entertains them with small talk and song; soon, Cassio is drunk, and
Roderigo has approached. Cassio fights offstage with Roderigo, and comes
forth, chasing him; Montano tries to hinder Cassio, but Cassio just ends up
injuring him. All the noise wakes Othello, who comes down to figure out
what has happened. Montano tells what he knows of it all, and Iago fills in
the rest‹making sure to fictionalize his part in it all too. Cassio is
stripped of his rank, and all leave Cassio and Iago alone.
Cassio laments that he has lost his reputation, which is very dear to him.
Iago tries to convince him that a reputation means little; and, if he talks
to Desdemona, maybe he can get her to vouch for him with Othello. This will
help Iago get the impression across that Desdemona and Cassio are together,
which will make Othello very angry if it works. Iago then gives a soliloquy
about knowing that Desdemona will speak for Cassio, and that he will be
able to turn that against them both.
Act III, scene i:
The third act begins with a little bit of comic relief; a clown is mincing
words with a few musicians, then has a little wordplay with Cassio, who
bids the clown to go and see if Desdemona will speak with him. Iago enters,
and Cassio tells him that he means to speak to Desdemona, so that she may
clear things up with Othello. Emilia comes out, and bids Cassio to come in
and speak with Desdemona about his tarnished reputation.
Act III, scene ii:
Othello gives Iago some letters that need to be delivered back to Venice,
which Iago is in turn supposed to give to a ship's pilot who is sailing
back to Venice.
Act III, scene iii:
Desdemona decides that she wants to advocate for Cassio. She tells Emilia
so, and that she believes Cassio is a good person, and has been wronged in
this case; she pledges to do everything she can to persuade her husband to
take Cassio back. Cassio speaks with her briefly, but leaves just as
Othello enters because he does not wish for a confrontation. Iago seizes on
this opportunity to play on Othello's insecurities, and make Cassio's exit
seem guilty and incriminating. Othello then speaks to Desdemona, and
Desdemona expresses her concern for Cassio; she is persistent in his suit,
which Othello is not too pleased about. Othello says he will humor her, and
the subject is dropped for a while.
Iago then plays on Othello's insecurities about Desdemona, and gets Othello
to believe, through insinuation, that there is something going on between
Desdemona and Cassio. Othello seizes on this, and then Iago works at
building up his suspicions. Soon, Othello begins to doubt his wife, as Iago
lets his insinuations gain the force of an accusation against her. Othello
begins to voice his insecurities when it comes to Desdemona, and himself as
well. Desdemona enters, and they have a brief conversation; Othello admits
that he is troubled, though he will not state the cause.
Desdemona drops the handkerchief that Othello gave her on their honeymoon;
Emilia knew that her husband had wanted it for something, so she doesn't
feel too guilty about taking it. Emilia gives it to Iago, who decides to
use the handkerchief for his own devices. Othello re-enters, and tells Iago
that he now doubts his wife; Othello demands "ocular proof" of Desdemona's
dishonesty, so Iago sets about making stories up about Cassio talking in
his sleep, and says that Cassio has the handkerchief that Othello gave to
Desdemona. Iago knows how important this handkerchief is to Othello; it was
his first gift to Desdemona, and was given to him by his mother. Othello is
incensed to hear that Desdemona would give away something so valuable, and
is persuaded by Iago's insinuations and claims to believe that Desdemona is
guilty. Othello then swears to have Cassio dead, and to be revenged upon
Desdemona for the non-existent affair.
Act III, scene iv:
Desdemona asks the clown where Cassio is; the clown goes off to fetch him.
Desdemona is looking everywhere for the handkerchief, very sorry to have
lost it; she knows that her losing it will upset Othello greatly, although
she claims he is not so jealous that he will think ill of the loss. Othello
enters, and asks for Desdemona's handkerchief; she admits that she does not
have it, and then Othello tells her of its significance and alleged magical
powers. Desdemona does not like Othello's tone; he seems obsessed with this
object, and Desdemona is so frightened by him that she wishes she had
nothing to do with it. She interrupts Othello's inquiry by bringing up
Cassio's attempt to get back into Othello's favor; Othello becomes angry,
and storms out. Desdemona and Emilia both note that Othello is much
changed; he is unkind and seems jealous, and they are suspicious of the
change in him.
Cassio then enters, with Iago; he laments that his suit is not successful,
and that Othello does not seem likely to take him back. Desdemona is sorry
for this, since she knows that Cassio is a man of worth; she tells Cassio
and Iago that Othello has been acting strange, and is upset, and Iago goes
to look for him, feigning concern. Emilia thinks that Othello's change has
something to do with Desdemona, or Othello's jealous nature; they still
cannot fathom what has happened, and exit, leaving Cassio.
Bianca comes in, and Cassio asks her to copy the handkerchief that he found
in his room; it is Desdemona's handkerchief, though Cassio has no idea. He
claims he does not love her, and gets angry at her for allegedly suspecting
that the handkerchief is a gift of another woman. But, Bianca is not
disturbed, and leaves with the handkerchief.
Act IV, scene i:
Othello is trying, even after swearing that Desdemona was unfaithful, not
to condemn her too harshly. He is talking with Iago about the handkerchief
still, and its significance in being found; but, soon, Iago whips Othello
into an even greater fury through mere insinuation, and Othello takes the
bait. Othello falls into a trance of rage, and Iago decides to hammer home
his false ideas about his wife. Iago calls Cassio in, while Othello hides;
Iago speaks to Cassio of Bianca, but Othello, in his disturbed state,
believes that Cassio is talking of Desdemona, which is the last "proof" he
needs before declaring his wife guilty. Bianca comes in, and gives the
handkerchief back to Cassio, since she swears she will have nothing to do
with it.
Othello is incensed by Cassio, still believing that he was speaking of
Desdemona, rather than Bianca. Now, Othello is resolved to kill Desdemona
himself, and charges Iago with murdering Cassio. Ludovico, a noble Venetian
whom Desdemona knows, has recently landed; Desdemona and Othello welcome
him there. But, when Desdemona mentions Cassio, Othello becomes very angry
and slaps her in front of everyone; she rushes off, very upset. Ludovico
especially is shocked at this change in Othello, and has no idea how such a
noble man could act so cruelly.
Act IV, scene ii:
Othello questions Emilia about Desdemona's guilt, or the chance she has had
an affair with Cassio. Emilia admits to having seen nothing, though Othello
does not believe her. Emilia swears that she has seen and heard all that
has gone on between Cassio and Desdemona, and that Desdemona is pure and
true. Othello believes that Emilia is in on all this too; he accuses
Desdemona, and her insistence that she is innocent only infuriates him
further. Othello leaves, and Desdemona and Emilia try to figure out what
has happened to Othello, and what they can do; Desdemona feels especially
helpless, and Emilia is very angry. Emilia thinks that someone has
manipulated Othello into accusing Desdemona, and has poisoned his mind;
however, Iago is there to dispel this opinion, so that Emilia does not
inquire further into her theory. Upon leaving the women, Iago comes across
Roderigo; he is not pleased with how Iago has handled things, and knows
that although Iago is promising him Desdemona's favor, he has done nothing
to indicate that he has worked to achieve this. Iago quiets him by making
him believe that if he kills Cassio, then he will win Desdemona; Roderigo
decides to go along with it, but Iago is coming dangerously close to being
Act IV, scene iii:
Othello tells Desdemona to go to bed, and dismiss Emilia; Emilia regrets
Desdemona's marriage, although Desdemona cannot say that she does not love
Othello. Desdemona knows that she will die soon; she sings a song of
sadness and resignation, and decides to give herself to her fate. Desdemona
asks Emilia whether she would commit adultery to win her husband the world.
Emilia, the more practical one, thinks that it is not too big a price for a
small act; Desdemona is too good, and too devout, to say that she would do
Act V, scene i:
Iago has Roderigo poised and ready to pounce on Cassio, and kill him; if
either of them is killed, it is to Iago's benefit, although he would like
to have both of them disposed of, so that his devices might not be
discovered. Roderigo and Cassio fight, and both are injured; Othello hears
the scuffle, is pleased, and then leaves to finish off Desdemona. Iago
enters, pretending that he knows nothing of the scuffle; Gratiano and
Ludovico also stumble upon the scene, having no idea what has happened.
Roderigo is still alive, so Iago feigns a quarrel, and finishes him off.
Bianca comes by, and sees Cassio wounded; Iago makes some remark to
implicate her; Cassio is carried away, and Roderigo is already dead. Emilia
also comes in, and pins more blame on Bianca; she has done nothing, but
Iago has some quick work to do if he is to exonerate himself in this mess.
Act V, scene ii:
Othello enters Desdemona's room while she is asleep; and though she is
beautiful, and appears innocent, he still is determined to kill her. He
justifies this with images, metaphors, and ideas of her rebirth after
death, and though his rage is softened, he is still much mistaken about
her. Desdemona awakens, and he tells her to repent of any sins before she
dies; she believes there is nothing she can do to stop him from killing
her, and continues to assert her innocence. Othello tells her that he found
her handkerchief with Cassio, though Desdemona insists it must not be true;
she pleads with Othello not to kill her right then, but he begins to
smother her. Emilia knocks, curious about what is going on; Othello lets
her in, but tries to conceal Desdemona, who he thinks is already dead.
Emilia brings the news of Roderigo's death, and Cassio's wounding.
Emilia soon finds out that Desdemona is nearly dead, by Othello's hand;
Desdemona speaks her last words, and then Emilia pounces on Othello for
committing this horrible crime. Othello is not convinced of his folly until
Iago confesses his part, and Cassio speaks of the use of the handkerchief;
then, Othello is overcome with grief. Iago stabs Emilia for telling all
about his plots, and then Emilia dies; the Venetian nobles reveal that
Brabantio, Desdemona's father, is dead, and so cannot be grieved by this
tragedy now. Othello stabs Iago when he is brought back in; Othello then
tells all present to remember him how he is, and kills himself. Cassio
becomes temporary leader of the troops at Cyprus, and Lodovico and Gratiano
are supposed to carry the news of the tragedy back to Venice. Iago is taken
into custody, and his crimes will be judged back in Venice.

Richard III

Act One, Scene One
Richard gives a short speech detailing his plot against his brother
Clarence, who comes before him as heir to the throne of England. Richard
has just succeeded in having Clarence arrested and it as a prisoner that
Clarence walks onto the stage, guarded by Sir Robert Brackenbury.
Richard asks Clarence what the reason for his arrest is. Clarence replies
that someone told King Edward that a person with a name starting with the
letter "G" would cause his family to lose the throne. Since Clarence's full
name is George, Duke of Clarence, he was considered to be the primary
suspect. Richard complains that this arrest is the result of the women
plotting against Clarence, most notably Queen Elizabeth and possibly also
Mrs. Shore.
Brackenbury tells the men he is not allowed to let anyone converse with the
prisoner, and takes Clarence into the Tower of London. Richard comments
that he will soon remove Clarence permanently and thus clear the path to
the throne for himself.
Lord Hastings, also known as Lord Chamberlain, emerges from the Tower,
having just been freed. Lord Hastings tells Richard that King Edward IV is
sickly and ailing, and cannot hope to live much longer. After he departs,
Richard remarks that he will first have Edward kill Clarence. This will put
Richard into a position where upon Edward's death he can assume the throne.
He also plots to marry Lady Anne Neville, who is the widow of Edward,
Prince of Wales and the daughter-in-law of Henry VI, whom Richard just
Act One, Scene Two
Lady Anne enters the stage accompanied by halberdiers who are carrying an
open coffin with King Henry VI in it. She asks the men to stop, during
which time she laments the death of the king. Lady Anne then curses any
future children which Richard might have, and prays that after Richard's
death his future wife will know even more grief than Lady Anne currently
Richard enters and is immediately cursed by Lady Anne for his role in the
death of her husband. Richard tries to woo her by telling how lovely he
thinks she it, but Lady Anne scorns him after each attempt. He finally
tells her that he killed her husband so that he alone could love her. In a
moment of decision, Richard bends down on his knees and tells her to kill
him if she cannot forgive him. She replies, "I will not be thy executioner"
Richard stands up and proposes marriage to her, succeeding in making Lady
Anne wear his ring. He tells her to go wait for him in one of his London
residences while he mourns the death of Henry VI. Lady Anne leaves after
saying farewell to Richard, who delivers a soliloquy in which he expresses
surprise about the fact that she seems to like his looks.
Act One, Scene Three
Queen Elizabeth enters the stage with Lord Rivers and Lord Gray. They
discuss the fact that King Edward is ill. Queen Elizabeth is apprehensive
about her future if he should die. She remarks that Richard Gloucester
becomes her son's Protector if Edward passes away, and that Richard does
not like her or her companions.
The Duke of Buckingham and Lord Stanley arrive. They have just been to see
the king, and they inform Queen Elizabeth that he is looking well.
Buckingham informs her that the king want to meet with her brothers and
with Richard in order to get them to make peace.
Richard and Lord Hastings enter the room, with Richard complaining bitterly
about the lies which "they" tell the king. When asked who "they" are,
Richard implicates the queen's brother, Lord Rivers, and her two sons. He
then blames them for the recent imprisonment of Lord Hastings, and for the
current jailing of his brother Clarence. Queen Elizabeth is outraged at
these suggestions, and threatens to tell the king.
Queen Margaret arrives, she is the widow of Henry VI and the mother of
Edward whom Richard killed. She speaks directly to the audience, without
the other characters hearing her. She remarks that Queen Elizabeth has her
to thank for the throne, and calls Richard a devil for the murders he
Richard defends himself vehemently, pointing out his fierce loyalty to his
brother Edward. He then points out the fact that the Queen and her brother
fought against his brother in the war between the House of Lancaster and
the House of York, to which Richard belongs.
Queen Margaret, fed up with the arguments and accusations, steps forward
and addresses them all. She plans to tell them once again about how Richard
killed her son Edward, but all of the gathered characters attack her for
having killed Rutland. This refers to a previous play in which Margaret
crowns the Duke of York with a paper crown and waves a handkerchief dipped
in his son Rutland's blood in front of his eyes. She tells them that
because her Edward died, so too must the current Edward, Prince of Wales
meet his death.
