. .


      I. Introduction_______________________________2.

         II. Theoretical part___________________________4.

      III. Practical part_____________________________32.

      IV. Conclusion______________________________36.

      V. Bibliography_____________________________37.

      VI. Appendix I______________________________39.

      VII. Appendix II_____________________________40.

      VIII. Appendix III____________________________43.

      IX.  Appendix IV_____________________________46.

      X.  Appendix V ______________________________48.

      XI.  Appendix VI_____________________________51.

      XII.  Appendix VII____________________________53.

                               I. Introduction.

This diploma paper is the logic continuation of course paper. The choice  of
a theme of this paper is caused by the small studying of  this  question  by
way of teaching  it  in  primary  school.  The  word-formation,  as  one  of
branches of lexicon, is  a  difficult  and  volumetric  question,  therefore
requires the careful  studying.  The  basic  theme  of  this  paper  is  the
question on conversion, as the  most  productive  way  of  a  word-formation
however the other kinds of formation of new words: prefix and  suffix  word-
formation,  also  are  mentioned.  The  special  place  is   allocated   for
productivity of adjectives of  a  colourmarking.  Having  the  rather  large
ability to formation the new words it is interesting the fact,  that  formed
from them by any of ways of a word,  it  is  more  often  nouns,  formed  on
conversion, have  a  tendency   to  enter  into  the  structure  of  various
phraseologies,  phraseological  word   combinations,   that   speaks   about
connection  between   phraseological  and  word-formation  systems  of   the

      The paper consists of two basic parts: theoretical and practical ones,
which examine one problems, but from the different  corners  of  sight.  The
theoretical part includes some subitems. At first it is  necessary  to  tell
some words about the  term "word", which is the main one in the  paper   and
should be definite.  The  term  "word"  is  taken  to  denote  the  smallest
independent unit of speech susceptible of being used in isolation.  Also  it
is impossible to disregard the definition of the  field  of  word-formation.
The mention about affix (suffix and prefix) word-formation in the paper   is
not casual, the conversion is more productive way, in comparison with  them,
because the formation of new words on  conversion  is  possible  practically
from any part of speech, including prepositions and proper  names.  Speaking
about the abilities to a word-formation of colourmarking adjectives,  it  is
necessary to note three ways, on which  this  process  passes:  The  suffix,
conversion word-formation and the word addition way , though the more  often
English  language  prefers  a  word  combination.  Also  the  formation   of
derivative verbs on conversion is typical for the English language.

      Having analysed some courses of studying the foreign language  it  was
interesting to find out, that the conversion is not mentioned at all  there,
though, being  one of the most productive ways of  a  word-formation,  could
be a good way of updating the childs active and passive vocabulary.  Taking
into account the opportunities, which are given by  the  knowledge  of  this
way of formation the new words, it is easy to estimate a  role  of  studying
this material at school, it is natural that  the  beginning  of   presenting
some items of this phenomenon to children   is necessary to start from  that
moment, as soon as the children would have the sufficient lexical  base  for
this purpose. It is possible to consider the third year of training  as  the
most successful moment for the beginning of presenting the  essence of  this
phenomenon  to  children.  For  confirmation  of   this   hypothesis   three
experiments were spent: ascertaining, forming and control ones,  with  group
of children studying the English the third  year.  By  the  purpose  of  all
these experiments was to  establish:  have  the  children  a  representation
about this phenomenon, can they  acquire  the  offered  information,  is  it
possible to develop the skill of  using such words in their speech .

      It would be desirable to note the  works of some authors,  which  were
used in this work, such as:  English  word-formation  by  L.  Bauer,  The
categories and types of present day word-formation  by  H.  Marchand,  The
word-formation  abilities  of  colourmarking  adjectives  in  modern  German
languages by M. Jirmunskaya.

                              II. Theoretical part.

                                  The term word.

      The term word should be defined. It is taken to denote the  smallest
independent, indivisible unit  of  speech,  susceptible  of  being  used  in
isolation. A word may have a heavy  stress, thought, some  never  take  one.
To preceding the infinitive never has a heavy stress, but it is a word  as
it can be separated from the verbal stem by an adverb (as  in  to  carefully
study). A composite may have two  heavy  stresses  so  long  as  it  is  not
analyzable as a syntactic group. There is a marked tendency  in  English  to
give prefixes full stress thought they do not exist  as  independent  words.
Indivisible  composites  such  as  arch-enemy,   crypto-communist,  unlucky,
therefore  are morphological units whereas combination,  like  stone,  wall,
gold watch,  are syntactic groups.  As for the criterion of  indivisibility,
it is said that the article a is a word as IT can interpolate words  between
article and substantive (a nice man,  a  very  nice  man,  an  exceptionally
gifted man). But a as in aglitter  cant  be separated from  the  verb  stem
with which it forms a group and therefore is not  a  free  morpheme  (word).
With regard to the criterion of usability, it must not be assumed  that  all
words can be used by themselves, in isolation. It is in the very  nature  of
determiners like the article the to be used in  conjunction  with  the  word
they determiners.

      Definition of the field of word-formation.

      Word-formation is that branch of the science of language which studies
the patterns on which a language forms new lexical units, i.e. words.  Word-
formation can only treat of composites which are  analyzable  both  formally
and semantically. The study of the simple words, therefore,  insofar  as  it
is an , unmotivated sign, has no please  in it. It is a  lexical  matter.  A
composite rests on a relationship  between  morphemes  though  which  it  is
motivated. By this token, do-er,  un-do,  rain-bow  are  relevant  to  word-
formation, but do, rain, bow are not.


      Conversion is  the  change  in  form  class  of  a  form  without  any
corresponding change of form.  Thus the  change  whereby  the  form  napalm,
which has been used exclusively as a noun,  came  to  be  as  a  verb  (They
decided to napalm the village) is a case of conversion.

          The exact status of conversion within word-formation  is  unclear.
For some scholars (Marchand/10/) conversion is a brunch of  derivation,  for
others (Koziol /Marchand/10/) it is a separate type of word-formation, on  a
level with derivation and compounding.  Whether  this  distinction  has  any
real effect on the structure of a theory of word-formation is not clear.

      Conversion is frequently called zero-derivation,  a  term  which  many
scholars prefer (Adams, Jespersen, Marchand/1,5,8/). Most  writers  who  use
both terms appear to use them  as  synonyms  (although  Marchand/10/  is  an
exception). However, as Lyons/9/ points out,  the  theoretical  implications
of the two are rather different. Cruber/2/,  for  example,  argues  that  to
treat ordinary derivation and zero-derivation differently in the grammar  is
to lose a generalization, since both involve  changes  of  form  class,  but
claims that they can only by treated  the  same  way,  if  a  zero-affix  is
permitted. Otherwise, he says, derivation can be treated as a  rule-governed
process, but zero-derivation cant be; that is, the  relation  between  some
napalm and to napalm and other similar  pairs  must  be,  considered  to  be
totally coincidental Lyons/9/ own view (as noted by Matthews)  is  that  in
cases of so-called zero-derivation, an identity operation  can  be  said  to
have been carried out between the base and the new lexeme. This  means  that
there is a process linking the two lexeme, napalm, lent  that  this  process
defines the form of the derived lexeme as being identical  to  the  form  of
the base. This is also more or less the  line  taken  by  Matthews  himself,
when he speaks of a formation involving zero  operation.  The  theoretical
dubiousness of speaking of  zero  affixes  in  language  leads  Bauer/2/  to
prefer  the  theoretical  position  enshrined  in  the  term   conversion,
especially when this can be given a dynamic interpretation,  and  that  term
will be used exclusively from now (on in this book). It should, however,  be
noted  that  this  is  an  area  of  dispute  in  the  literature.   For   a
comprehensive review of the literature on conversion  and  a  discussion  of
the implication of talking in   terms  of  zero-derivation,  the  reader  is
referred to Pannanen.


      Conversion is an extremely productive way of producing  new  words  in
English. There do not appear to be morphological restrictions on  the  forms
can undergo conversion, so that compounds,  derivatives,  acronyms,  blends,
clipped forms and simplex words are all acceptable inputs to the  conversion
process. Similarly, all ford classes seem to be able to undergo  conversion,
and conversion seems to de able to produce words of almost any  form  class,
particularly the open form classes (noun, verb, adjective,  adverb  ).  This
seems  to  suggest  that  rather  than  English  having  specific  rules  of
conversion (rules allowing the conversion of  common  nouns  into  verbs  or
adjectives into nouns, for example) conversion is  a  totally  free  process
and any lexeme can undergo conversion into any of the open form  classes  as
the need arises. Certainly, if there  are  constraints  on  conversion  they
have yet to de demonstrated. The only partial restriction that it  is  award
of is that discussed by Marchand.  Marchand/10/   points  out  that  derived
nouns rarely undergo conversion, and particularly   not  to  verb.  This  is
usually because of blocking. To  take  one  of  Marchands/10/  examples,  a
derived noun like arrival will not de converted into a  verb  if  that  verb
means exactly the same as arrive, from which arrival is  derived.  In  cases
where blocking is not a relevant concern, even  derived  nouns  can  undergo
conversion, as is shown by the series a sign > to  sign  >  a  signal  >  to
signal and to commit > commission > to commission.

      The commonness of conversion can possibly be seen as breaking down the
distinction between form classes in English and leading to  a  system  where
there are closed sets such as pronouns and a  single  open  set  of  lexical
that can be used as required. Such a move could  be  seem  as  part  of  the
trend away from synthetic structure and  towards  analytic  structure  which
has been fairly typical of the history of English over the last  millennium.
This suggestion is, of course highly speculative.

              Conversion as a syntactic process.

      Conversion is the use of a form which is regarded as  being  basically
of one form class as though it were a member  of  a  different  form  class,
without any concomitant change of form. There  are,  however,  a  number  of
instances where changes of this type occur with such ease and  so  regularly
that many scholars prefer to see that as matters of syntactic  usage  rather
that as word-formation.

      The most obvious cases are those where the change of form class is not
a major one (such as from noun to verb or adjective to noun ) but  a  change
from one type of noun to another  or  one  type  of  verb  to  another.  The
clearest example of this type is the use of countable nouns  as  uncountable
and vise versa. In some tea, tea is used as an uncountable  noun,  while  in
two teas it is used as a countable noun; goat is normally a countable  noun,
but if a goat is being eaten it is quite in order to  ask  for  a  slice  of
goat, where goat is used  as  an  uncountable  noun.  In  general,  given  a
suitable context, it is possible to use almost any noun on either  way:  for
example, when the Goons took  part  in  a  mountain-eating  competition,  it
would have been perfectly possible to  ask whether anyone wanted  some  more
mountain, using mountain as an uncountable  noun.  Similarly,  proper  nouns
can be easily used as common nouns as in Which John  do  you  mean?  or  The
Athens in Ohio is not as interesting as the Athens in  Greece.  Intransitive
verbs are frequently used as transitive verbs, as in He is running  a  horse
in the Derby or The  army  flew  the  civilians  to  safety.  Finally,  non-
gradable adjectives are frequently used as gradable adjectives,  as  in  She
looks very French or New  Zealander  are  said  to  be  more  English.  Such
processes are very near the inflectional end of word-formation.

      Another  case  where  it  is  not  completely  clear  whether  or  not
conversion is involved  is  with  conversion  to  adjectives.  This  depends
crucially on how an adjective is defined. For some scholars  it  appears  to
be the  case  that  the  use  of  an  element  in  attributive  position  is
sufficient for that element to  be  classified  as  an  adjective.  By  this
criterion bow window, head  teacher,  model  airplane  and  stone  well  all
contain adjectives formed by conversion formed by  conversion.  However,  it
has already been argued that such collocations should be seen as  compounds,
which  makes  it  unnecessary  to  view  such  elements  as   instances   of
conversion. Quirk suggest that when such elements  can  occur  not  only  in
attributive position but also in predicative position,  it  is  possible  to
speak of conversion to an adjective. On the basis of:

      *This window is bow

      This teacher is head

      *This airplane is model

      This wall is stone

      they would thus conclude that, in the examples above, head  and  stone
but not bow and  model  have  become  adjectives  by  conversion.  But  this
introduces a  distinction  between  two  kinds  of  modifier  which  is  not
relevant  elsewhere  in  the  grammar  and  which  masks  a  great  deal  of
similarity. It is therefore not clear that this suggestion is of  any  great
value. This is not meant  to  imply  that  conversion  to  an  adjective  is
impossible, merely  that  it  is  least  controversial  that  conversion  is
involved where the form is not used attributively. Where the  form  is  used
attributively, criteria for concluding that conversion has taken place  must
be spelled out  with  great  care.  Apart  from  those  mentioned,  possible
criteria are the ability to be used in the comparative and superlative,  the
ability to be modified by and very, the ability to be used  as  a  base  for
adverbial -ly or nominal -ness suffixation. It  must  be  pointed  out  that
very few adjectives fit all these criteria.

      Marginal cases of conversion.

      There are cases of change in form class from a verb to a noun and from
a verb to an adjective which do not involve any affixation,  but  which  are
not clearly instances of conversion. These are cases there  is  a  shift  of
stress, frequently with a concomitant  change  in  segmental  form,  but  no
change in the morphophonemic  form  (or  in  the  orthography).  Established
examples of verb >noun shift kind are abstract,  discount,  import,  refill,
transfer Gimson/2/, and of  verb  >  adjective  shift:  abstract,  frequent,
moderate, perfect. There is a certain amount of evidence that, at  least  in
some varieties of English, these  distinction  are  no  longer  consistently
drawn,  and  such  examples  are  becoming  clear   cases   of   conversion.
Nevertheless, the pattern  is  still  productive,  particularly  so  in  the
nominalization of phrasal verbs: established examples are  show  off,  walr-
over and recent examples are hang-up, put-down.

      There is also a kind of partial conversion where a noun  ending  in  a
voiceless fricative (but excluding / /) is turned into a verb  by  replacing
the final consonant with the corresponding voiced fricative. The process  is
no longer productive. Examples are  belief  /  believe,  sheath  /  sheathe,
advice / advise.

      Clear cases of conversion.

      The least clear cases of conversion have been  considered  first,  but
there are innumerable perfectly clear cases. For many  types  a  variety  of
subclassifications is possible. Thus instances of  noun  >  verb  conversion
can be classified according to whether the noun shows  location  (to  garage
the car ) or instrument ( to hammer a nail ) and  so  on,  or  according  to
formal criteria of whether the base is simplex or  complex  and  so  on.  No
attempt is made below to distinguish of these kinds.

      The major kinds of conversion are noun > verb, verb >noun, adjective >
noun and adjective >verb. Established examples of  noun  >  verb  conversion
are to badger, to bottle, to bridge, to commission, to  mail,  to  mushroom,
to skin, to vacation. Recent examples  are  to  chopper,  to  data-dank,  to
leaflet, to network, and  to  trash.  Established  examples  of  verb  >noun
conversion are a call, a  command,  a  dump,  a  guess,  a  spy  and  recent
examples are a commute, a goggle, and an interrupt. Established examples  of
adjective > verb conversion are to better, to dirty, to empty, to faint,  to
open, to right and a  recent  example  is  to  total  (a  car).  Established
examples  of  adjective  >noun  conversion  are  relatively  rare  and   are
frequently restricted in their syntactic occurrence. For example,  the  poor
cannot be  made  plural  or  have  any  other  determiner.  Less  restricted
examples are a daily, a regular, a roast. This type  seems  to  have  become
much more productive recently, and recent examples includes  a  creative,  a
crazy, a double, a dyslexic, a gay, a given, a nasty.

      Prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs, interjections  and  even  affixes
can all act as bases of conversion, as in shown by to up  (prices),  but  me
no buts, the hereafter, to heave-no (a recent  example)  and  a  maxi  (this
might be a case of clipping). Moreover,  most  of  these  form  classes  can
undergo conversion into more than one form  class,  so  that  a  preposition
down, for example, can become a verb (he downed his beer), a noun (he has  a
down on me) and possibly an adjective (the down train).

       Extrocentric phrase  compounds  might  also  be  classified  here  as
instances of conversion of whole  phrase.  Established  examples  where  the
phrase acts as a noun are an also-ran, a forget-me-not,  a  has-been  and  a
recent examples as a dont-know. An established  example  where  the  phrase
acts as an adjective is under-the-weather.

             Derivation by a zero-morpheme.

      The term zero-derivation.

      Derivation without a derivative morpheme occurs in English as well  as
mother languages. Its characteristic is that a certain stem is used for  the
formation of a categorically different word  without  a  derivative  element
being  added.   In  synchronic  terminology,  they   are   syntagmas   whose
determinatum is not expressed in the  significant  (form).  The  significate
(content) is represented in the syntagma but zero marked  (i.e.  it  has  no
counterpart in form): loan vb (make up) loan, look substantive  is  (act,
instance of) look(ing). As the nominal and verbal forms  which  occur  most
frequently have no ending end  (a factor which seems to have played  a  part
in the coining of the term conversion by Kruisinga/8/) are those in  which
nouns and verbs are recorded in dictionaries, such words as loan,  look  may
come to  be  considered  as  converted  nouns  or  verbs.  It  has  become
customary to speak of the conversion of substantive adjectives and  verbs.
The term  conversion  has  been  used  for  various  things.  Kruisinga/8/
himself speaks of conversion whenever a word takes on function which is  not
its basic one, as the use of an  adjective  as  a  primary  (the  poor,  the
British, shreds of pink, at his best). He includes quotation words  (his  I
dont  knows)  and  the  type  stone  wall  (i.e.  substantives   used   as
preadjuncts).  One  is  reminded  of  Ballys  transposition.   Koziol/10/
follows Kruisingas/8/ treatment and Biese/4/ adopts the same method.  Their
standpoints is different. The  foregoing  examples  illustrate  nothing  but
syntactic  patterns.  That  poor  (presented  by   the   definite   article,
restricted to the plural, with no plural morpheme added) can function  as  a
primary,  or  that  government,  as  in  government  job,  can  be  used  as
preadgunct, is a purely syntactic matter. At the  most  it  could  be  said,
with regard to the poor, that an inflectional morpheme understood  but  zero
marked.  However  inflectional  morphemes  have  a  predominantly   function
character while the addition of lexical content is of secondary  importance.
As for government job the syntactic  use  of  primary  as  a  preadjunct  is
regularly unmarked, so no zero morpheme can be claimed. On the  other  hand,
in  government-al,  -al  adds  lexical  content,  be  it  ever  so   little:
pertaining to  characterizing  government.  Therefore  governmental  is  a
syntagma while government (job) is not. That the phrase jar-off can be  used
as a preadjunct is again a syntactic matter. Characterized  adverbs  do  not
develop such functions in any case. We will not  therefore,  used  the  term
conversion. As a matter of fact, nothing is converted, but certain stem  are
used  for  the  derivation  of  lexical  syntagmas,  with  the  determinatum
assuming a zero form. For similar reasons, the term functional  change  is
infelicitous. The term itself doesnt  enter  another  functional  category,
which becomes quite evident when it is considered the inflected forms.

                      Endings and derivation.

      In inflected languages the derivant  and  derivative  usually  have  a
characteristic nominal or verbal ending.  But,  ending  are  not  derivative
morphemes. When English was still  a  more  amply  inflected  language,  the
present type existed, but inflectional differences were  more  in  evidence.
Cf.  the  OE  verbs  besceopian,   fugelian,   gamenian,   hearmian,   freon
(freogian), dernian and their  respective  bases  besceop,  fugol,  and  the
weakening of ending was little bearing  on  this  subject.  With  regard  to
denominate  derivation,  however,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that   the
levelling of endings brought about the loss of  distinction  in  ME  between
the OE conjugations. The -an of ryth-an as  well  as  the  -ian  of  loc-ian
resulted in -en. This reducted the number of patterns  for  denominal  verbs
to one.

      Derivation     connection      between      verbs      and      nouns.

      With  respect  to  both  denominal  verbs  (type  loan  verb  f.  loan
substantive) and deverbal substantives (type look substantive f  look  verb)
it can be seen that as  early  as  Old  English  a  derivational  connection
existed between the present-infinitive stem of weak verb  on  the  one  hand
and the stem  of nouns on the other. As for deverbal substantive, there  was
some competition in the early stages of the language.  Like  other  Germanic
languages,  Old  English  had  strong  verbs  that   were   connected   with
substantives  containing  an  ablaut   vowel   of   the   verb   (ridan/rad,
bindan/bend, beran/bora). However , this derivational type was  unproductive
so far back as Old English. The  present-infinitive  stem  of  strong  verbs
came to be felt to represent the derivative basis for deverbal  substantives
in exactly the same way as did the corresponding stem of  weak  verbs:  ride
verb/ride substantive=look verb/look substantive.  But  this  contention  of
Bieses/4/ needs qualification: these facts indicate the resistance  should
by strong verbs to the process of converting them into nouns  before,  owing
to the introduction of weak inflections, a  distinct  idea  of  a  universal
verb-stem had been developed.  Many  of  the  verbs  had  weak  forms  that
derived substantives at an early date have either never had weak  forms  are
rare or later than the substantives. Verbs such as bite, fall,  feel,  fold,
freeze, have, grind, hide make steal, tread are cases in point.   This  goes
to show that the existence of weak verb forms is incidental to the  rise  of
a derivational connection between the  present  infinitive  stem  of  strong
verbs and the stem of substantive.