Following several curses made by Margaret, most of which are directed at
Richard, the entire company is summoned into King Edward's chambers.
Richard remains behind and meets with two murderers whom he sends to kill
Clarence. A revealing quote is when Richard says, "And thus I clothe my
naked villainy / With odd old ends, stol'n forth of Holy Writ," meaning he
hides his crimes with Christian behavior.
Act One, Scene Four
Clarence and Brackenbury enter the stage. Clarence has had a terrible
nightmare in which he breaks free of the Tower and attempts to cross to
Burgundy accompanied by his brother Richard. While on the ship, Richard
stumbles. When Clarence tries to help support him, he is flung into the
ocean by Richard, where he slowly drowns.
Clarence falls asleep with Brackenbury sitting next to him for protection.
The two murderers sent by Richard arrive and hand Brackenbury their
commission. He acknowledges the paper which says to hand his prisoner over
to the two men.
The first murderer has a sudden attack of conscience. He is able to
overcome this by remembering the large reward which Richard is paying him.
The second murderer tells his companion to drive the devil out of his mind,
since the devil is only confusing him. Clarence wakes up and asks for a cup
of wine.
The murders engage Clarence in conversation, and inform him that he will
die. He pleads to their sense of Christianity, at which they list his many
sins, most notably the killing of Henry VI's son Edward. Clarence then begs
the men to talk to Richard, whom he promises will reward them well. They
inform him that Richard is the man who sent them, a fact that Clarence
cannot believe. He seems about to overcome them with his persuasive words
when the first murderer stabs and kills him. The second murderer refuses to
participate, and even declines to receive his part of the reward.
Act Two, Scene One
King Edward enters, followed by most of court who previously went to his
chambers. He carefully orchestrates a scene of friendship after ordering
them to forgive each other. His orders to each man tell them exactly how he
wants them to behave, including whose hand to shake, or who should kiss the
hand of the queen.
Richard enters this farce and is ordered to forget his hatred of the Queen
and her family. He does this, but when the Queen tells him to bring
Clarence back to court, he immediately destroys the entire scene. Richard
replies, "Who knows not that the gentle Duke is dead?" (2.1.80), at which
all the other actors are shocked.
King Edward delivers a brief speech lamenting the fact that his brother
Clarence has been killed by his orders. He recalls the many times that
Clarence saved his life or helped him attain the throne. King Edward then
departs. Richard asks Buckingham if he noticed how guilty the Queen's
kindred looked when the news of Clarence's death was announced.
Act Two, Scene Two
The old Duchess of York, the mother of King Edward, Clarence and Richard,
enters with Clarence's two children. She is mourning the death of Clarence,
but for the children's sake instead pretends to be upset about Edward's bad
health. However, after a few moments Queen Elizabeth enters with her hair
disheveled, and announces that King Edward has also died.
The Duchess of York remarks that all she has left is Richard, about whom
she says, "And I for comfort have but one false glass" (2.2.53). The
children tell the Queen that since she did not grieve for their father,
they will not grieve for King Edward. The Duchess tells them all that she
accepts all of their suffering and will lament for them.
Richard enters and convinces them to travel to Ludlow where the young
Prince Edward is staying. They all agree that it is safer for them all to
go, before leaving the stage. Buckingham tells Richard to go with them, so
that no one will think that he is plotting to seize the throne.
Act Two, Scene Three
Some citizens discuss the fact that King Edward is dead. They are afraid of
a fight to seize the thrown, with one of them commenting, "Woe to the land
that's governed by a child" (2.3.11). Their fear is that Richard or the
sons and brother of the Queen will attempt to overthrow the young monarch.
Act Two, Scene Four
Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess of York, the Lord Cardinal, and the young Duke
of York discuss the the stories of Richard's childhood. Shakespeare alludes
to a myth that he was born with teeth. Dorset enters the room with bad
He tells them that Buckingham and Richard have imprisoned Lord Rivers and
Lord Gray. The Queen is frightened for her family, which she clearly sees
being wiped out if Richard can get his way. She decides to go into
sanctuary, meaning a church, with the young Duke of York so that they will
have protection. The sanctuary is initially for forty days.
Act Three, Scene One
The young Prince Edward, accompanied by Richard and Buckingham and several
other men, has arrived in London. He immediately asks where his mother and
brother York are, and why they have not come to see him. Hastings tells the
prince that his mother sought sanctuary. Buckingham cleverly argues that
the young York may not have sanctuary since he is only a child and
therefore has not reason to hide, since he has obviously not committed any
Richard then asks the prince if he is willing to spend the night in the
Tower of London, which is the traditional place for kings to stay on the
night before their coronation. Edward, however, fears the Tower as a prison
and is reluctant. Richard convinces him it is better to stay there since it
is so well protected.
The young York arrives and he and Prince Edward depart for the Tower.
Richard tells Catesby to see whether Lord Hastings can be won over to his
side, rather than supporting Prince Edward. Catesby thinks that Hastings
will defend Prince Edward, and Richard indicates that he will kill him if
that is the case. Richard also mentions that there will be "divided
councels" the next morning, meaning a public council for Edward's
coronation, and a private council to plot for Richard.
Act Three, Scene Two
Lord Hastings is rudely awakened at four in the morning by a messenger. He
is told that Lord Stanley is there to see him, having had a bad dream in
which he was beheaded by a boar (Richard's emblem is the boar). Catesby
arrives before Stanley and tells Hastings that Richard wants the crown of
England, but Hastings announces that he will die before Richard be allowed
to wear the crown.
Catesby then tells Hastings that his enemies, the Queen's sons and her
brother, are to be executed that day. Stanley arrives and announces that he
is upset about the fact that there are two separate councils. He and
Catesby leave for the Tower of London. A pursuivant (basically, a messenger
with the authority to serve an arrest warrant) enters and receives some
money from Hastings. Buckingham then enters and Hastings tells him that he
will eat lunch at the Tower. Buckingham indicates to the audience that
Hastings will also eat supper there, although he does not yet know it.
Act Three, Scene Three
Gray and Rivers are forced onto stage as prisoners, while Ratcliffe watches
over them. The two condemned men remark that it is Margaret's curse which
has condemned them to die. Rivers remarks, "Then cursed she Hastings; then
cursed she Buckingham; Then cursed she Richard." (3.3.16) The men then
embrace and agree to meet again in heaven.
Act Three, Scene Four
A council meets in the Tower to discuss when the coronation day for Edward
should be held. Richard enters late, bids the men a good day, and calls
Buckingham aside. Buckingham tells Richard that Hastings will never support
Hastings says that it is a good thing that Richard is in such good spirits,
because it means he does not dislike any of the men present. Buckingham and
Richard reenter the room. Richard asks what the punishment for traitors
should be, to which Hastings replies that they deserve death. Richard then
blames the Queen and Mrs. Shore (who is the mistress of Hastings) with
having caused his malformed arm. He accuses Hastings of protecting Shore,
and orders the council to behead Hastings. Richard then leaves, followed by
most of the council.
Act Three, Scene Five
The Lord Mayor of London arrives at the Tower. Catesby delivers Hastings'
head, at which point both Buckingham and Richard must try to mollify the
Lord Mayor. They tell him that Hastings was plotting against them both, and
that he confessed as much in the Tower. They ask the Lord Mayor to inform
the people of what happened, since he is better placed to placate the
masses then they are.
Richard then sends Buckingham to follow the Lord Mayor. He wants Buckingham
to tell the people that the children of Edward are illegitimate, which
would require that the eldest illegitimate child should take the throne.
Richard then wants Buckingham to convince the people that he is also an
illegitimate child of Edward, and thus he should receive the throne.
Act Three, Scene Six
A scrivener enters, with a paper that fully details the treachery of Lord
Hastings. The paper is meant to support Richard and Buckingham, but the
scrivener points out that it took eleven hours to write, during which time
Hastings was still alive. The scrivener asks who is so foolish that they
cannot see the discrepancy in times, but he answers his own question by
remarking, "Yet who so bold but says he sees it not?" (3.6.12)
Act Three, Scene Seven
Buckingham informs Richard that his speech to the crowd went over very
badly. He says that having told the crowd everything, he asked them to
shout out their support of Richard. Since not a single person responded, he
then had the Recorder tell them again, at which point only a few of his own
men threw up their caps and yelled, "God save King Richard!"
In order to overcome this problem, Buckingham and Richard plan to stage a
silent play. Richard grabs a prayer book and goes to stands between two
churchmen on the balcony. The Lord Mayor arrives with some aldermen and
citizens. Buckingham tells them that Richard is currently meditating, and
does not wish to speak with anyone.
Buckingham finally speaks to Richard, who remains on the balcony, and
offers him the throne in front of all the assembled masses. Richard
declines, saying it is better for Edward to be the king. Buckingham pleads
with him, and Richard again turns him down. Buckingham then exits. A
citizen tells Richard that the land will fall into chaos if he does not
accept his position. Richard then calls them back, saying, "Call them
again. I am not made of stone" (3.7.214) He accepts the throne and begs the
Lord Mayor to tell everyone how reluctant he was to become the king.
Act Four, Scene One
Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess of York and Lady Anne (now Richard's wife) ask
to be let into the Tower to see Prince Edward and young York. Brackenbury
forbids them to enter, saying, "The King hath strictly charged the
contrary" (4.1.17). He realizes his slip of the tongue and corrects himself
by saying, "I mean, the Lord Protector."
Stanley enters and orders Lady Anne to Westminster Abbey, where she is to
be crowned queen. Queen Elizabeth, realizing that Richard has succeeded at
seizing the throne, orders her son Dorset to go to Henry Tudor, Earl of
Richmond. Stanley agrees with her and sends the young man away. Elizabeth
decides to return to sanctuary, while the other women choose to flee to
Act Four, Scene Two
King Richard asks Buckingham if he will support him in killing Prince
Edward. Buckingham is reluctant, and begs for a while to consider the
issue. Richard thinks that Buckingham is too ambitious, and becomes
suspicious of him.
Richard then calls a page over, and asks if the man know anyone willing to
kill for a sum of money. The page tells him that a man named Tyrell would
be happy to serve him. Richard then tells the audience that he is plotting
to kill Buckingham.
Next he speaks with Catesby, telling him to start rumors that Lady Anne is
ill. Richard also plans to marry Clarence's daughter to a non-nobleman, but
will let her brother Edward live since he is "simpleminded."
Tyrell is being dispatched to kill the two young boys still living in the
Tower when Buckingham arrives. Buckingham asks Richard for the Dukedom he
was promised earlier in the play. Richard instead talks about the fact that
Richmond is prophesied to become the king, and that he was told he would
not live long after seeing Henry Tudor's face. Buckingham continues asking,
but Richard then remarks that he is not in the "giving vein." Buckingham
realizes his life is in danger, and prepares to flee.
Act Four, Scene Three
Tyrrell, the murderer sent by Richard to kill the Edward's children,
returns having done the deed. He tells Richard that they are dead, and is
invited to dinner that night in order to tell how he killed them.
Ratcliffe enters running, and informs Richard that the Bishop of Ely has
fled to join Richmond, while Buckingham has started raising an army.
Richard is shaken by the fact that all of his top lieutenants are either
dead or have fled from him. He orders his armies to be quickly assembled so
that he can overcome his traitors.
Act Four, Scene Four
Old Queen Margaret emerges and says that she has patiently watched the
destruction of her enemies. She informs the audience of her plan to go to
France where she hopes to see the few remaining enemies die tragic deaths.
She then tells Queen Elizabeth that her curse is coming true, and that she
is being revenged for her losses. Elizabeth begs Margaret to teach her how
to curse, so that she too may have revenge.
Richard enters and is immediately abused by the women present. His mother,
the Duchess of York, demands that he listen to her, which he unwillingly
does. She finishes her remarks with a curse on Richard, namely that he
should die in the battles he is about to fight.
Richard then speaks with Queen Elizabeth. He tells her that he wants her
daughter Elizabeth to be his queen. She scorns his suggestion, and tells
him to write her daughter a letter describing all of her relatives that he
has killed. Richard does not like the way she mocks him, and continues
pleading with her to help him win her daughter's hand. She finally agrees
to go talk with her daughter, and Richard assumes that he is victorious.
Ratcliffe enters and tells Richard that Richmond is already arriving with
ships on the western shore. Richard, in the first moment of confusion he
has ever shown, hastily issues orders and then is forced to contradict
himself. He states, "My mind is changed" (4.4.387)
Stanley enters and informs Richard that Richmond is almost upon them.
Richard accuses him of treachery, and orders him assemble an army. Stanley,
in order to prove his trustworthiness, allows Richard to keep his son.
Several messengers arrive and give both mixed good and bad news. Richmond
manages to finally land at Milford, a relatively unpopulated area which is
ideal for and invading army. However, Catesby enters the scene to tell
Richard that Buckingham has been captured.
Act Four, Scene Five
Stanley tells a priest to go to Richmond and inform him that Stanley is
unable to join his side because Richard is holding Stanley's son in
custody. He also mentions that Queen Elizabeth has agreed to let Richmond
marry her daughter once he defeats Richard.
Act Five, Scene One
Buckingham, having been captured, is led on stage and gives his last
speech. He comments that it is All-Souls' Day, a day when all executions
are normally postponed, and also a day when spirits are supposed to walk on
the earth, as will happen in the next scenes. Buckingham then recalls
Margaret's curse on him, and says, "Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on my
neck / .../ Remember Margaret was a prophetess" (5.1.25,27).
Act Five, Scene Two
Henry of Richmond enters and encourages his men. He gives them images of
peace and prosperity as their payoff for defeating Richard. "The wretched,
bloody, and usurping boar, / That spoils your summer fields and fruitful
vines, / .../ In God's name, cheerly on, courageous friends, / To reap the
harvest of perpetual peace" (5.2.7-8, 14-15).
Act Five, Scene Three
Richard enters on the other side of the stage and tells his men to set up
camp on Bosworth field. He ascertains that his army is three times the size
of Richmond's, and plans to be busy with the battle plans the next morning.

Act Five, Scene Four
Henry of Richmond enters and prophetically says, "the weary sun hath made a
golden set," implying the demise of Richard (who now represents the sun,
the symbol of the king). Richmond then sends a note to Stanley, who is
willing to betray Richard. The men wish each other a "quiet rest tonight."