      This derivational connection is partly due to  class  where  a  strong
verb and a substantive of the same root existed in  OE  and  where  phonetic
development resulted in closely resembling forms for both  in  ME.  OE  for,
faru was fare by the end of the 12th  century  while  the  corresponding  OE
verb faran had reached the stage of faren  or  fare  about  the  same  time.
Other examples of  pairs  are  bidan  stay/bid  delay,  dwelling  place,
bindan bind/bind  band,  tie,  drincan  drink/drinc,  drinca  drink,
fleotan  float/fleot  place,  where  water  flows,  helpan  help/help,
hreowan  rue/hreow  rue,  slepan  sleep/sl   p,  slep   sleep.   The
derivational relation as it have been described them were fully  established
around 200.

      Zero-derivation as a specifically English process.

      It is usually assumed that the loss of ending gave rise to  derivation
by a zero morpheme. Jespersen/7/ gives a somewhat to simplifying picture  of
its rise and  development  .  As  a  great  many  native  nouns  and  verbs
had...come be identical  in  form...,  as  the  same  things  happened  with
numerous originally French words..., it was quite natural that  the  speech-
instinct should take it as a matter of course that whenever the  need  of  a
verb arose, it might be  formed  without  any  derivative  ending  from  the
corresponding substantive. He called the  process  specifically  English.
As a matter of fact, derivation by a zero morpheme is  neither  specifically
English nor does it start, as  Jespersens/7/  presentation  would  make  it
appear when  most  ending  had  disappeared.  Bieses/4/  study  shows  quit
clearly that it began to develop on a larger scale at the beginning  of  the
13th century , i.e. at a  time  when  final  verbal  -n  had  not  yet  been
dropped, when the plural ending of the present was not yet -en or zero,  and
when the great influx of French loan words had  not  yet  started.  Bauer/2/
doesnt think that the weakening of the inflectional system had anything  to
do with the problem of zero derivation. Stems  are  immediate  elements  for
the speaker, who is aware of  the  syntagmatic  character  of  an  inflected
form. He therefor has no trouble in  connecting  verbal  and  nominal  stems
provided  they  occur  in  sufficiently  numerous  pairs  to   establish   a
derivational pattern.  In  Latin  which  is  a  highly  inflected  language,
denominal   verbs   are    numerous:    corona/coronare,    catena/catenare,
lacrima/lacrimare; cumulus/cumulare, locus/locare, truncus/truncare,  nomen,
nomin-/nominare; sacer/sacrare. In Modern Spanish there  are  full  sets  of
verbal  ending  (though  in  the  declension  only  gender  and  number  are
expressed) both types of zero-derivation are very productive. The  weakening
of the inflectional system in English, therefor ,  cant  have  much  to  do
with development of zero-derivation.

      On the other hand, it cannot  be  denied  that  despite  the  relative
productivity of corresponding derivational types  in  other  languages,  the
derivative range the English patterns, that of  denominal  verbs,  is  still
greater. The explanation of this seems to de  that  English,  unlike  Latin,
French, Spanish, or German, never had any  competitive types.  So,  whenever
a derivation was made nouns, it followed the one pattern that existed,  i.e.
derivation by zero morpheme.  The  only  derivative  morphemes  PE  has  for
denominal verbs  are  -ate,  -ize,  -ify.  They  have  restricted  range  of
derivative force: -ate is latinizing and leaned, -ify is learned while  -ize
is chiefly technical.  All  three  derive  almost  exclusively  on  a  Latin
morphologic  basis.  The  suffixal  type  dark-en  was  not   originally   a
deadjectival pattern; in any  case,  it  would  have  to  a  certain  extent
rivaled the  type  idle  verb  f.  Idle  adjective  only.  Derivation  by  a
morpheme, esp. The type loan verb f. Loan  substantive,  must  therefore  be
considered the norm and is  quite  naturally  very  strong  in  English.  In
German, there are many competitive types. It is bath mutated  and  unmutated
verbs (faul-en, hart-en, draht-en, haut-en). There are also denominal  verbs
with a  derivative  morpheme  (  stein-ig-en,  rein-ig-en;  with  a  foreign
morpheme telefon-ier-en, lack-ier-en ). In addition,  German  makes  use  of
the  prefixes  be-,  er-,  ver-.  Such  types  as  ver-rohen,   ver-jung-er,
vergrosser-n; er-kalt-en, er-leichter-n; be-end-ig-en,  be-herz-ig-en,  ver-
eid-ig-en have no counterparts in English. English be- has  never  played  a
serious role in denominal derivation. Nor has the type  em-bed  ever  become
productive to any larger extent. The productivity of the type loan  verb  f.
Loan substantive seems to be thus reasonably for.  The  deverbal  type  look
substantive f. Look verb has been less prolific and is partly bound up  with
certain syntactic patterns of grouping. For this, it is do  had  competitive
patterns. There are  the  suffixal  types  arriv-al,  break-ade,  guid-ance,
improve-ment, organiz-ation and the verbal substantive type writ-ing  though
the latter has now chiefly role of deriving action  nouns  proper.  This  is
the reason why so many zero-derivatives  from  verbs  of  Latin  and  French
origin, coined the 15th and 16th centuries, were  subsequently  replaced  by
suffixal derivatives in -al, -age,  -ance,  ment.  After  1650  the  suffix
formation have completely gained the upper hand of the direct conversion  of
the  disyllabic  and  trisyllabic  words  derived  from  French  and   Latin

      Zero-derivation with loan-words.

      As  for  Latin  and  French  words  and  derivation  from,  there  are
comparatively few derivatives before (Biese/4/). French words were for  some
time felt to be foreign elements and were  not  converted  with  the  same
ease as native stems were. The phenomenon is in no way  different  from  the
one it is observed with derivation by suffixes. Loan words remain  strangers
for a time, and it usually takes time before a derivation  type  is  applied
to a heterogeneous class of words. Zero - derivation was facilitated by  the
eo-existence of borrowed substantives and verbs., as  anchor  substantive  a
880 (=L) / anchor verb e 1230 (the OED has doubts, but F ancrer is  recorded
in the 12th e., as Bloeh  ).  Account  substantive  1260/verb  1303,  change
substantive  1225/verb  1230,  charge  substantive   1225/verb   1297,   cry
substantive  1275/verb  1225,  dance  substantive  1300/verb  1300,   double
adjective  1225/verb  1290,  doubt  substantive   1225/verb   1225,   poison
substantive 1230/verb 13.., rule substantive 1225/verb 1225.

      There are quite a few verbs with French  roods  for  which  no  French
verbs  are  recorded  and  which  may  accordingly  be   treated   as   zero
derivatives: feeble verb  1225/adjective  1175,  hardy  verb  1225/adjective
1225, master verb 1225/substantive a 1000, pool  verb  1275/adjective  1200,
saint verb 1225/substantive 1175. On the other hand, the  substantive  grant
1225 may be derived from the verb grant 1225. It is  only  after  1300  that
the process of zero-derivation is as  firmly  rooted  with  French  as  with
native words. Though French originals for later English words may occur,  it
is just as safe to consider them as derivatives, as  centre  verb  1610  fr,
centre substantive 1374, combat verb 1564 fr, combat  substantive  1567  (or
the reverse), guard verb 1500 fr, guard substantive 1426 and others.

      Words of Scandinavian origin were more easily incorporated than French
words, and derivation occurs as  early as the 13th c.: trist  trust,  boon
ask as a boon, pray  for,  brod  shoot,  sprout,  smithy  make  into  a
smithy a.o. (see Biese /4/).

      The illustration of various types.

      Type loan verb fr. loan substantive

      (desubstantival verbs.)

      Many PE verbs. go back to OE : answer (andsharu / andswarian), blossom
(blostm / blostnian), claw (clawu / clawian), fish (fisc  /  fiscian),  fire
(fyr / fytian), harm (hearm / hearmian),wonder  (wundor  /  wundrian),  bill
strike with the bill, peck, ground bring to  the  ground,  loan  (1240),
back (OE), butter (OE), experiment (ME), lamb (OE), night (OE), piece  (ME),
pit cart into a pit(OE),  plank  (ME),  plate  (ME),  plow,  plough  (OE),
plague (ME), priest (OE), promise (ME), prose (ME), ridge (OE), rivet  (ME),
rode (ME), root (EME), sack (OE), sauce season (ME),  scale  (ME),  screen
(ME), shoulder (OE), side (OE), silver (OE), sponge (OE), spot  (ME),  story
(ME), streak (OE), summer (OE), table  (ME),  thong  (OE),  tin  (OE),  veil
(ME), winter (OE), all before 1500.

      Angle run into a corner (ME), balance  (ME),  butcher  (ME),  cipher
(ME), cloister (ME), coffin (ME), collar (ME), colt run  wild  as  a  colt
(ME), cipher (ME), fancy (1465), fin (OE), gesture (ME), girdle (OE),  glove
(OE), gossip (OE), grade (1511), husk (ME), kennel (ME),  knob  (ME),  ladle
(OE), latch (ME), launder (ME),  lecture  (ME),  libel  (ME),  mother  (OE),
neighbor (OE), place (ME), pole (ME), riddle speak in riddles (OE),  shell
(OE), shop (ME), star (OE), stomach be offended  (ME),  sun  (OE),  vision
(ME), all 16th century blanket (ME), casket (1467), lamp  (ME),  leaf  (OE),
pilot (1530), race run  (ME),  soldier  (ME),  all  17th  century  Capture
(1541), diamond (ME), onion (ME),  stocking  (1583),  tour  (ME),  all  18th
century Scrimmage (1470), shin (OE), signal (ME), torpedo  (1520),  vacation
(ME), wolf eat like a wolf (OE), 19th century, major 1927.

      It would be difficult to give a complete list of derivatives as  there
is an ever growing  tendency  verbs  from  substantives  without  derivative
morphemes. A few  recent  are  service,  contact  (1929),  audition,  debut,
package, chairman, page,  date  (1928),  process  (1945),  waitress  (1946),
pressure (not in OED or Spl.), feature (rec.,  as  in  the  play  features).
Mencken/11/ gives many more, most of which are, however, hardly used.

      It is likewise useless to try a  classification  to  sense-groups,  as
there is no class-denoting formative. The verb may denote almost any  verbal
action connected with the basis of the underlying substantive. The verb  bed
has or has had the meanings spread a  bed,  put  to  bed  (with  various
implications), go to bed, sleep  with,  and  there  are  more  technical
meanings.  Bladin/5/  had  already  pointed  out  that  every   action   or
occurrence can be designated by a verb derived from the very noun  the  idea
of which most easily enters the mind  of  the  person  wanting  to  state  a
fact, and if Jespersen/7/ says that it is  difficult  to  give  a  general
definition of the sense-relation  between  substantive  and  de-substantival
verbs, this is rather an  understatement.  It  may  be  recognized  certain
groups, as put in ..., furnish, cover, affect  ...,  but  it  should  be
noted that each of these senses is only one the many  which  the  same  verb
has or may have. Biese/4/, therefore, makes no  attempt  at  classification,
and he is certainly right in doing so. It may, however, be  worthy  of  note
that the privative sense as in dust remove the  dust  (from)  is  frequent
only with technical terms denoting various kinds of  dressing  or  cleaning.
Exs are bur wool or cotton, burl cloth,  poll,  pollard  trees,  bone,  gut,
scale fish.