Act Five, Scene Five
Richard decides that he will not eat, saying, "I will not sup tonight"
(5.5.3). He then has his men post several guards and makes Ratcliffe set up
a pen and paper for him. Richard also orders Catesby to tell Stanley to
bring his force the next morning, or have his son killed. He writes some,
and then falls asleep.
On the other side of the stage Richmond enters, accompanied by Stanley.
Stanley informs him that he will try to deceive Richard as best he can, and
will delay for as long as possible. Richmond then attempts to fall asleep,
worried that he will not be fresh for the battle. After a short prayer, he
too falls asleep.
A parade of ghosts representing those whom Richard has killed during his
lifetime comes out onto the stage. Each ghost stops and tells Richard,
"Despair, and die." To Richmond they say, "Live and flourish." The ghosts
appear almost in the order in which they were killed, starting with Prince
Edward, King Henry, Clarence, Rivers, Gray, Vaughan, the two young Princes,
Hastings, Lady Anne, and lastly Buckingham.
Richard awakes and holds an internal dialogue in which he berates his
conscience for giving him bad dreams. "What do I fear? Myself? There's none
else by" (5.5.136). He continues in this vein, first blaming and then
defending himself for a short while. Ratcliffe enters and gets Richard to
come join his troops.
Richmond awakes and happily remembers his dream in which the dead souls
promised him victory. He then gives a speech to rally his troops, promising
to protect their wives, free their children, and create peace throughout
the land.
Act Five, Scene Six
The sun refuses to rise when it should, causing Richard to state that, "A
black day will it be to somebody." He then gives his oration to his army.
It is about disorder, and he encourages them to fight to prevent Richmond
from destroying their lands and abusing their wives. His last words are,
"Shall these enjoy our lands? Lie with our wives? Ravish our daughters?"
A messenger then informs Richard that Stanley has defected to Richmond's
side. Richard calls out for Stanley's son to be killed, but the enemy is
already so close that he cannot carry out that command.
Act Five, Scene Seven
Richard's horse has been overthrown, and he now fights on foot. Richard
calls out, "A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse!" (5.7.7) He then
remarks that there must be six Richmonds on the field, since he has already
slain five and none of them were Richmond. (This alludes to the practice of
dressing common soldiers as kings, so that he enemy could be fooled into
chasing the wrong man.)
Act Five, Scene Eight
Richmond and Richard both come out onto stage and fight, during which
Richard is killed. Stanley takes the crown and places it on Richmond's
head, making him King Henry VII. King Henry immediately pardons the enemy
soldiers, and makes sure that Stanley's son is still alive. He then looks
forward to marrying Elizabeth's daughter, which will unite the houses of
Lancaster and York and end the War of the Roses. His final words are,
"Peace lives again / That she may long live here, God say, 'Amen'."

Romeo and Juliet

The chorus introduces the play, and tells the audience that two families in
Verona have reignited an ancient feud. Two lovers, one from each family,
commit suicide after trying to run away from their families. The loss of
their children compels the families to end the feud.
Act One, Scene One
The servants of the Capulets are on the street waiting for some servants of
the Montague's to arrive. When they do, Samson from the Capulets bites his
thumb at them, essentially a strong insult. Abraham from the Montague's
accepts the insult and the men start to fight.
Benvolio, Romeo's cousin, enters and makes the men stop fighting by drawing
his own sword. Tybalt, Juliet's cousin, then also enters the street. Seeing
Benvolio, he too draws his sword and enters the fight.
Old Capulet runs onto the stage and demands a sword so that he too may
fight. His wife restrains him, even when Old Montague emerges with his
sword drawn as well. The Citizens of the Watch have put up a cry, and
manage to get Prince Escalus to arrive. The Prince chides them for three
times before causing the street of Verona to be unsafe. He orders them to
return home, and personally accompanies the Capulets.
The Montagues and Benvolio remain on stage. They ask Benvolio why Romeo was
not with him, and he tells them Romeo has been in a strange mood lately.
When Romeo appears, the Montagues ask Benvolio to find out what is wrong,
and then depart. Romeo informs Benvolio that he is in love with a woman
named Rosaline who wishes to remain chaste for the rest of her life, which
is why he is so depressed.
Act One, Scene Two
Paris pleads with Capulet to let him marry Juliet, who is still only a girl
of thirteen. Capulet tells him to wait, but decides to allow Paris to woo
her and try to win her heart. He then tells his servant Peter to take a
list of names and invite the people to a masked ball he is hosting that
Peter meets Romeo on the street, and being unable to read, asks Romeo to
help read the list for him. Romeo does, and realizes that the girl he
loves, Rosaline, will be attending this party. Peter tells him that it will
be held at Capulet's house, and that his is invited if he wishes to come.
Both Benvolio and Romeo decide to go.
Act One, Scene Three
Lady Capulet asks the Nurse to call for Juliet. She does, and then tells
Lady Capulet that Juliet will be fourteen in under two weeks. She then
digresses and speaks of how Juliet was as a child, causing both Juliet and
her mother embarassment.
The mother tells Juliet that Paris has come to marry her. She then
describes Paris as being beautiful, and compares him to a fine book that
only lacks a cover. Juliet does not promise anything, but agrees to at
least look at the man that night at dinner.
Act One, Scene Four
Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio are making their way to the masked party.
Romeo is still depressed, even though he gets to see Rosaline. Mercutio
tries to cheer him up by telling a story about Queen Mab, a fictitious elf
that infiltrates men's dreams. Romeo finally shushes him and comments that
he is afraid of the consequences of going to this party.
Act One, Scene Five
Romeo stands to the side during the dancing, and it is from this spot that
he first sees Juliet. He immediately falls in love with her. Tybalt sees
him and recognizes him as Romeo Montague. However, before Tybalt can creat
a scene, Old Capulet tells him to leave Romeo alone, since it would look
bad to have a brawl in the middle of the festivities.
Romeo finds Juliet and touches her hand. They speak in sonnet form to one
another, and Romeo eventually gets to kiss her. However, Juliet is forced
to go see her mother. The Nurse tells Romeo that Juliet is a Capulet, at
which he is startled.
Juliet finds her Nurse at the end of the party and begs her to find out who
Romeo is. The Nurse returns and tells her he is Romeo, the only son of the
Montague family. Juliet is heart-broken that she loves a "loathed enemy"
Act Two, Introduction
The chorus introduces the next act, saying that Romeo has given up his old
desire for a new affection. Juliet is likewise described as being in love.
Both lovers share the problem that they cannot see each other without
risking death, but the chorus indicates that passion will overcome that
Act Two, Scene One
Romeo enters and leaps over a garden wall. Mercutio and Benvolio arrive
looking for Romeo, but cannot see him. Mercutio then call out to him in
long speech filled with obscene wordplay. Benvolio finally gets tired of
searching for Romeo, and they leave.
Romeo has meanwhile succeeded in hiding beneath Juliet's balcony. She
appears on her balcony and, in this famous scene, asks, "Oh Romeo, Romeo,
wherefore art thou Romeo?" (2.1.75). She wishes that Romeo's name did not
make him her enemy. Romeo, hiding below her, surprises her by interupting
and telling Juliet that he loves her.
Juliet warns Romeo that his protestations of love had better be real ones,
since she has fallen in love with him and does not want to be hurt. Romeo
swears by himself that he loves her, and Juliet tells him that she wishes
she could give him her love again.
Juliet's Nurse calls her, and she disappears only to quickly reappear
again. Juliet informs Romeo that if he truly loves her, he should propose
marriage and tell her when and where to meet. The Nurse calls her a second
time, and Juliet exits. Romeo is about to leave when she emerges yet a
third time and calls him back.
Act Two, Scene Two
Friar Laurence is out collecting herbs when Romeo arrives. Romeo quickly
tells him that he has fallen in love with Juliet Capulet. The Friar is
surprised to hear that Rosaline has been forgotten about so quickly, but is
delighted by the prospect of using this new love affair to unite the
feuding families.
Act Two, Scene Three
Benvolio and Mercutio speak about Romeo's disappearance the night before.
Benvolio tells Mercutio that Romeo did not come home at all. Romeo arrives
and soon engages in a battle of wits with Mercutio, who is surprised by
Romeo's quick replies. He says, "Now art thou sociable, now art thou Romeo"
Juliet's Nurse arrives with her man Peter and asks to speak with Romeo.
Mercutio starts making sexual jokes about the Nurse, but finally exits with
Benvolio. The Nurse tells Romeo her mistress is willing to meet him in
marriage. Romeo indicates the Nurse should have Juliet meet him at Friar
Laurence's place that afternoon.
Act Two, Scene Four
Juliet eagerly awaits her Nurse and news from Romeo. The Nurse finally
arrives and sits down. Juliet begs her for information, but the Nurse
comically refuses to tell her anything until she has settled down and
gotten a back rub. She finally informs Juliet that Romeo awaits her at the
chapel where Friar Laurence lives.
Act Two, Scene Five
Romeo and Friar Laurence are in the chapel waiting for Juliet to arrive.
The Friar cautions Romeo to "love moderately." Juliet soon appears and
Friar Laurence takes the two young lovers into the church to be married.
Act Three, Scene One
Benvolio and Mercutio are on a street in Verona waiting for Romeo to
arrive. While there, Tybalt and Petruccio see them and come over to provoke
a quarrel. Tybalt is expressly looking to find Romeo, whom he want to
punish for sneaking into the masked party the previous day.
Romeo arrives and tries to be submissive to Tybalt by telling him that he
harbors no hatred of the Capulet house. Tybalt is unsure how to deal with
Romeo, but since Mercutio is provoking him to a duel, he draws his sword
and attacks Mercutio. Romeo draws his sword and intervenes too late to stop
Tybalt from stabbing Mercutio. Tybalt and Petruccio then exit the area.
Mercutio leaves the stage with Benvolio, who soon returns to tell Romeo
that Mercutio has died. Romeo vows revenge on Tybalt, who soon reappears to
fight with him. In the duel, Romeo kills Tybalt. Benvolio tells Romeo to
run away before the Prince arrives.
The Prince, followed by the Montague and Capulet families, shows up at the
scene. Benvolio tells him the entire story, but the Prince refuses to
believe Romeo is guiltless. He banishes Romeo from Verona, threatening to
kill him should he return.
Act Three, Scene Two
Juliet delivers one of the most elegant soliloquys in the play about Romeo,
whom she is hoping to receive news about. Her Nurse enters with the news of
Tybalt's death and Romeo's banishment, but as in the previous scene refuses
to immediately tell Juliet what she knows. Instead, the nurse lets Juliet
believe that it is Romeo who has been killed.
When the Nurse finally reveals the truth to Juliet, Juliet immediately
chides Romeo for pretending to be peaceful when in fact he is able to kill
Tybalt. She then recants, and tell the Nurse, "Shall I speak ill of him
that is my husband?" (3.2.97). Juliet laments the fact that Romeo has been
banished, and indicates that she would rather have both her parents killed
then see Romeo banished.
The Nurse promises to go find Romeo and bring him to Juliet's bed that
night. She tells Juliet that he is hiding with Friar Laurence. Juliet gives
the Nurse a ring for Romeo to wear when he comes to see her that night.
Act Three, Scene Three
Friar Laurence tells Romeo that he is banished from Verona, and that he
should be happy that the Prince was willing to commute the death sentence.
Romeo considers banishment worse than death, because it means that he can
never see Juliet again.When the Friar tries to console him, Romeo says,
"Wert thou as young as I, Juliet thy love.../ Then mightst thou speak"
The nurse enters and finds Romeo on the ground weeping. She tells him to
stand up. Romeo is so upset by the events that he starts to stab himself,
but the Nurse snatches away the dagger. Friar Laurence tells Romeo that he
should be happy, since he and Juliet are still alive and want to see each
other. The Friar then gets Romeo to go see Juliet that night, with the
expectation that Romeo will run away to Mantua the next morning.
Act Three, Scene Four
The Capulets and Paris are preparing for bed, even though it is almost
morning. Old Capulet decides right then that Juliet will marry Paris. He
comments, "I think she will be ruled / In all respects by me" (3.4.13-4).
He tells Lady Capulet to speak to Juliet about the matter immediately
before going to bed.
Romeo and Juliet are in her bedroom as daylight approaches. They pretend
for a short minute that it really is still the night, but the Nurse arrives
to tell Juliet her mother approaches. Romeo descends from the balcony to
the ground and bids her goodbye.
Lady Capulet tells Juliet she has news to cheer her up, namely the planned
wedding with Paris. Juliet tells her that she would sooner marry Romeo
rather than Paris. Capulet himself enters and becomes furious when Juliet
refuses to marry Paris. He calls Juliet "young baggage" and orders her to
prepare to marry Paris the upcoming Thursday.
Lady Capulet refuses to help Juliet, and even the Nurse tells her that
Paris is a fine gentleman whom she should marry. Juliet kicks out her Nurse
and prepares to visit Friar Laurence. As the Nurse leaves, Juliet calls
her, "Ancient damnation!" (3.5.235).
Act Four, Scene One
Paris is speaking with Friar Laurence about the wedding with Juliet. Friar
Laurence, aware that Juliet cannot marry Romeo, is full of misgivings.
Juliet enters and is forced to speak with Paris, who acts arrogant now that
the marriage is going to happen. Juliet rebuffs him by giving vague answers
to his questions. She finally asks Friar Laurence if she can meet with him
alone, meaning that Paris has to leave.
Friar Laurence comes up with a rash plan to get Romeo and Juliet together.
He gives Juliet a poison which will make her appear dead to the world. In
this way, rather than marry Paris, she will instead be placed in the vault
where all deceased Capulets are buried. Friar Laurence will then send a
letter to Romeo, telling him what is being done so that he can return and
sneak Juliet out of the tomb and also away from Verona.
Act Four, Scene Two
Juliet arrives home and tells her father that she has repented her sin of
being disobedient to him. He pardons her and happily sends her off to
prepare her clothes for the wedding day. Capulet then goes to tell Paris
that Juliet will marry him willingly.