      The meaning of a certain verb is clear in a certain speech  situation.
That brain means smash the b.,can preserve in  cans,  winter  pass  the
winter, is a result of given circumstances which establish  the  bridge  of
understanding between the speaker and the person or persons spoken to.

      There are derivatives from proper names, as boycott 1880 (orig.  spelt
with a capital, from  the name of Captain Boycott who was first  boycotted),
Shanghay 1871 drug and press on board a vessel, Zeppelin 1916  bomb  from
a zeppelin (also clipped = zap).

      Some verbs often occur in the -ing  substantive  only  (originally  or
chiefly), while finite verb forms or infinitives are not or rarely used,  as
hornpiping  dancing  a  hornpipe  (no  verb  rec.),  slimming,  orcharding
cultivation  of  fruit  trees  (no  verb  rec.).  Dialling  the   art   of
construction     dials,     speeching,     electioneering,     engineering,
parlamenteering, volunteering are the original forms.  Converted  cpds  with
-monger for a  second-word  are  current  only  in  the  -ing  form  (merit-
mongering, money-mongering etc.). Innings are not matched by any other  verb
form, nor are cocking cock-fighting, hopping  hop-picking,  moon-shining
illicit distilling and others.

            Type idle verb fr. idle adjective. (deadjectival verbs).

      To the OE period go back bitter, busy, cool, fair, fat,  light,  open,
right, yellow (obs black, bright, dead, strong, old).

      From the period between about 1150 and  1200  are  recorded  obs  sick
suffer illness, soft, low (obs meek,  hory,  hale).  The   following  date
from the period between about 1200  and  1300  (Biese/4/  has  included  the
Cursor Mundi in this period): black, brown,  loose,  slight,  better,  blind
(obs hardly, certain, rich, wide, broad, less). From the  14th  century  are
recorded  ready,  clear,  grey,  sore,  pale,  full,  dull,  round,  gentle,
English, tender, perfect (obs able, sound,  weak,  unable,  honest,  noble).
From the 15th century  purple, stale, clean, from the 16th century  shallow,
slow, quiet, empty, bloody, idle, equal, dirty,  parallel  (and  many  other
now obs words, as Biese/4/ points out). The  17th  century  coined  crimson,
giddy, worst, blue, gallant, shy, tense, ridicule, unfit,  ruddy  (and  many
how obs words. Biese/4/). From 18th century Are recorded net gain as a  net
sum 1758, total  (once  1716,  then  1859),  negative,  northern  (said  of
landscape), invalid enter on the sick-list,  queer  cheat  ,   from  the
19th century desperate   drive  desperate,   stubborn,  sly   move  in  a
stealthy manner,  chirk  make  cheerful,  gross  make  a  gross  profit
1884, southern (said of wind),  aeriform, true. From our century  there  are
such words as pretty, wise, lethal, big.

      Usually, deadjectival verbs denote change of state, and the meaning is
either become ... or make .... Intransitive verbs with  meaning  be...
(as idle,  sly,  equal)  from  quite  a  small  group.  Some  verbs  have  a
comparative or superlative as root: better, best, worst, perhaps lower.

      Type out verb fr out particle (verbs derived from

      locative particles).

      Derivation from locative particles is less common than  the  preceding
types. In Old English there are yppan,  fremman (with  i-mutation  from  up,
fram), framian, utian. Later are over to master  1456,  obs   under  cast
down 1502, off  put off 1642, down 1778, nigh draw  near  1200,  thwart
1250, west move towards the west 1381, south 1725, north 1866, east 1858.

      These words, however, are not very common (except out and thwart).

      Type   hail    verb    fr    hail    interjection    (verbs    derived

      from minor particles).

      Derivation  from  exclamation  and   interjection   (most   of   there
onomatopoeias) is more frequent. It will, however, be  noted  that  many  of
these conversions have undergone functional and formal changes only  without
acquiring a well - grounded lexical existence, their  meaning  merely  being
say..., utter the sound.... Exs are  hail  1200,  nay  say  nay,  refuse
13.., mum 1399, obs. Hosht reduce to silence etc.,  whoo  (16th  century),
humph (17th century), encore, dee-hup  (to  a  horse),  pshaw,  halloa,  yaw
(speak affectedly, hurrah  (18th  century),  tally-ho  (fox-hunting  term),
boo, yes, heigh-ho sigh,  bravo,  tut,  bow-wow,  haw-haw,  boo-hoo  weep
noisily etc. (Biese/4/ also Jespersen/7/).

      The meaning say... may occur with other words  also  when  they  are
used as exclamation or interjections, as with iffing (other verb  forms  are
not recorded), hence order hence (obs., 1580).  And  it  may  be  reckoned
here all the words of the type sir call sir.

      From about 1600 on, geminated forms also occur as verbs.  A  few  have
been  mentioned  in  the   foregoing   paragraph;   others   are   snip-snap
(1593),dingle-dangle,  ding-dong,  pit-pat  (17th  century),  pitter-patter,
wiggle-waggle (18th century), criss-cross, rap-tap, wig-wag  (19th  century)

      The limits of verbal derivation.

      Derivation from suffixed nouns is uncommon.  Bieses/4/  treatment  of
the subject suffers  from  a  lack  of  discrimination.  He  has  about  600
examples of  substantives  and  adjectives;  but  the  suffixes  are  mere
terminations.  Words  such  herring,  pudding,  nothing,  worship  are   not
derivatives. The terminations -ace, -ice,  -ogue,  -y  (as  in  enemy)  have
never had any derivative force.

      Theoretically it would seem that the case of a suffixal composite such
as boyhood is not different from that of a fill compound such as  spotlight.
But obviously the fact that  suffixes  are  categorizes  generally  prevents
suffixal derivatives  from  becoming  the  determinants  of  pseudo-compound
verbs. There are very few that are in common use, such as  waitress  (rec.),
package  (rec.,  chiefly  in  form   packaged,   packaging),   manifold   OE
(obsolescent today), forward 1596, referee 1889, such adjectives  as  dirty,
muddy. Many more are recorded in  OED  (as  countess,  patroness,  squiress,
traitress  play the..., fellowship, kingdom a.o.).

      Another reason seems to be still more important. Many of  the  nominal
suffixes derive substantives from  verbs.,  and  it  would  be  contrary  to
reason to form such verbs as arrival,  guidance,  improvement,  organization
when arrive, guide, improve, organize exist. Similar consideration apply  to
deadjectival derivatives like freedom or idleness. The  verb  disrupture  is
recorded in OED (though only in participial forms) but  it  is  not  common.
Reverence is used as a verb, but it is much  older  (13..,  1290)  than  the
verb  revere  (1661).  It  should  also  be  noted  that   the   alternation
revere/reverence shows characteristics of vowel change and stress which  are
irregular with derivation  by  means  of   -ance,  -ence.  For  same  reason
reference is not a regular derivative  from  refer,  which  facilitated  the
coinage reference provide with references etc. 1884.

      There are no verbal derivatives from prefixed words either.  The  verb
unfit make unfit 1611 is isolated.

      Type look substantive fr. look verb (deverbal


      Deverbal substantives are much less numerous than denominal verbs. The
frequency-relation between the two types has been approximately the same  in
all periods of the language. An exception is to be made for the second  half
of the 13th century when the absolute number of conversion-substantives  is
larger that of the verbs formed from substantives (Biese/4/).

      Form the 13th century are  recorded  (unless  otherwise  mentioned  in
parentheses, the resp. Verbs are OE) dread (1175), have, look, steal,  weep,
call (1225), crack, noise, dwell, hide, make, mislike, mourn, show,  spit,
spittle, stint, wrest act of twisting a.o.

      From the later ME period  are  recorded  (indications  in  parentheses
refer to the respective verbs) fall (OE), feel (OE), keep (OE),  lift  (ME),
move (ME), pinch (ME), put (ME), run  (OE),  snatch  (ME),  sob  (ME),  walk
(OE), wash (OE).

      From the 16th century date craze (ME), gloom (ME), launch  (ME),  push
(ME), rave (ME), say (OE), scream (ME), anub (ME),  swim  (OE),  wave  (OE);
from the 17th century contest (1579), converse (ME), grin (OE), laugh  (OE),
produce (1499), sneeze (1493), take (ME), yawn (OE); from the  18th  century
finish (ME), hand (OE), pry  (ME),  ride  (OE),  sit  (OE).  From  the  19th
century  fix (ME), meet (OE), shampoo (1762), spill (OE).

      As for the meaning of deverbal substantive, the  majority  denote  the
act or rather a specific instance of what the verbal idea  expresses  quote,
contest, fall, fix, knock, lift etc. This has been  so  from  the  beginning
(Hertrampf and Biese/4/). The abstract nouns, including  nouns  of  action,
are not only the most common type of conversion-substantives; they are  also
those  of  the  greatest  importance  during  the  early  periods   of   the
development of conversions (Biese/4/). The conversion-substantive used  in
a personal or concrete sense are,  especially  in  the  earlier  stages,  of
comparatively slight importance (ib.).

      Concrete senses show mince minced meat,  produce  product,  rattle
instrument, sprout branch, shoot branch, shear  shorn  animal,  sink
sewer, clip instrument, cut passage, opening, spit  spittle,  stride
one of a flight of steps.

      Sbs denoting the result of the verbal  action  are  catch,  take,  win
victory, cut provision, find, melt melded substance,  snatch  excerpt
from a song e.c.

      Place-denoting are fold, bend, slip, wush sandbank, dump etc.

      Sbs denoting the impersonal agent are draw attraction, catch  (of  a
gate, a catching question etc.), sting animal organ, tread  part  of  the
sole that touches the ground, do, take-in, all tricky  contrivance,  wipe
handkerchief sl etc.

      There are also number of substantives denoting a person. OE  knew  the
type boda bode (corresponding to L scriba, OHG sprecho) which  in  ME  was
replaced by the type hunter. Several words survived, however, as bode,  help
(OE help), hint (the last quotation in OED  is  from  1807),  and  they  are
occasional ME formations, as ally 1380 (if it is not rather  French  allie);
but could be apprehended as formed after the  type.  Obs.  Cut  (a  term  of
abuse) 1490 does not seem to have any connection  with  the  verb  cut,  and
scold scolding woman 1200 is doubtful, the verb is first quoted 1377.