Act Four, Scene Three
Juliet convinces both her mother and the Nurse that she wants to sleep
alone that night. She prepares to drink the poison that Friar Laurence gave
her, but cautiously puts a knife next to her bed in case the potion should
fail to work. Juliet then drinks the potion and falls motionless onto her
Act Four, Scene Four
The Nurse goes to fetch Juliet but instead finds her lying dead. Lady
Capulet enters and also starts lamenting her daughter's demise. Capulet
then arrives and, discovering his daughter has committed suicide, orders
the music to change to funeral tunes.
Act Five, Scene One
Romeo has had a dream in which Juliet finds him dead which has disturbed
him. His servant Balthasar arrives in Mantua from Verona with news that
Juliet is dead. Romeo immediately orders him to bring a post horse so that
he can return to Verona and see her for himself. Romeo then finds a poverty
stricken apothecary and pays him for some poison.
Act Five, Scene Two
Friar John arrives to tell Friar Laurence that he was unable to deliver the
letter to Romeo. His excuse is that some people were afraid he carried the
pestilence (the plague) and refused to let him out of a house. Friar
Laurence realizes that this destroys his plans, and orders a crowbar so
that he can go rescue Juliet from the grave.
Act Five, Scene Three
Romeo and Balthasar arrive at Juliet's tomb, where Paris is standing watch
to ensure no one tries to rob the vault. Paris sees Romeo and fights him,
but is killed in the process. His page then runs off to fetch the city
Romeo opens up the tomb and sees Juliet. He sits down next to her, takes a
cup and fills it with the poison, then drinks it and dies kissing Juliet.
Friar Laurence arrives only seconds later and discovers that Paris has been
killed by Romeo.
Juliet awakes and finds Romeo dead beside her, with the cup of poison still
next to him. She kisses him, hoping some of the poison will kill her as
well. Friar Laurence pleads with her to come out of the vault, but instead
Juliet chooses to kill herself with Romeo's dagger.
At this point the watchmen arrive, along with the Prince, Montague and
Capulet. Friar Laurence tells them the story as he knows it, and Balthasar
gives the Prince a letter written by Romeo which verifies the story.
Montague, in order to make amends for Juliet's death, tells them he will
erect a golden statue of her in Verona for all to see. Not to be outdone,
Capulet promises the same of Romeo. The Prince ends the play with the
words, "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her
Romeo." (5.3.308-9)

The Tempest

Summary of Act I:
Act I, Scene I
On a stormy sea, mariners try to keep a ship, with its passengers‹Alonso,
the King of Naples, his brothers Sebastian and Antonio, his son Ferdinand,
and his advisor, Gonzalo‹from running aground on the rocks. The boatswain
reckons that even kings cannot "command these elements" of wind and water,
and tells Antonio and Sebastian that they can either "keep below" or help
the sailors. The noblemen take offense at being ordered around by a mere
mariner, and both show a mean-tempered streak in this encounter. Suddenly,
a panic seizes the mariners, and they declare "all lost," surrendering
themselves, and their ship, to the vicious storm; Antonio and Sebastian
also fear the worst, and go below to say goodbye to their brother Alonso.
Act I, Scene 2
Prospero and his daughter Miranda are the focus of this scene, and from
Miranda's first speech it becomes clear that the storm in the previous
scene was somehow caused and controlled by Prospero. Miranda is concerned
that good men were lost in the wreck, but Prospero assures her that it all
went to plan, and no men were harmed. Prospero explains his motivations for
causing the storm by telling her his history with the nobles aboard the
ship; he reveals to Miranda that Antonio is his brother, and that he was
once the rightful Duke of Milan, a position Antonio now holds. Antonio
usurped Prospero's estate and wealth while Prospero became increasingly
"rapt in secret studies" and oblivious to his brother's machinations; and
in order to take Prospero's title as well, Antonio arranged to have his
brother Prospero and Prospero's daughter Miranda killed secretly. But
Prospero is widely known to be a good man, so those charged with his death
decide not to kill him, Instead, Prospero and Miranda were set adrift on
the open sea in a decayed vessel, and were able to survive off the supplies
that the honest councilor Gonzalo arranged for them to have; thus, they
landed on the island where they now live.
After Prospero's tale, Ariel, a magical spirit, appears; it becomes clear
that she is in Prospero's service, and caused the storm, at Prospero's
bidding. King Alonso and company are now "dispersed?'bout the isle," and
Ariel has made the incident look like a shipwreck. Ariel also expresses her
wish to be freed by Prospero, although he rescued her from the nasty witch
Syncorax. Caliban, who was Syncorax's son, also makes an appearance;
Miranda expresses her strong dislike for him, and he has been reduced to no
more than Prospero's slave.
Ferdinand, Alonso's son, meets Miranda, and falls immediately in love with
her; this appears to be of Ariel's doing, and part of the carefully-laid
plan that she must carry out to win her freedom from Prospero.
Summary of Act II
Act 2, Scene I
King Alonso has landed on the island, with his brothers Sebastian and
Antonio, noblemen Adrian and Francisco, and the councilor Gonzalo. Gonzalo
tries to console Alonso upon their good fortune of surviving the
shipwreck‹but Alonso is grieved‹not only because his son Ferdinand is
missing and presumed dead, but because he was returning from his daughter's
wedding in Africa, and fears he will never see her again because of the
distance. Antonio and Sebastian show great skill with mocking wordplay, and
use this skill to stifle Gonzalo and Adrian's attempts to speak frankly to
the rest of the party. Ariel's magic makes the party fall asleep, with the
exception of Antonio and Sebastian.
A strange seriousness, of Ariel's doing, falls upon Antonio and Sebastian.
Antonio begins to concoct a plan to get his brother the kingship, which
will be much easier if Ferdinand, the current heir, really is dead; and
since Alonso's daughter is very far away in Tunis, Sebastian might be able
to inherit the crown with only two murders, those of Alonso and Gonzalo.
Ariel, however, hears to conspirators plan, and wakes Gonzalo with a
warning of the danger he is in. Ariel intends to let Prospero know that the
conspiracy has indeed been formed as he wished, and Prospero in turn will
try to keep Gonzalo safe, out of appreciation for his past help in
preserving the lives of Prospero and Miranda.
Act 2, Scene 2
Caliban curses Prospero, as another storm approaches the island; he takes
the storm as a sign that Prospero is up to mischief, and hides at the
approach of what he fears is one of Prospero's punishing spirits. Trinculo,
Alonso's court jester, finds Caliban lying still on the ground and covered
with a cloak, and figures him to be a "dead Indian"; but, the storm
continues to approach, so he also hides himself, using Caliban's cloak as a
shelter, and flattening himself on the ground beside Caliban's prostrate
Alonso's drunken butler, Stephano, enters, drunk and singing, and stumbles
upon the strange sight of the two men under the cloak; he figures, in his
drunken stupor, that Trinculo and Caliban make a four-legged monster.
Caliban,in his delirium, thinks that Stephano is one of Prospero's minions,
sent to torment him; Stephano thinks a drink of wine will cure Caliban of
what ails him, and bit by bit, gets Caliban drunk as well. It takes
Stephano a while to recognize his old friend, Trinculo, whom Caliban seems
to be ignoring. Because of Stephano's generosity with his "celestial
liquor," Caliban takes him to be some sort of benevolent god; much to
Trinculo's disbelief, Caliban actually offers his service to Stephano,
forsaking the "tyrant" Prospero. Stephano accepts the offer.
Summary of Act III
Act III, Scene 1
Ferdinand has been made to take Caliban's place as a servant, despite his
royal status; and though he does not like Prospero, he does the work
because it will benefit his new love, Miranda. Ferdinand and Miranda
express their love for each other, and both express their desire to be
married‹though they have known each other for less than a day.
Act III, Scene 2
Stephano, Trinculo, and Caliban are drinking; Trinculo and Sebastian
continue to insult Caliban, though Caliban only protests against Trinculo's
remarks, and tries to get Stephano to defend him. Caliban begins to tell
the other two about the tyranny of his old master, Prospero, and how he
wants to be rid of Prospero forever; Ariel enters, causes further discord
among the group, and gets Caliban to form a murder plot against Prospero.
Caliban promises Stephano that if Prospero is successfully killed, he will
allow Stephano to be ruler of the island, and will be his servant. He also
promises that Stephano will get Miranda if the plot is successful‹Ariel
leaves, to tell Prospero of these developments.
Act III, Scene 3
Alonso, Adrian, Francisco, Sebastian, Antonio, and Gonzalo are still
wandering about the island, and Alonzo has finally given up any hope of his
son Ferdinand being alive. Antonio and Sebastian decide to make their
murderous move later that night, but their conspiracy is interrupted by
Prospero sending in a huge banquet via his spirits, with he himself there,
but invisible. They are all amazed, but not too taken aback that they will
not eat the food; but, as they are about to eat, a vengeful Ariel enters,
taking credit for their shipwreck, and makes the banquet vanish. Alonso
recognizes Ariel's words as being of Prospero's pen, and the great guilt of
Alonso, Antonio, and Sebastian begins to take them over, at the thought of
Prospero being alive, and so nearby.
Summary of Act IV
Prospero stops Ferdinand's punishment, and decides to finally give Miranda
to him, since he has proven his love for her through his service. Prospero
accepts the union, but issues them a warning; if Ferdinand takes Miranda's
virginity before a ceremony can be performed, then their union will be
cursed. Ferdinand swears to Prospero that they shall wait until the
ceremony to consummate their marriage, and then Prospero calls upon Ariel
to perform one of his last acts of magic. A betrothal masque is performed
for the party by some of Prospero's magical spirits; Juno, Ceres, and Iris
are the goddesses who are represented within the masque, and the play
speaks about the bounties of a good marriage, and blesses the happy couple.
This act of magic so captivates Prospero that he forgets Caliban's plot to
kill him; for a moment, he almost loses control, but manages to pull
himself out of his reverie and take action.
Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo come looking for Prospero, and swipe a few
garments of Prospero's on their way. Caliban still wants very much to kill
Prospero, and carry out this plot; however, Trinculo and Stephano are very
drunk, as usual, and prove completely incapable of anything but petty
theft. Prospero catches them‹not difficult, since they are making a huge
amount of noise--and sends Ariel after them as they flee.
Summary of Act V
Prospero finally has all under his control; Ariel has apprehended Alonso,
Sebastian, and Antonio, and they are all waiting for Prospero's judgment.
Finally, Prospero makes up his mind against revenge, and makes a speech
that signifies his renunciation of magic; the accused and the other nobles
enter the magic circle that Prospero has made, and stand there, enchanted,
while he speaks. Prospero charges Alonso with throwing Prospero and his
daughter out of Italy, and Antonio and Sebastian with being part of this
crime. Prospero announces Ariel's freedom after Ariel sees the party back
to Naples, and Ariel sings a song out of joy. Alonso and Prospero are
reconciled after Alonso declares his remorse and repents his wrongs to
Prospero and Miranda, and Prospero finally wins back his dukedom from
Antonio. Prospero, perhaps unwillingly, also says that he forgives Antonio
and Sebastian, though he calls them "wicked" and expresses his reservations
about letting them off the hook.
After despairing that his son is dead, Alonso finds out that his son
Ferdinand is indeed alive, and the two are reunited; then, Ferdinand and
Miranda's engagement is announced, and is approved before the whole party
by Alonso and Prospero. Gonzalo rejoices that on the voyage, such a good
match was made, and that the brothers are reunited, and some of the bad
blood between them is now flushed out. Ariel has readied Alonso's boat for
their departure, and the boatswain shows up again, telling them about what
happened to all of the sailors during the tempest.
Caliban apologizes to Prospero for taking the foolish Stephano as his
master, and Prospero, at last, acknowledges Caliban, and takes him as his
own. Stephano, Trinculo, and Caliban's plot is exposed to the whole group,
and is immediately forgiven. Prospero invites everyone to pass one last
night in the island at his dwelling, and promises to tell the story of his
and Miranda's survival, and of the devices of his magic. The play ends with
Prospero addressing the audience, telling them that they hold an even
greater power than Prospero the character, and can decide what happens

Twelfth Night

Act I Summary:
Scene 1:
Count Orsino of Illyria is introduced; he laments that he is lovesick, and
wishes that "if music be the food of love," he could kill his unrequited
love through an overdose of music. His servant, Curio, asks Orsino if he
will go and hunt; Orsino answers with another lovelorn reply, about how his
love for the Lady Olivia has been tearing him apart. Orsino's servant
Valentine, whom Orsino sent to give his affections to Olivia, returns;
Valentine was not allowed to speak directly to Olivia, but Olivia sent a
message, via her handmaiden, that Olivia will continue to mourn her dead
brother, and will neither allow Orsino to see her or to woo her. Orsino
laments that Olivia does not hold the same deeply felt love that he
professes to have.
Scene 2:
Viola lands in Illyria, after a terrible shipwreck in which she was
separated from her twin brother, Sebastian. Viola hopes that her brother
was saved, as she was; the Captain, who also managed to get ashore, tries
to console her of the hopes of finding her brother alive. The Captain
recalls seeing her brother in the water after the shipwreck, clinging onto
a mast, and riding above the waves. As it happens, the Captain is from
Illyria, and tells Viola of Count Orsino, and of his love for Lady Olivia;
the Captain also mentions Olivia's recent loss of both her father and her
brother, and Viola, having lost her brother as well, commiserates with
Olivia's situation. Viola proposes that she serve Orsino, since he is a
good and just man; she conspires with the Captain that she may be presented
to Orsino as a eunuch, and that her true identity as a foreign woman be
concealed. The Captain agrees to help her, and he leads her to Orsino.
Scene 3:
Sir Toby, Olivia's drunken uncle, is approached by Olivia's handmaiden,
Maria, about his late hours and disorderly habits. Maria also objects to
one of Sir Toby's drinking buddies, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a rather foolish
man who Sir Toby has brought as a potential suitor to Olivia. Sir Toby has
great affection for Sir Andrew, but Maria does not; she believes that Sir
Andrew is a drunkard and a fool, and not to be suffered. Sir Toby attempts
to introduce Sir Andrew to Maria; wordplay ensues from a series of
misunderstandings, puns, and differing usages of words. Maria exits, and
Sir Toby and Sir Andrew continue to quibble, with some amusing results; at
last, they decide to start drinking.