      The word wright, which now occurs only as a second-word of cpds (cart-
wright etc.) is no longer apprehended as an agent noun (belonging to  wolk).
Otherwise all deverbal substantives denoting a personal agent are of  Modern
English origin, 16th century or more recent. The  type  probably  came  into
existence under the influence of the types pickpocket and runabout. Exs  are
romp child or woman fond of romping 1706, flirt  1732,  crack  cracksman
1749 (thieves sl), bore tiresome p. 1812, sweep chimney  sweeper  1812,
coach tutor, trainer  1848  (misleadingly  classed  in  OED,  as  if  from
substantive  coach),  discard  discarded  person.  The  great  number   of
depreciative terms is striking.

      For the sake of convenience it is repeated here the examples  of  such
personal deverbal substantives as form the  second-words  of  cpds:  upstart
1555, by-blow 1595=obs. By-slip 1670 bastard, chimney-sweep  1614,  money-
grub 1768, shoeblack  and  bootbleck  1778,  new-come  new  arrival  1577,
bellhop, carhop rec.

      The formation if deverbal substantives  may  be  considered  from  the
angle of syntactical grouping. No doubt there are different  frequency-rates
for a word according to the position which it has in  a  sentence.  Biese/4/
has devoted a chapter to the question and has established various  types  of
grouping which have influenced the growth of the type. It can be  seen  that
deverbal substantives frequently occur in prepositional  groups  (to  be  in
the know), that type are often the object of give, make,  have,  take  (less
so of other verbs),  that  only  11%  of  the  examples  show  the  deverbal
substantives as subject of the sentence and  that  they  are  frequently  by
adjuncts. The most important patterns are (be) in the know and  (have)  a
look. Exs of the first type are phrases such as in the long run,  upon  the
go, with a thrust of his hair, after this sit, for a  tell,  for  the  kill,
for the draw, of English make, at a qulp, etc.

      As for the t.  (have)  a  look,  the  use  of  phrasal  verbs  with
conversion-substantives may be said to be a very marked feature  during  all
periods from early ME up to the present time. As shown by these  quotations,
the origins of this use may be said to go back as  far  as  the  OE  period
(Biese/4/). Exs are; have a wash, a smoke, a  swim,  a  chat  etc.,  give  a
laugh, a cry, a break, a toss, a whistle, the chick, the go-by etc., take  a
ride, a walk, a swim, a read, the lead etc., make a move, a dive, a bolt,  a
bow etc. etc.

      It will be interesting  to  compare  zero-derivatives  with  the  -ing
substantives. Historical speaking there is no longer a  competition  so  far
as the formation of common substantives is concerned.  The  number  of  new-
formed -ing substantives has been steadily decreasing  since  the  beginning
of the MoE period. According to Biese/4/ the figures  for  newly  introduced
-ing substantives, as compared with zero-derivatives of the same verbs,  are
as follows: 13th century = 62, 14th = 80, 15th = 19, 16th =12, 17th  century
=5, 18th century =2, 19th century =0. Biese/4/ has obviously considered  the
rise of new forms only, but the semantic development of  -ing  substantives.
Otherwise his figures would have been different.  Any  verb  may  derive  an
-ing substantive  which  can  take  the  definite  article.  The  -ing  then
invariably denotes the action of the verb:  the  smoking  of  the  gentlemen
disturbed me. The zero-derivative, as compared with the ing,  never  denotes
the action but gives the verbal  ideal  in  a  nominalized  form,  i.e.  the
notional content of the verbal idea (with the secondary implication  of  the
idea act): the gentlemen withdrew for a smoke. In their use with  phrasal
verbs -ing forms have become obsolete, whereas there is an  ever  increasing
number of conversion substantives used in conjunction with verbs like  make,
take etc....(Biese/4/). On the other hand, common substantives in  ing  are
now chiefly denominal, denoting something concrete, chiefly  material  which
eliminates ing as a rival for zero-derivatives. According to  Biese/4/  this
distinction is already visible in the early stages of  conversion.  Biese/4/
points out that a  prepositional  substantive  following  a  substantive  is
almost always a genitivus subjectivus (the grind of wheels),  whereas  the
same  type  of  group  following  an  -ing  substantive  is  most  often   a
genitivens objectivus which is certainly an observation to the  point,  as
it shows the verbal character of the -ing substantives as compared with  the
more nominal character of zero-derivatives.

      A  few  instances  of  semantically  differentiated  derivatives   are
bother/bothering,   build/building,   proceeds/proceedings,    meet/meeting,
set/setting,   turn/turning,   bend/bending,   find/finding,    sit/sitting,
cut/cutting, feel/feeling, paint/painting.

      Sometimes deverbal substantives are only idiomatic in the  plural:  it
divers me the creeps (the jumps), turn on the weeps A sl, have the prowls  A
sl, the bends caisson disease, for keeps for good.

      An apparent exception are derivatives from  expressive  verbs  in  -er
(type clatter) and -le (type sparkle) which are pretty numerous  (Biese/4/),
but in fact most of these verbs are not derivatives  in  the  way  verbs  in
-ize  or  -ify  are,  because  few  simple  verbs  exist  alongside  of  the
composites. These words are better described  as  composites  of  expressive
elements, so the suffixes are not categorizes.

      Derivation from prefixed verbs is restricted to  composites  with  the
prefixes dis-, mis-, inter-, and re- (see  the  respective  prefixes).  With
other prefixes,  there  have  only  been  attempts  at  nominal  derivation.
Biese/4/ has befall, beget, begin, behave, belay, belove, beseech,  bespeak,
bestow, betide, betrust as substantives. But they were all  short-lived  and
rare. With the exception of belay 1908, a technical term, none seems  to  be
in use today.

      Biese/4/ has established a so-called detain- type,  i.e.  substantives
derived from what he considers to be prefixed verbs.  It  do  not  seen  the
point of this distinction as one could analyze very few of his 450 words  or
so. The majority are unit words.

      Zero-derivation and stress.

      It shall now be made a few remarks about such types as have  not  been
treated in this  chapter.  The  stressing  tendencies  differ  according  to
whether the basis is a unit word or a composite, also according  to  whether
derivation is made from a noun or a verb.

      Nominal derivation from composite  verbs  involves  shift  of  stress.
Examples are the types runaway / blackout, overthrow,  interchange,  misfit,
reprint which are derived from actual or  possible  verbal  composites  with
the stress pattern --. The process has not yet come to  an  end  which  will
explain that the OED, Webster and others very often give stress  indications
which no longer tally with the speech habits of the majority.  Many  cbs  of
the blackout type and all the substantives of the types misfit  and  reprint
are stressed like the verbs resp. Verbal phrases in OED.

      Of prefixal types only verbs with inter-, mis- and re- have  developed
stress-distinguished substantives. No similar pairs exist for neg.  un-  (no
verbal type exists, anyway), reversative un-, be-,  de-  (be-  and  de-  are
only deverbal).

      Verbs derived from composite substantives do not change  their  stress
pattern.  Cp.  such  verbs  as  backwash,  background,  afterdate,  by-pass,
counterweight, outlaw,  outline,  underbrush  which  are  forestressed  like
their underlying nominal bases. This also explains the  fluctuation  in  the
stressing of counter- verbs, as counter-sign,  counter-sink,  stressed  like
the substantives though the verbal stress  pattern  is  middle  stress/heavy

      With unit words the current tendency is to retain the  stress  of  the
underlying basis in deverbal nouns as well as in  denominal  verbs.  We  may
call this homologic stressing. Bradin/5/ had stated the fact  for  denominal
verbs  without,  however,  discussing  the  problem  as   to   the   obvious
exceptions, while Jespersen/7/ speaks of such an important thing  in  ford-
formation as the stress-shifting in record substantive and verb.

      To a certain extent, it is a  stress  distinction  between  nouns  and
verbs which are  otherwise  homophonous.  This  distinctive  stress  pattern
occurs chiefly with disyllabic words,  record  substantive  /  record  verb.
examples are  contract,  accent,  affix,  infix,  prefix,  suffix,  augment,
impress,  concert,  contrast,  convert,  escort,  essay,   export,   object,
subject, project, present, progress, protest, survey, torment, transfer.

      The number of non-shifting examples is much greater, however. It  will
be first given  instances  of  forestressed  words  with  homologic  stress:
comment,  compact,  exile,  figure,  plaster,  preface,   prelude,   prison,
quarrel, climax, focus, herald, process, program, triumph, waitress,  rivet,
segment, sojourn, turmoil, contact, bring or come into  contact,  congress
meet in a congress, incense burn  incense,  probate.  To  these  may  be
added such verbs as are felt to be derived from a substantive and  therefore
forestressed like the underlying bases, at least in  AE:  accent,  conflict,
concrete (as in concrete a wall, also in OED), contract (as  in  contract  a
document), digest (as digest a book), export, import (prob.  originating  in
contrastive stressing), recess  (as  recess  a  wall),  survey  (in  certain
senses), torment (frequent), transfer (the regular stressing  as  a  railway

      The group of non-shifting endstressed words  is  considerably  larger.
Unit words beginning with de-, dis-, re- are especially  numerous.  Examples
are: accord,  advance,  assent,  attack,  decay,  delay,  defeat,  dispatch,
despute, escape, exclaim, (as a deverbal  substantive  presenting  position
of a rifle), precise, relax, remove, repay, reform, support (Biese/4/).

      On the other hand, it is found instances of distinctive  stressing  in
AE: address, conserves, discard, discharge are often heard  with  forestress
when  substantives,  also  relay  and  research;  reject  substantive   with
forestress is the only pronunciation possible. Of these, relay and  research
may be explained as  reinterpretations  after  the  t.  reprint  substantive
/reprint verb; reject is  perh.  influenced  by  subject,  object,  project,
traject. In any case, this tendency towards distinctive stress  in  deverbal
substantives is weak as compared with that towards homologic stress.

      To sum up: the tendency with denominal  verbs  is  to  give  them  the
stress of the underlying nominal basis, which  has  in  many  cases  led  to
homologic stress with all or  part  of  the  verbal  meanings  versus  older
distinctive stress. Deverbal substantives,  on  the  whole,  show  the  same
inclination to homologic stress. But there is also a weak  tendency  towards
distinctive stress, though chiefly in AE. As for the tendency toward  stress
distinction  between  nominal  and  verbal   homophones   pointed   out   by
Jespersen/7/, it was perhaps vaguely on the analogy of  composites  that  it
came into existence. The original stress with these  loans  from  French  or
Latin was on  the  last  syllable  (F  absent,  L  abstract(um)),  so  verbs
retained this stress all the more  easily  as  many  native  verbs  were  so
stressed: become, believe, forbid, forget, mislead etc., whereas almost  all
disyllabic native substantives,  unit  words  as  well  as  composites  were
forestressed (the few contrary examples such as unhealth,  unrest,  untruth,
belief   hardly count against the overwhelming majority). This may have  led
to a tendency towards forestress  with  non-native  disyllabic  substantives
too. But what has taken on the character of a strong derivative device  with
composites has proved much weaker  with  unit  words  on  account  of  their
entirely different structure. Further development  seems  to  point  in  the
direction of homologic stressing.

      Combination of the type hanger-on may be mentioned here. As  they  are
functionally characterized by the suffix -er, the absence  of  stress  shift
is only natural. The stress pattern  of  the  underlying  verbal  phrase  is

      The abilities in production  new words from colourmarcking adjectives.

      The world around of us is the world of colour and paints, for which  a
variety of combinations and shades is characteristic. The colour is  one  of
properties of objects  of  the  material  world  and  is  perceived  as  the
realized visual sensation. The adjectives are used  as  a  special  part  of
speech serving for a colour designation . The word-formation  serves  for  a
designation of colour shades of  adjectives,  and  also  for  the  parts  of
speech formed from them. Between that, the word-formation  aspect  of  lexic
has remained indifferently,  word-formation  relations  inside  this  layer,
with its originality, deserves the attention by  way  of  their  description
and study in the language.

      The word-formation is a system, which unites  grammatical and lexical,
that speaks about its enterlevel character and allows to apply  the  complex
approach to the investigated  phenomena.  Essence  of  grammar  of  a  word-
formation suffix, which signals about the belonging  a  derivative  word  to
this or that part of speech and defines its paradigm,  confirms  this  idea.
Also, on the basic purpose, which consists in creation of  a  new  word  and
updating of the vocabulary , the indissoluble unity of a word-formation  and
lexicon  is  shown.  Besides  the  word-formation,  having  own  sphere   of
research, studies  word-formation  resources  and  processes  conducting  to
creation of word-formation models, and also  condition  of  functioning  and
filling the lasts.

      As the adjectives of a colourmarking concern to the most ancient layer
of lexicon, at their analysis there was  necessary to pay attention  to  the
facts of diachronic, and also to consider an originality of the given  group
of words, which is allocated with the various  symbolic.  This  circumstance
finds the reflection in formation of portable meanings  which  are  included
in lexical-semantic structure of  initial  adjectives,  and  influences  the
lexical  filling of word-formation models their derivatives.

      The study of  lexical-semantic structures of colourmarking  adjectives
has shown unusual connection of colour and noncolour  meanings,  variety  of
their shades, the influence of the nonlanguage validity on  semantics  of  a
word. It  was established, that the contextual environment of  colourmarking
adjectives has the large importance for the adequate  description  of  their
lexical-semantic structures.

      The  word-formation  model  is  closely  connected  to  word-formation
paradigm. Each adjective has own paradigm having unequal extent and  various
morpheme filling of models, included in it. On  the  basis  of  research  of
each separate paradigm, it is  possible  to  deduce  the  generalized  word-
formation paradigm of the given group of words, which  is  characterized  by
presence constant, basic, facultative and even  unique participants,  that
is shown in the limits of  the language.

      The word-formation can be made:

      1)     inside one part of speech: A+suf=A1

      2)     by a transposition: - A+suf=N,

                                                - A+suf=V,

                              - A+suf=D,

                              - V+suf=N,

      where A - initial adjective, suf - word-forming suffix, A1, N, V, D  -
derivatives:  adjective, noun, verb, adverb.

      1.     A+suf=A1.

      The basic suffixes -ish, -y are the constant and obligatory members of
general word-formation paradigm,  i.e.  enter  into  the  paradigm  of  each

      2.1    A+suf=N.

      -ness is the conducting suffix here. The abstract nouns belong to this
model in the English language: blueness.

      Other derivatives, in which formation the various suffixes take  part,
are facultative, i.e. can be found in paradigm of one or two adjectives.

      The presence of the facultative members depends on portable and  minor
meanings  which  are  included  in  lexical-semantic  structure  of  initial
lexises. So in a derivative noun blueism one of meanings of the  adjective
blue - "", "", ""  etc.  is  realized,  and
the  suffix  -ism  introduces  in  the  semantics  of  the  derivative   the
generalized meaning.

      The portable meaning of an adjective green - "", ""
is shown in the appropriate derivatives  greener, greenie -  carriers  of
this quality. It is necessary to note,  that  paradigmatic  lines  can  have
unequal extent because  of the  facultative  members.  Green  -  greenness,
greenery,  greenth,  greenage,   greener,   greenie,   greenlet,   greening,

      Speaking about the semantic of the derivatives it is necessary to note
that their polysemantic is in the direct dependence on character of lexical-
semantic structure of an initial basis. Depending on a  context  the  suffix
noun blueness  one of the meanings of motivating  adjectives  realizes:  
, ,    (blue  ,   -the  actualizing  of
the basic colour meaning), "" (  the  actualizing  of  minor  meaning),
,  ,    (blueism),  ""
(blue-joke -  ,       -  the  actualizing   of
portable meaning).

      The realization of  the model A+suf=N is connected  to  redistribution
of semas and one-radical parts of speech  in  semantic  structure.  General-
categorical sema of that part of speech, in  which  the  initial  lexis  was
transposed - here it is a sema of a subject inherent by a noun,  become  the
basic one. After it, semas,  subordinated  to  it:  abstract,  concrete  and
animate, follow,  depending on character of a  derivative  noun.  Only  then
the general-categorical sema of an initial adjective - sema of an  attribute
settles down.

      2.2    A+suf=V.

      The  suffix  verbs  formed  from   colourmarking   adjectives,   carry
facultative character (redden, blacken, whiten) and differ by  the  ramified
lexical-semantic  structure.  Its  size  is  defined  not  only  because  of
entrance simultaneously of semas of transitivity and intransitivity  in  it,
but also due to more various lexical semantics.  The  given  model  also  is
characterized  by  redistribution  of  semas,  which  occurs  at  a   verbal
transposition. The conducting place is  occupied  by  a  general-categorical
sema of verbs  the sema of process, and also semas, subordinated to it,  of
transitivity and intransitivity. Only after them the sema  of  an  attribute
inherent in initial adjectives, follows.

      2.3    A+suf=D.

      This model is submitted in the English language by a suffix  -ly,  and
the derivative adverbs are the constant members  of  the  paradigm  (bluely,
brownly, greenly, yellowly).

      2.4    V+suf=N.

      In the English language this model is submitted by suffix nouns formed
from verbs. To blue bluer  ,     . The English  deverbal
nouns with a suffix -ing are  characterized  by  constant  participation  in
paradigm (blueing, browning, greening, redding, yellowing).

      Besides the affix models,  examining  the word-formation opportunities
of  colourmarking adjectives the important role is played by  models  of  an
affixless wordmaking. They assume an obligatory transposition  of  parts  of
speech. If the distinctive feature of an affix word-making is  the  presence
of a marker as a final word-forming suffix, then such marker is not  present
at the affixless (implicit)  word-making. Because  of   its  complexity  the
problem of an affixless word-making  is  examined  from  various  points  of
view, and the ways for its solution are planned:

      1.     The word-formation means of this way of a word-making  come  to

      2.     The  processes  occurring  at  an  affixless  word-making,  are
examined in connection with typological features of  the  language  and  its
morphological build;

      3.     The criteria for a synchronous establishment of a direction  of
a derivation are developed;

      4.     Various methods of the analysis are applied, supplementing each

      Two basic models of an affixless word-making were allocated:  A(N,  A(

      The model A(N reflects the phenomenon of a substantivation.

      The English language, where  the  category  of  a  gender  is  absent,
aspires to include various meanings in one lexeme structure  and  to  expand
volume of its lexical-semantic structure by that,  at  realization  of  this
model. An indispensable condition of functioning derivative, formed  on  the
given model, is the change of categorial semantics of a part of  speech  and
redistribution of semas in their semantic structure. Besides  an  obligatory
general-categorial sema of a noun -the sema of a subject,  for  the  English
derivative lexeme   the entry  in  its  structure  simultaneously  of  semas
abstract and concrete, animate and inanimateness etc. is peculiar,  that  is
the specific feature of the English language. In the English language,  with
its analytical tendency,  there is an aspiration to a full semantic  filling
of a word.

      The character of semantic shifts  occurring  at  realization  of  this
model, can be explained with help   of   lexical-semantic  structure,  where
the meaning contains, which is  modified  in  appropriate  derivatives.  The
nouns formed on this model, are  included  into  the  structure  of  various
phraseologies: out of blue - is "". It shows  the   connection  of
word-formation and phraseological systems of the language.

      There is an interest in the cases when in a basis of phraseologies the
various colour associations lay: to fire into the brown -      
,   .

      The comparison of models of an affix and affixless word-making  shows,
that the distinctive attribute of the lasts is in their  poly-semantic   not
as in   the appropriate suffix models , the most important  feature  is  the
opportunity of  being included in various phraseologies.

      A(V. The  typological feature of these verbs is that they include  the
semas  of  transitivity  and  intransitivity   in   their   lexical-semantic
structure and  it    expand the categorial semantic because of it.

      The portable meanings of  the   colourmarking  adjectives  find  their
reflections in the English verbs  : to green   ,  
( green  ,  .

      The word addition has the wide circulation among the suffix and prefix
 word-formation  during the all extent of development of the language.

      The number of questions are allocated from all  of problems concerning
formation of  complex  words,:  1)  the  compatibility  of  the  appropriate
colourmarking adjectives  with other categories of words;  2)  what  element
of meaning, basic or portable, is realized there; 3) distribution of  models
of complex words in the parts of speech; 4) feature of their  structure  and

      To typological criteria also belong: a) number of components forming a
new word; b) a way of  the connection  components:

        full complete;

        is incomplete combined;

        connection with the help of service words;

      c) A type of the semantic  connection  between  the  components  of  a
complex word, which carries  an attribute character in the examined models.

      Complex nouns including the colourmarking  adjective  as  one  of  the
components, makes out the lexical groups of  words.  The  names  of  plants,
animal,  minerals etc. concern to them. The complex words  which  in  result
of  metonym carry from a part on whole serve the name of an animal or  plant
widely  submitted  among  them  :  redbreast  "".  It,   so-called,
"bahoovrihs". The group of words is also allocated, where the  colourmarking
adjectives,  combining with the name  of clothes, form " bahoovrihs ",  used
for calling  the man: blue jacket "". At the  same  time  there  is  a
number of differences in   realization of models  of  complex  nouns  and
their functioning. In the English language there  are  difficulties  in  the
differentiation of  complex word from  word combination.  It  is  depend  on
the nonexpressed morphological structure of  the  English  word.  Frequently
English language prefers word combinations: to look blue    
. Because of that the English language has a plenty of phraseological  word
combinations including colourmarking  adjectives  :  blue  devils  "",
brown study    . The increased

       lexical-semantic structure with a metamorphosing of meanings is   the
characteristic feature of the  English  complex  word  :  blue-cap  
   (    ), ,  
  , , ,  .