Scene 4:
Viola has now disguised herself as a boy, Cesario, and has been taken into
the service of Count Orsino. Valentine remarks that Orsino and Viola, as
Cesario, have become close in the short time that Viola has been employed;
indeed, Orsino has already told Viola of his great love for Olivia. Orsino
asks Viola to go to Olivia and make Orsino's case to the lady; he believes
that Viola/ Cesario, being younger and more eloquent than his other
messengers, will succeed. Viola says she will obey, although she confesses
in an aside that she already feels love for Orsino, and would rather be his
wife than try to woo Olivia for him.
Scene 5:
Feste's first appearance in the play; unlike Sir Toby and Sir Andrew, who
make wordplay by mincing each other's meanings, Feste is more perceptive
and quick-witted, and gets into an entertaining argument with the equally
quick-witted Maria. Olivia enters, with her attendants, and is somewhat
displeased and short with Feste; Feste says she is a fool for mourning her
brother, if she knows that her brother is in heaven. Viola/ Cesario arrives
at Olivia's house, and is admitted after much waiting, and being examined
by both Sir Toby and Malvolio. Viola is brought in to meet Olivia, who
finds out Viola is a messenger on Orsino's behalf, and Olivia discourages
Viola from wooing her for the Count. Viola tries to make Orsino's suit,
though Olivia counters this with elusive and witty remarks; Olivia begins
to show interest in Viola as Cesario in this scene, and still insists that
she cannot love Orsino. Viola is sent away at last, and Olivia has Malvolio
go after Viola, with a ring and an invitation to come back tomorrow.
Act II Summary:
Scene 1:
Sebastian, Viola's brother, is shown alive, and in the company of Antonio,
a somewhat ­shady sea-captain who is wanted by Count Orsino for
questionable doings on the seas. Sebastian tells Antonio of his sister,
Viola, who he fears has been drowned; he thanks Antonio for his kindness in
saving him from being drowned, and resolves that he must be off alone.
Antonio asks if he may go with Sebastian, but Sebastian refuses this kind
request, and is gone.
Scene 2:
Malvolio catches up to Viola, with the ring he was instructed to give Viola
by Olivia. Viola is surprised, since she left no ring with Olivia; Malvolio
grows impatient with Viola's claim to know nothing of the ring, and he
throws it down onto the ground, and storms off. Viola realizes that the
ring is proof that Olivia has some affection for her as Cesario; she
regrets that Olivia is in love with her disguise, as that will come to
nothing, and also that she is in love with her master, but that she can do
nothing in her present disguise.
Scene 3:
Sir Toby and Sir Andrew are up late, drinking; Feste joins them, and they
request that he sing a song about love. They proceed to make a great deal
of noise, by singing, drinking, and talking nonsense; Maria tries to get
them to be quiet, but Malvolio is awakened by the noise, and comes down to
berate them for disturbing the household. Once Malvolio leaves, Maria
concocts a plan to make Malvolio look like a complete fool: since Maria's
handwriting is similar to Olivia's, she will write love letters to Malvolio
and make it look like the letters have come from Olivia. The party decides
to try this out and see if it will work; Maria leaves to go to bed, and Sir
Toby and Sir Andrew decide to drink the rest of the night away.
Scene 4:
Orsino calls upon Feste to sing an old song, that pleases him very well;
Orsino then begins to talk to Viola/ Cesario of love, and its
imperfections. Orsino compares women to roses "whose fair flower/ being
once displayed, doth fall that very hour"; Viola does not completely
approve of Orsino's slightly cynical view of women, and will seek to
correct it later in the scene. Feste begins to sing his song, a sad one
about love and death, and when he is done, he is dismissed, and makes a
remark about Orsino's extreme changeability of mood.
Viola attempts to soothe Orsino's melancholy by getting him to accept that
Olivia might not love him, but that perhaps another woman does; Orsino
counters this with the argument that women are very inconstant in their
love, and could not have a feeling as deep as the love he has for Olivia.
Viola knows that this is not true, in light of the great amount of feeling
she has for Orsino; she attempts to persuade him that women are "as true of
heart" as men, by telling him a story she makes up about a sister that
loved only too constantly and too well. Orsino asks Viola to go again to
Olivia, and make his suit; Viola obeys, and sets off to see Olivia again.
Scene 5:
Maria appears, with the love-letter she has written for the purposes of
baiting Malvolio. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and their friend Fabian are
present; they hide behind a tree as Malvolio approaches, and Maria places
the letter somewhere where he is certain to find it. Malvolio approaches,
already muttering nonsense about thinking that Olivia fancies him, and
about how things would be if they were married; this angers Sir Toby and
Sir Andrew, who want to beat Malvolio for his pretension. Malvolio finally
spots the letter, and recognizes the handwriting as Olivia's; he takes the
bait completely, believing it to be proof that Olivia really does love him.
Sir Toby and Sir Andrew marvel at Maria's plan, and how it has worked, and
cannot wait to see Malvolio make an even bigger fool of himself.
Act III Summary:
Scene 1:
Viola enters, on her way to see Olivia; she comes across Feste, who is full
of wit and foolery as usual. Feste expresses his dislike for Viola, which
Viola does not take personally; Viola gives him a few coins for his
wordplay, and mentions the wit that it takes to act the fool as well as
Feste does. Viola runs across Sir Toby and Sir Andrew on her way to visit
Olivia; Olivia then comes to meet Viola, and Viola again attempts to make
Orsino's suit to Viola.
Olivia apologizes for the confusion she brought upon Viola with sending the
ring; then, Olivia confesses her affection for Viola/ Cesario, and begs to
know if Viola does indeed feel the same way. Viola says no, then asks again
if Olivia will have anything to do with Orsino; Olivia is constant in her
lack of response to Orsino, but makes one last attempt to win Cesario over.
Viola warns Olivia as best she can, telling Olivia that "I am not what I
am," though Olivia does not guess at the statement's real meaning
(III.i.139). Of course she is unsuccessful, and Viola leaves‹but not
without an entreaty to return.
Scene 2:
Sir Andrew finally comes to his senses, realizing that Olivia favors
Cesario far more than she favors him. His friend Fabian tries to convince
him that Olivia is only pretending to favor Cesario, in order to make Sir
Andrew jealous; his lie is well-intentioned, but does not soothe Sir
Andrew's anger. Sir Toby then persuades Sir Andrew that he should challenge
Cesario to a duel, and that, if Sir Andrew wins, he will surely gain
Olivia's affections. Sir Toby tells him to write a letter of challenge,
which Sir Toby will deliver; Toby actually has no intent of sponsoring a
duel, but thinks the exercise might cool Sir Andrew off a little. Maria
then enters, and begs them all to come see Malvolio, who is acting like a
complete idiot in front of Olivia.
Scene 3:
Antonio is slow to leave Sebastian's side, as he fears some accident may
happen to Sebastian since he is completely ignorant of the country.
Sebastian wants to go about and see the sights, but Antonio tells him that
he cannot; Antonio confesses that he was involved with some piracy against
Illyria, and that he is wanted by the Count because of it. Antonio proposes
that they meet up at an inn in one hour, and that Sebastian can wander
about until then; they part, hopeful of meeting up again without accident.
Scene 4:
Maria warns Olivia of Malvolio's very strange behavior; yet, Olivia still
wishes that Malvolio be brought before her. Malvolio is wearing yellow,
cross-gartered stockings, which Olivia abhors; he is careful to point out
what he thinks is his fashionable taste. Malvolio continues his absurdity,
making remarks of unwarranted familiarity, and completely baffling Olivia
with his misguided attempts to be amorous toward her. Olivia dismisses
Malvolio's odd behavior as being some kind of passing madness, and orders
that Malvolio be looked after while she sees to Cesario, who has supposedly
Sir Toby, Maria, and Fabian approach Malvolio; they treat Malvolio's case
as an instant of witchcraft or possession, and pretend they know nothing of
the real cause of Malvolio's strange behavior. Then, their plan takes a
more malicious turn; not satisfied with the havoc they have already caused,
they decide to make Malvolio go mad, if they can. Sir Andrew returns, with
his "saucy" letter for Cesario, and Viola as Cesario appears, having
patched up any bad feelings over their last dramatic scene.
Sir Toby conveys Sir Andrew's challenge to Viola, and tries to make Viola
shrink from the confrontation by greatly exaggerating Sir Andrew's meanness
and anger. Sir Andrew and Viola come close to some sort of reluctant
confrontation, when Antonio stumbles on them; Antonio is arrested by
officers of the Count, and asks Viola for his purse, mistaking Viola for
her brother Sebastian. Antonio is taken aback when Viola will not give him
his purse, thinking that she, as Sebastian, is ungrateful for his help; he
speaks of rescuing Sebastian from drowning, which lets Viola know that her
brother might be alive. Antonio is dragged away, and Viola hopes that what
Antonio said is indeed true, and that her brother might have been saved
from the wreck.
Act IV Summary:
Scene 1:
Feste approaches Sebastian, thinking that Sebastian is 'Cesario'; when
Sebastian tells Feste that he does not know him, nor Olivia, whom Feste
tells him to meet, Feste becomes rather upset, and accuses Sebastian of
"strangeness". Then Sir Andrew comes, and strikes Sebastian out of anger,
as if he were Cesario; Sir Toby and Sebastian come close to getting in a
duel of their own, when Olivia finds them, and charges them to stop. Olivia
dismisses Sir Toby, and asks Sebastian "would thou'dst be ruled by me,"
thinking that he is Cesario, due to his great resemblance to his sister.
Sebastian decides to go along with it, struck by Olivia's beauty, thinking
it all a pleasant dream from which he hopes he will not awaken.
Scene 2:
Maria and Feste conspire to present Feste as Sir Topaz, the curate, to
Malvolio, who is hidden from view. Feste tries to convince that Malvolio
that he is crazy, and Malvolio continues to insist that he is not, that he
has been wrongly incarcerated. Feste then confronts Malvolio as himself,
and torments him some more; he fakes a conversation with himself as Feste
and Sir Topaz, and Malvolio begs for paper and ink so that he can send a
message to Olivia. Feste promises to fetch these things, and exits with a
Scene 3:
Sebastian debates with himself whether he is mad, or whether it is the Lady
Olivia; but, he recognizes that is cannot be her, since she is able to
command a large household, and therefore would have to be sane and
coherent. Olivia asks him to come with her to the parson and be married to
her; Sebastian, though he does not know her and cannot figure out exactly
what is going on, says he will marry her, and leaves with her.
Act V Summary:
Scene 1:
Fabian asks Feste for the letter Malvolio has written; Feste refuses this
request, and then Orsino, with Viola, finds them. Feste delays him with a
bit of jesting, and gets some money out of him; Orsino asks him to find
Olivia, and Feste goes to find her, with the promise of money for the task.
Viola points out Antonio, who is being brought to them by officers; Orsino
remembers Antonio from a sea-battle, and Viola tries to defend Antonio from
charges of crime by noting his kindness to her. Antonio claims that he
rescued Viola from drowning, and that they have been in each other's
company ever since; Orsino says that this is nonsense, since Viola has been
serving him the whole time.
Then, Olivia approaches them, still denying Orsino's love, while admitting
her affection for Viola. Orsino becomes angry at Viola, rather than Olivia,
because of these developments; he begins to suspect Viola of double-
dealings, and out of his anger, he admits his love for Viola, still
disguised as a boy. Viola, for the first time, declares her love for
Orsino, much to Olivia's consternation; Olivia counters this declaration by
divulging that she was married, to Viola as Cesario, she thinks. A priest
confirms Olivia's account, and Orsino becomes even more angry at Viola. Sir
Andrew and Sir Toby enter, charging Viola with fighting them and injuring
them; Viola is again shocked, and confused.
Suddenly, Sebastian dashes in, apologizing for injuring Sir Toby; he
expresses his happiness at seeing Antonio again, and acknowledges Olivia as
his wife. Viola and Sebastian see each other again, and there is a joyful
reunion. Sebastian reveals to Olivia that she married him, rather than his
sister in disguise; Orsino swears that he loves Viola, and will marry her.
Then, the action turns to Malvolio's condition; his letter is read, and his
condition explained. Malvolio is upset at his mistreatment, and Olivia
attempts to smooth things over; Fabian explains his, Sir Toby's, and
Maria's part in Malvolio's torment. Then, Feste inflames Malvolio's anger,
and he leaves, in a huff.
Orsino pronounces that happiness will stay with all of them, and that his
marriage to Viola will soon be performed. Feste closes the play with a song
about "the wind and the rain," a reminder that even great happiness is not
safe from life's storms.

                              Wuthering Heights

Chapter 1, Summary
      In Chapter 1 the narrator, Mr.  Lockwood,  relates  how  he  has  just
returned from a visit to his new landlord, Mr. Heathcliff. Lockwood, a self-
described misanthropist, is renting Thrushcross Grange in an effort  to  get
away from society following a failure at love. He had fallen in love with  a
"real goddess," but when she returned his affection he acted so  coldly  she
"persuaded her mamma to decamp."  He  finds  that  relative  to  Heathcliff,
however, he is extremely sociable. Heathcliff, "a  dark  skinned  gypsy,  in
aspect, in dress, and  manners  a  gentleman"  treats  his  visitor  with  a
minimum of friendliness, and the farm, Wuthering Heights,  where  he  lives,
is just as foreign and unfriendly. "Wuthering" means  stormy  and  windy  in
the  local  dialect.  Dangerous-looking  dogs  inhabit  the  bare  and  old-
fashioned rooms, and threaten to attack Lockwood: when  he  calls  for  help
Heathcliff implies that Lockwood had tried  to  steal  something.  The  only
other inhabitants of Wuthering Heights are an old servant named  Joseph  and
a cook. Despite his rudeness, Lockwood finds himself  drawn  to  Heathcliff:
he describes him  as  being  intelligent,  proud  and  morose,  an  unlikely
farmer, and declares his intention to visit  Wuthering  Heights  again.  The
visit is set in 1801.
Chapter 2, Summary
      Annoyed by the housework being done in the  Grange,  Lockwood  pays  a
second visit to Wuthering Heights, arriving there just  as  snow  begins  to
fall. The weather is cold, the ground is frozen, and his  reception  matches
the bleak unfriendliness of the moors. After  yelling  at  the  old  servant
Joseph to open the door, he is finally let in by a peasant-like  young  man.