      The basic type of a complex word is two-componented, the basic way  of
connection of the components is full complete. The connection with the  help
of a connecting element is not very typically  for the English language.

      The models of complex adjectives including colourmarking adjectives as
one of components, are present in the English language. As  the  basic  part
of speech expressing colour shades, are the adjectives, the basic  attention
is given to  the  appropriate  complex  adjectives.  The  English  language,
besides complex words, aspires  to  use  the  word  combinations,  and  also
derivative and radical  lexemes: purple.

      The formation of compound  verbs  on  conversion  is  typical  of  the
English language: to bluestocking           ,  to  brownbag
(slang)          . Last word is rather new,  that
speaks about the role of the given  tendency  in  a  word-formation  of  the
English language, it is also possible the  further  word-making  -  brown  

                           III. Practical part.

      It is impossible to underestimate  a  role  of  studying  of  a  word-
formation in an primary school. As the teaching of foreign  language  should
pass in  complex,  i.e.  the  studying  English  should  include  the  basic
directions: grammar, phonetics and lexicon, the importance  of  studying  of
word-formation  aspect  of  lexicon  becomes  doubtless.  The  studying   of
conversion, which because of the extreme productivity  is one of  conducting
ways of creation the  new words in the English language, can become  one  of
the ways of updating of the childs vocabulary . Here it  should  be   noted
the importance of lexicon, in general, in studying of  foreign  language  in
primary  school. The lexicon should be acquired  in  system,  therefore  the
work above the childs vocabulary   should begin  from   the  first  day  of
studying  English and proceed during the all  period  of  training,  day-to-

      One of the basic principles of selection of lexicon in primary  school
is the common use, i.e. the opportunity  of  the  using  in  the  colloquial
speech, hence, in the younger classes is not  selected  special  lexicon  as
the words for studying. The very small quantity of  time  is  allocated  for
acquaintance and training of that lexicon, which  is  not  of  a  situation,
necessary for creation of  a dialogue.

      The plenty of time is allocated for studying of a  word,  acquaintance
with its meaning, its role in the sentence,  in  the   system  of  language,
however items  of  information  about   its  formation  and  opportunity  of
formation new words from it are given, only if the speech goes about a  word
formed suffix, seldom prefix, way of a word-formation. The words  formed  on
conversion, are simply showed, as two different parts of speech,  that  does
not give an opportunity to children itself to  make  words,  basing  on  the
knowledge of this way of a word-formation. For comprehension  of  importance
of this aspect of language it is necessary to  address  to  a  psychological
linguistic nature of lexicon. You see in psychology the word is the  complex
activator, for example, at perception and understanding of oral and  written
speech,  this  complex  speech  action  (at  expression  of  thoughts).   At
understanding of  a  word  the  acoustical  and  visual  analyzers  will  be
involved, and this integrated approach  promotes  the  best  mastering.  The
dialogue in foreign language is rather difficult activity for the child.  It
occurs that,  first,  for  the  younger  schoolboy  it  is  much  easier  to
communicate on the native language much  and  it  is  not  clearly,  why  he
should express in English, secondly, for this purpose  it  is  necessary  to
make rather difficult mental operation - to choose the  words,  suitable  on
sense,  from  the  vocabulary  to  construct  the   sentence   grammatically
correctly, observing thus the words order  ,  i.e.  to  do  so  that  to  be
understood. Becomes obvious, that the updating of  the   childs  vocabulary
is one of the basic problem for the teacher, you see the  word  is  a  basic
minimal unit of any language.

      The studying of conversion, as one of ways of a  word-formation,  will
help to do the childs vocabulary  more  rich,  to  make  his  speech   more
expressive, and also  to fill up passive and active vocabulary, by means  of
formation the  new words himself. Now, reading,  for  example,  a  book,  it
will not be necessary to him to look for a word  formed  on  conversion,  in
the dictionary, but to define its  meaning,  using  the  knowledge  of  this
phenomenon  of  language.  Especially,  the  nouns  and  verbs  formed  from
adjectives of a colourmarking by this way, are included  into  structure  of
various phraseologies, where carry more often portable meaning.

      Some courses, foreign and Russian  were  analysed,  where  English  is
taught, as foreign  language. It is interesting  to  note,  that  the  word-
formation is not studied  neither  in  primary,  nor  in  secondary  school,
however, it is possible  to  find  some  items  concerning  this  aspect  of
lexicon. Courses: Russian (English by Vereshchagina, Pretykina and  Learning
English by Skulta) and foreign (Magic Time and Hot Line by  Tom  Hutchinson)
have various methodical base, usually it  is:  some  text  books,  teacher's
book, reading book , active book, audio cassettes. There  is  not  any  word
about conversion in this courses, however, words  formed  in  this  way  are
given simply as different parts of speech, and the connection  between  them
is not explained.

      With the purpose of revealing a level of  childrens  knowledge  about
a conversion word-formation the  ascertaining  experiment  was  done,  where
children were offered to do the  following  task  (see  appendix  1).  Every
pupil have received individual card, in which a number  of  pairs  sentences
on English with translation and the missed words  was  given.  The  list  of
words was located below, from which it  was  necessary  to  choose  a  word,
suitable on sense, and to insert it into the  appropriate  sentence.  In  10
minutes the works were gathered. (Results  of  experiment  see  appendix  7,
table 1)

      For formation the skill of the conscious using words formed by  a  way
of conversion ,in oral and written speech  and also  for  acquaintance  with
its role in the English language the forming experiment including number  of
the tasks,  promoting to achievement of this purpose  was  done.  The  final
aim was not in remembering the  term conversion and its definitions  by  the
pupils, but in  understanding of sense of the  phenomenon,  as  one  of  the
most productive ways of formation of new words in the English  language.  At
the first stage,  on  an  example  of  two  sentences,  using  the   leading
questions, children come to a conclusion, that the same word  can  represent
various parts of speech  (see  appendix  2).  At  the  following  stage  was
primary fastening of this material, i.e.  the  schoolboys  were  offered  to
explain the statement of this or that word in the sentence on an example  of
a material of ascertaining experiment (see appendix 3). The  following  task
consist in the following: a  number  of adjectives of  a  colourmarking  was
offered to children who  needed to  translate them;  it  is  quite  natural,
that the schoolboys have apprehended them as adjectives. Further before  the
younger schoolboys the dilemma was put: whether these  words  can  have  the
pair, which would be the other part of speech without  changing the form  of
the  word. All children successfully have coped with this  task,  using  the
dictionaries,  conclusion  that  these  pairs  of   words   illustrate   the
phenomenon  of  conversion,  was  made  by  schoolboys  by  themselves  (see
appendix 4). Further group of children was divided into  the  brigades,  the
individual word was offered to every one, with which they needed to  do  the
following operations: to find out,  one or several parts of  speech  can  be
represented by  this word to  prove  it,  it   was  necessary  to  make  the
sentences with these words and to explain an belonging  the   word  to  this
or that part of speech. By the purpose of this task was to fix the  pupilss
knowledge of  this theme, and also to train in the using of these  words  in
the sentence, in particular, and in speech in general (see appendix  4).  At
the following stage  of  generalization  of  the  knowledge  and  fastening,
automation of skill of the using the words formed  on  conversion  the  task
consist in, that 1) to define a part of speech of  the  allocated  words  in
the sentence, 2) to make the sentences similar by  the  given  ones,  3)  to
define a part of speech of the words submitted outside  of  a  context.  The
third part of the task is obviously  impracticable,  because  it  was  given
only the graphic form of a word, that in general ruled out  any  opportunity
to differentiate it as part of speech. It is  natural,  that  children  have
done only  the two first parts of the task, last part has  caused  them  the
quite justified difficulties, and by the method of group work  succeeded  to
come to the conclusion that the words given only  in  a  graphic  form,  can
designate different parts of speech, for the confirmation it the  schoolboys
had to use the dictionaries (see appendix 5). If to speak  about  the  whole
forming experiment, it is possible to note,  that  the  children  liked  the
tasks, they tried  to do everything  in time.  Though  this  experiment  did
not put as  the  purpose  the  remembering  the   term  conversion  and  its
definitions by the children , however, almost all children used  it  in  the
demonstration and independent explanation.

      The purpose of  a  check  experiment  was  revealing   the  level   of
childrens knowledge .  For  this  purpose  the  test  was  offered  to  the
schoolboys, where answering on  questions  "yes",   "no",  they  came  to  a
certain pictogram, which designated the  certain  mark.  The  questions  are
made by a principle from simple to difficult, therefore  children  at  first
have apprehended this task, as a game  (see  appendix  6).  The  results  of
check have shown a rather high level  of  the  knowledge  (see  appendix  7,
table 2).

      Considering the results of the done work, it is possible  to  come  to
conclusion that the studying   of  this  theme  regularly,  can  give  quite
acceptable results. Though there is no  sufficient  methodical  base,  which
could help with formation of  the  skill  of   using  the  words  formed  on
conversion in oral and written speech, mastering children  of  knowledge  on
this theme however is possible.  As  the  adequate  moment  of  a  beginning
studying of this phenomenon it is possible to consider  the  third  year  of
training of foreign language in a primary   school.  The  studying  of  this
aspect of the English  language  promotes  the  enrichment  of  the  childs
dictionary , and as it was spoken plays not the last role  in   studying  of
the language, forms the skill of  independent  work,  develops  such  mental
processes, as memory, logic thinking, ability to  analyze  and  to  compare.
The next years of training the deepening and expansion of this theme with  a
support on the items of information received  in  an  elementary  school  is

                                      IV. Conclusion.

      The examination of the  works  of   some  authors  (Adams,  Jespersen,
Marchand/1, 7, 10/), shows such problem, as the exact status  of  conversion
within word-formation is unclear. For some scholars conversion is  a  brunch
of derivation, for others it is a separate type of word-formation, on  level
with derivation and compounding.  Whether  this  distinction  has  any  real
effect on the structure of a theory  of  word-formation.  Most  writers  use
both terms appear to use them as synonyms. However many authors agreed  that
the conversion is one of the most productive ways of  a  word-formation  and
is a lexical category, though  many  of  them  show  it   as  a  grammatical
category too. Then the word changes the form class of  a  form  without  any
corresponding changes of form, it  accepts  all  grammatical  attributes  of
this class. The significant productivity of   conversion  word-formation  is
shown also in ability of formation the new words practically from  any  part
of speech, including prepositions. In the paper the  models  of   conversion
word-formation are submitted,  such  as:  verb(substantive,  verb(adjective,
verb(locative  particles,  verb(interjections,  substantive(verb.  Examining
the  opportunities  of  formation  the  new  words  from  adjectives  of   a
colourmarking, it is possible to note, that  they  participate  in   suffix,
conversion word-formation, and also form new words by word  adding.  And  at
any of these ways can be realized both direct,  and  portable  meaning,  and
the words formed on conversion (more  often  nouns)  can  be  included  into
structure of phraseologies.