The bare kitchen is warm, and Lockwood assumes that the young and  beautiful
girl there is Mrs. Heathcliff. He tries to  make  conversation  but  she  is
consistently scornful and inhospitable, and  he  only  embarrasses  himself.
There is "a kind of desperation" in her eyes. She refuses to  make  him  tea
unless Heathcliff said he could have some.  The  young  man  and  Heathcliff
come in for tea. The young  man  behaves  boorishly  and  seems  to  suspect
Lockwood of making advances to the girl. Heathcliff demands tea  "savagely,"
and  Lockwood  decides  he  doesn't  really  like  him.   Trying   to   make
conversation again, Lockwood gets into trouble first assuming that the  girl
is Heathcliff's wife, and then that she is married to the young man, who  he
supposes to be Heathcliff's son. He is rudely corrected, and  it  transpires
that the girl is Heathcliff's daughter-in-law but her husband  is  dead,  as
is Heathcliff's wife. The young man is Hareton Earnshaw. It is snowing  hard
and Lockwood requests a guide so he  can  return  home  safely,  but  he  is
refused: Heathcliff considers it more important that Hareton  take  care  of
the horses. Joseph, who is evidently a religious fanatic,  argues  with  the
girl, who frightens him by  pretending  to  be  a  witch.  The  old  servant
doesn't like her reading. Lockwood, left stranded and ignored by all,  tries
to take a lantern, but Joseph offensively accuses him of  stealing  it,  and
sets dogs on him. Lockwood is humiliated and Heathcliff and  Hareton  laugh.
The cook, Zillah, takes him in and says he can spend the night.
Chapter 3, Summary
      Zillah quietly shows Lockwood to a chamber which, she says, Heathcliff
does not like to be occupied. She doesn't know why, having only lived  there
for  a  few  years.  Left  alone,  Lockwood  notices  the  names  "Catherine
Earnshaw," "Catherine Linton," and "Catherine Heathcliff" scrawled over  the
window ledge. He leafs through some old books stacked there, and finds  that
the margins are covered in  handwriting   evidently  the  child  Catherine's
diary. He reads some entries which evoke  a  time  in  which  Catherine  and
Heathcliff were  playmates  living  together  as  brother  and  sister,  and
bullied by Joseph (who made them listen to sermons) and  her  older  brother
Hindley. Apparently Heathcliff was a  "vagabond"  taken  in  by  Catherine's
father, raised as one of the family, but when the father died  Hindley  made
him a servant and threatened to throw him out, to Catherine's sorrow.
      Lockwood then falls asleep over a religious book, and has a  nightmare
about a fanatical preacher leading a violent mob. Lockwood wakes  up,  hears
that a sound in his dream had really  been  a  branch  rubbing  against  the
window, and falls asleep again. This time he dreams that he wanted  to  open
the window to get rid of the branch, but when he did,  a  "little,  ice-cold
hand" grabbed his arm, and a voice sobbed "let me in." He asked who it  was,
and was answered: "Catherine Linton. I'm come home, I'd lost my way  on  the
moor." He saw a child's face and, afraid, drew the child's  wrist  back  and
forth on the broken glass of the window so that  blood  soaked  the  sheets.
Finally he gets free, and insists that he won't let the  creature  in,  even
if it has been lost for twenty years, which it  claims  it  has.  He  awakes
      Heathcliff comes in, evidently disturbed and  confused,  unaware  that
Lockwood is there. Lockwood tells him what happened,  mentioning  the  dream
and  Catherine  Linton's  name,  which  distresses  and  angers  Heathcliff.
Lockwood goes to the kitchen,  but  hears  on  his  way  Heathcliff  at  the
window, despairingly begging "Cathy" to  come  in  "at  last."  Lockwood  is
embarrassed by his host's obvious agony.
      Morning comes: Lockwood witnesses an argument between  Heathcliff  and
the girl, who has been reading. He bullies her, and she resists  spiritedly.
Heathcliff walks Lockwood most of the way home in the snow.
Chapter 4, Summary
      Lockwood is bored and a little weak after his adventures, so  he  asks
his housekeeper, Ellen Dean, to tell him about  the  history  of  Heathcliff
and the old families of the area. She says he is  very  rich  and  a  miser,
though he has no  family,  since  his  son  is  dead.  The  girl  living  at
Wuthering  Heights  was  the  daughter  of  Ellen's  former  employers,  the
Lintons, and her name was Catherine. She is the daughter of  the  late  Mrs.
Catherine Linton, was born an Earnshaw, thus  Hareton's  aunt.  Heathcliff's
wife was Mr. Linton's sister. Ellen is fond of the  younger  Catherine,  and
worries about her unhappy situation.
      The narrative switches  to  Ellen's  voice,  whose  language  is  much
plainer than Lockwood's. She is a discreet narrator,  rarely  reminding  the
listener of her presence in the story,  so  that  the  events  she  recounts
appear immediate. She says she had grown up at Wuthering  Heights,  and  one
      Mr. Earnshaw offered to bring his children Hindley (14 years old)  and
Catherine (about 6) a present each  from  Liverpool,  where  he  was  going.
Hindley asked for a fiddle  and  Catherine  for  a  whip,  because  she  was
already an excelled horsewoman. When Earnshaw returned, however, he  brought
with him a  "dirty,  ragged,  black-haired  child"  found  starving  on  the
streets. The presents had been lost or broken. The boy was named  Heathcliff
and taken into the family, though not entirely welcomed  by  Mrs.  Earnshaw,
Ellen, and Hindley. He and Catherine became very close, and  Heathcliff  was
Earnshaw's favorite. Hindley felt that his place was usurped,  and  took  it
out on Heathcliff, who was hardened and stoical. For example, Earnshaw  gave
them each a  colt,  and  Heathcliff  chose  the  finest,  which  went  lame.
Heathcliff then claimed Hindley's, and when Hindley threw a  heavy  iron  at
him, threatened to tell Earnshaw about it if he didn't get the colt.
Chapter 5, Summary
      Earnshaw grew old and sick  his wife had died some years  before   and
with his illness he became irritable and somewhat  obsessed  with  the  idea
that people disliked his favorite, Heathcliff. Heathcliff was spoiled  as  a
result, to keep Earnshaw happy,  and  Hindley,  who  became  more  and  more
bitter about the situation, was sent away to college. Joseph,  already  "the
wearisomest, self-righteous pharisee that ever ransacked  a  Bible  to  rake
the promises to himself, and fling the curses to his  neighbors,"  used  his
religious influence  over  Earnshaw  to  distance  him  from  his  children.
Earnshaw thought Hindley was worthless, and didn't like Cathy's  playfulness
and high spirits, so in his last days he  was  irritable  and  discontented.
Cathy was "much too fond" of Heathcliff, and liked to order  people  around.
Heathcliff would do anything she asked. Her father was harsh to her and  she
became hardened to his reproofs.
      Finally Earnshaw died one evening when Cathy had been resting her head
against his knee and Heathcliff was lying on the floor with his head in  her
lap. When she wanted to kiss her father good night, she  discovered  he  was
dead and the two children began to cry, but that night Ellen saw  that  they
had managed to comfort each other with "better  thoughts  than  [she]  could
have hit on," imagining the old man in heaven
Chapter 6, Summary
      Hindley returns home, unexpectedly bringing his wife, a flighty  woman
with a strange fear of death and symptoms  of  consumption  (although  Ellen
did not at first recognize them as such).  Hindley  also  brought  home  new
manners and rules, and informed the servants that they would  have  to  live
in inferior quarters. Most importantly, he treated Heathcliff as a  servant,
stopping his education and making him work in the fields like  any  farmboy.
Heathcliff did not mind too much at first because Cathy taught him what  she
learned, and worked and played with him in  the  fields.  They  stayed  away
from Hindley as much as possible and grew up uncivilized and free.  "It  was
one of their chief amusements to run away to the moors in  the  morning  and
remain there all day, and after punishment grew a mere thing to laugh at."
      One day they ran off after being punished,  and  at  night  Heathcliff
returned. He told what had happened. He and Cathy ran to the Grange  to  see
how people lived there, and they saw the Linton children Edgar and  Isabella
in a beautiful room, crying after an argument over who could  hold  the  pet
dog. Amused and scornful, Heathcliff and Cathy  laughed;  the  Lintons  head
them and called for their parents.  After  making  frightening  noises,  the
wilder children tried to escape, but a bulldog bit Cathy's leg  and  refused
to let go. She told Heathcliff to escape but he would  not  leave  her,  and
tried to pry the animal's jaws open. They were captured and brought  inside,
taken for thieves.  When  Edgar  recognized  Cathy  as  Miss  Earnshaw,  the
Lintons  expressed  their  disgust  at  the  children's  wild  manners   and
especially at  Heathcliff's  being  allowed  to  keep  Cathy  company.  They
coddled Cathy and drove Heathcliff out; he left after assuring himself  that
Cathy was all right.
      When Hindley found out, he welcomed the chance to separate  Cathy  and
Heathcliff, so Cathy was to stay for a prolonged visit with the Lintons  and
Heathcliff was forbidden to speak to her.
Chapter 7, Summary
      Ellen resumes the narrative. Cathy stayed at  Thrushcross  Grange  for
five  weeks,  until  Christmas.  When  she  returned  home  she   had   been
transformed into a young lady with that role's attending  restrictions:  she
could no longer kiss Ellen without  worrying  about  getting  flour  on  her
dress.  She  hurt  Heathcliff's  feelings  by  comparing  his  darkness  and
dirtiness to Edgar and Isabella's fair complexions and  clean  clothes.  The
boy had become more and more neglected in her absence, and was  cruelly  put
in his place by Hindley  and  especially  by  Cathy's  new  polish.  Cathy's
affection for him had not really changed, but he did not know this  and  ran
out, refusing to come in for supper. Ellen was sorry for him.
      The Linton children were invited for a Christmas party the  next  day.
That morning Heathcliff humbly approached Ellen and asked her to  "make  him
decent" because he was "going to be good." Ellen  applauded  his  resolution
and reassured him that Cathy still liked him and that  she  was  grieved  by
his shyness. When Heathcliff said he wished he  could  be  more  like  Edgar
fair, rich, and well-behaved  Ellen told him  that  he  could  be  perfectly
handsome without being effeminate if he smiled more and was more trustful.
      However, when Heathcliff, now "clean and cheerful" tried to  join  the
party, Hindley told him to go away because he wasn't not fit  to  be  there.
Edgar  unwisely  made  fun  of  his  long  hair  and  Heathcliff  threw  hot
applesauce at him, and was taken away and  flogged  by  Hindley.  Cathy  was
angry at Edgar for mocking Heathcliff and getting him into trouble, but  she
didn't want to ruin her party. She kept up a good front,  but  didn't  enjoy
herself, thinking of Heathcliff alone and beaten. At her first  chance   her
guests gone home  she crept into the garret where he was confined.
      Later Ellen gave Heathcliff dinner, since he hadn't eaten all day, but
he ate little and when she asked what was wrong, he said he was thinking  of
how to avenge himself on Hindley.
      At this point Ellen's  narrative  breaks  off  and  she  and  Lockwood
briefly discuss the merits  of  the  active  and  contemplative  life,  with
Lockwood defending his lazy habits and Ellen saying she  should  get  things
done rather than just telling Lockwood the story. He  persuades  her  to  go
Chapter 8, Summary
      Hindley's wife Frances gave birth to a child,  Hareton,  but  did  not
survive  long  afterwards:  she  had  consumption.  Despite   the   doctor's
warnings, Hindley persisted in believing that she  would  recover,  and  she
seemed to think so too, always saying she felt better, but she  died  a  few
weeks after Hareton's birth. Ellen was happy  to  take  care  of  the  baby.
Hindley "grew desperate; his sorrow was of a kind that will not  lament,  he
neither wept nor prayed  he cursed and defied  execrated God  and  man,  and
gave himself  up  to  reckless  dissipation.  The  household  more  or  less
collapsed into violent confusion  respectable  neighbors  ceased  to  visit,
except for Edgar, entranced by Catherine.  Heathcliff's  ill  treatment  and
the bad example posed by Hindley made him "daily  more  notable  for  savage
sullenness and ferocity." Catherine disliked having  Edgar  visit  Wuthering
Heights because she had a hard time behaving  consistently  when  Edgar  and
Heathcliff met, or when they talked about each other. Edgar's presence  made
her feel as though she had to behave like a Linton, which  was  not  natural
for her.
      One day  when  Hindley  was  away  Heathcliff  was  offended  to  find
Catherine putting on a "silly frock," getting ready for  Edgar's  visit.  He
asked her to turn Edgar away and spend the time with  him  instead  but  she
refused. Edgar was by this time a gentle,  sweet  young  man.  He  came  and
Heathcliff left, but Ellen  stayed  as  a  chaperone,  much  to  Catherine's
annoyance. She revealed her bad character by pinching Ellen,  who  was  glad
to have a chance to show Edgar what  Catherine  was  like,  and  cried  out.
Catherine denied having pinched her, blushing with rage,  and  slapped  her,
then slapped Edgar for reproving her. He said he would go;  she,  recovering
her senses, asked him to stay, and he was too  weak  and  enchanted  by  her
stronger will to leave. Brought closer by the quarrel,  the  two  "confessed
themselves lovers."
      Ellen heard Hindley come home drunk, and out  of  precaution  unloaded
his gun.
Chapter 9, Summary
      Hindley came in raging drunk and swearing, and caught Ellen in the act
of trying to hide Hareton in a cupboard for safety. He  threatened  to  make
Nelly swallow a carving knife, and  even  tried  to  force  it  between  her
teeth, but she bravely said she'd rather be shot, and spat it out.  Then  he
took up Hareton and said he would crop his ears like  a  dog,  to  make  him
look fiercer, then held the toddler over the  banister.  Hearing  Heathcliff
walking below, Hindley  accidentally  dropped  the  child,  but  fortunately
Heathcliff caught him. Looking up to see what had happened, he  showed  "the
intensest anguish at having made himself the  instrument  of  thwarting  his
own revenge." In other words, he hated Hindley so much that  he  would  have
liked to have him to kill his own son by  mistake.  If  it  had  been  dark,
Ellen said,  "he  would  have  tried  to  remedy  the  mistake  by  smashing
Hareton's skull on the steps." Hindley was somewhat  shaken,  and  began  to
drink more. Heathcliff told Nelly  he  wished  he  would  drink  himself  to
death, but he had a strong constitution.