      The purpose of the put experiments of a practical part of  this  paper
was achieved. Children have acquired the  offered  initial  knowledge  of  a
theme of a conversion word-formation, have learned  to  use  such  words  in
oral  and  written  speech.  Besides  it,  they  have  remembered  the  term
        Taking into account the quite  good  results,  received  during  the
experiment, it is possible to  plan  the  further  ways  of  development  of
studying  this way of  word-formation  at  school  and,  in  particular,  in
primary classes. The further studying of this  phenomenon  can  be  done  by
offering serially one of the models V(A, N(V etc. It is possible to  predict
the successful result of this studying,, and at the end, children  would  be
able to find the examples of  conversion  word-formation  and  use  them  in
oral and written speech

                         V. Bibliography.

        1.   Adams,   V.   An   introduction   to   Modern   English   word-
                 formation. Longman. 1973.

       2. Bauer, L. English word-formation. Cambridge. 1983.

       2. Bett, H. Wandering among words. Allemand. 1936.

       3. Biese, Y.  Origin  and  development  of  conversion  in  English.
          Helsinki. 1941.

       4. Brown, I. Just another word. Cape. 1943.

       5. Bladin, V. Studies and denominative verbs  in  English.  Uppsala.

       6. Jespersen, O. A modern English grammar on historical  principles.
          Copenhagen. 1942.

       7. Kruisinga, E. A handbook of present day English. Groningen. 1932.

       8. Lyons, J. Introduction to theoretical linguistic. London. 1972.

       9. Marchand, H. The  categories  and  types  of  present  day  word-
          formation. Harrassowitz. 1960.

      10.  Mencken,   H.   The   American   language.   New   York.   1936.

      11. Vallins, G. The making and meaning of words. Black, London. 1941.

      12. , .     . . 1960.

      13. , . .      
               . ., 1982.

      14. , . .          .  .

      15. , .   . . 1977.

             17.  ,  .        
        . . 1976.

             18.  ,      (.   .).      
        . . 1976.

        19. , .   . . 1953.

        20. , .     .  .


-Berg, P. A dictionary of new words in English. London. 1953.

-Jones, D. An English pronouncing dictionary. London. 1957.

    -The Oxford pocket Russian dictionary. Oxford. 1994.

    Appendix 1. Ascertaining experiment.

      :                  ,

    :           .

    1. She  very  well.    .
    She is a good  .   .
    2. There is a small    room  in  this  flat.         
    There are a lot of parks and  in  our  city.         
    3. The bush  of  grows under the window.     .

    I have  very beautiful     dress.              
    4. There  are red and  flowers in the   vase.      
    Leaves     in autumn.    .

      :  cook,  round,  violet, yellow, sweet, look,  lilac,

           Appendix 2. Forming experiment. Stage 1.

 ,   ,       .

    1) :
     .  :          Simple  
     .  :                
            ,  ,      
     .  :            ,
    2) :       ,  
       ..   ,        
    3)  :        ,    ,
        ,  .

|        |                                  |    |
|   |                        |       |
|        |                                  |     |
||Look at the blackboard. Who can   |             |
|   |read these sentences?             |             |
|        |I like this sweet.                |             |
|        |This apple is sweet.              |             |
|        |Who  can translate these          |- |
|        |sentences?                        | . |
|        |                                  |    |
|        |                                  |.     |
|        |Right.   ,      |-   |
|        |     ?   |          |
|        |                                  |.  |
|        |    ,    |             |
|        | .     |             |
|        |,         |          |
|        |           |-|
|        |?                      |.         |
|        |                                  |          |
|        |                                  ||
|        |  ?                      |            |
|        |                                  |             |
|        |    ,   |,      |
|        |   ?         |.  |
|        |                                  |             |
|        |,   , |             |
|        |            |             |
|        |    . |             |
|        |    , |  |
|        | -       ||
|        |   ?              |,          |
|        |                                  |-|
|:  |                                  |.         |
|        |                                  |  |
|        |                                  |,  |
|        |,          |        |
|        |  ,       |  |
|        |?                         | , |
|        |                                  |  |
|        |                                  |           |
|        |                                  |,|
|        |                                  |           |
|        |                                  | |
|        |                                  |  |
|        |                                  |.        |

      Appendix 3. Forming experiment. Stage 2.

|       |                               | |
|  |                     |        |
||   ,    |                |
| |  .  ,   |                |
|       |      |                |
|       |   .    |                |
|       |  ,   |                |
|       |         |                |
|       |   .          |-  |
|       |1. She cooks very  well.    |        |
|       |  .          |, ..  |
|       |                               |      |
|       |                               |,       |
|       |                               |        |
|       |                               |      |
|       |She is a good cook .        |  |
|       | .                 |s,          |
|       |                               |       |
|       |                               | 3 . .|
|       |                               |.             |
|       |2. There is a small square room|-            |
|       |in this flat.     |-|
|       |        |, ..  |
|       |.                       |   |
|       |                               |. |
|       |                               |-            |
|       |                               |, |
|       |There are a lot of parks and   |..  |
|       |squares in our city.     | |
|       |             |   ,|
|       |.                      |        |
|       |                               |         |
|       |                               |-               |
|       |                               |,|
|       |                               |        |
|       |                               |  |
|       |3. The bush  of lilac grows    |s,     |
|       |under the window.    | |
|       |  .              |         |
|       |I have  very beautiful lilac   |   |
|       |dress.           |.          |
|       |   .    |-|
|       |4. There  are red and yellow   |,     |
|       |flowers in the   vase.    |        |
|       |     .|.       |
|       |                               |-,|
|       |Leaves yellow  in autumn.      |..  |
|       |  .         |         |
|       |                               |.       |
|       |                               |-,|
|       |                               |..  |
|       |                               |         |
|       | ,    |.       |
|       |        |-, ..   |
|       |.            |      |
|       |   ?  |      |
|       |                               |     |
|       |                               |        |
|       |                               |.      |
|       |                               |                |
|       |        |                |
|       |         |                |
|       |      |-     |
|       |. , |,         |
|       |           |       |
|:  |  ?         | |
|       |                               | |
|       |                               |     |
|       |     |.           |
|       |    ?         |                |
|       |,      |                |
|       |?                       |                |
|       |                               |                |
|       |                               |. - ,  |
|       |                               |. ,  |
|       |                               |.  .    |
|       |                               |                |
|       |                               |                |
|       |                               |.      |

          Appendix 4. Forming experiment. Stage 3.

|    |                    |    |
|         |                              |       |
|         |                              |     |
| |,       |             |
|:   | ,    |             |
|         | ?           |-.         |
|         |  ,          |             |
|         |   :|             |
|         |                              |-,    |
|         |Blue, black, pink, yellow,    |,      |
|         |violet, lilac.                |,     |
|         |                              |,      |
|         |                              |,  |
|         |                              |.   |
|         |                              |             |
|         |       |             |
|         |,          |             |
|         |,       |             |
|         |,  ,       |-, ,|
|         |   ?|,    |
|         |                              |,     |
|         |                              |,      |
|         |                              |.      |
|     |                              |             |
|:   |                              |            |
|         |    ? ||
|         |                              | ,          |
|         |                              | |
|         |                              |    |
|         |                              |  |
|         |                              | |
|         |                              |. |

Stage 4.
|  |    |             |
|.|   .       |             |
|         |  ,    |             |
|         | :                  |             |
|         |green, look, bath, dry.       |             |
|         |   ,    |             |
|         |   :   |             |
|         |           |             |
|         |, ,     |             |
|         |             |             |
|         |,            |             |
|         |,         |             |
|         |     |             |
|:|. (15 .)            |             |
|         |( .      |             |
|         | ,  |             |
|         |-  ,         |             |
|         |-.)          |             |

Appendix 5. Forming experiment. Stage 5.

|      |                     |    |
|           |                               |       |
|           |                               |     |
|:|         |             |
|           | ?              |  |
|           |                               |    |
|           |                               | , |
|           |                               |,   |
|           |                               | , |
|           |                               |        |
|           |                               |     |
|           |                               |  |
|           |                               |.        |
|           |     |             |
|           |     ?           ||
|           |                               |  , |
|           |                               ||
|           |                               |  ,  |
|           |                               ||
|           |                               |           |
|           |                               ||
|           |                               |.          |
|           |..:1)        |             |
|   | :               |             |
|:     |I heard a cry from the closed  |             |
|           |door.                          |             |
|           |They cry because they cant go |             |
|           |for a walk.                    |             |
|           |I have a very tasty fish for   |             |
|           |dinner.                        |             |
|           |We are going to fish next      |             |
|           |Sunday.                        |             |
|           |I dont like when the weather  |             |
|           |is  cold.                      |             |
|           |The cold helps  to safe food   |             |
|           |fresh.                         |             |
|           |I like to dance.               |             |
|           |We liked their dance.          |             |
|           |2)   , |             |
|           |  hate  ,  |             |
|           |, hunt  ,      |             |
|           |, lift  ,        |             |
|           |        |             |
|           |           |             |
|           |,      |             |
|:  | .                    |             |
|           |3)          |             |
|           | : round, fly,    |             |
|           |harm,  alarm.                  |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |(       |., .  |
|           |  ,   |.         |
|           | : 1. .,  ., ., |    |
|           |., ., ., ., ).   |     |
|           |    . |   |
|           |   ,   ||
|           |  round?              |,         |
|           |        ||
|           |?                          |.           |
|           |?                        |             |
|:      |                               |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |                               |             |
|           |      |             |
|           |            |             |
|           |,    , |             |
|           |,        |             |
|           |  ,       |             |
|           |,                 |             |
|           |.     |             |
|           |   |             |
|           |,               |             |
|           |   .        |             |

Appendix 6. Control experiment.

      :        .
    1) :
     . :    Simple, Continuous;
     .  :              
       ,      ;
    2) :  ;
    3) :      ,       ,
         ,  .


                       (   ).

Appendix 7. The results of  Ascertaining and Control experiment.

|             |     | .     |  |
|             |.          |                     |.        |
|   |                  |                     |              |
|    |9                 |3                    |0             |
|12.          |                  |                     |              |
|  |                  |                     |              |
|%  100%.   |75%               |25%                  |0%            |

|             |     | .     |  |
|             |.          |                     |.        |
|   |                  |                     |              |
|    |1                 |3                    |8             |
|12.          |                  |                     |              |
|  |                  |                     |              |
|%  100%.   |8,3%              |25%                  |6,7%          |

  , : clean, green,  cook, orange.

 green   .

  black    ,  .

A  pink-, 

:   The leaves on this tree yellows in autumn. 

Pink - -.


: My hat is violet.
I have a violet hat.     .

Yellow ,         (to yellow).

A violet ,  .

:      .  :
There was a branch of lilac in the lilac vase.

Blue    .


  - , - .

,       .

" . ."