      In the kitchen Cathy came to talk  to  Nelly  (neither  of  them  knew
Heathcliff was in the room, sitting behind the settle). Cathy said  she  was
unhappy, that Edgar had asked her to marry him and  she  had  accepted.  She
asked Nelly what she should have answered. Nelly asked her if  and  why  she
loved Edgar; she said she did for a variety of material  reasons:  "he  will
be rich, and I shall like to be the greatest woman in the neighborhood,  and
I shall be proud of such a husband." Nelly disapproved, and  Cathy  admitted
that she was sure she was wrong: she had had a dream in which  she  went  to
heaven and was unhappy there  because  she  missed  Wuthering  Heights.  She
"I have no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in  heaven;
and if the wicked man  in  there  had  not  brought  Heathcliff  so  low,  I
shouldn't have thought of it. It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff,  now;
so he shall never know how I love him; and that, not because he's  handsome,
Nelly, but because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls  are  made
of, his and mine are the same, and Linton's is as different  as  a  moonbeam
from lightening, or frost from fire."
      (Heathcliff left after hearing that it  would  degrade  her  to  marry
      Nelly told Cathy that Heathcliff would  be  deserted  if  she  married
Linton, and she indignantly said that she  had  no  intention  of  deserting
him, but would use her influence to raise him up. Nelly said Edgar  wouldn't
like that, to which Cathy replied: "Every Linton on the face  of  the  earth
might melt into nothing, before I could consent to forsake Heathcliff!"
      Later that night it turned out that no one knew where Heathcliff  was.
Cathy went out in the storm looking for  him,  unsuccessfully   he  had  run
away. The next morning she was sick. After some time she went to  stay  with
the Lintons  a healthier environment  and she got better,  while  Edgar  and
Isabella's parents caught the fever and  died.  She  returned  to  Wuthering
Heights "saucier, and more passionate, and haughtier than ever." When  Nelly
said that Heathcliff's disappearance was her fault, Cathy  stopped  speaking
to her. She married Edgar three years later, and Ellen unwillingly  went  to
live with her at the Grange, leaving  Hareton  to  live  with  his  wretched
Chapter 10, Summary
      Catherine got along surprisingly well with her husband  and  Isabella,
mostly because they never  opposed  her.  She  had  "seasons  of  gloom  and
silence" though. Edgar took these for the results of her serious illness.
      When they had been married almost a year, Heathcliff came back.  Nelly
was outside that evening and he asked her to tell Catherine  someone  wanted
to see her. He was quite changed: a tall and  athletic  man  who  looked  as
though he might  have  been  in  the  army,  with  gentlemanly  manners  and
educated speech  though his  eyes  contained  a  "half-civilized  ferocity."
Catherine was overjoyed and didn't understand why  Edgar  didn't  share  her
happiness. Heathcliff stayed for tea,  to  Edgar's  peevish  irritation.  It
transpired that Heathcliff was staying at Wuthering Heights, paying  Hindley
generously, but winning his host's money at cards.  Catherine  wouldn't  let
Heathcliff actually hurt her brother.
      In the following weeks, Heathcliff often visited the Grange.  Isabella
a "charming young lady of eighteen"  became  infatuated  with  him,  to  her
brother's dismay. Isabella became angry at Catherine for keeping  Heathcliff
to herself, and Catherine warned her that Heathcliff was a very  bad  person
to fall in love with and that Isabella was no match for him:
      "I never say to him to let this or that enemy alone, because it  would
be ungenerous or cruel to harm them, I  say   "Let  them  alone,  because  I
should hate them to be wronged"; and he'd crush you, like a  sparrow's  egg,
Isabella, if he found you a troublesome charge."
      Catherine teased Isabella by telling Heathcliff in her  presence  that
she loved him, holding her so she  couldn't  run  away.  Isabella  scratched
Catherine's  arm  and  managed  to  escape,  and  Heathcliff,   alone   with
Catherine, expressed interest in marrying Isabella  for  her  money  and  to
enrage Edgar. He said he would beat Isabella if they  were  married  because
of her "mawkish, waxen face."
Chapter 11, Summary
      Nelly went to visit Wuthering Heights to see how Hindley  and  Hareton
were doing. She saw Hareton outside; he didn't recognize his nurse, threw  a
rock at her and cursed. She found that his father  had  taught  him  how  to
curse, and that he liked Heathcliff  because  he  wouldn't  let  his  father
curse him, and let him do what he liked. Nelly was going to go in  when  she
saw Heathcliff there; frightened, she ran back home.
      The next time Heathcliff came to visit Nelly saw him kiss Isabella  in
the courtyard. She told Catherine what had  happened,  and  when  Heathcliff
came in the two had an argument. Heathcliff said he had a right to do as  he
pleased, since Catherine was married to someone  else.  He  said:  "You  are
welcome to torture me to death for your amusement, only, allow me  to  amuse
myself a little in the same style."
      Nelly  found  Edgar,  who  came  in  while  Catherine   was   scolding
Heathcliff. He scolded her for talking to "that blackguard," which made  her
very angry,  since  she  had  been  defending  the  Lintons.  Edgar  ordered
Heathcliff to leave, who scornfully ignored him. Edgar  motioned  for  Nelly
to fetch reinforcements, but Catherine angrily locked  the  door  and  threw
the key into the fire when Edgar tried to get it from  her.  Humiliated  and
furious,  Edgar  was  mocked  by  Catherine  and  Heathcliff,  but  he   hit
Heathcliff and went out by the back door to get help. Nelly told  Heathcliff
that he would be thrown out by the male servants if he stayed, so  he  chose
to leave.
      Left with Nelly, Catherine expressed her anger at her husband and  her
friend: " Well, if I cannot keep Heathcliff for my friend  if Edgar will  be
mean and jealous, I'll try to break their hearts by breaking my own."  Edgar
came  in  and  demanded  to  know  whether  she  would   drop   Heathcliff's
acquaintance, and she had a temper tantrum, ending  with  a  faked  "fit  of
frenzy." When Nelly revealed that the fit was faked, she  ran  to  her  room
and refused to come out or to eat for several days.
Chapter 12, Summary
      After three days in which Catherine stayed alone in  her  room,  Edgar
sat in the library, and Isabella  moped  in  the  garden,  Catherine  called
Nelly for some food and water because she thought she  was  dying.  She  ate
some toast, and was indignant to hear that Edgar wasn't frantic  about  her;
she said: "How strange! I thought, though everybody hated and despised  each
other, they could not avoid loving me  and they have all turned  to  enemies
in a few hours." It became clear  to  Ellen  that  she  was  delirious,  and
thought she was back in her room at Wuthering Heights:  she  was  frightened
of her face in the mirror because she thought there  was  no  mirror  there.
She opened the window and talked  to  Heathcliff  (who  was  not  there)  as
though they were children again. Edgar came in and was  much  concerned  for
Catherine, and angry at Ellen for not having told him what was going on.
      Going to fetch a doctor, Ellen notices Isabella's  little  dog  almost
dead, hanging by a handkerchief on the gate. She released it, and found  Dr.
Kenneth, who told her that he had seen Isabella walking  for  hours  in  the
park with Heathcliff. Ellen found that Isabella had indeed disappeared,  and
a little boy told her he had seen the  girl  riding  away  with  Heathcliff.
Ellen told Edgar, hoping he would rescue his sister from her  ill-considered
elopement, but he coldly refused to do so.
Chapter 13, Summary
      In the next two months Catherine "encountered and conquered the  worst
shock of what was denominated a brain fever," but it was realized  that  she
would never really  recover.  She  was  pregnant.  Heathcliff  and  Isabella
returned to Wuthering Heights and Isabella wrote  Edgar  an  apology  and  a
plea for forgiveness, to which he gave no reply.  She  later  sent  Ellen  a
longer  letter  asking  whether  Heathcliff  were  a  demon  or  crazy,  and
recounting her experiences. She found Wuthering Heights  dirty,  uncivilized
and unwelcoming: Joseph was rude to her, Hareton  was  disobedient,  Hindley
was a half-demented  mere  wreck  of  a  man,  and  Heathcliff  treated  her
cruelly. He refused to let her sleep in his room, which  meant  she  had  to
stay in a tiny garret. Hindley had a pistol with a blade on it,  with  which
he dreamed of killing Heathcliff, and Isabella coveted it for the  power  it
would  have  given  her.  She  was  miserable  and  regretted  her  marriage
Chapter 14, Summary
      Ellen, distressed by Edgar's refusal  to  console  Isabella,  went  to
visit her. She told Isabella and Heathcliff that Catherine would  "never  be
what she was" and that Heathcliff should not bother her anymore.  Heathcliff
asserted that he would not leave her to Edgar's lukewarm care, and that  she
loved him much more than her husband.  He  said  that  if  he  had  been  in
Edgar's place he would never have interfered with  Catherine's  friendships,
although he would kill the friend the moment she no longer cared about  him.

      Nelly told Heathcliff to treat Isabella better, and he  expressed  his
scorn and hatred for her (in her presence, of  course).  He  said  she  knew
what he was when she married him: she had seen  him  hanging  her  pet  dog.
Isabella told Nelly that she hated him, and Heathcliff ordered her  upstairs
so he could talk to Nelly.
      Alone with her, he told her that if she did not arrange  an  interview
for him with Catherine, he would force his way in armed, and she  agreed  to
give Catherine a letter from him.
Chapter 15, Summary
      The Sunday after Ellen's visit to Wuthering Heights, while most people
were at church,  she  gave  Catherine  Heathcliff's  letter.  Catherine  was
changed by her sickness: she was beautiful in an unearthly way and her  eyes
"appeared always to gaze beyond, and far beyond." Ellen had  left  the  door
open, so Heathcliff walked in and Catherine eagerly waited for him  to  find
the right room. Their reunion was bitter-sweet: though passionately glad  to
be  reunited,  Catherine  accused  Heathcliff  of  having  killed  her,  and
Heathcliff warned her not to say such things when he would  be  tortured  by
them after her death  besides, she had been at fault by abandoning him.  She
asked him to forgive her, since she would not "be  at  peace"  after  death,
and he answered: "It is hard to forgive, and to  look  at  those  eyes,  and
feel those wasted hands... I love my murderer  but yours! How can  I?"  They
held each other closely and wept until Ellen warned  them  that  Linton  was
returning. Heathcliff wanted to leave, but Catherine insisted that he  stay,
since she was dying and would never see him again.  He  consented  to  stay,
and "in the midst of the agitation, [Ellen] was sincerely  glad  to  observe
that Catherine's arms had fallen relaxed... ?She's fainted or dead, so  much
the better...'" Linton came in, Heathcliff handed him Catherine's  body  and
told him to take care of her: "Unless you be a fiend, help her  first   then
you shall speak to me!" He told Nelly he would  wait  outside  for  news  of
Catherine's welfare, and left.
Chapter 16, Summary
      Around midnight  Catherine  gave  birth  to  a  daughter  (also  named
Catherine, the girl Lockwood saw at Wuthering Heights) and  died  two  hours
later without recovering consciousness. No  one  cared  for  the  infant  at
first, and Ellen wished it had been a boy:  as  it  was,  Edgar's  heir  was
Isabella,  Heathcliff's  wife.  Catherine's  corpse  looked   peaceful   and
beautiful, and Ellen decided that she had found heaven at last.
      She went outside to tell Heathcliff and found him  leaning  motionless
against an ash tree. He knew she was  dead,  and  asked  Ellen  how  it  had
happened, attempting to conceal his anguish. Ellen was not fooled, and  told
him that she had died peacefully, like a  girl  falling  asleep.  He  cursed
Catherine and begged her to haunt him so he  would  not  be  left  in  "this
abyss, where I cannot find you!...  I  cannot  live  without  my  soul!"  He
dashed his head against the tree and howled "like  a  savage  beast  getting
goaded to death with knives and spears." Ellen was appalled.
      On Tuesday,  when  Catherine's  body  was  still  lying,  strewn  with
flowers, in the Grange, Heathcliff took advantage of Edgar's  short  absence
from the chamber of death to see her again, and to replace Edgar's  hair  in
her locket with some of his own. Ellen  noticed  the  change,  and  enclosed
both locks of hair together.
Catherine was buried on  Friday  in  a  green  slope  in  a  corner  of  the
kirkyard, where, Ellen said, her husband lies now as well.
Chapter 17, Summary
      The next day, while Ellen was  rocking  the  baby,  Isabella  came  in
laughing giddily. She was pale and her face was cut;  her  thin  silk  dress
was torn by briars. She asked Ellen to call the  carriage  for  the  nearest
town, Gimmerton, since she was escaping from her  husband,  and  to  have  a
maid get some clothes ready. Then she allowed Ellen to give her dry  clothes
and bind up the wound. Isabella tried to destroy her wedding-ring, and  told
what had happened to her in the last days:
      She said that she hated Heathcliff so much  that  she  could  feel  no
compassion for him even when he was in agony  following  Catherine's  death.
He hadn't eaten for days, and spent his time at  Wuthering  Heights  in  his
room, "praying like a methodist; only the deity he  implored  was  senseless
dust and ashes." The evening before,  Isabella  sat  reading  while  Hindley
drank morosely. When they heard Heathcliff returning  from  his  watch  over
Catherine's grave, Hindley told Isabella he would lock Heathcliff  out,  and
try to kill him with his bladed pistol if he came in.  Isabella  would  have
liked Heathcliff to die,  but  refused  to  help  in  the  scheme,  so  when
Heathcliff knocked she refused to let him in, saying: "If I  were  you,  I'd
go stretch myself over her grave, and die like a faithful dog...  The  world
is not worth living in now, is it?" Hindley came  close  to  the  window  to
kill Heathcliff, but the latter grabbed the weapon  so  the  blade  shut  on
Hindley's wrist; then he forced his way in. He kicked and trampled  Hindley,
who had fainted from the loss of blood, then roughly  bound  up  the  wound,
and told Joseph and Isabella to clean up the blood.
      The next morning when Isabella came down, Hindley "was sitting by  the
fire, deadly sick; his evil genius, almost as gaunt and  ghastly,  leant  by
the chimney." After eating breakfast by herself, she  told  Hindley  how  he
had been kicked when he was  down,  and  mocked  Heathcliff  for  having  so
mistreated his beloved's brother, saying to Hindley:  "everyone  knows  your
sister would have been living now, had it  not  been  for  Mr.  Heathcliff."
Heathcliff was so miserable that he  could  hardly  retaliate,  so  Isabella
went on and said that if Catherine had married him,  he  would  have  beaten
her the way he beat Hindley. Heathcliff threw a knife at her, and she  fled,
knocking down  Hareton,  "who  was  hanging  a  litter  of  puppies  from  a
chairback in the doorway." She ran to the Grange.
      That morning, she left, never to return  to  the  neighborhood  again.
Later, in her new home, in the  south,  she  gave  birth  to  a  son,  named
Linton, "an ailing, peevish creature," and died when he was about  12  years
      Edgar grew resigned to Catherine's death, and loved his daughter,  who
he called Cathy, very much. Ellen points  out  the  difference  between  his
behavior and Hindley's in a similar situation.
      Hindley died, "drunk as a lord," about six months after Catherine.  He
was just 27, meaning that Catherine had been  19,  Heathcliff  was  20,  and
Edgar was 21. Ellen grieved deeply for him  they had been the same  age  and
were brought up together. She made sure he was decently buried.  She  wanted
to take Hareton back to the Grange, but Heathcliff said he would  keep  him,
to degrade him as much as he himself had been degraded.  If  Edgar  insisted
on taking Hareton, Heathcliff said he would claim his  own  son  Linton,  so
Ellen gave the idea up.
Chapter 18, Summary
      In the next twelve years, Cathy Linton grew up to be "the most winning
thing that ever brought sunshine into a desolate house." She was  fair  like
a Linton, except for her mother's dark eyes. High spirited but  gentle,  she
seemed to combine the good qualities of both the Lintons and the  Earnshaws,
though she was a little saucy and was used to getting her  way.  Her  father
kept her within the park of the Grange, but she  dreamed  of  going  to  see
some cliffs, Penistone Crags, not too far away, on the moor.
      When Isabella fell ill, she wrote to Edgar to come visit  her,  so  he
was gone for three weeks. One day Cathy asked Ellen to give  her  some  food
for a ramble around the  grounds   she  was  pretending  to  be  an  Arabian
merchant going across the desert with her caravan of a pony and three  dogs.
She left the grounds, however, and later Ellen went after her  on  the  road
to Penistone Crags, which passed Wuthering Heights.  She  found  Cathy  safe
and sound there  Heathcliff wasn't home, and the housekeeper had  taken  her
in  chattering to Hareton, now 18 years old. She offended Hareton though  by
asking whether he was the master's son, and when he said he  wasn't,  saying
he was a servant. The housekeeper told her he was  her  cousin,  which  made
her cry. Hareton offered her a puppy to  console  her,  which  she  refused.
Ellen told her that her father didn't want her to go to  Wuthering  Heights,
and asked her not to tell him of her negligence, to which she agreed.
Chapter 19, Summary
      Isabella died, and Edgar returned home with his half-orphaned  nephew,
Linton, a "pale, delicate, effeminate, boy," with a "sickly peevishness"  in
his appearance. Cathy was excited to see her cousin,  and  took  to  babying
him when she saw that he was sickly and childish. That very evening,  Joseph
came and demanded the child for Heathcliff  he was after all his son.  Ellen
told him Edgar was asleep, but he went into his room and insisted  on  being
given Linton. Edgar wished to keep Linton  at  the  Grange,  but  could  not
legally claim him, so he could only put it off till the next morning.
Chapter 20, Summary
      The next morning, Ellen  woke  Linton  early  and  took  him  over  to
Wuthering Heights, promising dishonestly that  it  was  only  for  a  little
while. He was surprised to hear he had a father, since  Isabella  had  never
spoken of  Heathcliff.  When  they  arrived  there,  Heathcliff  and  Joseph
expressed their contempt for the delicate boy, and Heathcliff told him  that
his mother was a "wicked slut" not to  tell  him  about  his  father.  Ellen
asked Heathcliff to be kind to the boy, and he said  that  he  would  indeed
have him carefully tended, mostly because Linton was heir to the Grange,  so
he wanted him to live at least until Edgar was dead  and  he  inherited.  So
when  Linton  refused  to  eat  the  homely  oatmeal  Joseph  offered   him,
Heathcliff ordered that he be given some toast or  something  instead.  When
Ellen left, Linton cried for her not to leave him there.
Chapter 21, Summary
      Cathy missed her cousin when she woke up that morning, but  time  made
her forget him. Linton grew  up  to  be  a  selfish  and  disagreeable  boy,
continually complaining about his health. On Cathy's sixteenth birthday  she
and Ellen went out on the moors, and strayed onto Heathcliff's  land,  where
he found them. He invited them to come to Wuthering Heights,  telling  Ellen
that he wanted Linton and Cathy to marry so  he  would  be  doubly  sure  of
inheriting the Grange. Cathy was glad to see  her  cousin,  though  she  was
somewhat taken back by his invalidish  behavior.  Hareton,  at  Heathcliff's
request, showed her around the farm, though  he  was  shy  of  her  and  she
teased him unkindly. Linton mocked his ignorance also,  showing  himself  to
be mean-spirited.
      Later Cathy told her father where she had been, and asked him  why  he
had not allowed the cousins to see each other (Heathcliff had told her  that
Edgar was still angry at him because  he  thought  him  too  poor  to  marry
Isabella). Edgar told her of Heathcliff's wickedness,  and  forbade  her  to
return  to  Wuthering  Heights.  She  was  unhappy,  and  began   a   secret
correspondence with Linton. By the  time  Ellen  discovered  it,  they  were
writing love letters  affected  ones  on  Linton's  part.  Ellen  confronted
Cathy and burned the letters, saying  she  would  tell  her  father  if  she
Chapter 22, Summary
      That fall Edgar caught a cold which confined  him  to  the  house  all
winter. Cathy grew sadder after the end of  her  little  romance,  and  told
Ellen that she was afraid of being alone when  her  father  and  Ellen  were
dead. Taking a walk, Cathy ended up briefly stranded outside of the wall  of
the park, when Heathcliff rode by. He told her that Linton was  dying  of  a
broken heart, and that she would visit him if she were kind. Ellen told  her
that Heathcliff was probably lying and couldn't be  trusted,  but  the  next
day she was persuaded to accompany Cathy to Wuthering Heights.
Chapter 23, Summary
      Cathy and Ellen heard "a peevish voice" calling Joseph  for  more  hot
coals for the fire; they went in to see  Linton,  who  greeted  them  rather
ungraciously: "No   don't  kiss  me.  It  takes  my  breath   dear  me!"  He
complained that writing to her had been very tiring, and that  the  servants
didn't take care of him as they ought, and that he hated them. He said  that
he wished she would marry him, because wives always  loved  their  husbands,
upon which she answered that they did not always do so. Her father had  told
her that Isabella had not loved Heathcliff. Linton was  angry  and  answered
that Catherine's mother hadn't loved her father, but Heathcliff. She  pushed
his chair and he coughed for a long time, for which she was very  sorry.  He
took advantage of her regret and bullied her like a true hypochondriac,  and
made her promise to return the next day.
      When Cathy and Ellen were on  their  way  home,  Ellen  expressed  her
disapproval of Linton and said he  would  die  young   "small  loss."  Cathy
should on no account marry him. Cathy was not so sure he would die, and  was
much more friendly toward him.
      Ellen caught a cold and was confined to her room. Cathy  spent  almost
all her time taking care  of  her  and  Edgar,  but  she  was  free  in  the
evenings: then, as Ellen later found out, she visited Linton.
Chapter 24, Summary
      Three weeks later, Ellen  was  much  better,  and  discovered  Cathy's
evening visits to Wuthering Heights. Cathy told her what had happened:
      She had bribed a servant with her books, to take care of saddling  her
pony and not telling about her escapades.  On  her  second  visit,  she  and
Linton had had  an  argument  about  the  best  way  of  spending  a  summer
afternoon: he wanted to lie in the  heather  and  dream  it  away,  and  she
wanted to rock in a treetop among  the  birds:  "He  wanted  to  lie  in  an
ecstasy of peace;  I  wanted  all  to  sparkle,  and  dance  in  a  glorious
jubilee." They made up and played ball until Linton was unhappy  because  he
always lost, but she consoled him for that.
      She looked forward to her next visit, but that day  when  she  arrived
she met Hareton, who showed her how he had learned to  read  his  name.  She
mocked him for it. (Here Ellen rebuked Cathy for having been so rude to  her
cousin. Cathy was surprised, and went on.) When she was reading  to  Linton,
Hareton came in angrily and ordered them into the kitchen. Shut out  of  his
favorite room, Linton  staged  a  frightening  temper  tantrum,  wearing  an
expression of "frantic, powerless fury" and shrieking  that  he  would  kill
Hareton. Joseph pointed out that he  was  showing  his  father's  character.
Linton coughed blood and fainted; Cathy fetched Zillah. Hareton carried  the
boy upstairs but wouldn't let Cathy follow; she cried and he was  sorry  for
it. She struck him with her whip and rode home.
      On the third day Linton refused to speak to her except  to  blame  her
for the events of the preceding day, and she left resolving not to return.
      She did, however, and took Linton  to  task  for  being  so  rude.  He
admitted that he was worthless, but said that she was much happier  than  he
and should make allowances. Heathcliff hated him, and he was  very  unhappy.
He loved her however.
      Cathy was sorry Linton had such a distorted nature, and felt  she  had
an obligation to be a  friend  to  him.  She  had  noticed  that  Heathcliff
avoided her, and rebuked Linton when he did not behave well to her.
      Ellen told Edgar about the visits, and he forbade Cathy to  return  to
Wuthering Heights, but wrote to Linton that he could come to the  Grange  if
he liked.
Chapter 25, Summary
      Ellen points out to Lockwood that these events only happened the  year
before, and she hints that Lockwood might become interested  in  Cathy,  who
is not happy at Wuthering Heights. Then she went on with the narrative:
      Edgar asked Ellen what Linton was like, and she told him that  he  was
delicate and had little of his father in him  Cathy would probably  be  able
to control him if they married. Edgar admitted that  he  was  worried  about
what would happen to Cathy if he were  to  die.  As  spring  advanced  Edgar
resumed his walks, but although Cathy took his  flushed  cheeks  and  bright
eyes for health, Ellen was not so sure. He wrote again to Linton, asking  to
see him. Linton answered that his  father  refused  to  let  him  visit  the
Grange, but that he hoped to meet Edgar  outside  sometime.  He  also  wrote
that he would like to see Cathy again, and that his health was improved.
      Edgar could not consent, because he could not walk very far,  but  the
two began a correspondence. Linton wrote well,  without  complaining  (since
Heathcliff carefully censured his letters)and  eventually  Edgar  agreed  to
Cathy's going to meet Linton on the moors, with Ellen's  supervision.  Edgar
wished Cathy to marry Linton so she would not have to leave the Grange  when
he died  but he would not have wished it if he knew that  Linton  was  dying
as fast as he was.
Chapter 26, Summary
      When Ellen and Cathy rode to meet Linton they had to go quite close to
Wuthering Heights to find him. He was evidently very ill, though he said  he
was better: "his large blue eyes wandered timidly over her;  the  hollowness
round them, transforming to haggard wildness, the  languid  expression  they
once possessed." Linton had a hard time making conversation with Cathy,  and
was  clearly  not  enjoying  their  talk,  so  she  said  she  would  leave.
Surprisingly Linton then looked frightenedly towards Wuthering  Heights  and
begged her to stay longer, and to tell  her  father  he  was  in  "tolerable
health." She half-heartedly agreed, and he  soon  fell  into  some  kind  of
slumber. He woke suddenly and seemed to be terrified that his  father  might
come. Soon later Cathy and Ellen returned home,  perplexed  by  his  strange
Chapter 27, Summary
      A week later they were to visit Linton again. Edgar was  much  sicker,
and Cathy didn't want to leave him, but he encouraged her relationship  with
Linton, thinking to ensure his daughter's welfare thereby. Linton  "received
us with greater animation on  this  occasion;  not  the  animation  of  high
spirits though, nor yet of joy; it looked more like fear." Cathy  was  angry
that she had had to leave her father, and  she  was  disgusted  by  Linton's
abject admissions of terror. Heathcliff came upon them, and asked Ellen  how
much longer Edgar had to live: he was worried that Linton would  die  before
him. He then ordered Linton to get up and take Cathy in the house, which  he
did, against Cathy's will: "Linton... implored her to accompany him, with  a
frantic importunity that admitted no denial." Heathcliff pushed  Ellen  into
the house as well and locked the door  behind  them.  When  Cathy  protested
that she must get home to her father he slapped her brutally,  and  made  it
clear that she wouldn't leave Wuthering Heights until  she  married  Linton.
Linton showed his true character: as Heathcliff said,  "He'll  undertake  to
torture any number of cats if their teeth be drawn, and their claws  pared."
Cathy  and  Heathcliff  declared  their  mutual   hatred.   Ellen   remained
imprisoned for five days with Hareton as her jailer: he gave  her  food  but
refused to speak to her beyond what was necessary. She  did  not  know  what
was happening to Cathy.
Chapter 28, Summary
      On the fifth afternoon of the captivity, Zillah  released  Ellen,  and
said that Heathcliff said she could go home and that Catherine would  follow
in time to attend her father's funeral. He was not dead yet, but soon  would
be. Ellen asked Linton where Catherine was, and he  answered  that  she  was
shut upstairs, that they were married, and that he was glad  she  was  being
treated harshly. Apparently he was piqued that she hadn't  wished  to  marry
him. He was annoyed by her crying, and was glad when Heathcliff struck  her.

      Ellen rebuked him for his selfishness and unkindness, and went to  the
Grange to get help. Edgar was glad to hear his daughter was safe, and  would
be home soon: he was almost dead,  at  the  age  of  39.  The  men  sent  to
Wuthering H